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UNIVERSITY OF PANGASINAN

PHINMA EDUCATION NETWORK


Dagupan City
School of Graduate and Professional Studies
Topic : PRENATAL PERIOD
How Life Begins (Conception / Pregnancy)
Conditions Affecting Fertilization
Sex Determination
Discussant : MR. RANDY M. LORENZO
Professor
: DR. TERESITA A. LUPATO

HOW LIFE BEGINS?


CONCEPTION / PREGNANCY
Life begins when an egg, previously released from one of the two ovaries, merges
with just one of the hundreds of millions of sperm cells supplied through the vagina by the
male reproductive system. The fertilized egg then descends to the wall of the uterus, where
it implants itself to begin gestation.
The next stage of development, from month 2 until birth, is the fetal period of
development.

FETAL DEVELOPMENT
FIRST TRIMESTER
Week 1: Getting ready
Week 2: Fertilization
Week 3: Implantation
Week 4: The embryonic period
begins
Week 5: Baby's heart begins to
beat
Week 6: The neural tube closes
Week 7: The umbilical cord
appears
Week 8: Baby's fingers and toes
form
Week 9: Movement begins
Week 10: Neurons multiply
Week 11: Baby's sex may be
apparent
Week 12: Baby's fingernails and
toenails appear

SECOND TRIMESTER
Week 13: Baby flexes and kicks
Week 14: Hormones gear up
Week 15: Skin begins to form
Week 16: Facial expressions are
possible
Week 17: Fat accumulates
Week 18: Baby begins to hear
Week 19: Lanugo covers baby's
skin
Week 20: The halfway point
Week 21: Nourishment evolves
Week 22: Taste buds develop
Week 23: Lungs prepare for life
outside the womb
Week 24: Sense of balance
develops
Week 25: Exploration continues
Week 26: Eyes remain closed
Week 27: Second trimester ends

THIRD TRIMESTER
Week 28: Baby's eyes open
Week 29: Movement is more
forceful
Week 30: Baby packs on pounds
Week 31: Reproductive
development continues
Week 32: Downy hair falls of
Week 33: Baby detects light
Week 34: Protective coating gets
thicker
Week 35: Rapid growth continues
Week 36: Baby can suck
Week 37: Baby is full-term
Week 38: Organ function
continues to improve
Week 39: Placenta provides
antibodies
Week 40: Due date arrives

CONDITIONS AFFECTING FERTILIZATION


The most common overall cause of infertility is the failure to ovulate, which occurs in
40% of women with infertility issues. Not ovulating can result from:
Diminished ovarian reserve. This refers to a low number of eggs remaining in a
woman's ovaries due to normal aging. This situation may result in hormone levels
that can afect ovulation.
Endocrine disorders. These disorders afect the hormones produced by the body.
Abnormal hormone levels can disrupt ovulation.
Tobacco use. Smoking or other use of tobacco can also afect ovulation and can
cause complications with pregnancy.
Structural Problems of the Reproductive System
Structural problems usually involve the presence of abnormal tissue in the fallopian
tubes or uterus. If the fallopian tubes are blocked, eggs are not able to move from the
ovaries to the uterus and sperm is not able to reach the egg for fertilization. Blockage of the
fallopian tubes can be associated with:
Endometriosis
Uterine fibroids

Pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of the female reproductive structures that is


often caused by bacteria resulting from a common sexually transmitted infection
(STI), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia
Tubal ligation, a surgical procedure that closes a woman's fallopian tubes
permanently.

Infections
Infections can also cause infertility. Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually
transmitted infections that afect female fertility.
Chronic infections in the cervix can also reduce the amount or quality of cervical
mucus, the sticky or slippery substance that collects on the cervix and in the vagina.
Reduced amount or quality of cervical mucus can make it difficult for women to get
pregnant.
Failure of an Egg to Mature Properly
For some women, the egg does not mature properly, resulting in fertilization failure. This
can be caused by:
Hormonal problems, ranging from problems with the hypothalamus or the pituitary
gland. The hypothalamus sends signals from the brain to the pituitary gland, which
then produces the hormones necessary to start the process of egg maturation. Any
problems during this process can prevent the egg from maturing properly.
Lack of proteins called cyclin-dependent kinases. New studies suggest this protein
may be involved in the process of egg maturation.
Injury to the ovaries. Scarred ovaries from multiple surgeries or repeated ovarian
cysts can prevent the egg from maturing.
Implantation Failure
Implantation failure is a common cause of infertility among couples trying to conceive
with assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Causes of implantation failure include:
Genetic defects
Thin endometrium
Embryonic defects, such as problems with male or female or sperm defects
Endometriosis
Autoimmune Disorders
Autoimmune disorders cause the body's immune system to attack normal body
tissues it would normally ignore. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid
arthritis, may cause a woman's immune system to reject the egg and prevent it from
implanting or cut of the blood supply to an implanted embryo. Autoimmune disorders may
also attack sperm or the reproductive organs.
Diseases such as lupus, diabetes, thyroid disease, and rheumatoid arthritis can
interfere with fertility.

SEX DETERMINATION

Human males and other male organisms, such as other mammals and fruit flies, have
non identical sex chromosomes (XY).
Females have identical (XX) sex chromosomes.

How is sex determined and inherited?

If an egg is fertilized by a sperm with a Y chromosome, as shown in Figure 2, the


ofspring is male. When an egg is fertilized by a sperm carrying an X chromosome, the
ofspring is female. Note that there is a 50 percent chance of having a male or female

ofspring. The greater the number of ofspring, the greater is the chance of getting the
expected 1:1 ratio of male and female.
REFERENCES:
https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infertility/conditioninfo/Pages/healthfactors.aspx#infections

http://www.parents.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/causes/factors-afectingfertility/
http://www.slideshare.net