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Energy Principles in Architectural Design

Legal Notice: This report was


prepared as the result of work
sponsored by the California
Energy Commission. It does not
necessarily represent the views of
the Energy Commission, its employees, or the State of California.
The Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors,
and subcontractors make no warranty, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this report; nor does
any party represent that the use
of this information will not infringe upon privately owned
rights.

Energy Principles in Architectural Design


Written and Illustrated by Edward Dean
Shelley Dean and Fuller, Architects
Architecture, Planning, Energy Consulting
Oakland/Berkeley, California

California Energy Commission


In cooperation with
The California Board of Architectural

Examiners

This book was prepared under a


contract from the California
Energy Commission, Conservation
Division, 1111 Howe Avenue,
Sacramento, California, 95825.
First Printing: 1981, by the
California Energy Commission.
All rights reserved.

Foreword
This text was developed for the
California Board of Architectural
Examiners for use as a study
guide by applicants for the
California license to practice
architecture.
The intent of this book is to
provide a foundation of basic information pertaining to design
and energy use in buildings. The
idea is that the reader will be able
both to seek out more detailed
texts in the various topic areas
and to become aware of potential
applications of new research and
product development in the coming years. In accordance with this
objective, the emphasis is on prin-

ciples and concepts rather than


applications of particular solutions. Energy is clearly an area of
emerging possibilities in building
design, and solutions that are
appropriate or workable now are
likely to be less attractive than
future alternatives.
We hope that the notion of this
conceptual approach to energy
and building design will encourage some architects to undertake
the difficult reading in more technical texts and journals, and ultimately to make the kinds of needed contributions in this field that
only architects can provide.

Acknowledgments
To Hal Levin, member of the
California Board of Architectural
Examiners, whose personal energy and commitment to energyresponsive design led to the
development of this book.
To Sung Chough, D.C. Berkeley,
for helping with some of the illustrations.
To Eugene Mallette and Jose
Martinez of the California Energy
Commission for their timely support.

VI

To the members of AlA, CALBO,


who reviewed the original manuscript and provided helpful suggestions.
To Edward Allen, whose recent
book, How Buildings Work, provided the excellent model for explaining technical concepts in a
thoroughly understandable man~
nero
To my associates, family and
friends for their support and encouragement.

Contents
Foreword
Acknowledgments
1. Fundamentals of Energy and Building Materials

v
VI

Introduction

Energy Use and Power Demand


Energy Transfer Mechanisms
Energy Storage in Building Materials

2
6
20

2. Site Planning and Site Design


Energy
Energy
Energy
Energy

Impacts
Impacts
Impacts
Impacts

of Landforms and Topography


of Vegetation
of Wind and Ventilation
of Sun

24
25
26

27

3. Building Envelope Design


General
Passive
Passive
Passive

Design Considerations
Systems: Heating
Systems: Cooling
Systems: Lighting

31

38
49
50

4. Building Active Systems Design


Heating Systems
Cooling Systems
HVAC Systems
Lighting Systems

Bibliography
Index

59

64
66

71
73

83

1.
Fundamentals of Energy and Building Materials
In trod uction

I
I

I
I
I

Before considering the technical


aspects of energy use in buildings,
it is important to understand that
the demand for energy in buildings is not due to the characteristic design of the building envelope or the use of mechanical
systems per se, but the users'
subjective requirements for personal comfort. People control
their thermal and lighting environments to suit their needs
based on patterns of culture, geographic region, age and personal
life style. Given a particular set of
these social factors, variation in
personal comfort requirements
still occurs because of individual
differences in activity and personal preference. The level of
energy use in any building ultimately depends on the choices
made by the people who occupy
and operate it.
TT nderstanding
these variations
iil user demand is important since
the acceptable range of comfort
variables establishes a certain design performance specification for
the building. Often the designer
can include a certain flexibility
and local control of energy systems that allow for these variations, and which as a result help
reduce overall energy consumption levels.
Conditions that yield a comfortable environment involve a combination of several related variables that could be modified
separately to maintain comfort.1-3
Thermal comfort, for example,
depends primarily on air temperature, humidity, air movement

2-82231

and the temperature of the surfaces surrounding the person. The


perceived comfort range of indoor
air temperature can be enlarged
by providing warm surfaces that
reduce a person's heat loss to the
surrounding environment. That is,
people will find that they are comfortable at lower air temperatures
if the surrounding surfaces are
warmer. Likewise, for conditions
of high air temperature people
may feel comfortable if they are
near cool surfaces. This expansion
of the comfort zone, the range of
temperature and humidity that
most people experience as a comfortable condition, usually results
in lower energy comsumption in
the building.
From an energy point of view,
the building should generally be
thought of as' a passive moderator
of energy flows, designed to

achieve the most comfortable conditions, both thermally and visually, for the particular user group
and building program.
This important point having
been mentioned first, the remaining sections of this chapter treat
the basic technical concepts of
energy and building materials.

Energy Use
and Power Demand
Energy is defined as the
"capacity to do work", while
power is the rate at which energy
is used. For most building design
applications, both energy use and
power demand should be considered from the beginning of the
design process.
Energy appears in several
forms-heat, light, electrical,
mechanical etc., -and can be
transferred or stored.

Heat

~I

Heat energy can be stored in a


material or transferred to another
material by a variety of methods.
The basic driving force behind all
the mechanisms of heat transfer
from one material to another is
the temperature difference between the two. It should be remembered that temperature is not
the measure of heat content of a
material but, relative to a second
object's temperature, is a measure
of heat flow from one to the
other. The units of temperature
are either degrees Fahrenheit (OF)
or degrees Centigrade (Dc) ..
Heat will not spontaneously
transfer from one material to
another at higher temperature, so
the direction of heat flow is
always from the material at the
higher temperature to the material at the lower temperature. In
order to transfer heat to a material at a higher temperature, as
in the case of a refrigeration machine or room air conditioner,
energy from an external source
must be applied.

The units of measurement of


heat energy are commonly the
Btu and the kilojoule (metric).
One Btu is defined as the amount
of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by
one degree Fahrenheit. (The kilojoule is approximately the same
quantity of heat energy as the
Btu: 1 kj = 0.95 Btu.) In one hour,
for example, a 60-watt light bulb
releases approximately 200 Btu of
heat energy.

Light
Light has always been regarded
as a principal element of architectural design, from both a visual
and spatial point of view, and
from a concern for user needs and
user comfort. The need for energy conservation and control of
peak electric power demand in
buildings now requires a more
careful consideration of the
functional requirements of lighting, especially as daylighting
techniques are integrated into
lighting design.
One major requirement is simply the amount of light available
for a given visual task. Light energy is measured in lumens. One
lumen is defined as the amount of
light energy from a source of intensity one candela (1 candlepower), incident on a unit area at
a unit distance from the source.
The footcandle and the lux (metric)
are measures of illumination. One
footcandle is the amount of illumination provided by one lumen

footcandle

60 wntts

j!
of light energy incident on a onesquare-foot surface. One lux is
equivalent to one lumen per
square meter. (One footcandle is
about the same as 10 lux, so the
number of lux equivalent to a certain footcandle level can be determined by multiplying by 10.
Therefore 50 fc is approximately
500 lux.)
Visual comfort is a primary
condition of the success of any
lighting scheme designed to minimize electrical demand.4 The factors that determine visual comfort
include not only the amount of
light energy available for a specific visual task, but also the direction of the light relative to the
eye, the brightness of objects surrounding the task object and within the field of view, and the surface reflectance and light-diffusing characteristics of the task
object. 5 A good lighting design
optimizes these factors for visual
comfort, and can be expected to
result in maximum energy conser-

100

footcandles

10,000

footcandles

vation as well. On the other hand,


failure to control glare and other
uncomfortable conditions can result in higher energy consumption
levels than expected, since the
user is likely to overcome light
imbalances by using available
electrical light sources.
In short, energy conservation
through efficient lighting design
involves much more than simply
prescribing "task lighting" or
limiting the amount of light available per task. Indeed, these simplistic approaches are likely to be
counterproductive in the absence
of a total design approach.

Power

Energy Equivalences
Energy Equivalences
1 Btu=0.293

watt-hr

and Energy-Rate Equivalences


Energy-Rate Equivalences

1 watt = 3.413 Btu/hr

3413 Btu = 1 kilowatt-hr

1 kilowatt = 3413 Btu/hr

100,000 Btu = 1 therm

1 horsepower = 3/4 Kw

1015 Btu = 1 quad

1 ton of refrigeration = 12,000 Btu/hr

The concept of the power demand of a building is an extremely important aspect of energyefficient design. Load management aspects of building design
become more significant for larger buildings, and for utility service areas with "inverted" rate
structures where the building
owner is billed at successively
higher rates for higher levels of
peak electrical power demand. In
these instances design strategies
should have the objective of reducing both the energy consumption over the annual operation cycle of the building and the peak
p0wer demand under peak load
conditions.
Power differs from energy in
that power is the rate at which
energy is used. In the metric
system, the unit of power is the
watt, and 1000 watts is equal to
one kilowatt. The common unit of
power in the English (American).
system is the horsepower. One
horsepower is equal to about 3/4
of a kilowatt.
Design strategies that minimize
electric power demand in buildings, and that avoid unnecessary
use of electric power for heating
and cooling in spite of the advantages of smaller initial costs or
simpler installation of equipment,
will provide a more energyefficient overall building stock. In
the first place, utilizing "high
quality" energy (electricity) for a

"low quality" energy application


(heating or cooling) is wasteful
and inefficient. In addition, the
"real" conversion efficiency of
electric energy is low for these
applications compared to alternative methods. Approximately twothirds of the energy used by a
typical power plant to generate
electricity for a modern California
office building is lost as waste
heat.5.7 Therefore, only one-third
of the original energy available
goes to heat and illuminate the
building. This is a "real" efficiency of only about 33 percent.
(This "typical" power plant is a
weighted average of hydro, fossil,
nuclear and geothermal power
plants in California and represents
the average conversion factor
adopted by the California Energy
Commission as part of the State
Energy Conservation Standards. 7)
Finally, the design effect of unnecessary electric power demand
creates a supply problem that
must be met, if possible, by capital investment in new power
plants with the concomitant economic, social and environmental
impacts.
The advantage of initial cost
savings by using electric heating
should always be weighed against
the serious disadvantages of higher operating cost, low conversion
efficiency, and increased demand
for capital investment in new
power plants by California utilities.

J
I
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I

Energy Transfer
Mechanisms
The Nature of Solar Energy

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Wavelength

(m'dlionths ofa meter)

The Solar Spectrum


6

100

The sun is an efficient source of


heat and illumination for buildings, and is the single most important natural element to consider in
building design. The problem for
designers is that the amount of
heat and light from the sun is
much larger than necessary for
comfortable conditions. In the
past, the simple solution has been
to exclude the solar input as much
as possible and to rely on building
systems for control of heating,
ventilation and illumination. Now
greater skill is demanded of the
designer to utilize this free energy
as much as possible.
Solar energy arrives at the
earth's surface at the rate of
about 200 Btu/hr per square foot
of surface perpendicular to the direction of the sun. This is equal to
about 60 watts per square foot.
This sunlight is in the form of radiant energy in a range of "wavelengths". That portion of the sunlight visible to the human eye is
short-wave radiant energy. Thermal radiation (known as radiant
heat) is long-wave radiant energy.
About half of the energy in sunlight is visible light (short-wave
radiant energy). This light energy
amounts to about 7500 lumens at
the earth's surface on a clear day.
The ratio or the number of lumens produced by a light source
to the power output in watts, a
ratio known as the "efficacy" of
the light source, is a measure of
the efficiency of that source. For
sunlight, the lumen/watt ratio is
approximately 7500/60 = 120.8 By
comparison, a 40-watt incandescent lamp produces about 480 lumens for an efficacy of 12, while
a 40-watt fluorescent lamp can
produce about 2640 lumens for an
efficacy of 66. This means that
fluorescent lamps are about five
times as energy-efficient as incandescent lamps-that is, onefifth of the power wattage is required to provide the same bright-

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ness level. Yet fluorescent lamps


are only about half as efficient as
the sun. The implication for designers is that daylighting, if properly done, will not only reduce
electric energy consumption for
lighting, but should minimize
loads on air-conditioning equipment. In fact, in many situations
the air conditioning load from
daylighting should be less than
that from a comparable fluorescent lighting system. Solar energy
should therefore be thought of as
both a heat source and a light
source for buildings, although a
variable one.
When solar energy strikes
building surfaces, certain energy
flows and transformations occur.
Energy flows in the environment
involve a complex set of energy
transfer mechanisms that interact
to produce a given set of environmental conditions. The designer's
task is to control and plan the
combination of these interactions
in order to produce a set of conditions that requires the least
amount of outside energy for comfort. In order to manage this combinant energy flow, it is necessary
to understand the characteristics
of each of the individual heat
transfer mechanisms, namely, radiation, convection, conduction
and evaporation.
7

Thermal Radiation

Absorptance and Reflectance of Common Ground Materials


(expressed as fraction of total incident solar energy)
0.6

0.2
0.4
0.9-0.8
0.3
0.1
Reflectance
0.1-0.2
0.8
0.7
0.9
Absorptance
.:;:.l;:

Thermal radiation is radiant


heat, emitted by all warmed materials. The higher the temperature of a material, the more radiant heat is emitted. The warmth
felt from an asphalt parking lot on
a sunny day, from an ordinary
campfire and so-called "body
heat" are all examples of thermal
radiation. The amount of thermal
radiation given off by a normally
clothed person at rest is about
200 Btu/hr, or the equivalent of
the heat radiated by a 60-watt
bulb.
Thermal radiation is like light
energy: incident radiant energy
can be absorbed, reflected or
transmitted by a material. The
three material properties associated with these processes are,
respectively, absorptance, reflectance and transmittance. The absorptance is the fraction of incident energy that is captured and
causes a temperature increase of
the material. The reflectance is the
fraction that is deflected at the
surface of the material and causes
no change in temperature. The
transmittance is the fraction that
passes through the material and
has no effect on the material. The
sum of these fractions must equal
1.0 since all the incident energy
must be absorbed, reflected or
transmitted. An important fact is
that these fractions can have different values for different wavelenths of radiant energy. Whitepainted surfaces, for instance,
have a very low absorptance of
short-wave solar energy but a
very high absorptance of long- .
wave radiant heat.
By definition opaque materials
have a transmittance equal to
zero, so any energy not reflected
is absorbed. The accompanying
table lists some common ground
and building materials and gives
their absorptance and reflectance
characteristics for solar energy.
Ground materials near buildings
with a high absorptance for solar
energy and a relatively low thermal capacity, such as black asphalt, will cause heat to accumu-

I
I

late around buildings. On the


other hand, material such as
grassy soil and plants, which have
some reflective characteristics and
a higher thermal capacity, will
keep air temperatures down
around buildings and provide
some additional free humidity.
An additional property of construction materials, known as
emittance, is a measure of the ability of a material to radiate heat.
For a specific wavelength of radiant energy the emittance is
equal to the absorptance. The second table lists the absorptance,
emittance and reflectance values
for some common building materials for both short-wave solar
energy (primarily visible light) and
long-wave radiant heat. Some important facts about energy flow in
buildings can be observed. Note,
for instance, that most opaque
building materials are absorptive.
of solar energy unless deliberately
light- or white-colored. In the latter case they become quite reflective of the sun's energy. This
characteristic is desirable for
building walls and roofs in the
desert and valley regions of

Black-painted Walls
orptance)

0.85
0.50
0.90
0.80
0.10
0.45
0.40
0.05
00.90
.90
.10
.95
.20
0.10
0.20
0.60
0.15
0.50
0.90
0.55
Reflectance
Reflectance
Emittance
Energy
Characteristics
Solar Energy

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Radiant Heo.t

high absorptqnce

low obsorptance

Sola, Energy

Heat
ofRadiant
the Surfaces
of Common Building Materials

block

California, but not necessarily in


the coastal areas and other climatic regions where significant
heating may be required. In these
regions the material on the surface of the south wall should have
a dark-colored surface for maximum solar absorption in winter.
Another feature is that whitepainted surfaces and black-painted
surfaces have the same emittance
values for long-wave radiant heat.
Therefore, the interior surfaces of
masswall passive systems (described in chapter 4) can be
painted white without suppressing
the radiation of heat. Likewise, in
a hot climate where heating is not
a maj"or concern, a white roof has
the double advantage of having a
high reflectance of the short-wave
sunlight and, during the night
when the sky is clear and relatively cold, of having a high emittance (0.9) of the long-wave radiant heat built up internally
during the day. The latter process
is known as nocturnal radiation
cooling.
A further observation in this regard is that the emittance of po-

lished metal surfaces remains low


for both solar energy and radiant
heat. Such materials used on
roofs, for instance, tend to suppress radiant heat loss to the sky,
an important concern in areas of
clear, cold winter climate conditions.
Glass is a material that is generally highly transmissive of
short-wave solar radiation (visible
light), although absorption and reflection also take place to a small
degree. However, glass has a remarkable property relative to
long-wave thermal radiation-that
the transmittance for thermal
radiation is zero and the absorption is practically equal to one.
This characteristic is illustrated in
the accompanying figure which
shows the transmittance of glass
for different wavelengths of radiant energy, and the wavelength
spectrum of both incident solar
energy and a hypothetical warmed
building mass. The radiant heat
emitted by the mass has wavelengths in the region where glass
has zero transmittance. The
phenomenon experienced as a re-

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100

Wave\en~th
(millionths
a a meter)

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Hem-Absorbing

61055

Heat-Absorbing
61055
V::! Interior
Clear 61055

Reflective GI055

Reflective 6\055
'!:!

12

Interior

Clear 61055

suIt of this property of glass is


commonly called the greenhouse
effect. Short-wave solar energy is
transmitted by glass and absorbed
by a building's internal mass,
which results in a temperature increase of the mass. The warmed
mass then emits radiant heat that
is not transmitted outwardly by
the glass. As a consequence of
this "heat trapping", the air in
the building increases in temperature. The greenhouse effect is
probably the most significant factor pertaining to energy consumption in buildings. In residential
buildings, small non-residential
buildings and in the perimeter
zones of larger buildings in
climates that require heating, sensible allowance of solar gain
through design can greatly reduce
the usual need for the consumption of energy for heating.
Similarly, prevention of solar gain
through architectural design during the cooling season can reduce
the standard need for energy consumption for cooling in larger
buildings.
Other than clear glass, there are
two principal types of glass that
are commonly used in buildingsreflective glass and heat-absorbing glass. Heat-absorbing glass is
more accurately described as lightabsorbing glass and appears gray
or tinted. The absorbed sunlight
heats the glass which then radiates thermal energy inside and
outside the building. This reradiated thermal energy contributes significantly to solar heat
gain. The effect can be mitigated,
and a high performance glazing
system can be obtained by adding
an inner lite of clear glass. This
double-glazed system, a type of
insulating glass, reduces the heat
gain by preventing ready transfer
of the re-radiated thermal energy
to the occupied space, and by reducing conduction heat gain. In
general, the effectiveness of heatabsorbing glass is inferior to reflective glass for the purpose of
shading solar radiation.
Reflective glass typically appears to have a silvered or bronz-

ed reflective quality and is highly


effective in reducing solar gain.
For the same reason involving the
case of heat-absorbing glass, adding an inner lite of clear glass increases the energy performance of
this glass system.
In both cases, the effectiveness
in blocking solar heat gain applies
as well in winter as in summer. If
solar heat can be used in the building during the heating season, in
smaller buildings in most areas of
the state, use of these treated
glasses will have a disadvantageous effect over the course of
the year. Other options, such as
external shading devices with
clear glass, will yield better
overall performance in terms of
energy consumption.
For buildings and climates
where some heating is required,
the use of clear glazing on the
south side of.buildings is preferable where solar control can be
easily designed. Unprotected eastand west-facing glass should be
avoided. If necessary, reflective
glass would be a better choice
than clear glass if overheating is
to be prevented. Buildings with
high internal loads may require no
heating, even in cooler California
climates. In such cases single lites
of either heat-absorbing or reflective glass would be preferable to
clear glazing for all glass areas.
The ability of a particular type
of glass to reduce the amount of
solar energy transmitted is characterized by a quantity called the
shading coefficient. The shading
coefficient is defined as the ratio
of the amount of solar energy .
transmitted by a given type of
glass to that transmitted by ordinary lI8-inch clear unshaded
double-strength glass. The definition of the shading coefficient has
been extended to include the reduction in solar transmission caused by various shading devices.
The accompanying table lists
typical values for the shading
coefficient of some sample window systems. More complete
listings are available in several reference manuals. 9-11

1.0

0.45

0.56

015

Shading Coefficients of Some Typical Window Systems


Window System

Shading Coefficient

1/8" DS Clear Unshaded Glass

1.00

w Inside dark roller shade completely drawn

0.80

Yi

Inside dark venetian blind fully drawn

0.75

Yi

Inside medium venetian blind fully drawn

0.65

Yi

Dark-colored drapes fully drawn

0.58

Yi

Average tree casting shade

Yi

Inside white venetian blind fully drawn

0.56

Yi

Inside white roller shade fully drawn

0.41

Yi

Light-colored drapes fully drawn

0.40

Yi

Outside vertical fixed fins on east/west sides

0.31

Yi

Outside canvas awning

0.25

Yi

Overhang, continuous on south side

0.25

Yi

Dense tree casting shade

Yi

Outside venetian blind

Yi

Outside moveable horizontal or vertical louvers

0.60-0.50

0.25-0.20
0.15
0.15-0.10

-.,,I

Unshaded 1/4" Heat-Absorbing Glass


(gray or other tints)

0.70~0.50

Unshaded 1/4" Reflective Glass

0.60-0.40

Unshaded Clear Glass Block

0.65

13

rr-rr ..----------------------

In general, one of the principal


considerations in building design
with regard to thermal radiation is
its overall effect on user comfort.
An environment that has a high
level of radiant heat flow can achieve thermal comfort conditions
at lower air temperatures, thereby
allowing significant savings in
winter fuel consumption. One of
the major advantages of passive
solar designs is the characteristic
high levels of thermal radiation
from solar-heated building surfaces. Well-insulated walls also
actually increase the radiant environment by keeping the inside
surfaces at a higher temperature.
On the other hand, large areas of
glass, can cause thermal discomfort in cold, cloudy or night condi-

tions, and will result in higher levels of fuel consumption because of


excessive radiant heat flow from
the user to the large cold surface.
For this reason, thoughtful passive design incorporates methods
of insulating the user from these
glazed areas under these conditions.
Under summer conditions, the
high radiant energy environment
produced by inadequate solar control in the design of the building
is likely to make thermal comfort
difficult to achieve, even at lower
air temperatures. Chilled air from
an air conditioning system will
generally not be adequate to provide comfort conditions where
sunlight is admitted to the workspace and there is a high level of
radiant heat flow.

Convection and Conduction


Thermal convection is the process in which heat is transferred
from a fluid-air, water, etc.-to a
solid, or vice-versa, by the motion
of the fluid as the fluid comes in
contact with the solid surface. For
the purposes of this discussion,
convection is included in the description of the process of conduction.
Thermal conduction is the process in which heat is transfered
through a solid material because
of a difference in temperature of
the surfaces of the material. A
physical characteristic of all materials is the insulating property
known as resistance. The thermal
resistance of a uniform material of
a given thickness corresponds to
its relative ability to resist heat
conduction. The accompanying
table gives values of the resistance for several types of building
materials. More complete lists appear in other references.12-15
The thermal resistance of building materials varies considerably,
as demonstrated in the table. The
materials with the lowest resistance to heat flow (high conductivity) are metals and glass (in the
absence of insulating air films).
Masonry materials and plasters
also have low thermal resistance.

14

06

20

Masonry

Wood

09

6bs5

4.:)

Air Spaces

(Reflective)

Thermal Resistance of Some Typical Building Materials


Thermal Resistance
(Btu/hr-sq. ft. - F)-1
5-1/2" Fiberglass Insulation

19.0

2" Sprayed Polyurethane

12.5

3-1/2" Fiberglass Insulation

11.0

2" Preformed Roof Insulation

5.6

8" Concrete Block, 2-core with vermiculite

5.0

I" Preformed Roof Insulation

2.8

Metal Door

2.5

Y:{

Urethane Foam Core (1-3/4")

Solid Wood Door (1-1/2 ")

2.0

Storm Window (4" gap)

1.8

Glass Block (8" x 8"

1.8

4")

Glass, Double Lite (1/4" gap)

1.5

Wood, Soft (3/4")

0.9

Glass, Single Lite

0.9

-Particleboard (5/8")

0.8

Brick, Common (3")

0.6

Plywood (1/2")

0.6

Concrete, Sand and Gravel Agg. (6")

0.6

Gypsum Board (1/2")

0.5

15

;:r""'-~~~~------------------

Ij
I~I~

~I{

Surfaces on

1.4
2.2
1.7
1.4
1.7
Both
4.6
1.3
1.1
Reflective
Sides
0.90.7
0.6
0.8
2.7
Reflective
on
One
on
Side
Thermal
Only
Resistance
of Typical
Air Spaces in Walls and Roofs

Winter

Non-Reflective

~~__
Wood has a moderate insulating
property, with a resistance
(R-value) equal to about 1.0 per
inch.
The most significant insulating
material is air, and therefore any
materials or construction that incorporate layers or pockets of
trapped air will have high resistance to conductive heat flow.
Glass, for instance, achieves an
R-value of about 1.0 because of
air films that adhere naturally to
the surface. Two panes of.glass
increase the resistance almost
100%
simply because of the addition of a layer of air between the
panes. Care should be taken, however, to control the width of the
air space. The resistance of the
air space increases as the width
increases, up to about l/2 inch.
Beyond this width there is no appreciable increase in resistance to
conductive heat flow because of
convective loops that occur within
the air space. Insulating materials
also generally have a high resistance because of trapped air between particles or fibers of the
material.
The thermal resistance of air
spaces in a construction depends
on the emittance of the surface on
either side. Surfaces with low
emittance (high reflectance) on
either side of an air space significantly reduce the heat transfer
from one surface to another
across the air space by suppressing the thermal radiation. Since
air is a natural insulator, this
reduction produces a substantial
increase in the thermal resistance
of the overall assembly. The accompanying table gives the resistance values for some typical
air spaces in1walls and roofs. A
more complete listing can be
found in the'standard references.16

The thermal resistance of surface air films is small but contributes to the overall thermal
resistance of the construction
assembly. Generally, walls and
roofs that are highly textured
have a higher natural thermal
resistance due to the thick surface

16

+
,
I
+

i'

- ,

air films that result than walls and


roofs with slick surfaces.
The amount of heat transferred
through a building material by
conduction is inversely proportional to the total resistance of the
material, and directly proportional
to the surface area and the temperature difference between inside and outside surfaces. The inverse of the total resistance of a
particular assembly of materials is
known as the overall heat transfer
coefficient or the U-value. Various
energy insulation standards prescribe upper limits on the
U-values for walls, roofs and
floors. 17,18
It is interesting to compare the
overall conductive characteristics
of some typical assemblies of
building envelope construction. If
a surface area of 100 square feet
is assumed for each sample construction in the accompanying
figure, then the rate of conductive
heat loss for each degree of temperature difference is as indicated. Note that a double-glazed
window has a conductive heat loss
less than that of a six-inch concrete wall of the same area. The
addition of an insulating shutter
reduces the heat loss of the
double-glazed window to one-fifth
of the unshuttered window, making the window system almost
equivalent to a well-insulated
frame wall. When located on the
south side of buildings that require heating, such a window system becomes an effective passive
solar heat collector.
Thermal bridges in certain types
of construction assemblies can
contribute to conductive heat loss
through the building envelope.
Concrete block walls, for instance,
contain many thermal bridges
even when the block cores are filled with loose insulation material.
One solution is to apply sheets of
rigid insulation to the outside of
the block. Wood frame walls also
have bridging through the stud,
but the effect is not as serious
since wood is a fairly efficient insulating material. Metal windows
are another example where thermal bridging can cause significant
4--82231

Air Film

R= 0.7

Insulation
Plywood

R ~11.0
R= 0.6
R- 0.2

Sheetrock R =

0. 5 -

Stucco
Air Film

O.L

R:

Tota! R-VQlue= /3.2U-value = \lRTotal = 0. 08

5inglePane

6"Concre,te

120

67

DaublsRAre

60

TriplePcme

36

DJuble-Pane

't! Shutter
IL

R-l\WG\11

R-I'3 W:\II

Heat (Btu/hr-fL()SS byfooConduction


~. ft.)

17

Therma! Bridge ot Exterior Fireplace


Thermo I Bridge

Sources of Infiltration
18

heat loss. Some manufacturers include thermal breaks in their window product design in order to
improve the window's performance. Other types of thermal
bridging occur where the total
building envelope contains gaps in
the insulating enclosure. Construction details that maintain the
thermal integrity of the enclosure
should be specified wherever possible. Joints of floor and wall, or
wall and roof, as well as corners,
are common problem areas. Masonry fireplaces located on an exterior wall also create a location
for heat loss. Wherever possible,
fireplaces should be located away
from the insulating envelope of
the building enclosure.
A form of convective heat loss
and heat gain in most buildings
(those that are unpressurized) is
infiltration. Air infiltration in
houses generally accounts for
about one-third of the total heat
loss. For houses that are not
weatherstripped, or which have
other significant sources of air
leakage, the figure can be much
higher. Weatherstripping is required on all windows and doors
by current state energy insulation
standards. Infiltration can be reduced by the addition of a storm
window in winter-a common practice in colder climates. Many window manufacturers offer both
single-pane and insulating (doublepane) glass storm windows as part
of their standard product. Other
sources of infiltration can be more
insidious. In houses with ventilated crawl spaces, for instance,
outside air can enter the house in
large quantitites through holes
drilled for plumbing and electrical
lines. Where possible, these leakage points to the crawl space
should be caulked.

Winter

Summer

Combined Effects of
Radiation, Convection
and Conduction

"

_Because of the greenhouse effect and the high conductive heat


loss characteristic of glass, it is
important to consider the net
energy impact of all the heat
transfer mechanisms.
There are three basic glass
types relative to energy flow characteristics: clear, heat-absorbing
and reflecting. The accompanying
figures are based on research by
the National Bureau of Standards19 and indicates, for a given
input of solar energy, the proportional approximate energy flows
and transformations caused by the
glazing system for both summer
and winter conditions. As stated
earlier, a certain amount of incident solar energy is absorbed by
the glass and emitted in the form
of long-wave thermal radiation.
Note that although heat-absorbing
glass is effective in absorbing a
substantial amount of incident
solar energy, most of the absorbed energy is actually radiated into
the conditioned space as heat
during the summer, rendering its
performance in summer only
slightly better (10%-20%) than
clear glass of the same thickness.
Reflective glass, on the other
hand, reflects incident solar energy at the surface, thereby reducing both the transmitted and
re-radiated portions of solar heat
gam.
Combining various types of
glass in a double-glazed system
can provide dramatic improvements in reducing conductive
losses and gains and, by greatly
reducing the re-radiant gain, can
enhance solar protection during
the cooling season without significantly affecting daylight levels.
As the accompanying figure
shows, utilizing an inboard lite of
clear glass and an outboard lite of
heat-absorbing glass or reflective
glass, either fixed or as a "storm
window", can essentially halve
the total solar gain compared to
the treated glass alone. At the
same time, the transmitted
daylight is reduced only 10%.

2.4-7

215

onduction

+17

Net Gain- 167

Net 6ain

239

Clear 81ass

---

5ummer
-.--

Winter

25'
107

107

-52. Conduc.tion

Net 6Qin:

102

Ner

Hecn- Absorbing

6ain:

213

61QSS

Winter

Summer
2.47

75

75

~-.-:;'>

-52.. Conduction

NetGain: 47

+17

Net 6ain: 144

Reflective

61Q55

Summer
2-47

-Heat-Absorbing

Gloss

-Clear Glass
900

93
+6 CondLiction
!\Jet Go in-

104

19

rr,r ,

-~

---

Evaporation

couPling with the incident solar

Evaporation involves the change


of state of a given fluid, usually
water, from a liquid to a vapor
state. This change of state requires an energy input from some
source of heat which is then
"cooled" by the process. Evaporative cooling as part of the
building energy system has great
energy saving potential for buildings in most California climates,
and should be considered among
the alternatives in the system
design.
Some passive cooling systems
can utilize evaporation to improve
performance.20 Some roof pond
designs for climates where little
or no heating is required expose
the water directly to outside air
conditions. The combined effects
of evaporation and night radiant
cooling provide sensible cooling
for the space. In climates where
some heating capability is required of the design, the water is
enclosed under plastic or glass.
During the cooling season the enclosed roof pond is then shaded
and flooded with water to provide
the evaporative cooling.

energy.
Technically, the thermal mass is
defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
that material by 1 degree Fahrenheit. The accompanying table
shows the thermal mass per cubic
foot of various building materials.
Water, by far, has the greatest
thermal mass per unit volume,
and therefore stores a certain
quantity of heat at a given temperature using a smaller volume,
compared to other materials.
One important point should be
kept in mind concerning the practical use of thermal mass-thermal mass is effective only if its
temperature changes, increasing
during the day and decreasing at
night. The insulating properties of
a material can effectively prevent
heat storage in that part of a
block of the material that is away
from the surface exposed to incident energy. For instance, thickened floor slabs in residential construction have limited usefulness
in the daily charge/discharge cycle
since the most significant temperature variations due to absorbed
incident energy occur in the top
few inches only. Furthermore,
there is a time delay associated
with conduction through the
material, so that for thicker
material the heat that penetrates
beyond the top few inches may
reappear at the surface after the
discharge mode and when the
mass is again charging. Thus
beyond a depth where this effect
begins to happen, typically 4 inches for brick and adobe and 7 inches for concrete,21 added material actually decreases performance. Theoretically, therefore, a
thin layer of mass applied to
many building surfaces if preferable to a concentrated mass.
The advantage of thermal mass
in passive heating is that the incident solar energy is prevented
from overheating the air, while
large amounts of energy are captured and stored in the material.
This stored energy is released by
the thermal mass at a later time

Energy Storage
in Building Materials
Thermal Mass

Indirect
Coupling
(Solar
to Room
Ad")

Direct Coupl ing


(Solar to Room Air)
20

In those climates and buildingtypes where some heating is required and the greenhouse effect
can effectively be utilized, thermal mass is an important feature
necessary to temper the immediate effect of solar gain and extend its useful heating beyond the
daylight hours. The thermal mass
absorbs either directly incident
solar energy because of its designed exposure to the sun, or reradiated heat after the incident solar
energy is absorbed by some other
building surface. In the first case
the room air is said to be indirectly couPled with the incident
energy via the thermal mass,
while in the second case the room
air is described as having direct

Thermal Mass
of Building Materials
(Btu/ of per Cubic Foot)
Air
Wood

0.018
25
20
29
18
63

weight)
7.5 gal.)

in the form of radiant (long-wave)


heat energy as its temperature
rises above that of the surrounding objects in the building interior.
Thermal mass can also be utilized for passive cooling in buildings
with low internal heat gains by
tempering peak outdoor temperature swings through absorption of
external heat gains. The accompanying figure provides a qualitative sketch of the effect of thermal mass on indoor air temperature for several types of residential construction. The heat
gained by the mass during the day
must be dissipated at night by
ventilation or by radiation of heat
to a clear night sky. This technique is utilized in some vernacular
architecture in various hot arid
regions of the world. On the other
hand, in larger buildings with sig- .
nificant internal heat gains from
lights and people, the thermal
mass of the building structure
itself can be used to absorb this
heat during the day while maintaining comfort conditions.22 The
mass must then be,purged mechanically using naturally cool
outdoor air at night or evaporatively cooled night air. This
technique is discussed more extensively in a later section.
It should be emphasized that
the practicality of these mechanisms depends very much on the
climatic characteristics of the
region of the state in which the

11me Lag

No 11me Log

Outdoor Air Temperoture


Light Wood-Frclme HOlASe
Hou5e with M055

Bermed House with

MeAse,

46
?j)0

Time of DAy
Indoor "ThmperCAture VClriatron

<~\ ~~~f I

./111

,1111

IIIMIIIIIIII~IIIIII\llllllil!IIIIIIIIIIIIIIWiIIIIIII

111~[[il~

I~

21

building is being built, as well as


on cost characteristics and the effect on the functional elements of
the building. Since these techniques have the potential of greatly
reducing operating and peak
power demand cost, their application should receive appropriate engineering and architectural study.

Combined Effects of
Thermal Mass
and Insulation
In order to optimize the dynamic thermal performance of a
building, the appropriate blend of
insulating materials and energy
storage materials should be used
in the design of the building enclosure. The use of mass in conjunction with insulation has demonstrated a significant improvement in the overall performance.
However, the relative effectiveness depends, on (1) the severity
of the climate and the characteristic daily outdoor temperature
swing, (2) the amount of internal
heat gain and solar gains, and (3)
the position of the mass in relation to the insulation in the wall
or roof construction.
The accompanying figure indicates the relative effects of insulation and mass on the transmission of external heat gains to
the building interior. Insulation
basically reduces the instantaneous energy transmission with-

Incident Energy -Wall Exterior

(; AM

G PM

Time of cay

Insulation
22

GfWI bAM

G A'v1

lime of
MOS5

GAM

Doy

out affecting the time of peak


heat gain. Mass, on the other
hand, delays the energy gain and
spreads the transmission over a
longer period of time, thereby
shifting and reducing the peak
heat gain. The total amount of
energy transmitted, however, is
essentially the same except for
some reductions due to the limited insulating property of the material and some extra losses due
to the time delay of transmission.
When considering the overall
building performance during daily
and seasonal variations, several
conclusions can be drawn concerning the combined use of mass
and insulation.23 In residential
construction, where internal loads
are minimal, mass combined with
insulation effectively reduces the
heating requirement compared to
insulation alone. That is, adding
mass to the building envelope permits reduction in the R-value of
the insulation without changing
the annual heating requirements.
For less severe climates, the use
of mass in conjunction with insulation is even more effective in
reducing heating requirements. In
more extreme climates adding
mass to the building envelope
(other than in direct passive systems) has less of an effect, and a
high level of insulation is required.
The location of the mass layer
in the wall or roof affects both the
heating and cooling requirements.
Locating the mass adjacent to the
conditioned space, with the insulation layer adjacent to the exterior,
results in significant energy savings compared with the reverse
location of the mass layer relative
to the insulation layer. A sandwich-type construction where the
insulation is located between two
mass layers is also an effective arrangement.
Utilizing mass in this type cf
construction also can, by the
various techniques described in
other sections, effectively reduce
cooling loads in almost all types of
buildings in all geographic locations.

Notes for Chapter 1


1. V. Olgyay and A. Olgyay,
Design with Climate, Princeton
University Press (1973) Princeton,
N.]., pp 14-23.
2. E. Allen, How Buildings Work,
Oxford University Press (New
York) 1980, pp 46-49.
3. American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE),
ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, ASHRAE (1977) New York,
pp. 8.1-8.18.
4. R. Hopkinson, Architectural
Physics: Lighting, Her Majesty's
Stationery Office (London) 1963,
pp. 18-25.
5. J. Kaufmann (ed.), IE.5.
Lighting Handbook' The Standard
Lighting Guide, Fifth Edition, Illuminating Engineering Society
(New York) 1972, pp. 2-6 to 2-11
and 2-18 to 2-26.
6. General Services Administration, Energy Conservation Design
Guidelines for New Office Buildings, U.S. Govt. Printing Office,
Washington, D.C., 1975, pp. 1-2
to 1-3.
7. California Energy Commission,
Energy Conservation Design
Manual for New Nonresidential
Buildings, Division 2, p. 5.1.3.
8. Hopkinson, p. 19.
9. V Olgyay and A. Olgyay, pp.
67-71.

..."

J
I

18. California Energy Commission, Energy Conservation Design


Manual for New Residential Buildings, pp. 4.1-4.4.
19. S. Hastings and R. Crenshaw,
"Window Design Strategies to
Conserve Energy", Building
Science Series 104, National
Bureau of Standards (1977)
Washington, D.C.
20. California Energy Commission, Passive Solar Handbook for
California, June 1980.
21. U.S. Department of Energy,
Passive Solar Design Handbook,
Vol. 2, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C., 1980,
pp. 180-181.
22. C. Barnaby, E. Dean, D. NaIl
et aI., "Utilizing the Thermal
Mass of Structural Systems in
Buildings for Energy Conservation and Peak Power Reduction,"
June 1980, Report to Lawrence
Berkeley Laboratory by Shelley,
Dean and Fuller, Architects, 4331
Piedmont Avenue, Oakland, CA
94611 and Berkeley Solar Group,
3026 Shattuck Avenue, Berkeley,
CA 94703.
23. S. Goodwin and M. Catani,
"The Effect of Mass on, Heating
and Cooling Loads and on Insulation Requirements of Buildings in
Different Climates", ASHRAE
Transactions, 85, 1979.

10. ASHRAE, pp. 26.30-26.37.


11. California Energy Commission,pp. A.1.18, Table 3.
12. ASHRAE, pp. 22.11-22.17.
13. California'Energy Commission, pp. A.l.20, Table 4.
14. B. Anderson, Solar
Energy-Fundamentals
in Building
Design, McGraw-Hill Book Co.
(1977) New York, p. 338.
15. E. Mazria, The Passive Solar
Energy Book, Rodale Publishing
(1979),Emmaus, Pennsylvania,
, pp.352-357.
16. ASHRAE, pp. 22.18-22.25.
17. California Energy Commission, pp. 4.1.1-4.1.11.

23

2.
Site Planning and Site Design
Effects on energy use from
design decisions related to site
planning cannot be measured directly in the final design. Because
of the close relationship between
the microclimate of the site and
the thermal and lighting loads experienced by buildings, it is important to consider ways of utilizing and designing microclimatic
effects to minimize these loads.
For both large-scale and smallscale planning, the site elements
which can effectively be utilized
are landforms, vegetation, wind
and sun. These elements can be
combined to provide buildings
with optimal solar effect, wind
protection, ventilating breezes and
advantageous local temperature
and humidity.

0--------,
C'.
.

;,

'-'f

,)

I
(;1

i,

I
I

..

24

-------~
,)

-,:,1

,
,

..
,

Energy Impacts of
Landforms and
Topography
Landforms can be altered to
provide protection from winter
winds and to create sunny enclosures. In some applications, landforms and earth berms can be
integrated to a certain extent with
the building itself for both wind
and thermal protection.
For large-scale planning in areas
requiring heating, the designer
should keep in mind that southfacing slopes have the most advantages in terms of solar exposure, protection from northern
winter winds and isolation from
cold air settlement and movement
at the base of major landforms.
At higher elevations frost is more
likely to occur at these bases of
landforms and in depressions of
relatively flat terrain, In areas requiring cooling only, the north
slope is obviously advantageous
because of the reduction in intensity of solar radiation (Btu per
square foot). Maximum solar radiation is collected by ground surfaces that are perpendicular to the.
sun's direction. Slopes closest to
this perpendicular direction will
receive the most intense solar radiation. Surfaces sloping away
from the sun's direction, such as
north-facing slopes, receive the
least intensity.l A site surface
that is tilted 10 degrees toward
the south will receive the same
solar impact and have the same
basic microclimate as a flat site 6
degrees in latitude closer to the
equator, all other conditions being
equal. 2

Landforms also affect winds and


breezes on both a large and small
scale. In general, wind speeds are
higher at the crest of a hill than
on the leeward slope, and increase
through any openings in the landform. Because cold air flows downhill in a sheet on open slopes at
night, cold air pools may form if
the flow is blocked by dense trees
or man-made structures. A landform that blocks cooling breezes
and provides a south-sloping surface will create a sun pocket,
which is desirable in colder
California climates.
The same considerations apply
for small-scale planning and site
design. Orientation in relation to
wind and sun is important in most
California climates and most types
of buildings. In sum, the best
sites for optimum energy conservation opportunities have the correct solar orientation, limited
vegetation coverage for solar access, protection from winter
winds and no land depressions
that could function as cold air
pockets.

Energy Impacts
of Vegetation

"I'

i
J

Vegetation can be used to control both winds and breezes and


the ground surface reflectance
near buildings. These are the
most important uses of vegetation
in terms of energy conservation.
Plant material should be carefully
selected so that there is no present or possible future interference with solar energy utilization.
The density and ultimate height
of trees should be controlled in relation to the solar angles of incidence and the desired degree of
seasonal solar utilization.
The use of certain ground materials can provide beneficialfea'
tures for the site. Placing shaded
lawns and vegetation on the windward side of buildings can increase the cooling capacity of prevailing summer breezes for naturally ventilated buildings. Asphalt
surfaces and other heat-absorbing

5-82231

1111\\\\

surfaces should be on the leeward


side of the buildings to avoid heating these cooling breezes.
Protection from winter winds is
effectively achieved by landscaping with dense evergreen
bushes and trees. Most cold winds
come from the north, so northside planting of evergreens is
desired. Cooling summer breezes
originate from the south, requiring an absence of obstructions in
this direction for smaller buildings
capable of utilizing natural ventilation. Moderate and deciduous
planting on the south side of
buildings is preferable so that
light shading can be produced by
the planting in summer while admitting sun in winter. In this
regard, a deciduous tree is a
natural solar control element,
although care should be taken to
choose a native species whose leaf
period closely matches the building's cooling season.
Vegetation can also significantly
25

affect airflow through naturally


ventilated buildings. The placement and type of planting and the
configuration of the building will
determine the airflow pattern, although the precise effect is often
difficult to predict. 3

Energy Impacts of Wind


and Ventilation

Wind

Loco \ Wind 5eeed as 0


PercenT of til~ Prevailing

c=J

Less Thcm 50%

c=J

50'(, - GO'/~

r;;o.:.;~~

GO %

ITIIITI!

70'(, - 80%

BO% -90%

90';' -/00%

100% - /106/,

l1li

liD'/' - /2D%

70

10

\0

\0

Distance from Wind

26

15 20

25

Barrier

Feet

The direct interaction of winds


with the building is an important
consideration in site planning.
The principal objectives in designing this interaction are to minimize air infiltration during the
heating season and to maximize
natural ventilation during the
cooling season when outside air
temperatures are moderate.
Air infiltration occurs because
uneven pressure distribution
around the building envelope
causes air in high pressure areas
to move through the building
toward negative pressure areas on
the leeward side. Since infiltration
accounts for 20% to 50% of the
heating load in most houses, it is
important to design for this air
movement. One effective design
strategy is to arrange the configuration of the building or the collection of buildings to minimize
these pressure differences to the
fullest extent. A second method
to reduce pressure on the windward side is to install wind barriers at an appropriate distance
from the building. Wind barriers
can reduce the infiltration 25% to
60%, depending on their design.4
The effectiveness of the windbreak depends on both the type' of
windbreak and its location. Dense
trees are most effective at a distance of about 5 times their
height, and some protection can
still occur up to a distance of 25
times the height. Solid barriers
such as walls and fences have an
effective protection range up to
10 times the barrier height, with
the optimum range occurring at 3
to 5 times the barrier height5
Porous barriers, such as slatted
fences, are even more effective

windbreaks since turbulent eddys


are not created. If trees are used
as windbreaks, dense shrubbery,
a low fence or a wall should be
added to provide protection near
the ground. This combination achieves the largest overall reduction in infiltration.
In large buildings, where the air
pressure around the building is
greater in some places, the stack
effect can create serious air infiltration problems. Internal pressurizing using the HV AC system
reduces the severity of this situation.
Effective natural ventilation, on
the other hand, generally requires
pressure differences and openings
for the prevailing summer breeze
on both the windward and leeward sides of the building. In
residential design the increase of
summer cooling breezes is desirable. A height difference between
the air inlet and outlet locations
helps induce this ventilation. An
alternative is to utilize the stack
effect and a gravity ventilator.
This approach is useful if the
building has inadequate openings
on the outlet side due to minimized window area or earth berming.
If the building is to be sited at
an angle to the direction of the
prevailing cooling breezes, then
openings on the opposite sides
provide the best internal airflow
patterns. If the siting is perpendicular to the prevailing direction,
then openings should be located
on adjacent walls. Better airflow
patterns result if the outlet opening is larger than the inlet openmg.

I
'"\-

I
I
-J&.

L .

Two facts should be remembered, however, when using natural ventilation as a cooling
method. First, natural ventilation
is effective only when the outside
air temperature is low enough to
produce the sensation of cooling.
Secondly, natural ventilation in
large buildings can be counterproductive if used improperly by
the building occupant, and the result is unnecessary cooling loads
that must be removed by the
building's active or passive cool-

ing system. The tradeoffs are the


psychological cooling effect of individual control and the simple
amenity of having an openable
window.

Energy Impact of Sun


Of all micro climatic factors, the
sun is the most predictable, and
therefore most within control of
the designer. The great importance of both- passive and active
solar utilization in smaller buildings in most areas of California,
and the need for solar protection
for larger buildings, require that
all building designers understand
and design for sun movement.
This understanding should be applied at both the site planning
stage and during the detailed
building design stages.

~
~

~n __

Regment
lOll
of
~ir move
greatest

11!
27

l!!

L4

Lower- Lati tudes

/'
28

Sun movement varies with latitude, generally having a lower


midday position at the higher latitudes. There is also a large degree of variation during the year,
as illustrated in the accompanying
figure. When the sun is imagined
as an object moving on a hemisperical sky, it rises in the
southeast region of the sky in the
winter, achieves a fairly low sun
angle at noon, and sets in the
southwest. On March 21 and September 21, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, the sun rises due
east and sets due west. During
the summer the sun rises in the
northeast region of the sky and
sets in the northwest. The highest
sun angle at noon occurs on June
21.
The southerly orientation is preferred because the solar exposure
is greatest overall and, because of
the geometry of sun movement,
most easily controlled. The solar
impact from the easterly and
westerly directions is severe in
most cases because of the nearly
perpendicular incidence angle, but
the westerly sun is most extreme
since this impact occurs after the
building has absorbed heat all
day. Therefore, even though solar
movement is symmetrical about
the north-south direction, an
asymmetry results from the cumulative effect of solar energy absorbed by the building. Thus the
same building, even in the

Higher Latitudes

absence of climatic variation,


would be expected to have different facade designs for each
principal orientation. Each of
these might also be adjusted according to site latitude. The site
microclimate and the amount of
internal heat gain are additional
energy considerations in facade
design; these factors are treated
in the next chapter.
Sun movement considerations
have some influence on site planning and site design decisions. In
most California climates, houses
and small buildings can utilize
solar energy in a direct (passive)
manner. There is usually a period
of time during the year when solar protection is also essential.
Therefore in siting buildings or
groups of buildings, care should
be taken to avoid shading of the
structure during the period when
solar utilization is desired, and to
provide shade when cooling is ne~
cessary. The type and location of
trees and other vegetation should
be planned with this objective in
mind.
The solar access problem is particularly important for designers
to consider in buildings that can
use solar energy. 6,7,8 Solar access
for a project can be analyzed, optimized and recorded as part of a
regular site analysis and planning
procedure. A variety of methods
have been developed:

"

---------

,<J,.

1. Special on-site devices9,10,l1


that can be moved from point to
point allow the designer to survey
existing objects relative to inscribed sun paths for the entire year.
These are useful to provide a rapid but complete check for unforeseen site conditions.
2. Site models can be constructed and studied using a "heliodon", a device that accepts architectural models and duplicates
sun positions. Accuracy of the
method depends on accuracy of
the model, but the technique is
convenient for evaluation of alternative site planning schemes.
These devices are available commercially or can be constructed.
3. A graphical method has been
developed,12 but its use is limited
by the availability of the graphical
charts.
4. Sun angle charts 13,14can be
used to determine sun angles for
direct plotting of shadows from
existing objects onto a site map.
The same charts can be used in
conjunction with a "shading
mask", a drawing generated onsite by the user that locates the
extent of all site objects casting
shadows for a specific point on
the site. The methodology is described in detail in an other reference.1S The latter technique is
useful in lieu of one of the devices
mentioned above.
The usual procedure in analyzing solar access is to consider
December 21 between 9 am and 3
pm in particular, and to check the
same time period at the beginning
and ending of the heating season.
A "solar envelope" can then be
effectively created for the site
that describes the region within
which solar access is guaranteed
for any building. Conversely,
given a proposed building location, the height limits of nearby
objects can be determined, and a
"solar interference boundary"
map created that guarantees solar
access for that particular plan.
Such solar-related aspects of
site planning are an essential part
of any effective energy efficiency
and adaptability in the future.

50 lor Access Not Considered


60% Solar

Solar Access Considered


78%50lar

5ubdivi.sion Site Plan for .solar Orientation

So lor Interference

Boundary Map

29

,~{

'~

Notes for Chapter 2


1. See also E. Mazria, The
Passive Solar Energy Book, Rodale
Publishing (Emmaus, Pennsylvania) 1979, pp. 13-15.
2. G. Robinette (ed.), Landscape
Planning for Energy Conservation,
Environmental Design Press
(Reston, VA) 1978.
3. California Energy Commission,
Passive Solar Handbook for California, CEC Publications Unit (1111
Howe Avenue, Sacramento, CA)
1980, pp. 70-74.
4. G. Robinette, Plants, People
and Environmental Quality, U.S.
Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C., Stock No.
2405-0479, 1972, p. 71.
5. Ibid, pp. 75-84, and California
Energy Commission, p. 70.
6. R. Knowles, "Solar Access and
Urban Form", AlA Journal,
February 1980, pp. 42-49.
7. T. Holzberlein, "Don't Let the
Trees Make a Monkey Out of
You", Proceedings of the Fourth
Passive Solar Conference, Kansas
City, Mo., 1979, p. 416.
8. Robinette, Footnote 2.
9. The Solar Pathfinder utilizes
reflected images of site obstructions from the surface of a transparent dome. A quick tracing on
the sun path chart provides a permanent record of the full year's
solar patterns. (Solar Pathways,
Inc., 3710 Highway 82, Glenwood
Springs, Colorado, 81601)
10. The Solar Site Selector is a
vertically-read tripodmounted
device that utilizes a transparent
surface etched with the year's
sunpaths. Objects are viewed
directly with the image of the sunpaths superimposed. (Solar Site
Selector, Dept SA 5, 105 Rockwood Drive, Grass Valley, CA
95945).
11. A similar device is included in
the publication, Solar For Your
Present Home, published by the
California Energy Commission
and available through the Publications Unit, 1111 Howe Avenue,
Sacramento, CA 95825.

30

12. B. Givoni, Man, Climate and


Architecture, Elsevier Publishing
Co. (1969) New York, pp. 197-204
(contributed by M. Milne, School
of Architecture, UCLA).
13. Sun Angle Calculator is a kit
available from Libbey-Owens-Ford
Co., Merchandising Dept. P-1,
811 Madison Avenue, Toledo,
Ohio 43695.
14. E. Mazria, pp. 302-322, includes mylar sun charts ..
15. Ibid, pp. 325-327.

3.
Building Envelope Design
The design of the building envelope is of the utmost interest
and importance to the architect.
Building enclosure design affects
the users' perceptions of view,
light and space. It also determines
the formal visual esthetics. Optimizing the energy performance of
the building will affect all of these
impressions since it will affect the
characteristics of the envelope.
This thermal and lighting optimization is an essential part of the
considerations surrounding these
aspects of the envelope design.

General Design
Considerations
An energy-conscious approach
to the design of a building involves all aspects of the building
from the planning concepts and
program through the details of the
energy systems. A deliberate
effort will include a set of strategies, each of which may require
the coordinated consideration of
aspects not usually dealt with
simultaneously. For instance,
strategies of building lighting
system operation for minimal
energy use depends on the building envelope configuration and
the building program as applied to
space organization. The choice of
a structural system may depend
on a cooling system operation
strategy that takes advantage of
cool nighttime temperatures and
the thermal mass of the structure.
Where choices are possible,
aspects such as these should be
designed simultaneously so that
the building as a whole system

achieves optimal energy efficiency.


The design of the building
envelope, as a building subsystem, should be coordinated in
the same manner. Opportunities
can be created for the efficient
operation of lighting, cooling and
heating systems through design of
the building skin for daylighting,
natural ventilation, and solar control. Standard systems can be
greatly augmented, or in some
cases replaced, by envelope design
features that collect, store and
dissipate thermal energy in a controlled manner. These passive
heating and passive cooling
systems are discussed in some
detail in this chapter.
The building envelope features
that principally determine energy

Planning Factoro

User Needs

Enerqy
5trcrregi8s

. Program
'Site Conditions
LegQ I Rffl/mts.

Budget
Building

Systems

31

efficiency of the final design are:


(1) configuration and orientation,
(2) materials, (3) openings, and (4)
the building section (component
assembly). For any particular
building project (in the absence of
unusual site constraints), the appropriate design for each of these
envelope features largely depends
on the characteristic building'-type
(archetype), the site climate, the
thermal impact of the internal load
(heat generated by people, lights
and various kinds of equipment),
and the size of the potential
lighting demand.
The characteristic of internal
loads in a building is the primary
reason why large buildings have
very different thermal characteristics when compared to small
buildings such as residences, and
why envelope design strategies
for energy conservation are necessarily different. Internal heat
gains effectively shorten the
heating season and lengthen the
cooling season for the building's
energy systems. A large building
with a relatively small perimeter
(a "deep" floor plan) will have
large internal loads because of the
need for extensive artificial
lighting and the large building
population. For the resulting extended cooling season in these
types of buildings, the envelope
design will involve more extensive
solar control, preventing the
potential additional heat gains
Intern a I Load Dominated

Envelope Dominated

Perimeter
Core

44, 100~ (7T/.)

Cor-e

27. 000

57)600

Toto!

57,600rp

Toto I

32

13,500

(2.3%)
tII

Perimeter-

30,600 (5~/0)
qr

(4770)

from the sun. On the other hand,


residential envelope design will
exhibit the need in most climates
to admit the low-angle sun in
winter.

Configuration and
Orientation
Envelope configuration determines potential solar and daylight
accessibility and influences the
heat loss/heat gain characteristic
of the building. The latter can be
adjusted for a given configuration
by changing the insulating value
of the envelope material, but the
accessibility features are purely a
function of the building configuration. For this reason the amount
of solar heat and daylight that can
be used in a particular building
should be evaluated, and the appropriate configuration determined within the context of the
space planning program.
Buildings with large internal
loads, as noted above, can require
cooling even when outside air
temperatures are low; year-round
cooling system operation would
not be uncommon. Solar accessibility in these cases is not a consideration, but minimizing solar
impact is a major concern. If
large internal loads are caused by
so-called process energyl-that is,
energy used for purposes other
than comfort heating, cooling and
lighting-then the building
envelope configuration is not a
crucial factor. Variations in outside conditions affect the lighting,
heating and cooling systems to a
relatively small degree, and the
effects are even smaller still if the
building is well-insulated and protected from the sun.
However, if the large internal
gains are the result of general
lighting requirements, then the internalload can be greatly reduced
by utilizing a high perimeter configuration that places the largest
amount of floor area within 15
feet of glazing in an exterior wall
and provides manual or automatic
light controls. Perimeter heat
gains and losses can be increased
in this case, but generally the

saving in lighting energy and the


reduction in peak power demand
due to daylighting sufficiently offsets the increase in perimeter
heating and cooling loads. These
increases are most sensitive to the
amount and type of glazing, as
well as the extent of solar control
features, and these require the
appropriate design refinements.
Orientation is a factor in
buildings with large internal loads
insofar as the solar impact is minimized. If the internal heat gain is
produced primarily by sources
other than lights, for example,
then an orientation and configuration that results in a large amount
of north-facing glass may allow
excess internal heat to leak from
the building, thereby augmenting
the cooling process. If the large
internal heat gain is produced by
lights only, reduction of this heat
gain through daylighting can
create a heating demand. In this
case a configuration favoring the
southern orientation of major
glass areas may be desirable since
the greatest degree of control
over sunlight is possible, and the
potential exists for some perimeter space heating if required.
Each building project of this
scale should be carefully evaluated
in the early stages of design in
order to select the most appropriate design concept.
Natural ventilation is another
possible factor in determining
configuration and orientation in
larger buildings. In order that
natural ventilation be a reliable
method of providing adequate
fresh outside air to all parts of the
building, the building should be
no wider than about 40 feet, and
the floor space should offer no
obstructions to the passage of air
across the building width. Therefore the building configurations
that allow major potential energy
savings through natural ventilation by permitting the normal
mechanical ventilation system to
shut down for periods of time are
similar to those required for good
daylighting design.
,A building could be designed

6-82231

uo
o

Envelope Heat Saine,

.-J

07
C

Internal HeatGains

CS

il

WWIIIIIR
L 3 4- 5

8 9 /0 II 12

Time of Day

Lorge Building - No Doyllghting

uo
o

--1

01

c
o

Envelope Heot60ins

Internol Heo16oins
8 9 10 II /2. I 2-

2)

4- 5

Time of Day

Lorge Building - With DC\ylighting

40 feet

40 feet

33

34

for partial natural ventilation in


that the perimeter spaces would
have operable sash, allowing local
introduction of outside air, but the
standard interior zones would be
mechanically ventilated. Real
energy savings would be achieved
only if this local introduction of
outside ventilating air resulted in
the reduction of the space heating
or cooling load, or if the building
system responded by limiting the
heating or cooling energy supply
to that space. The building configuration would not have any particular resultant form in the case
of this partial natural ventilation,
since only the perimeter is affected.
Buildings with small internal
loads are known as envelopedominated buildings. Residences
and small office buildings fall into
this category. The principal energy
feature of these types of buildings
is their close link with the outside
climate. Because of this, orientation is a major consideration. The
utilization or control of solar
energy as it directly affects the
small building's thermal balance is
often best achieved by arranging
the building so that most of the
facade has north/south exposure
rather than an east/west exposure. The latter orientation for
the small building would result in
overheating in the warmer part of
the year and a lack of balance between the desired solar gain and
conductive heat loss in the colder
part of the year. For the larger
building, the east/west exposure
produces a difficult solar control
problem. The north/south exposure provides the greatest opportunity for sun control, particularly
for the small building and the
house where the sun should be
admitted to the building for a
period of time in winter for most
California climates, but excluded
for a portion of the other seasons.
("North/south" is meant as a general orientation, and studies show
that a variation in orientation for
small buildings of 150 or 200
from true south has little effect on
thermal performance.2)

Materials
Choice of envelope materials
has a great impact on the admittance of thermal energy and on
indoor space conditions. As discussed in Chapter 1, materials
have both insulating and storage
characteristics that respectively
reduce the quantity of heat flow
and delay its transfer. A good
envelope design will incorporate
both features in the most feasible
and most energy efficient combination.3
In conventional buildings, the
use of significant mass in the
building envelope is beneficial in
cold climates where sunshine is
available and in hot climates
where diurnal temperature variations are large and clear skies
prevail. In the former case the
mass should be inboard from the
insulating layer of the envelope.
In both cases the properties of
storage and re-release of energy
by the mass help to temper indoor
conditions. (See Chapter 1.)
Taken to the extreme of an envelope with "unlimited" mass,
primarily underground or bermed
buildings, large energy savings
are possible if properly detailed
with regard to insulation and glazing.4s The cost-effectiveness of
such an approach varies greatly
with the individual design.
Various passive systems utilize
glass, insulation and mass in order
to collect solar energy, store it as
heat and release the energy in a
controlled manner for space heating purposes. These systems are
discussed in detail below.

Openings
Openings in the building envelope should be designed to facilitate thermal balance, daylighting
and ventilation (where appropriate). Windows typically perform
these functions, utilizing a wide
range of design alternatives. The
amount of opening desirable relative to climate, internal load and
building configuration should be
studied in the early design stages
to ensure adoption of a favorable
design concept.

,\

Heat Loss Reduced


ISF

25F
32F
43F

57 F

1emperoture Isotherms

Two Weill Insulation

Openings for natural ventilation


are a real user amenity that can
result in energy savings if, as
noted above, it is coordinated
with BVAC operation. Most California climates are suitable for
naturally ventilated buildings for
at least a portion of the year. At
other times of the year, ventilation with outside air must be
minimized to avoid unnecessary
heating or cooling loads. Site
problems associated with excessive acoustical or air pollution
problems may preclude natural
ventilation when climatic conditions are favorable. These factors
should be considered as well.

Detoils4

/
/

"""'''"'
f~
I

c=7

Building Section/
Component Assembly
The refined design of the building envelope should combine structural materials, openings and
other components to provide the
optimum balance of thermal factors and, in the case of larger
buildings, to produce comfortable
daylighting conditions. Such an
integrated approach presents challenging design problems requiring
creative solutions at a level not
previously demanded of architects.
Passive heating, cooling and
daylighting subsystems are treated
in the following sections. Another
particularly important component
assembly is the envelope solar
control feature. In almost every
California climate it is necessary

to manage the amount of sunlight


being admitted to the building. As
discussed above, residential buildings and smaller non-residential
buildings usually will benefit from
the admittance of sunlight during
the heating season when thermal
losses can be offset by solar
gains. Most climates in the state
also require protection of openings from direct solar gain for an
extended period of time. In buildings where there would ordinarily
be a significant lighting demand,
the solar control design must also
maximize diffuse light penetration
while minimizing both direct and
contrast glare.
The design of sun-shading
35

c5unshade

Designfor

'---------' Energy Balance


SolC1r

Doyl ight

Internal ~
HeL1t

Hear 6ains

6ains~

Conductive Heat
Loss or 00 in

JfMAMJ
BAM?>\ 3350

62'i;s:j

~2 37

54-

6S7i~

10

34-

53:~

II

3744

12.

39 47

I
2..

40 50 .~. ;:17:
42. 53'~CJ t(7;

'3

41 55 :cd.?S:
40 53 't{;.7$:

4-

4-1

..

7?

62.1Cii
.~-?7~

5 PM 3> 9:J ;flpc7~

Buildinq-IY~
CI imate,-IYpe. A1

Enerqy Balance i=blnt Temperature

Attctchments

Envelope Shape,

36
,
'j"'

Planting

features of the building envelope


depends on the criteria established
for the periods of time for solar
admittance and solar exclusion,
and on the solar angles associated
with each facade orientation for
those times. The criteria for shading will depend on characteristics
of local climate, the size and use
of the building, and any specific
thermal characteristics that
strongly affect the energy performance of the building. In the
early stages of design, the architect must make a general assessment of these factors, particularly
the climatic characteristics, and
establish an initial set of criteria
for sun-shading design. As the
design is further refined and the
energy performance profile is
established, the sun-shade design
can be modified as necessary. A
specific design methodology for
solar control is described in the
classic reference of this field6
Sun-shading can be accomplished
by modifying the shape of the
building envelope, by adding attachments, overhangs and louvers
and by utilizing trees or planting.
In general, since the sun is at its
highest position at noon, horizontal-type devices are most appropriate for facades with a southerly
orientation. The low-angle sun in
morning and late afternoon requires a vertical-type sun-shading
feature for the east- and westfacing elevations. A combination
of horizontal and vertical elements
would be required for orientations
between south and east or west.
Reduction of solar gain can be
accomplished by the properties of
the glass material used, but external sun-shading techniques are
much more effective in protecting
envelope openings from solar gain.
In addition, heat-absorbing and reflective glass reject winter sun,
while external shading can be
designed. to admit winter sun
while excluding summer sun.
The Olgyay methodology for
analyzing the design of a sun control feature utilizes plan and section drawings and the concept of
the shading mask. Model studies

Horizontal 5hading for South Orientation

37

!'/..~..,-~.

are very useful also, particularly


when used in conjunction with a
heliodon device to duplicate actual
solar positions. An added advantage of model techniques is that
the effect on daylighting can be
approximately observed.
The day lighting aspect of sunshading features is best treated
through light-colored elements
that obstruct direct sun but allow
the glazing to "see" as much sky
as possible. Generally, this means
a design that is relatively porous
for diffuse light. The reference
cited above includes examples of
such design.

Passive Systems:
Heating
The design of the building
envelope (walls, roof, floor) to
capture, store and release solar
energy in a controlled manner to
'provide comfortable conditions for
people in the enclosed environment is known as passive solar
design. Specific envelope subsystems or component assemblies
that perform this function are
usually refered to as passive
systems. Active systems, which are
treated in the next chapter, are
generally thought of as environmental control systems that are
separable from the actual building
enclosure and which require
mechanical components to transfer
and release energy.
Passive solar design has become
recognized as the most effective
technique to produce building
designs that demand a minimum
of non-renewable energy for the
least additional cost. Buildings
that employ passive solar concepts
appear to be reliable, eminently
livable and generally more comfortable.
The direct involvement with the
building enclosure places these
energy systems under the control
of the architect, creating new opportunities for architecture, as
well as new responsibilities. The
apparent simplicity of passive
systems belies the subtle com-

38

plexity of the energy flows


described in Chapter 1, which
must be controlled and directed
for good performance and a sound
design.
Because passive systems are
integral with the building envelope, the materials and components must be carefully designed
and balanced to provide both environmental comfort requirements
and basic architectural amenities.
General concepts and guidelines
about passive system design and
performance in smaller buildings
have been well-formulated.7-15
A sound design can usually be
developed if these recommendations are followed. Even so, an
evaluation of the anticipated
energy performance is often
useful so that appropriate design
improvements can be made if necessary. A number of performance
evaluation methods are available
for the small building, including
tabular methods,16 programmable
hand calculator methods 17.18and
computer programs.19 In spite of
their present usefulness in guiding
design decisions, these evaluation
tools are likely to become a less
critical step in ensuring good
passive design as experience with
passive systems increases. The
design analysis required for the
small building should ultimately
involve no more effort than the
usual structural calculations.
For larger buildings, experience
with passive systems is limited. In
addition, passive systems are most
Hfective in envelope-dominated
buildings and have much less impact on buildings that have significant internal loads. When applied
to larger buildings, passive
systems must be designed in
response to the internal loads as
well as the external sources of
energy. Interaction with the lighting systems (daylight controls)
becomes an additional factor as
well. The engineering involved in
buildings of this type is understandably beyond the scope usually
experienced in design, and the
energy performance evaluation of
the overall design is essential as

an integral part of each step of


the design process.
Many of the subsystems utilized
in larger buildings are conceptually the same as those developed
for smaller buildings. There are
significant differences, however,
in the applications with regard to
sun control, collector and storage
sizes and user operation. Designers
should take great care in adapting
residential passive systems to
larger buildings.
The following sections elaborate
on some of the architectural concepts of passive heating systems
that may be integrated with the
overall building design. Although
applicable to some larger buildings if modified and. carefully
evaluated, the emphasis is on
their application to smaller buildings. Quantitative methods are
not discussed; consult the references16,19 for further information
on this topic.

General Concepts
There are three basic categories
of passive heating systems: (1)
direct systems, (2) indirect systems, and (3) isolated systems. In
direct systems the incident solar
energy is allowed to penetrate the
building envelope through openings to the interior of the
building, where it is absorbed by
the thermal storage mass (floor or
walls), converted to heat, and
gradually dispersed throughout
the space. If the mass is located
in one area so that it receives
direct sunlight from the fenestration, it is called a concentrated. mass system. If the mass is distributed throughout the building's
interior surfaces so that most of
these surfaces absorb heat energy
primarily by reradiation from
directly sunlit surfaces, then the
system is known as a distributedmass system.
Indirect systems usually contain

the energy collecting, storage and


controlled-release functions in the
building envelope. The thermal
. wall system combines the basic
elements of glazing and mass on
south-facing walls. The sunlight

penetrates the glazing, is absorbed by the massive wall interposed


between the glazing and the conditioned space, and is converted
to heat. The heat is then gradually released to the space by radiation and convection. The roof-pond
system utilizes mass and insulation
on the building's roof and functions in much the same way as
the thermal wall.
Isolated systems involve intercepting solar energy before it strikes
the conditioned space enclosure,
and controlling the rate of heat
transfer from the passive system
to the space. The usual application of this type of system is the
attached greenhouse of sunspace.
In this application the building
consists of two basic thermal
zones separated either by a
massive wall or by movable doors
or louvers.

Direct System

Thermo

WC111

System

Direct Systems
The direct system is probably
the most interesting to the designer who is required to utilize
essentially conventional building
materials and techniques. The envelope is generally lightweight
and heavily insulated, punctured
by predominantly south-facing
openings, and contains a large
amount of mass in the interior.
Aside from the extra mass and insulation, the direct system is
basically a conventional building
.with desirable orientation and
window locatio~. There are, however, both technical issues and architectural issues that require
careful refinement of this basic
concept.
The major technical concerns
are quantity, distribution, material
and color of the thermal mass; the
number, type and orientation of
glazings; the effect of lightweight
objects; and the degree of temperature variation in the spaces.
Proper design of the thermal
mass is essential. As illustrated in
Chapter 1, the mass is effective
only if its temperature changes,
increasing during the day and decreasing at night. The comfort
level is affected since this tem-

Roof Pond System

Sunspace

39

TI

/\

Sou t h

40

/\
32

TILO

.\

perature swing of the mass must


not cause an excessive swing in
air temperature. Overheating is a
major problem in many passive
solar buildings. Enough mass
must be provided to absorb excess solar energy during the day
without a large space temperature
swing, or without causing the user
to ventilate the space and consequently lose the heat that might
be stored for nighttime demand.
Ventilation should ideally be used
as a means of controlling overheating only in the spring and fall,
when the vented heat is not likely
to be needed at night. Because of
the ineffectiveness of increasing
mass thickness beyond a certain
poinFo, thermal mass should be
added elsewhere in a manner that
maximizes the mass surface area
exposed to the interior. A rule of
thumb is that the mass should
have a surface area equal to three
times the solar glazing area21. The
absolute amount of glazing required depends on the climate and
the amount of solar heating
desired. Simple guidelines for a
large number of specific locations
are available22.
Once the solar glazing area is
established, the required amount
of thermal mass can be determined. A rule of thumb is that a thermal mass of 3.0 X S pounds of
masonry or 0.6 X S pounds of
water is recommended for each
square foot of solar glazing,
where S is the desired solar savings in percent. Thus a building
that is to be 70% solar should
have either 210 pounds of masonry or 42 pounds of water per
square foot of solar glazing.
The most effective location for
heat storage materials is directly
in the sun, or at least in the same
zone that experiences direct solar
gain. Concentrated-mass systems
are generally designed in this
manner. Obtaining direct exposure to sunlight is more difficult
in distributed-mass systems
because of the large surface area
involved. Although it may be desirable to locate thermal mass in
other areas (for cooling purposes,

for example), only that mass in


the direct gain zone will act as
part of the passive solar heating
system.
Distributed-mass systems perform better than concentrated
mass systems23 and provide a
more thermally uniform living environment. Studies24 have shown
that the location of the distributed
mass on north, south, east or west
walls does not affect performance.
Walls are preferred to the floor
because of the shielding effect of
furniture and because the floor
tends to be cooler than the room.
Carpets thermally isolate the floor
from the space to an even greater
degree. The performance of the
distributed mass system is enhanced by using some light-diffusing glass since energy is distributed more uniformly to the
mass surfaces and allows a minimum thickness for the largest surface area of mass. All glazings
should be double.
Objects of low thermal capacity
such as light-weight interior partitions or furniture can impair performance of a direct gain building
if they receive direct sunlight and
are darker in color. If these objects are light-colored, they can
help redistribute the energy to the
more massive elements.
Orientation of the major glazing
elements is a sensitive factor only
if it deviates greatly from true
south. The guideline is that solar
glazing should have a bearing between 20 degrees east and 32 degrees west of true south.25 If the
designer adheres to this generalization, the decrease in performance compared to the "optimum" orientation will always be
less than 10%. The optimum
orientation varies with site climate, but under normal climate
patterns is not more than 150 to
the west of true south. The slightly western orientation is preferred
since heat stored in the afternoon
is released during the very late
night hours when a major part of
the heating load occurs. In many
California coastal locations frequent morning fog conditions in

winter push the optimum orientation of solar glazing to 30 degrees


west of true south since the largest solar gains occur in the afternoon
Where possible, glazing systems
should incorporate insulating shutters that can be used at night to
reduce overall demand. The performance of passive solar systems
increases dramatically26 when
some form of night insulation is
integrated into the design.
In view of these technical considerations, there are several major architectural issues that arise
which influence the design of direct gain systems. The success of
direct systems depends largely on
the manner in which the extra
mass is handled. In a concentrated-mass system a large block
of heavy material is inside the occupied space, usually near windows for direct exposure to sunlight. For a residence this occurs
in the major living areas, so the
desirability of having such large
mass elements present should be
considered. In a distributed-mass
system the walls and partitions
must be fairly massive, and their
placement for space planning
must be coordinated with their
relation to sunlight and airflow.
There is, therefore, an inherent
lessening of spatial flexibility.
A major architectural problem
with direct systems is the effect
on visual comfort caused by the
large amount of sunlight admitted
to the interior of the space. Direct
glare can make passive solar
buildings decidedly unpleasant for
living and working. The large
quantities of direct sunlight can
also cause fading of fabric and
furnishings. It is therefore desirable to plan the living spaces so
that direct sunlight can be controlled in the primary use locations' while still permitting the
mass to receive direct sunlight.
Skylights or clerestories combined
with the use of higher spaces is
one approach to a solution. (Higher spaces develop heat stratification, but a low-speed fan will
eliminate this problem. There is

41

also an advantage to higher


spaces in improving natural ventilation since a greater distance
between inlet and outlet vents is
possible, enhancing the stack effect.)
In addition to the potential
direct glare problem, there can
also 'be a problem of contrast
glare if light is admitted to the
building only from the south. In
order to balance the light and illuminate other interior surfaces so
that contrast glare is reduced,
some openings should be placed
in walls of other orientations.
Another potential problem in direct passive solar residences is
acoustical privacy. Because of the
desirability of exposing massive
surfaces in the interior environment to direct sunlight, as well
as providing maximum throughventilation for cooling, open plans
are frequently developed. Requirements for acoustical isolation
should be considered. Odors
transporting between spaces is
often observed in such circumstances.

Indirect Systems

Day

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11111111!1~1,1111111

Night
42

In indirect systems, the sunlight


is absorbed and stored by a mass
of material that is placed between
the solar glazing and the conditioned space. The space is therefore partially enclosed by the thermal mass so that a strong thermal
coupling is achieved. Typical applications of this concept are thermal walls and roof ponds.
The thermal wall is masonry
wall or a water wall that is darkcolored on the exterior side to
allow solar collection during the
day. At the end of the day the
heat will have been conducted to
the inside face of the wall and will
be radiated to the adjacent space.
Often the wall is vented to the
space at the top and bottom to
create a thermo siphon loop from
the wall's exterior face. This venting keeps the wall surface cooler,
allowing more efficient heat collection. However, if the wall is
vented, unwanted cooling of the
room can occur at night when air

in contact with the cold glass


cools and falls, reversing the thermosiphon and releasing heat to
the outside. This is prevented by
utilizing backdraft dampers in the
vents.
Heat delivered by the thermosiphon vents can be up to 30% of
the total heat delivered by the
system in 24 hours27, but this occurs only during the daytime.
Thermosiphon vents are therefore
most useful in colder climates that
require maximum daytime heating. Most California climates are
mild enough to permit elimination
of this feature without seriously
affecting the overall system performance.
Water walls have a much lower
thermal lag than masonry walls
because of the higher conductance
of water. Thermosiphon convective loops are therefore not necessary for water walls. The greater
thermal mass of an equivalent
volume of water also permits a
thinner wall.
.
The use of insulation at night
enhances the efficiency of the
thermal wall and should be considered as an integral part of the
design.
Overheating is prevented by
shading the glass and venting the
space between the glass and the
massive wall. In many California
climates where heating is required
in the spring but cooling is necessary in the fall for the same
solar position, the shading must
be adjustable or removable. The
thermal wall can be directly utilized for cooling in many climates as
well by pulling cool night air past
the wall with small fans. The
chilled mass of the wall will then
absorb heat from the room during
the following day.
The sizing of the thermal wall
has obvious cost and seismic design implications. Not only is the
wall relatively expensive, but the
space which it occupies is valuable. Studies28 have shown that
energy performance increases
markedly with increasing thermal
storage mass up to a point where
the mass is sufficient to carry

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~~I.qhtInsulqtion
Aids Healing
Performance

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I~

II

,IIIIII~I

Night Cooling of Thermal Wall

43

The roof-pond system operates


in two positions, with the insulation panels covering the roof
ponds and with the panels removed. When heating is required
the panels are removed during the
day to allow absorption of solar
energy. At night the panels are
moved into place covering the
ponds, causing the collected solar
energy to be released primarily to
the interior space as radiant heat.
During the cooling season the
panels are kept in place during
the day, preventing the absorption
of solar energy. The large thermal
mass of the ponds keeps the metal ceiling of the space cool,
thereby creating a good absorbing
surface for internal radiant heat
created by space heat gains. At
night, the panels are removed to
allow the absorbed radiant heat to
be dissipated to a clear night sky.
If additional cooling is required
the ponds can be flooded to increase heat loss by evaporation.
Roof ponds usually produce
much smaller diurnal space temperature swings than other passive systems because of the large
ratio of mass surface area to room
volume. Typical average values
are 5 of to 8 of in summer and
winter, and 3 of to 6 of in spring
and fall30
The thermal performance of
roof ponds has been measured
and computational methods have
been developed31, 32. The performance of schematic designs can be
estimated using these engineering
design tools, and the design adjusted accordingly. Parametric
studies33 of roof pond designs in
several California locations indicate that the area of the roof
pond should be at least 30% of
the floor area, and ideally should
equal the total conditioned floor
space. Greater pond area enhances overall performance. In
addition, the thickness of the
pond should be at least 4 inches,
with thermal performance improving as the thickness increases up
to 12 inches. The corresponding
roof dead load will be 20 lbs. per
sq. ft. for a 4-inch thickness and

Winter

'u-

[by

Winter Night

,.-----u
Summer Day

Summer- Night

65 lbs. per sq. ft. for a 12-inch


thickness. The insulation panels
in existing applications have been
constructed of 1.5 to 3 inches of
expanded foam, with a module
width of 8 to 12 feet.
Several variations are possible
in the basic design of the roof
pond system that allow either
heating or cooling to be emphasized as appropriate to the
climate. For example, in climates
where cooling only is desired, fixed shading of the pond in lieu of
the movable insulation components permits evaporative cooling
of the structure all day. The
shading should prevent the sun
from striking the pond and warming it.
If the climate requires some
heating so that the movable insulation panel system is required,
but cooling remains a major concern, the cooling operation can be
augmented by flooding the ponds

45

Roof Pond

RodlClnt Ceiling
Panel

46

during the cooling season. The


additional evaporative cooling can
be increased by using fans to
force air over the flooded ponds
below the closed insulation.
If the climate requires heating
primarily, then the movable insulation panels can be designed to
act as reflectors when retracted
from the ponds, thereby increasing the amount of solar energy
collected.
Architectural constraints are
considerable for roof-pond
systems. Costs can be quite high
unless the system is designed to
utilize a few simple components
to perform these complex functions on a daily basis. Seismic
design is important in a structure
of this type and consideration
should be given to the bracing of
the supporting walls and their
connections to the roof system.
Roof pond systems are more demanding in regard to roof configuration, as well as the structural and modular integration of
components. There must be
planned storage spaces for the retracted insulation panels. A major
constraint is that the roof must be
flat and the building generally is
required to be one-story so that
all spaces can be radiantly coupled to the ponds through the ceiling. Two- and three-story buildings are conceptually possible if
the water from the ponds is circulated to the lower floors and used
in fan coil units or radiant ceiling
panels.
An advantage of the roof-pond
system compared to other passive
types is that the interior spaces
need not have a specific orientation and partition location is not
restricted in any way. Therefore
there is much more flexibility in
space planning. The building itself
can also assume any configuration
within the modular constraints of
the system.

Isolated Systems
As a general classification,
isolated systems collect solar
energy outside the conditioned
space and transfer the heat by
convection as conditions dictate,
The convection process is usually
by natural air movement controlled by user-operated dampers, but
can incorporate small fans controlled by thermostats.
The sunspace or attached
greenhouse is the most common
type of isolated system34, The
sunspace is an unconditioned
space that collects solar energy
during the day and acts as a buffer space between the inside and
outside environments at night. If
mass is added to the sunspace,
less solar energy is wasted when
heat is vented during the day due
to excessive temperatures in the
sunspace. The excess heat will be
absorbed by the mass rather than
the air in the sunspace, and will
be prevented from increasing the
air temperature. When the heat is
released later, the sunspace essentially remains at warmer temperatures into the night, making it a
more effective buffer. Basic
designs include: (1) placing the
mass directly in the space in a
variety of forms; (2) utilizing the
mass of the floor and the earth
beneath it, properly insulated
from the surrounding ground; (3)
making the boundary wall between the sunspace and the conditioned space a massive wall, obtaining some performance behavior similar to the thermal wall; (4)
placing the mass inside the conditioned space. The latter type of
design has architectural advantages to be discussed below, but
results in larger temperature
swings in the sunspace.
Generally the sunspace glazing
area should be 10% to 50% of the
conditioned floor area served,
with the ratio of the actual sunspace floor area to its glazing area
equal to 0.6 to 1.635, Care should
be taken not to overglaze, as excessive heat loss on winter nights
and summer overheating can result. Shading of sunspace glazing

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Direct Hoot Loss

Over-heating and Glore

Wi thout Sunspace

Controlled Hoot Gain

Buffer- SpClceReduced Meat L055

With SunspClce

Moss in Sunspace

/'

/'

//
/

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------------

Moss in Floor
47

Mass in Common Wall

Mass in Cond itloned Space

He<At

48

Delivery by Greenhouse Fans

and venting techniques are an


essential part of the design to
manage the overheating problem.
Insulating panels or shutters are
desirable to reduce nighttime heat
loss and maintain higher temperatures in the sunspace.
Since the suns pace roof receives
the major impact of summer sun
and very little winter sun, it is
usually glazed over only a small
portion, if at all. The west wall of
the sunspace should be unglazed
and well-insulated. For maximum
solar collection the south glazing
is sometimes tilted at an angle
that emphasizes perpendicular incidence of winter sun angles. This
tilting also ininimizes the roof
area and therefore helps prevent
overheating. Vertical south glazing is frequently preferred, however, since interior shades and insulating panels are easier to operate, and there is more usable
space for the occcupant.
Sunspace heat can be delivered
to adjacent spaces through openable windows and doors, vents or
thermostatically-controlled
low
wattage greenhouse fans. The latter devices respond to both a
threshold temperature of the sunspace and the air temperature of
the conditioned space, operating
when the suns pace temperature
exceeds the predetermined setpoint and the interior space calls
for heat. There is also radiant
heat supply if the intermediate
wall is a thermal wall.
The principal architectural issue
associated with the sunspace is
defining the use of the space and
its integration with the rest of the
building activities. If the sunspace
is to function as an adjunct living
space, then excessive air temperatures must be controlled and
visual accessibility is probably desired. Glass doors provide easy
physical and visual accessibility
and a means of controlling convective heat transfer. As a solarium, the sunspace has the same
glare problems as a direct system.
However, people generally accept,
or even welcome, these conditions
in this type of space.

If the space is to function for


plant growing, excessive heat and
uneven light must be avoided during the day and excessive heat
loss at night must be curtailed. Interior mass and double-glazing are
therefore necessary, and insulating panels for night use are recommended if the growing season
is to extend into winter. Translucent glass can be used to provide
the even lighting needed for
balanced plant growth.
There are obviously many combinations of system-types possible. For a discussion of some of
these possibilities, refer to the
CalIfornia Passive Solar Handbook36

Passive Systems:
Cooling
Passive cooling systems involve
the removal of heat energy from
the occupied spaces by convection, radiation or evaporation.
These mechanisms dissipate the
energy to anyone of a number of
possible heat sinks: the ground
surrounding the building, the sky,
the outside air, or mass within the
building. As in the case of passive
heating systems, the passive cooling systems can be classified as
direct, indirect or isolated systems.

Direct Systems
Most California climates exhibit
the characteristic that summer
nighttime temperatures are low
(55 OF to 65 OF frequently) even
when daytime temperatures are
quite high (85 OF to 100 OF). In
such climates the use of night
ventilation of the building's thermal mass can remove heat built
up during the day and pre-chill
the mass for the next day's cooling load. This direct system utilizes building envelope fenestration, and occasionally can be
augmented by a house-venting fan
if normal breezes are insufficient.
The distributed-mass system
works best for cooling since a
greater surface area of mass is exposed to the chilled night air. An

Insubting Shutters

Limited Roof 610zing


/

Double-Pane
Diffusing 6lass

Sunsp(x~ for Food Production-.

important factor for successful


performance is that windows and
skylights be shaded so that the
cooling load experienced during
the day does not exceed the capacity of the thermal mass and
prevent it from being chilled to a
sufficiently low temperature at
night.
The architectural issues for direct systems involve spatial flexibility, acoustical privacy and odor
propagation; these are discussed
in the previous section on passive
heating systems.

1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111

Night Ventilation

Indirect Systems
Roof pond systems utilize a
clear night sky as a radiant heat
sink in order to cool the building
structure. This system utilizes the
same operation of components,
phased differently on a daily
basis, to achieve both heating in
winter and cooling in summer.
This operation is described in the
discussion of roof pond systems in
the previous section. Modification
of the system to emphasize the
cooling aspects is also treated.
For information on thermal performance analysis and construction details, consult the California
Passive Solar Handbook. 37

Night Radiation

Isolated Systems
In addition to night air, night
sky and the building mass, the

49

Passive Systems:
Lighting

Earth-Sink Cooling
ground itself can be used as a
heat sink. The earth sink system
utilizes a network of noncorrosive
air pipes under the ground, usually on the north side of the building, through which air is drawn
into the building. Air passing
through the buried pipe network
is cooled since the ground
temperature is stable at some conveniently low temperature
(50 -65 0). To provide cooling, the
incoming cool air must be sufficient to balance the building's
heat gains. Therefore the cooling
load should be minimized by shading and by preventing infiltration.
of warm outside air. In addition,
the interior air that is exhausted
so that the cooled air can be
drawn into the building as makeup air should be vented near the
top of the building to augment
heat removal. This is usually done
with a fan or gravity ventilator.
A practical constraint on this
system is the size of the site. The
size of the earth sink field varies
with the average cooling demand,
the earth temperature and the soil
conductivity.
Other types of cooling techniques that do not involve the
building envelope but contribute
to energy conservation and reduction of peak power demand are
discussed in the next chapter.

50

Natural lighting in buildings is a


traditional architectural skill that
is intrinsic to the making of
space. Creation of a space means
control of the light-control of
openings, planes, textures, and
colors. Control of light means control of the mood and the ambience. Well-lit spaces require sensitive integration of building
elements to modify, filter, direct,
screen, control or receive natural
light. Designing with natural light
means understanding and using
its fundamental qualitative characteristics.
In spite of its essential role in
building design, natural lighting
(or "day lighting") ceased to be a
major consideration under the
combined impacts of cheap electric energy, the invention of
fluorescent lighting and air conditioning, and rising urban land
costS.38 With the gradual disappearance of cheap energy and the
need to consider the quantitative
aspects of light, architects are
turning their attention again to
design for effective daylight. For
the architectural profession it is a
time of relearning old skills and
development of related new methodologies and technologies.
Referring to the natural lighting
of buildings as a "passive
system" is to emphasize the role
of lighting based on a renewable
energy source-a role that will assume greater importance as heating and cooling loads diminish as
a percent of the overall building
energy demand. There is also an
implication of a new approach to
daylighting through technology
that will increase its efficiency in
terms of distribution of light or
the minimizing of the accompanying thermal loads. Although this
is definitely part of the current
trend, it is important to design for
the qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of light, and for the
user's role as well as the technology's role. In lighting more
than in heating and cooling, the

qualitative aspects and user response frequently govern the success or failure of a design in
terms of energy savings.
It is beyond the scope of this
publication to treat completely the
topic of good lighting design in
architecture, and the reader is
referenced to several books on the
subject.39-44
The major points to
be discussed here will simply be
the lighting characteristics of the
principal types of envelope openings, the impact of building configuration, and some new technologies for the distribution of
daylight and the responsive control of electric lighting systems.

General Concepts
The importance of daylighting
in saving energy and reducing
peak power demand is treated in
Chapter 1. As the design of larger
buildings improves in thermal efficiency, the principal energy -consuming feature of new buildings
will be the electric lighting
systems. The demand for electric
power in the middle of the day
will then be determined primarily
by the lighting load. Having adequate natural illumination without
glare will allow great reductions
in demand if the electric systems
can respond in ways tolerable to
the user. Therefore, three principal factors in any day lighting
system are (1) adequate illumination, (2) glare control, and (3)
responsive control systems for the
electric lighting.

Providing Adequate
Illumination

I
J..

A major objective in any good


daylighting system is to provide
illumination at an adequate level
over the largest possible area, and
to make the most of the levels achhieved in terms of visual comfort
and glare control. The amount of
daylight illumination at any point
in a space depends first of all on
the amount of light available at
the surface of the window. The
light reaching the window has two
sources: the sky and the surround.

Direct:~:'L.
.C!f1\gL::-r
"...
_'. '. .r-t Diffuse Skylight

51

Overcost Sky

Clear Sky

Sky Briqhtness Oisrribution5

Maximize DGylight Aperture

50uth- FClcin9
Clerestories
Exclude
Sun/Admit
Daylight
52

The sky is a source of reflected


light from the sun. Different
regions of the sky have different
brightness levels, even on overcast days. Overcast skies vary in
brightness by a ratio of three-toone, where the brightest region is
at the zenith (directly overhead)
and the dimmest region is at the
horizon45 This condition remains
constant all day and is independent of solar movement. Clear
skies, by far the dominant condition in California, have a more
pronounced variation (ten-to-one
according to one model of sky
brightness46), and a very different
distribution of brightness. The
brightest region is not surprisingly near the position of the sun,
but the dimmest region of the sky
is not at the horizon but rather in
a region directly opposite the sun
and at an angle of 900 from its
position. The clear sky brightness
distribution obviously varies during the day as the sun moves. The
pronounced difference in light
level from the morning to afternoon on a clear day for an eastfacing office illustrates this
phenomenon. Another interesting
consequence is that the northern
sky is brighter on an overcast day
than on a clear day.
A basic guideline is that in
order to maximize the daylight
available at the surface of the
window, the window should "see"
as much sky as possible. That is,
the window should sub tend the
largest possible solid angle or
aperture. The portion of sky
"seen" should be the brightest
portions on average over the day.
If skies were predominantly overcast in a certain location, skylights might be the most effective
in maximizing incident light from
the sky. For most California locations where clear-sky conditions
prevail, skylighting is still very effective, but the necessary solar
control may substantially diminish
the daylight levels because of the
amount of sky blocked from view.
South-facing clerestories or southfacing vertical glass in roof monitors may be the best solution,

since the solar control can be


designed to be out of view of the
brightest portions of the sky while
still providing shade from direct
sun. The least desirable option for
a building that requires heating in
the absence of electric lamps is
north-facing windows, clerestories
or roof monitors. Because of the
"dark spot" in the clear sky that
generally remains in the northern
sector as the sun makes its daily
circuit, the north-facing glass
"sees" the dimmest source of sky
illumination. The result is a comparatively low level of illumination and an accompanying large
heat loss. As pointed out in an
earlier section of this chapter, for
some buildings where heating is
not a major issue (even without
the contribution of electric lights)
north-facing glass may actually
provide a thermal balance as well
as be a source of some daylight.
The second source of light
reaching the glass of a window is
the surround. The surround is the
field of view of non-sky objects
outside the glass which reflect
light toward it. This includes the
ground around the building, nearby buildings, trees, and any
screens and other intentionallydesigned sunlight reflectors. For
overcast skies the surround is a
dimmer source of illumination
than the sky replaced by these obstructions, generally only about
10% of the sky illumination. However, clear skies produce just the
reverse effect if the objects are illuminated from the brightest portion of the sky. Nearby walls of
buildings or the ground below the
glazing can be tremendous

OverCQst

Sky

sources of illumination, brighter


even than the sky. Care should be
taken in these cases, and when
light reflectors are used, that the
quantity of light does not create
glare problems or an imbalance of
light which might result in the use
of electric lights to correct the
situation.
A common device for daylighting interior spaces of large
buildings is the atrium or courtyard. A window facing a courtyard space is basically surrounded
by three obstructions to a complete view of the sky, with the
lowest floor having the greatest
obstruction of sky illumination.
The smaller the courtyard, the
smaller the portion of sky seen by
the window. Courtyards should be
as large as is practical and stepped back to increase the sky aperture of windows at the lowest level. For best day lighting, however,
a "finger" scheme of building
configuration is preferable to a
courtyard scheme since a larger
glazing area can achieve the maximum view of sky and consequently receive the highest level of sky
illumination.
Once the amount of light reaching the glazed openings in the
building envelope has been maximized, the transmission of that
light to locations in the space
must be considered. Light quality
and the direction of light relative
to the activity locations become
important architectural issues, but
the distribution of the light and
the illumination levels achieved at
these locations are the major energy considerations.

Cleo.r Sky

Brightness of Surround

53

--

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[101
~.-.~~~.~.~.~~~~,....,-.~
..

ft

Light Distributions

"'.,'

54

.'

Light from windows on one wall


produces a distribution of light
that drops off rapidly away from
the glass surface. Under normal
conditions a 50 footcandle level or
higher is achieved only within 15
or 20 feet from the window.47 For
a multistory building then, the
maximum width for each floor
should be about 40 feet for daylighting using sidelight only. For
low-rise buildings that must be
wider than 40 feet, top lighting using skylights or a courtyard
scheme would be required to
overcome the drop in the light
distribution from windows. Because skylights "see" the
brightest portions of the sky for
the longest period of the day,
light distribution in the space
from skylights is significantly
more uniform overall than from
window sidelight.
Major interior surfaces such as
the walls and ceiling become
secondary light sources in a space
when washed with daylight, and
have a major impact on the
amount of light available away
from the area near the window.
Therefore the geometry of a room
and the color of the walls affect
daylight levels. Walls perpendicular to the window plane act as
reflectors, and should be lightcolored; ceilings should always be
white to reflect as much light
downward as possible and to dispel any feeling of gloominess.
Where possible, intermediate partitions should be glazed at least in
the upper portion so that daylight
can be shared with adjacent
spaces.

Design evaluation is possible


utilizing a number of methods.
The preferred method is through
physical modeling of the space
and direct observation or measurement. Light is scaleless, so an
accurate study model placed in
the sun will yield the exact
distribution and quantity of light
in the space for the given sky
brightness conditions. For the
model to be "accurate" for the
daylighting studies, several requirements must be met, including accurate representation of the
color and location of interior surfaces and the modeling of any external obstructions. The reader
should refer to current publications48. 49 iri the area of physical
modeling techniques for lighting
design. Various calculation techniques50 and graphical methods51
are also available for design evaluation.
The advantages of models are
the accuracy obtained for relatively complex designs of openings
and the effects of obstructions,
the ease in studying alternatives,
and the informing of the overall
design concerning the qualitative
aspects of the space.

Glare Control
Successful daylighting design
requires consideration of user
comfort, and therefore user response to designed lighting conditions. From an energy savings
standpoint, a particular design
succeeds if the user feels disposed
to keep electric lamps turned off.
Frequently, high daylight levels
are achieved in a design, yet the
light is so unbalanced or certain
surfaces in the field of view are so
bright that the user takes some
action that reduces or eliminates
the daylight conditions.
There are many forms of glare
that can create this problem.
Bright sources of light in the field
of view directly affect the ability
to see. The best conditions for
visual comfort occur when the visual task itself is somewhat
brighter than the immediate surround. The glare effect of bright

sources of light in the surround,


known as disability glare, depends
only on the intensity of the
source. This intensity can be the
same for a small source of high
brightness or a large source of
low brightness. Thus equal visual
disability can be created by a
small sunlit area on a neighboring
building or by a large area of lowbrightness northern sky. In the
first case, one common to urban
locations, methods of reducing the
intensity by screening the light
without seriously decreasing the
daylight level should be considered. In the second case, one not
usually considered a potential problem by designers, the solution is
to provide illumination of the interior surfaces adjacent to the
window so that the "veil" of
brightness from scattered light is
overcome. Rather than have the
user resort to electric lighting, a
second daylight opening should be
used to provide the proper balance. A simple solution in both
cases would be to plan the space
so that no one faces the daylight
source, situated in his activities so
the bright sources are out of the
field of view and light is incident
from the side. Another alternative
is to make use of clerestory lighting that produces daylight penetration and good daylight levels
while allowing the user to control
glare at the window by using
blinds or shades.
Direct sunlight entering the
space creates an obvious glare
problem. Since control is necessary for thermal reasons, the best
solution would either admit direct
sun while diffusing the light without causing new disability glare'
problems (for passive heating and
lighting), or exclude direct sun
while allowing diffuse sky light to
penetrate. Sun shading design
should incorporate these daylighting features in addition to
direct sun control. A variation on
clerestory lighting, known as the
light shelf, can admit direct sun
and bounce light deep into the
space, diffusing it from the light
shelf and the ceiling surface. This

55

system allows user control of


glare at eye level, while still providing solar gain for heating and
daylight penetratoin. Exterior
devices that exclude direct sun
but are very porous to diffuse
light, such as the example in the
accompanying figure, are preferred
in cooling applications.

Daylight Controls

Winter 5un
Summer Sun

"Uqht Shelf" Concept

No energy savings will result


from daylighting unless electric
lights are turned off or dimmed in
response to available daylight levels. Light controls are therefore an
essential part of any design.
User control of on-off switches is
the simplest approach, but frequently the least reliable. Photosensitive automatic on-off controls provide reliability and efficiency, but
involve extra cost and risk user annoyance because of the sharp
changes in light levels that occur
during operation. Use of on-off controls shortens the life of fluorescent
bulbs, but the savings in energy
costs more than offset the added
maintenance cost. The user acceptance problem can be mitigated by
controlling individual fixtures rather
than large areas of lights, and by
using "multilevel" ballasts.
Dimmable control systems,
though more expensive than on-off
controls, are more naturally linked
with variation in daylight levels.
Use of fluorescent ballasts that provide multilevel step dimming (in
steps small enough to be regarded
as essentially continuous dimming)
is ultimately the best design solution52

Notes for Chapter

1. Division 2, ST20-1470(e),
California Energy Conservation
Standards for New Nonresidential
Buildings.
2. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Passive
.Solar Design Handbook, Vol. 2:
Passive Solar Design Analysis,
January 1980, p. 26. See also: Los
Alamos Scientific Laboratory
/Solar Energy Group, ERDA's
Pacific Regional Solar Heating
Handbook, 1976, p. 21.

56

~
I

~-

3. S. Goodwin and M. Catani, op.


cit., footnote 23, Chapter 1.
4. S. Campbell, The Underground
House Book, Garden Way Publishing Co. (Charlotte, Vermont
05445) 1980.
5. Underground Space Center,
Earth-Sheltered Housing Design:
Guidelines, Examples and References, Van Nostrand Reinhold
(New York) 1979.
6. A. Olgyay and V. Olgyay,
Solar Control and Shading Devices,
Princeton University Press
(Princeton, N.].) Second Printing
1976.
7. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Passive
Solar Design Handbook, Vol. 1:
Passive Solar Design Concepts,
January 1980.
8. California Energy Commission,
Passive Solar Handbook for California CEC Publications Unit (1111
Howe Avenue, Sacramento,
California 95826) 1980.
9. D. Watson, Designing &
Building A Solar House, Garden
Way Publishing Co., (Charlotte,
Vermont 05445) 1977.
10. B Anderson, The Solar Home
Book, Cheshire Books (Harrisville,
NH) 1976.
11. E. Mazria, The Passive Solar
Energy Book, Rodale Press (Emmaus, PA) 1979.
12. U.S. Dept. of HUD, Solar
Dwelling Design Concepts, U.S.
Government Printing Office
(Washington, D.C.) Stock No.
023-000-00334-1, $2.30.
13. Sunset Books, Homeowner's
Guide to Solar Heating, Lane
Publishing Co. (Menlo Park, CA)
1979.
14. D. Wright, Natural Solar Architecture, A Passive Primer, Reinhold Publishing Co. (New York)
1978.
15. ]. Leckie et al., Other Homes
and Garbage, Sierra Club Books
(San Francisco, CA) 1975.
16. U.S. Dept of Energy, Passive
Solar Design Handbook, Vol. 2:
Passive Solar Design Analysis,
January 1980.

17. D. Goldstein, M. Lokmanhekim and R. Clear, "Design


Calculations for Passive Solar
Buildings by a Programmable
Hand Calculator", LBL-9371,
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
(Berkeley, CA 94720) August
1979.
18. Programs for programmable
calculators include:
TEANET, Total Environmental Action, Inc.,
Church Hill,
Harrisville, NH 04530.
PEG FIX and PEGFLOA T,
Princeton Energy Group,
729 Alexander Road,
Princeton, NJ 08540.
ST33, Solarcon, Inc.,
607 Church Street,
Ann Arbor, MI 48104.
SEEC VI, Solar Environmental Engineering Co.,
Inc., 2524 East Vine Drive,
Fort Collins, CO 80522.
19. California Energy Commission, Passive Solar Handbook for
California, CEC Publications Unit
(1111 Howe Avenue, Sacramento,
CA 95826) 1980.
20. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Vol 2,
pp. 180-181.
21. Ibid., p. 49.
22. Ibid., pp. 20-29.
23. Ibid., pp. 66-76 and pp.
180-181.
24. W. Wray and]. Balcomb,
"Sensitivity of Direct Gain Space
Heating Performance to Fundamental Parameter Variations",
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
Report submitted to Solar Energy
August 1978.
25. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Vol. 2,
p.28.
26. Ibid., pp. 82-84.
27. California Energy Commission, p. 196.
28. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Vol. 2,
pp. 89-97.
29. Ibid.
30. California Energy Commission, p. 231.
31. K. Haggard and P. Niles,
"Modeling the Atascadero

57

House", in Proceedings of the


Passive Solar Heating and Cooling
Conference, Albuquerque, May
1976.
32. California Energy Commission, pp. 312-330.
33. Ibid., pp. 231-248.
34. See the California Passive
Solar Handbook for a discussion of
other, less common types.
35. California Energy Commission, pp. 284.
36. Ibid., pp. 299-303.
37. Ibid., pp. 233-258.
38. S. Selkowitz, "Effective Daylighting in Buildings", Parts 1 and
2, Lighting Design & Application,
February and March 1979.
39. W. Lam, "Lighting for Architecture", Architectural
Engineering/Environmental Control, R. Fisher (ed.), McGraw-Hill
(New York) 1964, pp. 118-164 .
40. W. Lam, Perception and
Lighting as Formgivers for Architecture, McGraw-Hill (New
York) 1977.
41. R. Hopkinson and J. Kay,
The Lighting of Buildings,
Praeger (New York) 1969.
42. L. Larson, Lighting and Its
Design, Whitney Library of
Design (New York) 1964.
43. D. Phillips, Lighting in
Architectural Design, McGraw-Hill
(New York) 1964.
44. Progressive Architecture,
Lighting Design Issue, 54:9,
September 1973.
45. "Estimating Daylight in
Buildings", Parts 1 and 2,
Building Research Station Digest
(Second Series), Her Majesty's Stationery Office (London) December
1963 and January 1964.
46. cm TechnicaLCommittee
4.2, "Standardization of Luminance Distribution in Clear Skies",
cm Publication No. 22,Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage
(Paris) 1973, p. 7.
47.D. Pritchard, Lighting, Environmental Physics Series, Second
Edition, Longman Publishing Co.
(New York) 1978, Chapter 6:

58

"Daylighting of Buildings".
48. B. Evans, "The Use of
Models for Evaluation of Daylighting Design Alternatives", in
Window Design Resource Package,
Unit 8, Design Methods: Physical
Models.
49. R. Hopkinson, Architectural
Physics-Lighting,
Her Majesty's
Stationery Office (London) 1963,
pp. 38-49.
50. Libbey-Owens-Ford Co., How
to Predict Interior Daylight Illumination, LOF (Toledo, Ohio) 1976.
51. R. Hopkinson, op. cit., footnote 50, Chapter 3, pp. 50-84.
52. For further information see F.
Rubinstein, "Strategies and Techniques for Lighting Control in
Buildings", in Window Design Resource Package, Unit 10, Design
Methods: SupPlementary Electric
Lighting, Lawrence Berkeley
.Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720,
1980.

4.
Building Active System Design
The mechanical energy system
is the final major ingredient affecting the energy performance of the
building. Whereas site and envelope design generally fall within
the purview of the architect, the
design of the mechanical energy
system will likely be determined
by the engineer. This is not to
suggest that these tasks are independently carried out. It is of
the utmost importance that architect and engineer work closely
from the early stages of the
design to develop appropriate
interactive strategies to minimize
energy consumption while providing environments that satisfy user
needs and produce good architecture in every sense.
The importance of the energy
system increases with the size and
complexity of the building. For
residences and small buildings in
certain California climates, perceptive design of site and envelope
could alleviate the need for any
mechanical energy system at all.
For larger buildings where site
and envelope are fixed by other
considerations, careful design of
the energy system features will be
required to avoid unnecessary
energy use.

Heating Systems
Heating systems can be characterized as warm-air or warm-water
systems, or a combination of the
two, depending on the medium of
heat transport. In each case the
fuel involved could be natural gas,
solar, electricity, propane, wood
(or some other similarly based
organic material) or oil. The,heat

energy can be produced by direct


combustion or release in the building, or can be transported to the
building as a by-product of some
other process.
In warm-air convective systems,
the heated air must be delivered
to each space, then returned to
the heat source for reheating.
This transport function can be
done by direct natural convection,
but is usually accomplished using
ducts and fans. With the latter
features, such heating systems are
known as active systems.
Warm-water systems, or "hydronic" systems, circulate heated
water through pipes or tubing for
either convective heating or radiant heating in the space.
For the purpose of addressing
some energy efficiency issues,
three typical energy sources used
in California are treated in the
following sections.

Heated Supply

Air<2l~Combustion

Burnem

Fresh
Return
Air-qnd
Air (;---'
~
Cutaway

Exhaust

60S Supply

~
Vlew- Typica I fur-nace

59

Gas-fired Systems

Supply Ducts

Return Duct

Combustion exhaust

Gas-Fired Worm-Air Systern

Reverse Return
Expansion

Tc:mk

~JL~.

Combustion

/'~Pump

"" Boll e.r

Convec,t"lve

Warm-Water System

Combustion

Exhaust --

-.

Expans"'onlank-Boiler

Pump
Radiant

60

Warm-Woter System

Exh~u5t

Gas-fired warm-air furnaces offer


comparatively low first cost and
use a relatively cheap fuel. There
is some energy inefficiency intrinsic to its use of high quality
energy (that is, a high temperature source of heat) for the low
quality application of space
heating. Continual on-off cycling
of the system causes additional
waste. A well insulated building
envelope, and reduction of the
heating load through passive solar
means, will greatly reduce the onoff cycling and will increase the
operating efficiency.
An added disadvantage of
forced-air furnace systems is that
only air temperature is affected.
Radiant heat and its role in human
comfort are ignored. With some
radiant heat component to the
system, the same level of comfort
could be achieved at lower thermostat setting, and hence at some
savmgs m energy.
To counteract drafts and to
warm cold surfaces for comfort
reasons, heat supply registers are
usually placed near glass areas.
For better efficiency, air returns
can be placed high near southfacing glass areas in order to collect solar-heated air. This preheated air can then be distributed
to the remainder of the house utilizing the furnace fan and supply
registers away from the perimeter
wall. With the furnace burner off,
the forced air system can effectively augment passive heating of
more conventional residences
through distribution of the solar
gams.
Gas-fired warm water systems
can be used in both convective
and radiant applications. Any
space warmed by the heating of
its walls, floor or ceiling has a
radiant heating system: As mentioned above, radiantly heated
spaces are perceived to be more
comfortable at lower air temperatures. While electrical radiant
panels are usually installed in the
ceiling, warm water radiant systems are typically floor installations. Warm water radiant sys-

terns are, well suited to active


solar heating.

Electric Heating Systems

"

Direct heating by electricity is


known as electric resistance heating. The larger problems associated with electric resistance heating have been treated in Chapter
1. Because of these broader cost
and efficiency issues, justification
for its use on a cost-effective
basis over gas-fired, solar or heat
pump systems is required by the
California Energy Standards for
both residential and non-residential buildings.
The heat pump is actually an
electrically driven system that is
an energy-efficient choice for both
heating and cooling.4 The heat
pump can either heat or cool using
a standard mechanical refrigeration cycle. When air conditioning,
the heat pump works basically the
same way as a room air conditioning unit, removing heat from the
room (the heat source) and transferring it outside the conditioned
space (to the heat sink). The
operation of the heat pump is
more efficient if the heat sink is
water or the ground rather than
outside air. When heating, the
heat pump works in reverse, taking heat energy from outside the
conditioned space (even if the outside temperature is well below
freezing) and transferring it into
the room, which acts as the new
heat sink.
A heat pump can economically
utilize the stored hot water of a
small active solar system as the
heat source in the cycle. Even if
the solar storage is at a comparatively low temperature for heating, the solar energy collected by
the system can be utilized to heat
the space to the required temperature by the boosting action of the
heat pump. This type of system is
known as the solar-assisted heat

Warm Airor

Cool Air-Out

Water Out
Condenser-

Cool Air- or
Water In

Compressor
BasIc Re.friqerntion

Cycle

Warm Air to
Hea r Sink

Conc\enser
Cool AI r from

Heat Sink

Compressor
Air

Summer
Conditioner

Coollnq
or Hear- R.Jmp

Cool Air tb
Heat Source

Evapomtor
War-m Air from
Heat Source

pump.

Active Solar Systems


Active solar heating systems are
ideally suited to providing the
low-temperature heat energy re-

Compressor

Wi nter Heating
Heat Pump-

61

r------------~~-l
5o\or Collector ~ I
I
I,
:
I

II

~~~

:~---------------~
LPump :
Wo.rm Wo.ter 5toro.ge

Compreocor
Sobr-Assisted

Hear Pump

6\ass Cover5

Distri butlon

Auxiliary Water
Wcoter

6.Jpply

.....
:: ::::::::.,~.
-storo.ge
..Auxiliary

Spcoce Heater

Active. 5010.r Heating Systems

62

He.Qter

quired for space and water heating applications. The three main
elements of a typical domestic
solar heating system are the collector, the storage medium and
the distribution system to the
load.
There are two basic types of
collectors, the flat-Plate collector
and the focusing collector. The
focusing collector employs curved
or multiple-point target reflectors
or lenses to increase the intensity
of solar radiation on a small area.
Often a mechanism is employed to
allow the collector/reflector to
follow or track the sun's movement across the sky.
In a flat-plate collector both
direct beam and diffuse solar
energy are absorbed by the absorber plate, and this energy is
transferred to a fluid, usually air
or an anti-freeze solution. Active
solar systems therefore can be
warm air or warm water heating
systems, utilizing convective or
radiant heat distribution, just as
in conventional systems.
Focusing collectors do not collect any more energy than a flatplate collector of the same basic
area. Focusing collectors merely
concentrate the energy, raising
the temperature of the absorber
higher than for a flat-plate collector. This higher temperature is
necessary only in the case of solar
cooling applications. Solar heating
requires temperatures in the
range of 90 of to 180 of, well
within the range of standard flatplate collectors. Solar cooling requires temperatures of approximately 180 of to 230 of, difficult
to achieve with regular flat-plate
collectors.
Heat storage is necessary if adequate heat is to be provided during those periods of little or no
sunshine. The heated collection
fluid is piped or ducted to the
storage component where the heat
is transferred to the storage
medium, usually water for a liquid
system or a rock-bed for an air
system. Phase-change materials5
are also used as a storage medium
in air systems, though passive ap-

plications of these materials are


more widespread. Since the thermal mass of a given volume of
water is higher than that of
masonry material,6 a smaller
volume of water is required for
storage of heat at a certain temperature as compared with the
volume of rocks required for the
same amount of energy. A general rule is to provide sufficient
volume of storage medium for 11/2
days energy supply at the minimum required temperature. This
is typically about 2 gallons of
water or 2 cubic feet of stacked
river rock, per square foot of collector. Accurate design and construction of rock-bed storage
systems are described in detail in
the references 7,8.
The accompanying figures show
schematic designs for solar warmair and warm-water space heating
systems. Further details and a
more complete description of active solar energy system design
can be found in standard ref-

HW Dis tri bullon

Exr:msion lank
Valves

Domestic HW

WcrtBr Supply

"'\

Water Storc1ge
Pumps

liC1ry Heater

50br

WC1rm-WC1terSystem

erences9-10

The use of active solar heating


systems involves aspects of lifecycle system cost since the initial
cost is quite high, even though the
fuel cost is zero. Therefore the
extent and design of such systems
are usually determined by economic constraints. In general,
these systems provide heat energy
to replace an equal amount that
has leaked out of the structure by
radiation, conduction and convection. Obviously the initial cost of
the system can be minimized by
reducing the heat loss characteristic of the building. Therefore
economic application of active
solar heating systems requires an
energy-conserving building. It is
generally cheaper to prevent the
loss of 1 Btu, or to supply 1 Btu
directly to the building from the
sun, than it is to supply that Btu
indirectly via an active solar heating system.
Given a careful energy-conscious
approach to the design of a building, there is still likely to be a
heating load for small to mediumsized buildings in many California

AuxillC1ry

BackdlOft llimpBr5

Hwter

Rockbed Storage

Air Handling Unit


"
Motorized Domper5

Solar Warm-Air System


locations. The characteristics of
this heating load will depend on
climatic and weather patterns for
the site. Generally, the largest demand for space heating will occur
in December and January, and the
minimum demand will occur on
the fringes of the heating season.
If the active solar system is
designed to meet the peak December space heating load, a
large collection capacity is required. This capacity is essentially
wasted at other times during the
heating season, since only a small
portion of the solar energy collected is used to offset the smaller
heating load. The remaining
energy collected must be dumped.

63

r
r

2DOO 5q
______
/(1500 5g

1000 Scj Ft:

1500 ~.Ft
Unused Energy
Useful Energy
.5ep~ oct-t:0y- [)e.c-Jan Feb Mar Apr May

Energy
Demond
and Enerqy
Supplied
by Sok:\r,
for Various
Col rector
Areas

The most economic design


(smallest initial cost per Btu
used), therefore, is achieved by
utilizing active solar to meet only
the base space heating load for
the heating season. The peak demand would be met in this case
by a combination of the solar
space heating system operating at
full capacity and an auxiliary
heating system. The usable heat
provided by the active solar
system per square foot of collector decreases as the size of the
collector increases.
A solar space heating system
can be built up incrementally, so a
practical strategy that responds to
this performance characteristic of
active solar heating systems is to
provide an initial installation to
meet the projected base load,
along with space and flexibility to
add to the system over time.
Domestic water heating needs
remain fairly constant over the
entire year. Since this application
of solar heating is generally the
most cost-effective, every active
solar system includes a basic capacity for this purpose.
As described above, if a building has a demand for both space
heating and cooling, a hybrid system of solar combined with heat
pumps, the solar-assisted heat
pump, may be a practical and
economical use of the solar subsystem.

Cooling Systems
Water Distribution Piping

Wetted Pods
(Four Sides)

Air In (FVurSides)

~I~

Ai r D/suharge
Fbd-lYpe Evopomtive

64

Cooler

Cooling systems remove heat


from a space to maintain comfortable air temperatures, and sometimes control air humidity as part
of this process. The cooling can
be done by radiant absorption,
convection, and evaporation.
Radiant absorption of heat is
usually a characteristic mechanism of passive cooling systems
(discussed in Chapter 3). Typical
systems are roof ponds and
massive walls.
A technical term that describes
the relative energy efficiency of
electrically-driven cooling processes is the coefficient of perform-

ance, or COP. The COP is defined

as the rate of energy removal in


Btu/hr divided by the power input
in watts. Evaporative systems
have a higher COP than standard
air conditioners, and therefore are
more energy-efficient. Because of
the extra humidity introduced in
such systems, evaporative coolers
operate best in dry climates such
as those common to most areas of
California. Extra maintenance can
be required because of deposits of
lime on the copper screen or
fungus growth on the fibrous
pads. Regular cleaning or pad
replacement will maintain the efficiency of the operation.
Convective cooling is usually accomplished by passing room air
over a cooling coil. The heat
removed by the coil is transfered
to a heat sink, usually outside air,
by a mechanical refrigeration process. Mechanical refrigeration is
described above in the section on
heat pumps. In the figure accompanying that discussion, the three
components are identified as the
compressor, the condenser, and the
evaporator. The compressor drives
the cooling cycle, the condenser
dumps the removed heat to the
heat sink, and the evaporator absorbs heat from the room air.
In large building applications
the condenser is usually linked to
a cooling tower, where the heat is
transferred to the outside air. If
the outside air is humid and
warm, the efficiency of this heat
transfer process is very low. In
these large applications where the
cooling coil is far from the main
mechanical plant, the evaporator
incorporates a piece of equipment
know as the chiller. Reduction of
the building's daytime cooling
load not only results in lower
operating cost, but can reduce the
size of the chiller required thus
saving on first cost. A technique
of load management in larger
buildings involves operating the
chiller at night when the electrical
demand on the utility is low, and
storing the chilled water in insulated tanks for use during the
following day. In addition to pos-

Warm Air to
Hea r Sink

Condenser

Cool Awfrom
Heat Sink

Compressor
Air

Summer
Conditioner

Coolinq
or Heal' R..Jmp

Worm Water from


Condenser

Cool
Supply Air
to~ Space

Cooled Woter to
Condenser
Pump

Evaporator
Warm Return Air

CondenreI!

~"t

rr-om SpClce

Compressor
Coolinq lOwer Cycle

rI ------------- - -------

If

~rr=

Warm
iD
Heat Air
5ink ~
U":)

Condenser
Cool Air

I
I
I

from Heat SinK:

+-- '

L_ - __
!

T~

----------

tJ

Chilled SupplyW////A'.?
Water
Warm Return Wo.ter

Compressor

Chilled

Water System

65

Warm Air
to Heat Sin k
Conden'3er

EVG1goro.tor

Warm Return Air


from SpAce

-'~----"-----------l

I
I
I
I
I

t-Heat
exchanger
I

Heat Source

-1-11

i-5tron9-:Jolut,'on
50\ ution
rWeo.k

111'

I
1

6e-nemtor

~------------------j

Absorption Refriqemtion

Steam

5epo.rc\tor
(I
~/

((, '~ )

;steom----?
2~O Wo.ter-and

,steam

E.\ectric 6enemtor

Ener9t ion)
SXstem
-A Total
~genem

sible rate benefits, this off-peak


cooling has the advantage that the
cooling tower is operating more
efficiently because of lower outdoor air temperatures.
The compressor is usually an
electrically-driven machine. It can
be replaced by a special device
known as an absorption refrigeration machine that utilizes chemical
processes driven by steam heat
rather than electricity. Since high
quality flat plate solar collectors
and focusing collectors can produce the heat required to drive
the absorption refrigeration process, these machines make active
solar cooling technically feasible.
The interesting concept is that
solar heat is used to produce cooling. However the cost of this cooling equipment and the solar technology make such a system a
relatively expensive one.
Another application of absorptionmachines is in cogeneration
systems, Large users of electricity
who must also heat and cool a
substantial building plant can
utilize the waste heat from the
process of generating electricity
on-site. Heating is accomplished
by direct use of the normally
wasted heat by-product. Cooling
is accomplished using the same
waste heat and an absorption
refrigeration installation. Again, a
careful cost-benefit analysis must
be done for a particular project to
justify a cogeneration system
because of the high initial
cost. 11, 12

HVAC Systems
The mechanical energy system
of a building maintains a comfortable and healthy air environment
by occasionally heating the air, by
introducing fresh air and exhausting foul air, and by air conditioning. The latter involves cooling
and humidity control. These
HV AC systems vary greatly in
their energy efficiency and can include features that improve their
overall performance.
The most wasteful systems,

66

now greatly restricted by the California Energy Conservation Standards, involve the simultaneous
heating and cooling of a building
zone. Systems which utilize
methods of temperature and
humidity control that feature
simultaneous heating and cooling
are the reheat system, the dualduct system and the multi zone
system.
The reheat system cools down
air in the mechanical room to the
temperature required by the zone
with the greatest cooling load.
Other spaces, requiring less cooling, are kept comfortable by heating the cooled air separately for
each space using reheat coils. The
result is efficient control over
each zone's temperature conditions, but at the cost of energy
expended both for cooling and
heating.

0'0

The dual-duct system separates


the supply air stream into two
parts. One portion of the air is
heated, and perhaps humidified,
while the other portion is cooled.
The two air streams are ducted
separately to each space, where
they are mixed in the correct proportion to satisfy the space temperature and humidity requirements. Again, high quality air
with precise control of air conditions is possible. The inherent
excessive energy use involved in
such a process is obvious.
The multizone system is the
same basic system as the dualduct system. In this case, however, the mixing of the heated and
cooled air streams for each zone
takes place at the air-handler, and
a separate supply duct is routed
to each individual zone. As with
the dual-duct system, air is simul-

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Warer ~
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Return fan
~'

Exhaust Air

67

Duo 1-Duct 5xstem

Cooling Towet-

Heoting Co,\
Ccoling Coil

Hot All Duct


Chilled Air Duct

Circulation Loop
Heo.1"Recovery

Coil

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Fresh

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Exhaust Air

68

Retum Fan )~.....


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taneously heated and cooled,


resulting in excessive expenditure
of energy.
These three HVAC systems are
severely restricted in their use in
California because of these characteristics.
Variable-air-volume

(VA

VJ

sys-

tems are not restricted by the


energy standards. This type of
HVAC system generally produces
energy savings up to 30 percent
for typical medium to large buildings. The efficiency results from
supplying air to a zone only in the
amount required to offset the
specific zone load at a particular
time. The effect is that the supply
of cool air "follows" the load
around the building from east to
west during the course of the day.
Although the VAV system is generally more efficient than constant
volume systems, if the zone load
does not vary very much during
the day because the building is
well insulated and well shaded, a
constant volume system may be
the better choice. Because of the
architectural implications, the architect should consult with the
mechanical engineer early in the
design process concerning the
best HVAC systems choice for the
specific application.
Several design features of normally standard energy systems
can be utilized in some California
climates to produce significant
energy savings and reduction of
peak power demand.
In the following two subsystems, the basic concept is to take
advantage of favorable climatic
conditions to offset the usual need
to cool the building during the
day with electric or heat-driven
cooling equipment.
The economizer cycle, a feature
now required by the California
energy standards, is an operational mode where the system
uses outside air directly for cooling the spaces when the outside
air is sufficiently cool for that purpose. When the system begins to
experience a demand for cooling,
outside air dampers open to admit
a small portion of cool outside air.

As the demand for cooling increases, more and more outside


air is admitted to meet the load.
At some point the cooling load
may increase so that all of the air
moved through the system is outside air used for cooling. During
this entire period of operation, the
cooling coil is not used and there
is no energy demand on the cooling equipment. As the outside air
warms up, however, it will be insufficient to meet the cooling
load. The outside air dampers will
then close to their minimum setting, the cooling coil will come on,
and most of the air will be recirculated. Most California climates
have long periods during the year
when outside air can be effectively used for cooling, thereby
saving larger amounts of energy.
The larger the building and the
higher the internal loads, the
more advantageous the use of the
economizer cycle since the "cooling season" for these buildings
will extend into the seasons when
the outside air temperatures are
relatively low.

;-----7Cooling Coil On

Hooting Coil On ~

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(Min. Outside Air)

The Economizer Cycle

69

Heat 60ins Absorbed


by MC1S5 during the Day

70

Moss
RJrgE1d of Heat
by Nightventilation

Night ventilation is another


operational mode that should be
studied for possible cost-effective
application in medium to larger
buildings. This technique also
utilizes the natural cooling potential of a great many local climates
in California. A typical characteristic of these climates is that
nighttime temperatures during the
summer frequently drop to the
range of 55 of to 65 of, low
enough for cooling purposes, even
when daytime temperatures reach
100 of. If the ventilating system is
operated at night for a short
period of time (to be determined
from appropriate engineering
studies), the mass of the building
and its contents can be purged of
the heat stored from the previous
day and cooled to a sufficiently
low temperature to minimize the
impact of the loads from the following day. This use of the thermal mass of the building's structure and its contents to store
"coolth" from the night air is, in
a sense, a passive energy system
for buildings of this size.
Studies13 have shown that for
most California climates the principal advantage of night ventilation is in the reduction of peak
power demand during the day.
Energy savings over the cooling
season are minimal since the
building fans must operate at
night as well as during the day.
However, the daytime load is so
effectively shifted off-peak that it
appears possible, in one type of
design14 at least, to eliminate the
need for a chiller.
A second type of system design
feature can often be used to recover heat energy that would normally be lost with the warm air
exhausted from the building during the heating season. The same
devices can be used to remove
heat from incoming fresh air and
transfer it to the cool air exhausted from the building during
the cooling season.
One type of heat exchange device is the thermal wheel. The
thermal wheel is installed in the
air intake and air exhaust ducts so

..-

that half the wheel is located in


the air stream giving up heat, and
the other half is in the air stream
absorbing the heat. The wheel rotates and the two air streams flow
in the opposite direction through a
large mesh in the wheel. The
mesh absorbs heat in one air
stream, then seconds later gives
up this heat to the other air
stream. Factors that should be
considered in the use of thermal
wheels are the need to locate exhaust air ducts near the fresh air
intake ducts, potential air leakage
from exhaust to incoming air
streams, and the need for more
frequent maintenance.
Another type of design is
known as the circulation loop heat
recovery coil or the runaround cycle. In this system, a water coil is
installed in both the exhaust air
duct and the fresh air intake duct,
and water is circulated from one
coil to the other to transfer heat
from one airstream to the other.
The air leakage problem is overcome in this type of design.
The heat pipe is a more exotic
device. There are no mechanical
parts, so heat is transferred from
one airstream to the other solely
by the movement of refrigerant
sealed within long pipes. By capillary action, liquid refrigerant rapidly flows horizontally through a
pipe toward one end, where heat
entering the pipe vaporizes the
refrigerant. The refrigerant vapor
moves immediately to the other
end of the pipe, where it gives up
its heat and condenses back to liquid form. Effective heat transfer
between air streams results when
an assembly of heat pipes is installed in the system.
When considering energy-saving
devices or subsystems for use
with the building's mechanical
system, it is important to realize
that the appropriate design approach is best determined by the
coordinated efforts of architect
and engineer from the early
stages of the design process, and
that all aspects of energy-related
building design features should be
considered as a whole system.

Lighting Systems
Interiors of buildings have been
lighted by either an overall high
level of general lighting, allowing
indiscriminate location of work
areas, or a task-oriented lighting
system. The California energy
standards require the latter approach to electric lighting systems
and encourage the use of daylighting to offset much of this
electric demand.
Daylighting is treated in detail
in Chapter 3, and several references on lighting design in architecture are cited.15 The concepts
of good lighting design apply
equally to electric lighting systems as to daylighting systems,
and usually will result in lower
energy use. The reader should
consult these references for a
complete treatment of this important topic.
The actual lighting levels achieved by a system are of secondary importance to good lighting design. The ability to see well
is a function of many design
variables other than raw footcandle levels. With the previous
approach of overall high levels of
general lighting, problems resulting from bad lighting design could
be overpowered by the high levels
of illumination. Now, the taskoriented approach will require
lighting design skills to overcome
these problems without resorting
to higher energy consumption.
The type of task lighting used
should be carefully considered.
Using a low level of fluorescent
lighting for general illumination,
and providing convenience outlets
for incandescent lamps for task
lighting, may result in higher
levels of energy consumption for
lighting and cooling. This may occur because of the much lower efficiency of incandescent sources
compared to fluorescent and
others.
In any case, operation of the
task lighting will be the primary
determinant of energy savings. Integration of good daylighting design is an important influence on

71

how efficient the operation is likely to be. This integration depends


largely on the proper control of
the electric lighting systems in
response to available daylight.
Multilevel step dimming systems
are most likely to be adequately
responsive to changes in daylight
levels and to produce the least
amount of annoyance to the
user.16 (See chapter 3.)
Finally, energy efficiency in
lighting can be increased through
the use of more efficient luminaires and light sources. Metalhalide and high-pressure sodium
vapor sources have a very high efficacy, that is, a high light energy
output per unit electrical input.
Considerations other than efficacy
are usually more important in the
selection of a light source, however. Color, color rendition, starting and operating characteristics
and cost are all factors to be considered. The metal-halide and sodium vapor luminaires can have
some problems in this regard, and
care must be taken in their use.
Special features of a luminaire
should also be considered. Aircooled and water-cooled luminaires have a higher efficiency
since the bulbs operate at a lower
temperature. Inaddition, the heat
generated by these luminaires can
be removed so that the heat of
light cooling load does not appear
as an immediate load on the cooling equipment. Other types of
luminaires have specular reflectors that focus light and limit its
concentration to a small area.
Early discussions with the lighting engineer will allow development of a lighting design that best
suits the particular application
and incorporates the best features
for energy conservation.

Notes for Chapter 4


1. W. McGuinness, B. Stein and
]. Reynolds, Mechanical and Electrical EquiPment for Buildings,
Sixth Edition, J. Wiley & Sons
(New York) 1979.
2. Carrier Air Conditioning Co.,
Handbook of Air Conditioning
Systems Design, McGraw-Hill
72

(New York) 1965.


3. American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE),
ASHRAE Handbook and Product
Directory, 1977 Systems, ASHRAE
(1973) New York.
4. ]. Sumner, An Introduction to
Heat Pumps, Prism Press (London) 1976.
5. For a detailed discussion of
these materials, see the series of
articles in Solar Age, Vol. 5, No.
5, May 1980.
6. See the table on thermal mass
of building materials in Chapter 1
of this book.
7. California Energy Commission,
Passive Solar Handbook for California, CEC Publication Unit (1111
Howe Avenue, Sacramento, CA
95825) 1980, pp. 278-279, 295.
8. See also the set of articles in
Solar Age, Vol. 3, no. 4, April
1978.
9. B. Anderson, Solar Energy,
Fundamentals in Building Design,
McGrawcHill(New York) 1977.
10. ]. Duffie and W. Beckman,
Solar Energy Thermal Processes,
John Wiley & Sons (New York)
1974.
11. Educational Facilities
Laboratory, Total Energy, EFL
Technical Report (New York,
N.Y. 10022), 1973.
12. See also McGuinness and
Stein, pp. 392-434.
13. C. Barnaby, E. Dean, D. NaIl
et al., op. cit., footnote 22,
Chapter 1.
14. Ibid, pp. 31-34 and 81-89.
. 15. See footnotes 39-43, Chapter 3.
16. For a list of manufacturers
who presently market lighting
control systems which can be
used in conjunction with natural
light, see F. Rubinstein,
"Strategies and Techniquesfor
Lighting Control in Buildings", in
Window Design Resource Package,
Unit 10, Design Methods: SupPlementary Electric Lighting,
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory,
Berkeley, CA 94720, June, 1980.

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Bibliography

Fitch, ]. M., American Building 2: The Environmental Forces That Shaped


It, Houghton-Mifflin (1972) Boston.
A classic treatment of the strong but unnoticed role that has been
played by energy management requirements and systems on the direction of modern architecture.

Banham, R., The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment, University of Chicago Press (1969) Chicago.
An historian's view of the impact of energy technology on architectural
form and how integration of environmental concerns was achieved in
many cases.

Allen, E., How Buildings Work, Oxford University Press (1980) New
York.
A general introductory text to building technology, including a complete
and insightful treatment of energy in buildings. Delightful to read.
Heschong, L., Thermal Delight in Architecture, MIT Press (1979) Cambridge.
This book explores the potential for using thermal qualities as an expressive element in building design.
Olgyay, V., Design With Climate, Princeton University Press (1973)
Princeton, N.J .
The classic reference, originally published twenty years earlier. The
text remains unchanged, and as such has become obsolete in many
places.

Givoni, B., Man, Climate and Architecture, Elsevier Publishing Co. (1976)
New York.
A technical treatment of climate, envelope design and the thermal performance of buildings.

73

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<J)<=:

'"

c.)U)
E<J)

>-. <=:

0p.
5
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(f)
EU)
1:1

<::

:;j0 vu0

2
~
u~
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~
cou
2
2:

>-.
<J)
co
>
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co
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-0
b.()
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>
Ui
>
b.()
UJ
P...
b.()
.::::
0::
1:1
P:1
<r:
UJ
<=:
<=:
<=:<=:
<=:

<J)
co
b.()
co
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>-.

0
co
w

....,
>-.
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<=:
5iJ

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CD

Markus, T., and Morris, E., Buildings, Climate and Energy, Pitman
Publishing (1980) London.
Technical text on energy management in buildings from site considerations to mechanical systems.

o 'Callaghan,

P., Building for Energy Conservation, Pergamon Press (1978)

Oxford.

Technical text with emphasis on how to calculate the thermal performance of components and systems. Thorough and rigorous on fundamentals of heat transfer.
Koenigsberger, 0., Ingersoll, T., Mayhew, A., and Szokolay, S., Manual
of Tropical Housing and Building, Part L Climatic Design, Longmans
Publishing (1973) London.
Comprehensive book on climate-sensitive design with emphasis on principles and design techniques. Excellent resource for design in any
climate.
Collins; B., "Windows & People: A Literature Survey", NBS Building
Science Series 70, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of
Standards (June, 1975) Washington, D.C.
A fairly comprehensive review of psychological reactions to environments with and without windows. Includes an extensive bibliography.
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Windows for Energy-Efficient Buildings,
LBL (1979) Berkeley, California.
An annual publication concerning research and development in the area
of "windows" ,including topics pertaining to heating, cooling and
daylighting. Valuable for new product information and window design
ideas related to energy efficiency.
Hastings, S., and Crenshaw, R., "Window Design Strategies to Conserve
Energy", Building Science Series 104, National Bureau of Standards (1977)
Washington, D.C .
NBS publication concerning properties of glass, effects of shades and
shutters, and other related topics.
74

E
<l)

~
C'V

e
Cl)
~

I v

Goodwin, S., and Catani, M., "The Effect of Mass on Heating and Cooling Loads and on Insulation Requirements of Buildings in Different
Climates" I ASHRAE Transactions, 85, 1979.
Dexter, M., "Energy Conservation Design Guidelines: Including Mass and
Insulation in Building Walls", ASHRAE Journal, March 1980, pp 35-38.

ro

o
r~"O

~
H

~<l)
E

....
:iJ

b.()

ro

.0:

.::::

:>

.5

::J

(Ij

.f~ :

<=:

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......,
VI;g

en

(/)

<l)

P:)

b.()

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(/)

""

<l)

C"C

'-"'V

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(l)
-5

oe::

.1.

Dix, R., and Laran, Z., "Window Shades and Energy Conservation",
Illinois Institute of Technology (1974) Chicago .
Anderson, B., The Solar Home Book, Cheshire Books (1976) Harrisville,
New Hampshire.

Q)

A good not-too-technical introductory treatment of active and passive


systems.

I
I

..
I

Anderson, B., Solar Energy-Fundamentals


Hill Book Company (1977) New York.

in Building Design, McGraw-

"

This hard-cover book includes similar information, but emphasizes active solar to a much greater extent. Not an active system design
manual, but still fairly technical in its treatment.
I

Mazria, E., The Passive Solar Energy Book, Rodale Publishing (1979) Emmaus, Pennsylvania.

This book introduces a design methodology for passive solar and includes tables and calculation techniques for performance evaluation.
Good graphics help explain concepts of sun movement.
Sunset Magazine, Homeowner's Guide to Solar Heating, Lane Publishing
Co. (1978) Menlo Park, California.

A summary of active and passive solar design techniques, with many illustrations.

75

<1)

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"@

...

<1)

00
"@
<::

w
c
"a
0-

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(f)
E00

<1)

Wright, D., Natural Solar Architecture, Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co.


(1978) New York.
Sketches and discussion on conceptual ideas and principles of passive
solar design.
Watson, D., Designing and Building a Solar House, Garden Way
Publishing (1977) Charlotte, Vermont.
A collection of concepts on solar design, with an emphasis on active
systems.
Watson, D., Energy Conservation Through Building Design, McGraw Hill
(1979) New York.
Leckie, ]., et aI, Other Homes and Garbage, Sierra Club Books (1975).
A collection of ideas on decentralized applications of solar, wind,
methane, water supply and agriculture.
AlA Research Corporation, Solar Dwelling Design Concepts, U.S. Government Printing Office (1976) Washington, D.C. Stock No. 023-000-00334-1
Available through local U.S. Government bookstore.
Though somewhat obsolete, this book provides a summary of design
considerations for site and building design.
Total Environmental Action, Inc. Solar Energy Home Design in Four
Climates, Church Hill (1975) Harrisville, New Hampshire.
The first chapters deal with siting and solar design procedures; the re- .
maining portion applies the step-by-step process to four hypothetical
solar homes in four different climates.

Robinette, G., (ed.), Landscape Planning for Energy Conservation, Environmental Design Press (1978) Reston, Va.
Site planning issues related to energy conservation are treated. Use of
plant materials for wind protection is covered in some detail.

76

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rn

Bainbridge, D., Corbett, ]., and Hofacre, ]., Village Homes' Solar House
Designs, Rodale Press (1979) Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
Primarily examples of passive solar house designs in Davis, California.
Includes plans and photographs.
Olgyay, A., and Olgyay, V., Solar Control and Shading Devices, Princeton
University Press (1957, reprinted 1976) Princeton, N.].
This text is still the definitive source for a design methodology for solar
control design. Half the book is comprised of photographs and commentary on many good, though dated, examples.
Sun Protection, An International Architectural Survey, Praeger Publishers
(1967) New York.
Campbell, S., The Underground House Book, Garden Way Publishing
(1980) Charlotte, Vermont.
A comprehensive treatment of underground house design from site problems to detailing; examples are shown and discussed.
Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, Earth-Sheltered
Housing Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. (1979) New York.
Similar topics, more technical and manual-like than the previous work.
Wells, M., Underground Designs, Malcolm Wells (1977) Box 1149,
Brewster, Mass. 02631.
Sketches of design concepts of underground shelter by the architect.
California Energy Commission, Passive Solar Handbook for California,
June, 1980. Available through the CEC Publications Unit, 1111 Howe
Avenue, Sacramento, California 95825.
A compendium of passive design techniques, with abundant architectural detail drawings for each type of system. Beyond some introductory conceptual material, the major emphasis in addition to architectural
detailing is quantitative evaluation utilizing CALP AS and CALPOND
computer programs. The handbook is especially useful in conjunction
with these programs.
77

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U.S. Department of Energy, Passive Solar Design Handbook (Vol. I and Il),
U.S. Government Printing Office (1980) Washington, D.C. Available
through National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of
Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161.
This technical publication contains both descriptions and calculation
methods for the various passive systems. Volume II is particularly
valuable for the tables and data that permit reasonable assessment of
performance for a large number of U.S. locations.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning
Engineers, ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, ASHRAE (1977) New
York.
The standard technical reference of the field.

California Energy Commission, Energy Conservation Design Manual for


New Nonresidential Buildings, CEC (1977) Publications Unit, 1111 Howe
Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95825.
This publication explains the California nonresidential energy standards
and the methods of compliance.
California Energy Commi.3sion, Energy Conservation Design Manual for
New Residential Buildings, CEC (1978) Publications Unit.
This publication explains the California residential energy standards and
the methods of compliance.
Selkowitz, S., "Effective Daylighting in Buildings", Parts 1 and 2,
Lighting Design and Application, February and March 1979 .
These papers briefly summarize the technical aspects of maximizing the
use of daylight in buildings.
Lam, W., "Lighting for Architecture", Architectural Engineering/Environmental Control, R. Fisher (ed.), McGraw-Hill (1964) New York, pp.
118-164 .
This article contains excellent design case studies and a theory of
lighting design based on principles of human visual perception.

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Lam. W., Perception and Lighting as Formgivers for Architecture, McGrawHill (1977) New York.
Lighting design based on a Gestalt theory of perception of environments. Case studies are presented from concept to details, with
good photographs and graphics.
Hopkinson, R., and Kay, ]., The Lighting of Buildings, Praeger (1969)
New York.
This book treats both daylighting and electric lighting in fairly nontechnical terms. First three chapters provide a good discussion of the
principal issues of lighting design.
Larson, L., Lighting and Its Design, Whitney Library of Design (1964)
New York.
Excellent treatment of concepts of lighting design. Includes
photographs and case studies of architecturally important buildings.
Phillips, D., Lighting in Architectural Design, McGraw-Hill (1964) New
York.
Basic book on lighting by European expert; includes some technical
material on lighting calculations.
Progressive Architecture,

54: 9, September 1973.

Summary of architectural design issues surrounding lighting in


buildings, types of light sources, street lighting and other topics.
"Estimating Daylight in Buildings", Parts 1 and 2, Building Research Station Digest (Second Series), Her Majesty's Stationery Office (London)
December 1963 and January 1964.
A calculation method utilized by British engineers for overcast sky conditions is described; tables and nomograms are provided. Daylight protractors and a description of the method are available from Pendragon
Books, Publishers and Distributors, 2595 E. Bayshore Rd. Palo Alto, CA.

79

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Pritchard, D., Lighting, Environmental Physics Series, Second Edition,


Longman Publishing Co. (New York) 1978, Chapter 6: "Daylighting of
Buildings" .
Summary treatment of the British methods of daylighting design, including integration with electric lighting systems ("PSALI" systems).
Evans, B., "The Use of Models for Evaluation of Daylighting Design
Alternatives", in Window Design Resource Package, Unit 8, Design
Methods: Physical Models, LBL (1980) Berkeley, CA 94720.
Describes the techniques of building models for the study of qualitative
and quantitative aspects of daylighting spaces. Includes description and
manufacturers of various light measurement devices for use inside the
models.

Hopkinson, R., Architectural Physics-Lighting,


Office (1963) London.

Her Majesty's Stationery

Basic theory of light and lighting; primarily a technical text.


Hopkinson, R., Petherbridge,
Heinemann (1966) London.

P., and Longmore, ]., Daylighting,

The authoritative text on all aspects of daylighting, based on years of


practice and research at the British Research Station.
Turner, D., Windows and Environment, Pilkington Environmental Advisory Service, Architectural Press (1971) London.
This publication contains a good qualitative treatment of daylighting, as
well as technical methods for quantitative evaluation.
Kaufmann, J. (ed), I.E.s. Lighting Handbook: The Standard Lighting
Guide, Fifth Edition, Illuminating Engineering Society (1972) New York.
This book is the authoritative handbook for lighting systems design.

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Rubinstein, F., "Strategies and Techniques for Lighting Control of


Buildings", in Window Design Resource Package, Unit 10, Design Methods:
SupPlementary Electric Lighting, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (1980)
Berkeley, CA 94720 .
Resource material for automatic lighting control systems in response to
available daylight.
McGuinness, W., Stein, B., and Reynolds, ]., Mechanical and Electrical
EquiPment for Buildings, Sixth Edition, ]. Wiley & Sons (1979) New York.
This new edition of the standard reference of the field includes sections
on solar heating and cooling. An excellent basic text on all aspects of
heating, cooling and lighting systems.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning
Engineers, ASHRAE Handbook and Product Directory, 1973 Systems,
ASHRAE (1973) New York.
Standard engineers' reference handbook on mechanical systems.
Sumner, ]., An Introduction to Heat Pumps, Prism Press (1976) London.
A short, non-technical book on heat pumps: how they work and how to
use them.

California Energy Commission, Solar for Your Present Home, CEC


Publications Unit (1978) 1111 Howe Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95825.
This text provides simplified long-hand calculations for heat loss and
system sizing, shading, sun angles and economic analysis; includes
materials to construct a solar site survey device.
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Solar Energy Group, Pacific Regional
Solar Heating Handbook, U.S. Government Printing Office (1976)
Washington, D.C.
Discussion of effect of orientation, tilt, collector area and thermal
storage capacity on active system performance. Graphs provided.
Available through local U.S. Government bookstore.

81

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Sheet Metal and Air-Conditioning Contractor's National Association, "Installation Standards for One- and Two-Family pwellings and Multifamily
Housing, Including Solar, SMACNA (1977) Viena, Virginia 22180 .
Simple method for sizing active solar systems.
Duffie, ]., and Beckman, W., Solar Energy Thermal Processes, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc. (1974) New York.
Principal reference text on technical aspects of solar energy systems.

82

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Index
Absorption refrigeration, 66
Active solar heating systems
flat-plate collector, 62
focusing collector, 62
heat storage, 62-63
solar warm water system, 63
solar warm air system, 63
performance characteristics,
63-64
domestic hot water, 63-64
solar-assisted heat pump, 61, 64
Air-cooled luminaries, 72
Attached greenhouse
(see Sunspace)
Ballasts, dimming, 56
Bibliography, 73
Brightness, 51-55
Btu,3
Building envelope
configuration, 32-34
orientation, 32-34
materials, 34
openings, 34
component assemblies, 35-38
Chilled water storage, 65
Chiller, 65, 70
Circulation loop heat recovery
coil, 71
Clerestories, 52, 55, 56
Coefficient of performance, 64-65
Cogeneration, 66
Comfort, 1-2
Compressor, 61-62, 65-66
Concentrated mass systems,
39, 40

Condenser, 61-62, 65-66


Conduction, definition, 14
Convection, definition, 14
Cooling systems
COP, 64-65
mechanical refrigeration, 61, 65
evaporative cooler, 64-65
compressor, 61-62, 65-66
condenser, 61-62, 65-66
evaporator, 61-62, 65-66
cooling tower, 65, 67-68

chiller, 65, 70
night ventilation, 70
load management, 65, 70
chillled water storage, 65
absorption refrigeration, 66
Cooling tower, 65, 67-68
Core zone, 32
Courtyards and atriums, 53
Dayligting
general concepts, 51
providing adequate illumination,
51

sky illumination, 51-53


surround illumination, 51, 53-54
sky brightness distribution, 52
daylight aperture, 52
overcast sky, 52
clear sky, 52
glare control, 4, 54-56
dimmable control systems,
56, 58
source brightness, 53
distributions in spaces, 54
models, 54, 58
effect on heat gain, 33
Dimmable control systems, 56
Direct systems-heating
definition, 39
effect of thermal mass, 40
surface area of mass, 40
amount of required mass, 40
location of thermal mass, 40-41
effect of carpets and walls, 40
orientation of glazing, 40
visual comfort issues, 40, 55
Disability glare, 55
Distributed mass sytsems, 39, 40
Dual-duct system, 67-68
Earth-sink systems, 50
Economizer cycle, 69
Efficacy of light sources, 6, 72
Electric heating systems
electric resistance heating, 61
heat pump, 61, 64, 65
Energy
definition, 2

equivalences, 4
transfer mechanisms, 6
process energy, 32
balance, 19, 36
Envelope-dominated design, 32
Evaporation, 20
Evaporative cooler, 64-65
Evaporator, 61-62, 65-66
Footcandle, 3 .'
Gas-fired heating systems
characteristics, 60
warm air systems, 60
convective systems, 60
radiant systems, 60
Glare, 4, 54-56
Glare control, 4, 54-56
Glass
properties of, 10-14, 17, 19
greenhouse effect, 10-12
reflective, 12, 19
heat-absorbing, 12, 19
shading coefficient, 12-13
energy balances, 19
solar gain and daylighting, 19
Heat
general, 2
units, 3
transfer mechanisms, 8-20
Heat pipe, 71
Heat pump
description, 61
solar-assisted heat pump, 61, 64
comparison to mechanical
refrigeration, 61, 65
Heat recovery subsystems
thermal wheel, 70
circulation-loop heat recovery
coil, 71
runaround cycle, 71
heat pipe, 71
Heat sinks, 49-50
Heating systems
gas-fired systems, 60
electric resistance systems, 61
active solar systems, 61
heat pump, 61-64, 65

83

Heat-of-light cooling load, 72


Horsepower, 4
Hydronic systems, 59
HVAC systems
simultaneous heating and
cooling, 67
reheat system, 67
dual-duct system, 67-68
multizone system, 67-68
variable-air-volume (VAV)
systems, 69
economizer cycle, 69
Indirect systems-heating
definition, 42
thermal wall, 42-44
roof pond, 44-46
Infiltration, 18
Internal load, 32
Isolated systems-heating
definition, 47
sunspace, 47
attached greenhouse, 47
Kilojoule, 3
Landform and topography, 24
Light
general, 3
units, 3
efficacy of source, 6, 72
Light shelf, 56
Lighting systems
(see also Daylighting)
task lighting, 71
system design, 71
luminaire design, 72
efficient sources, 72
air-cooled luminaires, 72
water-cooled luminaries, 72
heat-of-light cooling load, 72
specular reflectors, 72
Load management, 4, 65, 70
Lumen, 3
Lumen-to-watt ratio, 6
Lux, 3
Mass (see Thermal Mass)
Materials properties
(see Properties of Materials)
Mechanical energy systems, 59
Mechanical refrigeration cycle,

61, 65
Multizone system, 67-68
Natural ventilation, 26-27, 32-35
Night ventilation of building
mass, 49, 70
Nocturnal radiation cooling, 10
Olgyay method, 36
Overall heat transfer coefficient,
17
Passive systems-cooling
definition, 49

84

heat sinks, 49
direct systems, 49
indirect systems, 49
isolated systems, 49
roof ponds, 20, 44-46, 49
earth-sink system, 50
Passive systems-heating
definition, 38
in larger buildings, 38
general concepts, 39
direct systems, 39-42
concentrated mass systems, 39
distributed mass systems, 39, 40
indirect systems, 39, 42-44
thermal wall system, 39, 42-44
roof pond system, 39, 44-46
isolated system, 39, 47-49
sunspace, 39, 47-49
attached greenhouse, 39
Passive systems-lighting
(see Daylighting)
Perimeter zone, 32
Power demand
definition, 4
load management, 4, 65, 70
equivalences, 4
conversion efficiency, 5
Process energy, 32
Properties of building materials
absorptance, 8-9
conductance, 17
emittance, 9
reflectance, 8
transmittance, 8
thermal mass, 20-22
Radiant heat, 6
Reflectance, 8
Resistance
(see Thermal Resistance)
Reheat system, 67
Roof ponds
description of system, 44
architectural issues, 46
evaporation to improve cooling
performance, 20, 46
multi-story applications, 46
heating performance
enhancement, 46
diurnal temperature swings, 45
sizing, 45
planning felxibility, 46
Runaround cycle, 71
Shading mask, 38
Site issues, 24-30
Sky brightness distribution, 52
Sky illumination, 51-53
Solar access
general, 28-29
subdivision example, 29

solar envelope, 29
Solar control, 35-37, 55
Solar energy
wavelength spectrum, 6
greenhouse effect, 11-12
Solar energy systems
(see Active solar or Passive
Systems-Heating)
Solar interference boundaries, 29
Sun movement
general descriptions
site planning techniques, 28-29
Sunshade devices, 35-37, 55
Sunspace
characterization, 39
variations in design, 47
design issues, 48
use for food production, 49
Surround illumination, 51, 53-54
Task lighting, 71
Temperature, 2
Thermal bridges, 17
Thermal mass (see also Passive
Systems-Heating and Passive
Systems-Cooling)
definition, 20
indirect coupling to solar inputs,
20

direct coupling to solar inputs,


20

performance characteristics,

20-22

role in passive heating and


cooling, 20-21
combined with insulation, 22
combined with night ventilation,

49,70

Thermal radiation
materials properties related to,

8-12

difference from solar spectrum,


9
suppression of, 9-10
nocturnal radiation cooling, 10
Thermal resistance
definition, 14
table of representative values,
15
of air spaces, 16
of air films, 16
Thermal wall system
description, 42-43
effect of water versus masonry,
43

effect of insulation, 43
architectural issues, 43-44
sizing, 44
Thermal wheel, 70
Total energy system, 66

Transmittance, 8
Underground building-insulation
detail, 35
U-value, 17
Variable-air-volume (VAV)
system, 69
Vegetation, 25
Ventilation
natural, 26-27, 33
fresh-air requirements, 69
economizer cycle, 69
night ventilation, 49, 70
Visual comfort, 3
Warm air heating systems, 59-64
Warm water heating systems,
59-64
Water-cooled luminaires, 72
Watt, 4
Wind, 25-27
Wind barrier design, 26

82231- 306 250J - OSP

85