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1.0 INTRODUCTION

The research objectives of this subtask are:

Evaluate the mass diffusion using numerical simulation on the PE and PA11 pipeline

sections and compare the variations in the amount of gas diffused

Obtain an insight into the degradation of the physical properties of the materials of

pipeline and map the concentration into another simulation

Conduct the XFEM creep analysis in the new simulation to which the concentration due

to mass diffusion has been mapped

In the previous report, a simulation of the mass diffusion of methane has been simulated for

particular conditions. The simulations give us a clear picture on the variation of the gas

concentration along the radial direction of the pipeline and translation of the mass diffusion of

gas in the pipeline to equivalent temperature distribution in the piping system.

This report will present another method to map the concentration of hydrocarbon after the mass

diffusion is done by using the ABAQUS software. Then the XFEM analysis has been done on the

model which now consists of the effects of diffusion of the gas.

2.0 MASS DIFFUSION IN PIPELINES

The mass diffusion of various gases like hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide has been a great

concern for the increasing deterioration of the life of the polymer pipelines used. The sorption of

gasses in polymer membranes depends strongly on the nature of the polymer, the pressure and

temperature.

In this section of report there is an alternate method that has been studied to map the

concentration of the diffusion to another model and the creep XFEM analysis has been done. In

previous report, we have tried to use the thermal-mass diffusion analogies to create a link

between the mass diffusion and temperature diffusion. This is required because once mass

diffusion is done we will not be able to do further analysis on it to obtain the post diffusion

properties in the materials. Thus it is being converted to an equivalent temperature distribution

and then subjected to mechanical testing, but it was not possible to do complex XFEM analysis

in a thermo-coupled manner hence this new method has been tried out.

3.0 METHODOLOGIES FOR ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION EFFECT

METHOD 1: THERMO-DIFFUSION ANALOGY

In the previous report a detailed analysis of mass diffusion of gases was done for different cases

and was visualized. In this section we are have made effort to convert the diffusion to equivalent

temperature diffusion. This is done as there is no possibility of doing a post diffusion analysis in

the simulation software. Hence the mass diffusion is converted to a temperature simulation and

then a mechanical analysis is done to obtain the change in properties.

For now the mass diffusion is done and equivalent temperature analysis is done by using direct

analogy which is explained in the upcoming sections. In practice, the thermal diffusion or heat

transfer function can be utilized to simulate mass diffusion through a thermal-mass diffusion

analogy.

The conduction heat transfer equation (1) can be described by Fouriers law,

where T and q are the temperature K and the heat flux W m 2, respectively; inverted delta is the

gradient operator; and k is the thermal conductivity Wm1 K1 for isotropic thermal diffusion, and

its dependency on temperature is negligible in most cases.

Assuming no internal heat generation, the energy balance yields the governing equation (2) of

heat transfer as

where and Cp are the density kg m3 and the specific heat J kg1 K1, respectively. Assuming

that thermal conductivity is uniform, Eqs.1 and 2 yields the well-known heat conduction

equation (3) as

The mass diffusion equation (4) can be described by Ficks first law as,

where C and J are the moisture concentration kg m3 and the mass flux kg m2 s1, respectively; D

is the diffusivity coefficient m2 s1 of an isotropic-diffusion material, and it is generally a

function of temperature as well as concentration.

Assuming no substance generation, the mass conservation yields the governing equation (5) of

mass diffusion Ficks second law as

With an assumption of uniform diffusivity, Eq. (4) and (5) yield the mass diffusion equation (6)

as,

These equations show us that there can be an equivalent conversion of mass diffusion in terms of

temperature distribution. The analogy is explained in the next subsection.

A thermal-moisture analogy can be established from direct comparison of Eq. (3) and (6). A

direct analogy between the two governing equations can be expressed as

Field variable: T (temperature) = C (concentration)

Diffusion coefficient: (thermal) = D (moisture)

Such an analogy scheme is simple and easy to understand. Equations 3 and 6 were derived based

on the assumption of uniform conductivity and diffusivity. Consequently, this analogy is valid

only when the diffusivity is uniform within a diffusing medium. This implies that the diffusing

medium has to be homogeneous and its temperature field also has to be uniform at a given time

i.e., the temperature field has no spatial variation but can change with time since the diffusion

coefficient is strongly dependent on temperature.

Though this method results in good results it was not possible to conduct a XFEM post thermal

analysis and hence the crack propagation due to creep analysis simulated.

METHOD 2: DIFFUSION MAPPING AND ANALYSIS

This method gives us the capability to map the diffusion results into another model on which any

analysis can be done. This method is widely discussed in this report which has given us a great

insight into the post diffusion XFEM analysis of the pipe section.

section

seperate job

analysis

node-wise to new model

XFEM analysis is done on the new model

which has the deformation values of

diffusion

The mapping of diffusion solution from diffusion model to another model in which XFEM is to

be done is like a remeshing analysis technique, where a mesh that has deformed significantly

from its original configuration is replaced by a mesh of better quality and the analysis continues.

The solution mapping technique is used when:

elements become so severely distorted during an analysis that they no longer provide a

good discretization of the problem;

maps the solution from an old, deformed mesh to a new mesh so that the analysis can

continue; and

The interpolation technique used in solution mapping obtains the solution variables at the nodes

of the old mesh by extrapolating all values from the integration points to the nodes of each

element and then averaging these values over all similar elements abutting each node.

Next, the location of each integration point in the new mesh is obtained with respect to the old

mesh:

The element (in the old mesh) in which the point lies is found, and the point's location in

that element is obtained. (This procedure assumes that all integration points in the new

mesh lie within the bounds of the old mesh: warning messages are issued if this is not so,

and the values of the variables are set to zero.)

The variables are then interpolated from the nodes of the old element to the integration

points of the new element.

All necessary variables are interpolated automatically in this way so that the solution can proceed

with the new mesh. This method inputs diffusion in the mapped solution. The effect of the

diffusion scales with the solution gradient in the old mesh, even for regions of the model where

the mesh does not change from the old to the new model, diffusion due to the mapping can result

in significantly different mapped quantities when the old-mesh solution gradient is high. We can

moderate this effect by refining the old mesh in regions where solution gradients are high or by

remeshing earlier model.

The solution mapped from the initial analysis forms the initial conditions for the remeshed

analysis. Initial conditions such as temperature for a pure stress/displacement analysis can be

specified. Any other specified initial conditions will be ignored.

Boundary conditions are not carried over from the old mesh to the new mesh. The boundary

conditions applied at the beginning of the remeshed analysis should normally be the same as

those in effect at the step and increment selected from the initial analysis. Although boundary

conditions can be changed, the problem may fail to converge if the structure is far from an

equilibrium state.

There are no restrictions on applying boundary conditions in a mapped solution analysis.

Boundary conditions can be applied to all available degrees of freedom in the same way as they

are applied in an analysis without a mapped solution.

There are no restrictions on applying loads in a mapped solution analysis. Loads can be applied

in the same way as they are applied in an analysis without a mapped solution.

The loads applied at the beginning of the remeshed analysis should normally be the same as

those in effect at the end of the initial analysis. Although the loads can be changed, the problem

may fail to converge if the structure is far from an equilibrium state.

Temperature and field variables are mapped from the old mesh to the new mesh. If the number of

field variables is changed in the remeshed analysis, the number common to both analyses will be

transferred. Predefined fields can be modified in the same way as they are modified in an

analysis without solution mapping.

Any of the mechanical constitutive models available in Abaqus can be used in a mapped solution

analysis. There is no restriction on agreement between material models in the old and new

analyses. The solution mapping algorithm will transfer those variables common to both models.

You must ensure that the material models are compatible. The solution mapping capability can

be used only with continuum elements.

There is no output specific to a mapped solution analysis. Output can be requested in the same

way as in an analysis without a mapped solution.

*HEADING

*NODE

Data lines to define the new-model nodes occupying the space of the old model in its deformed

configuration

*ELEMENT

Data lines to define the new-model elements occupying the space of the old model

in its deformed configuration

*MAP SOLUTION, STEP=step, INC=inc

translation and rotation data

*STEP

*STATIC (or *COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT or *GEOSTATIC or

SOILS or *VISCO)

*END STEP

5.0 SIMULATION OF PIPELINE XFEM CREEP ANALYSIS

5.1 PART 1: MASS DIFFUSION SIMULATION

A simple 3D pipeline section has been modelled in Abaqus software and the values that are

applied are listed below. The values are given for Polyethylene material

Solubility of material 0.57 (methane)

Steady state

Concentration on the inner edge 0.8

Concentration on the outer edge 0

The geometry, mesh and boundary conditions are shown in Figure 1-3. The concentration

distribution is also shown in Figure 4.

Figure 1: Geometry

Figure 2: Mesh

Figure 3: Loads

Once the mass diffusion is translated to the new model the Abaqus software is used to do XFEM

creep analysis. In previous reports, important parameters to define the model in Abaqus and

parameter values, final geometry and simulation results are mentioned.

In this report, the complete model is analyzed and the XFEM creep analysis is carried out for

locating the crack propagation and visualizing its effect. The same results can be obtained using

only one-half geometry and lesser number of elements with the help of appropriate boundary

conditions.

The model was mesh was imported from the previous analysis of mass diffusion along with the

node-to-node simulation results. Tet elements were used as body had a curved surface. After

meshing, material model was assigned. The parameters values chosen to define model are as

under.

Later, Boundary conditions were given. The boundary conditions are given to constrain the

model in the DOFs which are as follows:

BCs can only be applied in directions that the element has DoFs.

As the diffusion of gas causes degradation in the properties of the material, the two layer of the

pipe are given a decrease in their properties of 6.67% and 3.33% for inner and outer layer

respectively. The figure 5 and 6 shows the two layer defined for different material properties.

Figure 8. Loading

The red dots shows the Boundary conditions applied and the arrows show the pressure applied

on each of the nodes.

A pressure load was applied and the results were obtained, further analysis is being conducted to

find the critical parameters which affect the crack propagation. In future report, an detailed

analysis with parametric study can be expected.

5.0 FUTURE DIRECTION OF RESEARCH

The future plan is to find various factors for which affect the crack propagation due to creep in

the pipelines. The mapping of concentration obtained from mass diffusion of the polyethylene

and polyamide11 has been successfully transferred to another model and the XFEM analysis is

done. The simulation presented in this reported only the primitive and would be further research

on how to better them to bring accurate results. As future work we have planned to do a

parametric analysis on the various prime factors affecting the crack growth.

REFERENCES

[1] Duncan, Bruce, Jeannie Urquhart, and Simon Roberts. Review of measurement and

modelling of permeation and diffusion in polymers. Middlesex, UK: National Physical

Laboratory, 2005.

[2] Flaconneche, B., J. Martin, and M. H. Klopffer. "Permeability, diffusion and solubility of

gases in polyethylene, polyamide 11 and poly (vinylidene fluoride)."Oil & Gas Science and

Technology 56.3 (2001): 261-278.

[3] Kristensen, Susanne Brogaard. Diffusion in Flexible Pipes. 2000.

[4] Yoon, Samson, Bongtae Han, and Zhaoyang Wang. "On moisture diffusion modeling using

thermal-moisture analogy." Journal of electronic packaging129.4 (2007): 421-426.

[5] Olden, Vigdis, C. Thaulow, and R. Johnsen. "Modelling of hydrogen diffusion and hydrogen

induced cracking in supermartensitic and duplex stainless steels." Materials & design 29.10

(2008): 1934-1948.

[6] Chen, Jiahui, Leslie S. Loo, and Kean Wang. "A Novel Time Lag Method to Measure the

Permeation of Vapor-Gas Mixtures." Journal of Membrane and Separation Technology 1.2

(2012): 94-99.

[7] Yang, FuQian. "Diffusion-induced stress in inhomogeneous materials: concentrationdependent elastic modulus." Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy 55.6 (2012):

955-962.

[8] Flaconneche, B., J. Martin, and M. H. Klopffer. "Transport properties of gases in polymers:

experimental methods." Oil & Gas Science and Technology 56.3 (2001): 245-259.

[9] Amaro, Robert L., et al. "Modeling the fatigue crack growth of X100 pipeline steel in

gaseous hydrogen." International Journal of Fatigue 59 (2014): 262-271.

[10]

[11]

Olden, Vigdis, Antonio Alvaro, and Odd M. Akselsen. "Hydrogen diffusion and hydrogen

influenced critical stress intensity in an API X70 pipeline steel welded jointExperiments and

FE simulations." International journal of hydrogen energy37.15 (2012): 11474-11486.

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