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Femtocell Overlay

Xiangfang Li

Lijun Qian

Deepak Kataria

WINLAB

Department of Electrical Engineering

Advanced Networking & Systems

Rutgers University

Prairie View A&M University, Texas A&M Univ Sys

HCL America

Piscataway, NJ 08854

Prairie View, Texas 77446

Florham Park, NJ 07932

Email: xi@winlab.rutgers.edu

Email: liqian@pvamu.edu

Email: dkataria@hcl.in

Abstract In this paper, interference mitigation through downlink power control is considered for Macrocell Femtocell overlay.

Specically, the strong interference in the downlink from the

home base station to a nearby macrocell user should be properly

controlled such that the quality-of-service of both the macrocell

user and the Femtocell users can be guaranteed. In this work,

the fundamental capacity limitation of spatial spectrum sharing

among a macrocell user and a Femtocell user is identied. A

downlink power control problem is formulated to address the

co-channel interference, as well as provide quality-of-service to

both the macrocell user and the Femtocell users. The feasibility

condition of the problem is derived and both centralized and

distributed solutions are provided. Because the co-channel interference are from heterogeneous cells, a joint power control,

channel management and admission control procedure is suggested such that the priority of the macrocell users is always

ensured. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the

proposed schemes.

I. I NTRODUCTION

Femtocells are cellular access points that connect to a

mobile operators network using residential DSL or cable

broadband connections. They have been developed to work

with a range of different cellular standards including CDMA,

GSM and UMTS [1]. Studies show that more than 50%

of all voice calls and more than 70% of all data trafc

originate indoors [2]. A signicant part of these indoor voice

and trafc originates from the homes of the subscribers. By

installing a home base station, a cellular subscriber may use

any existing Internet access as a means to access the cellular

backbone infrastructure1 , and only very short range wireless

communications from the user device to the home base station

need to occur. Thus, the deployment of Femtocells within

existing macrocells in a cellular network accommodates a large

portion of existing trafc, as well as facilitates the capacity

requirements of new applications and services. It is expected

to provide better coverage and capacity, as well as improve

the cost effectiveness of current cellular services.

Femtocells are intended to enhance the coverage of a

macrocell in the home environment. There are many technical challenges associated with the successful operations of

macrocells and Femtocells when they coexist. Specically,

the radio interference between Femtocells and macrocells is

a major concern and interference mitigation techniques are

1 the capacity of a Femtocell is indeed upper bounded by the capacity of

its corresponding Internet access

383

system performance, which will present the Femtocell with

challenges in managing its radio resources and maintaining

Quality of Service (QoS) to its attached users.

While uplink power control of Femtocells has been considered in [3], downlink power control is a more critical issue [4].

There are intensive ongoing research activities on interference

mitigation and power control of Femtocells in the standard

bodies, such as the 3GPP TSG-RAN WR4 (please see [4] and

the references therein). However, most of the current works

focus on determining the dynamic range of the downlink

transmission power of Femtocells, rather than an analytical

framework and detailed power control schemes.

In this paper, the downlink interference scenario that exist

between a Femtocell and a macrocell is modeled and discussed

in detail. Specically, the fundamental limit of the achievable

QoS of the macrocell users and the Femtocell users is given in

terms of the achievable sum signal-to-interference-plus-noise

ratio (SINR) values of the users. Furthermore, a downlink

power control problem for Femtocells is formulated and both

centralized and distributed solutions are derived. Theoretical

analysis and simulation results show that the proposed power

control mitigates the interference between the two overlaid

systems effectively.

It worth noting that a mathematical framework for power

control in cognitive radio networks was developed by the

authors in their previous work [13]. It is interesting to nd

that this framework (with modications) also applies to spatial spectrum sharing in the context of macrocell Femtocell

overlay. In this work, we go one step further by providing

insights on relations between the achievable capacity of the

overlaid system and the geometric layout of the systems such

as the macrocell dead zone. Other contributions of this work

include establishing a downlink power control framework

for the overlaid system, as well as proposing a hierarchical

architecture for joint power control and dynamic channel reallocation.

The paper is organized as follows. Section II provides the

model of spatial spectrum sharing of a macrocell with a Femtocell, and the associated power control problem is formulated.

The fundamental limit on achievable SINR of a macrocell user

and a Femtocell user is given in Section III and the solution

of the power control problem is given for the case of a single

Femtocell. The results are generalized in Section IV to the case

power control schemes are provided. The effectiveness of the

proposed schemes is tested through simulations in Section V.

Section VI contains the concluding remarks.

II. N ETWORK M ODEL AND P ROBLEM F ORMULATION

In this work, we follow the terminology dened by 3GPP

TSG-RAN WR4 [4]. Given an existing macrocell base station,

Macrocell NodeB (MNB), with downlink transmission power

pM N B , the distance from the MNB to a Macrocell User

Equipment (MUE) is D. It is assumed that the coverage area

of a Femtocell is a disk with radius lF . There are Nj (usually

Nj 4) users, or Home User Equipment (HUEs), supported

by each Femtocell j for voice and data services within its

coverage area. The home base station, Home NodeB (HNB),

of a Femtocell is d meters away from the nearest MUE. The

transmission power of the j th HNB is pj,HN B , with upper

max

limit pmax

HN B , and pHN B = 20 dBm [5] in this study. The

distances from the MNB and the j th HNB to the ith HUE are

(i)

(i)

mj and hj , respectively.

An example of the model is given in Fig. 1, where only one

HUE is shown (index j is dropped for simplicity of presentation). A number of different deployment congurations have

been considered by 3GPP TSG-RAN WR4 [4]. The aspects

are as follows:

1) Open access or Closed Subscriber Group (CSG): In

Open access, HNBs can serve any UE in the same

way as a normal NodeB; while in CSG, HNBs only

serve UEs which are a member of a particular Closed

Subscriber Group.

2) Dedicated channel or co-channel: This concerns whether

HNBs operate in their own separate channel, or they

share a channel with an existing UTRAN network.

3) Fixed or adaptive downlink maximum transmit power.

In this study, we consider the downlink co-channel interference

when Macrocell and Femtocell share the same spectrum. The

deployment congurations are CSG and co-channel. Specically, the downlink transmissions from the HNBs will cause

strong interference at a nearby MUE and may cause the

received macrocell signal at the MUE degraded and become

unacceptable. Hence, the co-channel interference is one of the

major barriers for the successful co-existence of Macrocell and

Femtocell.

In this paper, we address the downlink interference problem

by considering the QoS at both the MUEs and the HUEs in

terms of their received SINR. Dene the SINR at the mth

(m)

MUE as M U E , and the SINR at the ith HUE in the j th

(i)

Femtocell as j,HU E , the downlink power control problem for

energy efciency maximization and interference suppression

is formulated as follows

(P.1)

pj,HN B

(1)

min

j

subject to

(m)

M U E

tar

M

UE,

(2)

384

Fig. 1.

(i)

(i)

(3)

max

pmin

HN B pj,HN B pHN B , j.

(4)

(i)

tar

tar

are the target SINR for the

where M

U E and j,HU E

max

MUEs and the HUEs, respectively. pmin

HN B and pHN B are the

minimum and maximum allowable transmission power of the

HNBs. These are hard limits including many considerations

such as safety and hardware limitations that set by the standard

organization or government agencies [5]. The objectives of the

proposed downlink power control of HNBs are to maximize

the energy efciency of the HNBs and suppress harmful interference to both the MUEs and the HUEs, as well as provide

QoS for all the users. This can be achieved by minimizing

the total transmission power of the HNBs (equation (1)) while

guarantee both the QoS of the MUEs (equation (2)) and the

QoS of the HUEs (equation (3)).

F EMTOCELL

In this section, a simple case where there is only one

Femtocell will be considered. We will rst check the feasibility

of the downlink power control problem (P.1). We assume that

the received power is only a function of the transmitted power

and path loss, i.e., the fading effects (shadowing and smallscale fading) are omitted for now. We further assume that the

path loss factor from the MNB is 1 , and the path loss factor

from the HNB is 2 . Because the antenna height of the MNB

is usually much higher than that of the HNB, it is expected

that the path loss factor from the MNB (1 ) will be better

(smaller) than the path loss factor from the HNB (2 ). The

downlink interference between the macrocell and the Femtocell depends on many factors such as modulation schemes and

synchronization, and we assume the orthogonality factors are

f1 and f2 , respectively.

Based on the above assumptions, the SINR of the MUE

receiver at the border of the macrocell dead zone is (please

refer to Fig. 1)

M U E =

pM N B /D1

f2 pHN B /d2 + 2

(5)

Parameters

pM N B

pHN B

2

D

1

2

f1

f2

tar

M

UE

tar

HU E

(i)

HU E =

pHN B /h(i)2

i.

f1 pM N B /m(i)1 + 2

(6)

In order to satisfy the two constraints on the SINR values

of the MUE and the HUEs, inequality (2) and (3), we need

pM N B

(7)

pHN B [ 1 tar 2 ]d2 /f2 ,

D M U E

Value

40 dBm

variable

1014

1000 m

3.7

4.0

1

1

0 dB

0 dB

TABLE I

and

S IMULATION PARAMETERS

(8)

pHN B , pmax

max{pmin

HN B , pHN B } pHN B min{

HN B } (9)

B

where pHN B = [ Dp1MNtar

MUE

tar

(i)2

.

(f1 pM N B /m(i)1 + 2 )HU

Eh

If the feasibility condition (inequality (9)) is satised, the optimal transmission power of the HNB is max{pmin

HN B , pHN B }.

If the minimum allowable transmission power is 0, the optimal

transmission power of the HNB is pHN B . An example of

the feasible transmission power of a HNB is shown in Fig.2,

where the simulation parameters are listed in Table I [5]. It

is observed that there exists a reasonable range of feasible

transmission power for a HNB when the nearest MUE is at

least 10 meters away from the HNB and the HUE is not too

far away from the HNB. The feasible range of pHN B grows

when h reduces and/or d increases, as expected.

The results also provide a straightforward way to estimate

the Macrocell Dead Zone (MDZ) by letting pHN B = pHN B .

For instance, if the MUE and HUE both require 10 dB

received SINR for successful receptions, and if the HUE is

60 meters away from the HNB, the radius of the MDZ will

be approximately 20 meters. The MDZ will grow when the

receiver sensitivity of the UEs degrades. For instance, if the

MUE and HUE both require 0 dB received SINR for successful

receptions, and if the HUE is 60 meters away from the HNB,

the radius of the MDZ will grow to approximately 60 meters,

and the range of feasible transmission power for a HNB

shrinks.

30

(dBm)

20

HNB

If the downlink power control problem is feasible, equations (7), (8), and (4) have to be satised simultaneously.

Theorem 1: Given the transmission power of the primary

transmitter (pM N B ) and the background noise ( 2 ), the target

tar

tar

SINR values of the MUE and the HUE (M

U E and HU E ),

(i)

(i)

and the distances (D, d, h , m ), the feasibility condition

of the power control problem (P.1) for a single Femtocell is

tar

(i)2

.

pHN B (f1 pM N B /m(i)1 + 2 )HU

Eh

max

HNB

10

0

10

solid line: upper bound of p

HNB

20

30

h=5 m

h=5 m

h=10 m

h=10 m

h=20 m

h=20 m

h=60 m

h=60 m

40

50

dashed line: lower bound of p

HNB

60

70

80

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

d/D (D=1000 m)

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

pHN B is not a function

of h.

MUE and the HUE depends mainly on the relative distances

m(i)

d

D and h(i) . This result shows a fundamental limitation on

the sum of the achievable SINRs of a macrocell user and a

Femtocell user when they share the same spectrum and open

access to HNB is prohibited. This result has very important

practical implication since CSG conguration is simple and

thus preferable, while open access may introduce a large

number of handoffs. In addition, spatial spectrum sharing is

desirable since the spectrum is licensed (and thus expensive).

It is observed that the sum of these two SINR values (in

dB) is only a function of the relative distances. One example

simulation result is plotted in Fig. 3. The parameters used

in the simulation are given in Table I and it is assumed that

d

and hd(i) ,

m(i) D + d. It is observed that the two ratios, D

have the dominant effects on the sum of the SINR values.

For example, under the current parameter setting, when hd(i)

A. Fundamental capacity limit

doubles (while other parameters are unchanged), there is a 18

If the interference is dominant, i.e., if f2 pHN B /d2 2 dB gain of the sum of the SINR values. The curve of the sum

and f1 pM N B /m(i)1 2 , which is usually the case, the of the SINR values follows the shape of logarithm of 1 + d

D

sum of the SINR (in dB) of a MUE and the SINR of a HUE when other parameters are xed. These observations are in

can be expressed as

agreement with the theoretical result, equation (10). It is also

(i)

interesting to observe that whenever d = h(i) , the sum of the

m

d

(dB)

(dB)

(dB)]+2 [ (i) (dB)][(f1 +f2 )(dB)] SINR

.

M U E +HU E 1 [

values remains roughly a constant. This is due to the

D

h

(10) fact that d D in this simulation. The results suggest that the

385

100

is an N N matrix

tar

E

f3 j,HU

j = k

hjk3

;

(13)

Yjk =

1

j=k

2

h

SINRMUE+SINRHUE (dB)

h=2.5 m

h=5 m

h=10 m

h=20 m

h=40 m

50

jj

(2). The transmission power vector pHN B satises inequality (4) element-wise, where

0

pHN B = Y 1 u ,

50

2

10

10

d

D

and h.

service quality of the nearby MUE and thus it calls for proper

downlink power control of HNBs. We would like to point

out that although the transmission powers are not explicitly

included in the formula for the sum SINR, they indeed will

determine the proportion of the SINR that the MUE and the

HUE will get.

IV. P OWER C ONTROL FOR MULTIPLE F EMTOCELLS

In this section, we are going to provide both centralized and

distributed solutions to the power control problem (P.1). In

order to evaluate the interference and solve the power control

problem, we assume that the distances such as d and m(i)

can be estimated accurately. Indeed, geolocation devices such

as GPS may be applied to get an accurate estimate of the

distances. It is also assumed that each HNB will serve only

one HUE in the downlink at any given time and the user index

is dropped for simplicity of presentations.

A. Centralized Solution

The SINR of a MUE receiver is

M U E =

f2

pM N B /D1

2

2

j (pj,HN B /dj ) +

(11)

2

pj,HN B /h

jj

3

1

f3 k=j (pk,HN B /hjk ) + f1 pM N B /m

j

+ 2

(12)

where dj is the distance from the j th HNB to the MUE, hjk is

the distance from the k th HNB to the HUE served by the j th

HNB. f3 and 3 include additional considerations for Femtoto-Femto interference such as more penetration losses.

The following theorem gives the feasibility condition of the

power control problem (P.1).

Theorem 2: The power control problem (P.1) is feasible for

all N simultaneous operating HNBs within the same channel

as long as

f2

pM N B /D1

tar

M

2

UE .

2

j (pj,HN B /dj ) +

386

(16)

HUEs within the same channel if the following conditions are

met [10], [6]

tar

j,HU E j,HU

E

p0

(17)

(18)

u as in equation (15). Replacing j,HU E with equation (12)

and rewriting the above conditions in matrix form gives

Ypu

p0

(19)

(20)

and (15), respectively.

It is shown in [6] that if the system is feasible, the matrix

Y must be invertible and the inverse should be element-wise

positive, thus prove part (1) of the theorem.

It is also shown in [6] (Proposition 2.1) that if the system is

feasible, there exists a unique (Pareto optimal) solution which

minimize the transmitted power. This solution is obtained by

solving a system of linear algebraic equations

Y p = u

j,HU E =

(15)

following inequality

d/D (D=1000 m)

Fig. 3.

f1 pM N B

tar

+ 2 ], j = 1, 2, ..., N

uj = j,HU

E[

1

m

j

(14)

(21)

control problem (P.1), the transmission power vector pHN B

must satisfy the inequality (4) element-wise and the inequality (16), thus prove the theorem.

The above proof highlighted the centralized solution to

the problem (P.1). Although it seems that the power control

problem (P.1) is similar to that in cellular systems [9] and

in wireless ad hoc networks [11], the power control problem

considered here addressed interference from overlaid systems

such that additional constraint (2) has to be satised and the

interference between HNBs and MUEs has to be taken into

account in the problem formulation. It also calls for joint

the Femtocell such that the QoS of the MUEs is ensured all

the time. The procedures of joint power control and dynamic

channel re-allocation is summarized below.

Joint power control and dynamic channel re-allocation

1) Solve the transmission power vector pHN B using equation (14).

2) Check whether the transmission powers are within limit,

max

i.e., pmin

HN B pj,HN B pHN B , j? If Yes, goes to the

next step; otherwise, the power control problem (P.1) is

not

feasible. Re-allocate the kth HNB that has the largest

N

| j=1,j=k [Yjk + Ykj ]| to a different channel and return

to Step 1 with reduced number of co-channel HNBs.

3) Check whether the transmission powers satisfy inequality (16). If Yes, set the transmission power vector as

pHN B ; otherwise, the power control problem (P.1) is not

feasible. Re-allocate the HNB that requires the largest

transmission power ( p = max{pj,HN B } j) to a

different channel and return to Step 1 with reduced

number of co-channel HNBs.

The above proposed procedures can be implemented in the

current cellular infrastructure2 . In the proposed joint power

control and channel re-allocation scheme, when the power

control problem (P.1) is not feasible, the HNB that caused the

worst interference should be silenced. The central controller in

the cellular backbone can verify the transmission power limits

in a straight forward way in Step 2 after solving pHN B using

equation (14). The worst interferer to the other Femtocells

is the one that has the largest absolute value of off-diagonal

row and column sum of matrix Y . In Step 3, the central

controller can verify the inequality (16) consulting the built-in

measurements at MNB. This time the worst interferer to the

MUEs is the one that has the largest transmission power.

B. Distributed Solution

The centralized solution (equation (14)) needs a central

controller and global information of all the link gains, and

centralized power control requires extensive control signaling

in the network and it is subject to delays and congestions of

wireline Internet access. Therefore, a distributed solution that

only using local information to make a control decision is

proposed for easier implementation.

Distributed power control schemes may be derived by applying iterative algorithms to solve equation (21). For example,

using the rst-order Jacobian iterations [7], the following

distributed power control scheme is obtained

tar

j,HU

E

pj,HN B (t), pmax

HN B } , j.

j,HU E (t)

(22)

Note that each HNB only needs to know its own received

SINR at its HUE to update its transmission power. This is

available by feedback from the HUE through a control channel. As a result, the algorithm is fully distributed. Convergence

pj,HN B (t + 1) = min{

2 the delay of control signaling due to the delay of wireline Internet access

is an interesting topic for future study

387

[9]. An interference function I(p) is standard if it satises

three conditions: positivity, monotonicity and scalability. It

is proved by Yates [8] that the standard iterative algorithm

p(t + 1) = I(p(t)) will converge to a unique equilibrium that

corresponds to the minimum use of power. The distributed

power control scheme (equation (22)) is a special case of the

standard iterative algorithm.

Since the Jacobi iteration is a xed-point iterative method,

it usually has slow convergence speed to the sought solution.

However, we select equation (22) as the power control algorithm due to its simplicity. Other advanced algorithms with

faster convergence speed can be found in [10], [12].

The distributed power control algorithm given in equation (22) does not enforce the QoS requirement of the MUE

represented by the inequality (16). Thus, the HNBs apply

equation (22) alone may violate the QoS requirement of the

MUE. In order to address this issue, we propose a hierarchical

control solution that contains an inner loop and an outer

loop. In the inner loop power control, each HNB follows the

distributed algorithm as described by equation (22). While in

the outer loop power control, the MNB will follow a similar

distributed algorithm as the HNBs to maintain the QoS of the

MUEs. However, when the MNB cannot maintain the QoS of

the MUEs, it will request the strongestly transmitted HNB to

switch channel, or as an alternative, to reduce its allowable

transmission power.

V. S IMULATION R ESULTS

In this section, the performance of the proposed power

control algorithm is examined. It is assumed that N = 500

simultaneously active Femtocells are overlaid with a macrocell

in a 1000 meter 1000 meter area, and they share the the

same spectrum in the downlink. The MNB is located at the

center of the area. The examined MUE is located close to the

border of the macrocell (D = 500 meters). The location of the

Femtocell is 2-D uniformly distributed and each Femtocell

is within a 10 meter 10 meter apartment. None of the

Femtocells are overlapping. The location of the HNB is 2D uniformly distributed within each Femtocell. The HUE is

10 meters away from its corresponding HNB and its location

is uniformly distributed. An example deployment scenario is

shown in Fig.4.

The initial transmission power of the HNBs are randomly

max

chosen between pmin

HN B and pHN B . The rest of the simulation

tar

min

parameters are: pM N B = 40 dBm; M

U E = 0 dB; pHU E =

max

tar

2

14

80 dBm; pHU E = 20 dBm; HU E = 0 dB; = 10 ; 1

= 3.7; 2 = 4, 3 = 4.3, f1 = f2 = f3 = 1.

In the following part of the simulation, the distributed power

control algorithm, equation (22), is applied. The convergence

of the mean square error of the HUEs SINR (e2HU E =

tar

2

E[(HU E HU

E ) ]) is given in Fig 5. It is observed that

the power control algorithm converges very fast (in about 4

steps). Similarly, the convergence of the transmission power

of some randomly chosen HNBs is shown in Fig 6.

1000

900

0

MNB

MUE

HNB

The received SINR of MUE in dB

800

700

Yaxis

600

500

400

300

10

15

20

200

25

100

Fig. 4.

100

200

300

400

500

Xaxis

600

700

800

900

30

1000

80

10

steps

12

14

16

18

20

Fig. 7. The SINR value of the MUE during the power control process of

the HNBs.

70

the feasibility condition is derived and a joint power control

and dynamic channel re-allocation procedure is suggested such

that the QoS of the MUEs is ensured all the time. The

performance of the joint power control and dynamic channel

re-allocation for the infeasible case will be included in an

extended version of the current manuscript. In addition, the

effects of inaccurate estimates of the distances will also be

justied.

60

50

40

30

20

10

Fig. 5.

10

steps

12

14

16

18

20

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

control process of the HNBs is shown in Fig.7. It is conrmed

that the QoS of the MUE is not violated during the power

control process.

VI. C ONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we extend the mathematical framework in our

previous work [13] to the case of spectrum sharing in macrocell Femtocell overlay. A downlink power control problem is

formulated for HNBs that operates simultaneously in the same

frequency band with MNBs. Both centralized and distributed

solutions are given to mitigate the co-channel interference and

10

HNB1

HNB10

HNB50

HNB100

HNB200

10

15

20

Fig. 6.

10

steps

12

14

16

18

20

388

0531507.

R EFERENCES

[1] Femto Forum. [Online]. Available: http://www.femtoforum.org

[2] V. Chandrasekhar, J. Andrews and A. Gatherer, Femtocell Networks: A

Survey, IEEE Comm. Mag., Vol.46, No.9, pp.59-67, Sep. 2008.

[3] V. Chandrasekhar, T. Muharemovic, Z. Shen, J. Andrews and A. Gatherer,

Power Control in Two-Tier Femtocell Networks, preprint.

[4] 3GPP TR 25.820, 3G Home NodeB Study Item Technical Report

(Release 8), v8.1.0.

[5] Report of the 3GPP TSG RAN WG4 meeting 47bis, June 2008.

[6] D. Mitra, An asynchronous distributed algorithm for power control in

cellular radio systems, in Proceeding of 4th WINLAB Workshop of 3rd

Generation Wireless Information Networks, pp. 177-186, Oct. 1993.

[7] D. Bertsekas and J. Tsitsiklis, Parallel and Distributed Computation:

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