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Wireless Networking and Communications Group

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The University of Texas at Austin

Email: cvikram@mail.utexas.edu, jandrews@ece.utexas.edu

Abstract Two-tier networks, comprising a conventional cellular network overlaid with shorter range hotspots (e.g. femtocells,

distributed antennas, or wired relays), offer an economically

viable way to improve cellular system capacity. The capacitylimiting factor in such networks is interference. The cross-tier

interference between macrocells and femtocells can suffocate the

capacity due to the near-far problem, so in practice hotspots

should use a different frequency channel than the potentially

nearby high-power macrocell users. Centralized or coordinated

frequency planning, which is difcult and inefcient even in

conventional cellular networks, is all but impossible in a twotier network. This paper proposes and analyzes an optimum decentralized spectrum allocation policy for two-tier networks that

employ frequency division multiple access (including OFDMA).

The proposed allocation is optimal in terms of Area Spectral

Efciency (ASE), and is subjected to a sensible Quality of Service

(QoS) requirement, which guarantees that both macrocell and

femtocell users attain at least a prescribed data rate. Results show

the dependence of this allocation on the QoS requirement, hotspot

density and the co-channel interference from the macrocell and

surrounding femtocells. Design interpretations are provided.

I. I NTRODUCTION

Wireless operators are in the process of augmenting the

macrocellular network with supplemental infrastructure such

as microcells, distributed antennas and relays. An alternative

with lower upfront costs to the operator is to improve indoor

coverage and capacity using the concept of end-consumer

installed femtocells or home base stations [1]. A femtocell

serves as a low power, small range (10 50 meters) data

access point that provides high quality in-building coverage to

home users. The implication is that femtocells provide higher

spatial reuse and cause smaller interference to other users.

)IOLQNVIRUIHPWRFHOOV

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A. Related Work

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)UHHOLQNQRWDFFHVVHGE\DQ\IHPWRFHOO

)UHTXHQF\OLQNVDFFHVVHGE\PDFURFHOO

Fig. 1.

LTE, WiMAX and 3GPP2s UMB enable the macrocell to

perform exible rate assignment across frequency sub bands to

users. In femtocell deployments, due to reasons of scalability,

security and limited backhaul, it is reasonable to assume no

coordination across femtocells and between femtocells and

the central macrocell. Further, femtocells are placed opportunistically or randomly by end users, rendering conventional

frequency planning strategies to be difcult.

Recent research [2] has shown that in the presence of crosstier interference, an interference avoidance strategy is superior

to interference suppression in a randomly deployed femtocell

network. Assigning orthogonal spectrum resources between

the central macrocell and femtocell BSs eliminates cross-tier

interference. This motivates the spectrum partitioning strategy

(Fig. 1) proposed in this paper. Next, to avoid persistent

collisions with neighboring femtocells, this paper proposes that

each femtocell accesses a random subset of the candidate frequency subchannels, wherein each subchannel is accessed with

equal probability. We term this spectrum access strategy as

F-ALOHA (Frequency ALOHA). We motivate F-ALOHA for

three reasons. First, F-ALOHA avoids transmission delays and

increased RF sensitivity requirements for carrier sensing in the

presence of fading [3]. Next, F-ALOHA provides randomized

interference avoidance, since neighboring femtocells are unlikely to consistently access identical frequency subchannels.

Finally, F-ALOHA provides a decentralized spectrum access

by femtocells and low complexity.

Using F-ALOHA, the paper determines the optimal fraction of spectrum accessed by each femtocell for maximizing

the spatial reuse provided by femtocells. The spatial reuse

is expressible using the Area Spectral Efciency (ASE) in

b/s/Hz/m2 , which is dened as the network-wide sum throughput per frequency subchannel divided by the product of the

subchannel bandwidth and the area per cell-site [4].

and Nanda [5], who propose frequency partitioning in a microcell/macrocell system based on mobile speeds and the loading

of users in each cell, but ignore co-channel interference (CCI).

In contrast, the proposed spectrum allocation maximizes the

area spectral efciency in a two-tier network considering CCI,

path losses and prevailing channel conditions.

1583

Asilomar 2008

B. Contributions

This paper employs a stochastic geometry framework for

modeling the random spatial distribution of femtocells according to a Spatial Poisson Point Process (SPPP) [6]. Assuming that (1) downlink transmissions from the macrocell

and femtocells are frequency orthogonal and (2) femtocells

transmit using F-ALOHA, the paper derives the expected pertier throughputs as a function of the QoS requirements and the

number of cellular and hotspot users. Due to the larger spatial

coverage of the macrocell and fewer users per femtocell,

providing equal throughputs per user in each tier requires

nearly 90% of the spectrum to be allocated to the macrocell.

Conversely, partitioning spectrum evenly necessitates relaxing

the QoS constraints to favor signicantly higher data rates at

femtocells. Next, with low femtocell densities, each femtocell

should access the entire spectrum to ensure highest spatial

reuse. In contrast at high densities (eg. 100 femtocells/cellsite), femtocells should access a decreasing fraction (eg.

< 30%) of available spectrum. Finally, while benets of

channel-aware macrocell scheduling permeate to femtocells in

improving overall spatial reuse, the propagation environment

between neighboring femtocells ultimately impacts spectrum

requirements in a two-tier infrastructure.

II. S YSTEM M ODEL

The setup consists of a hexagonal region H of radius Rc

with

a central macrocell BS C providing coverage area |H| =

3 3/2Rc2 , which is surrounded by two rings of interfering

macrocells. Each macrocell is overlaid with femtocell hotspots

of radius Rf , which are randomly distributed on R2 according

to a homogeneous SPPP f with intensity f [6]. The mean

number of femtocells per cell site equals Nf = f |H|.

Macrocell users are assumed to be uniformly distributed inside

each macrocell. Femtocells are assumed to provide closed

access only to licensed indoor users who fall within the radio

range Rf of their respective home BSs. Let U = Uc + Nf Uf

denote the average number of users in each cell site. These

U users are distributed into Uc uniformly distributed tier 1

mobile outdoor users and Uf users per femtocell hotspot.

If each femtocell accesses k subchannels among their allotted Ff subchannels, the net portion of accessed spectrum

per femtocell equals f (1 ) where f k/Ff . Provided

femtocells choose their subchannels independently and with

equal probability, F-ALOHA thins [6] the intensity of interfering femtocells in each subchannel by their subchannel

access probability. The probability

p of choosing a given

subchannel equals: p = 1 Ffk1 / Fkf = Fkf = f .

Consequently, the set of interfering femtocells per frequency

subchannel is a Marked SPPP [6] f with intensity f f =

f k/Ff . When f = 1, all femtocells in f access the entire

spectrum but mutually interfere in all subchannels. For f

1, femtocells transmit in a small region of spectrum and avoid

causing mutual interference. This strategy provides a higher

spectral efciency, but incurs reduced spectrum utilization

because femtocells do not transmit over their entire spectrum.

B. Channel Model and Variable Rate Transmission

The channel between each BS and its users is composed

of a xed distance dependent path loss, a slowly varying

component modeled by lognormal shadowing and Rayleigh

fast fading with unit average power. For simplicity, thermal

noise is neglected at the receiver.

AS 3: Each user is assumed to perfectly estimate and feedback their Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) per frequency

subchannel to their BS.

AS 4: BSs allocate transmission power uniformly over all

their active frequency subchannels.

Each BS assigns rate adaptively based on the received SIR

per user. Let G denote the Shannon Gap with variable rate

M-QAM transmission. Assume an instantaneous transmission

rate of bi bps/Hz if the instantaneous SIR lies in [i , i+1 ).

Using adaptive modulation with L discrete rates, the instantaneous rate W b in a W Hz wide subchannel is chosen

as b = bi , when SIR [i , i+1 ), 1 i L where

bi log2 (1 + Gi )bps/Hz. Assuming identical statistics over

all frequency subchannels, the long term expected throughput

(in b/s/Hz) per macrocell/femtocell per subchannel is given as:

T =

The available spectrum comprises F frequency subchannels

each with bandwidth W Hz. We wish to determine the optimal

partitioning (Fc , Ff ), where Fc subchannels are available for

macrocell transmissions and Ff = F Fc subchannels are

available for femtocell transmissions (Fig. 1). Denote =

Fc /F as the fraction of spectrum assigned to the macrocell

BS with the following key assumptions:

AS 1: Each femtocell schedules its users in a Channel Blind

Round-Robin (RR) fashion. The macrocell schedules its users

according to either a RR or a Channel Aware Proportional Fair

(PF) scheduler.

AS 2: The fraction is a positive real number in [0, 1].

The long term per-tier throughput is assumed to be equally

divided among the Uc outdoor and Uf indoor users.

L1

l=1

femtocell] is obtained multiplying the expected throughput in

(1) by their respective spectrum allocation [resp. f (1 )].

III. P ER -T IER S PECTRUM A LLOCATION

Let spectrum W F be allocated such that the macrocell

BS transmits over a portion , while femtocell BSs transmit

over the remaining fraction 1 . Let Tc (, Uc ) be the long

term throughput (in b/s/Hz) in each subchannel provided by

the macrocell. Let each femtocell access a portion f of

its allotted spectrum using F-ALOHA transmission. Dene

Tf (f f ) as the expected femtocell throughput over each

frequency subchannel. With universal frequency reuse across

1584

all macrocells, the ASEs provided by each tier are given as:

Tc (, Uc )

,

|H|

ASEc =

ASEf =

Nf f Tf (f f )

|H|

(2)

femtocells in each subchannel in the set f . The network-wide

ASE is consequently given as:

ASE = ASEc + (1 )ASEf

(3)

spectrum is obtained by multiplying (3) by W F |H|.

Before determining the spectrum allocation, we stipulate a

QoS requirement , which ensures that users in either tier are

guaranteed a minimum expected throughput. By implication,

regulates the maximum spectrum that any tier can receive.

Denition 1: The QoS parameter 0 < 0.5 guarantees

that the expected throughput per user in one tier is at least

/(1 ) w.r.t the other tier.

Choosing different assigns different priorities (QoS) to one

tier relative to the other. For example, setting = 0.5 ensures

that users in both tiers obtain identical expected rates. On the

other hand, decreasing favors assigning greater spectrum to

the tier providing a higher expected throughput per active user.

Given a total available spectrum of 1 Hz, the problem

is to determine the optimal spectrum allocation over all

possible spectrum partitioning strategies [0, 1] between

the macrocell and femtocells, as shown below:

= arg max Tc (, Uc ) + (1 )Nf f Tf (f f )

01

(4)

is given as:

0

2

|h0 | ||r/Rc || c

(7)

I (r)

r bk c

2

|h0k | 0k

(8)

where I (r) =

Rc

kB

Here, Rc is the cell radius, c represents the outdoor path

loss exponent and |h0k | is the exponentially distributed channel

power between interfering BS Ck and the user of interest. The

RV 0 [resp. 0k ] is the lognormal shadowing between the

central BS [resp. interfering BSs] and the desired user, which

2

are distributed as LN(c,dB , 2 c,dB

), where = 0.1 ln 10 is

a scaling constant.

Using (1), the macrocell subchannel throughput Tc has

been derived analytically for a channel blind Round-Robin

(RR) scheduler [7] and estimated using numerical simulation

for a channel aware Proportional Fair (PF) scheduler. In the

simulation, the number of subchannels is set as Fc = 1 with

a link bandwidth W = 15 KHz. Each mobile is moving

at v = 13.34 m/s (30 mph) and the throughputs/user are

averaged over 500 drops, with 8000 trials/drop for modeling

time-varying fading. The Rayleigh fading is held xed over

a duration Tc = 0.4/fd where fd = vfc /(3 108 ) is the

Doppler frequency at a carrier fc = 2 GHz. Fig. 2 compares

the performance of PF versus RR scheduling for different

Uc . Exploiting channel variations through proportional fairness

roughly doubles the expected subchannel throughput.

SIRc (r) =

(5)

s.t min {Tc,u (), Tf,u ()} (Tc,u () + Tf,u ())

Tc (, Uc )

(1 )f Tf (f f )

, Tf,u ()

& Tc,u ()

Uc

Uf

A. Macrocell Throughput

2

RR Scheduling

PF Scheduling

3

subchannel is independent of the total spectrum allocated to

the macrocell , i.e. Tc (, Uc ) = Tc (Uc ) [0, 1], the

optimizing in (4) satises the QoS constraint with equality,

belonging to a set with two candidate spectrum allocation

assignments given as:

1

Uf

1 Tc (Uc )

{x, 1 x}, x 1 +

Uc f Tf (f f )

(6)

Proof: Since Tc (, Uc ) = Tc (Uc ) [0, 1], the optimization problem in (4) is to determine the optimal which

maximizes a convex combination of Tc and Nf f Tf (f f )

with a linear constraint (5). Hence, the argument maximizer

is located at the extremal points of (5). Solving for the

satisfying (5) with equality yields (6).

3.5

2.5

1.5

10

15

20

25

30

Fig. 2.

B. Femtocell Throughput

Using F-ALOHA, the interfering femtocells w.r.t a (typical)

reference femtocell F0 form a marked SPPP f f with

intensity f f . In a given frequency subchannel, the SIR of

user 0 at distance Rf w.r.t femtocell F0 is given as:

Pf2 0k |x0k |f

SIRf = 0 Rf f /

kf

between the central macrocell BS C0 and its scheduled user 0.

Denote B as the set of two rings of interfering macrocell BSs.

Denoting the Euclidean norm by ||||, the received SIR for

Fk . Using Turkmanis [8] approximation, the composite

lognormal-exponential distributed channel powers from the

desired (0 ) and interfering BSs (0k ) are modeled as

1585

I LN[(f o,dB 2.5), 2 (f2 o,dB + 5.572 )] respectively.

Note that = 0.1 ln 10 is a scaling constant. Further, f

[resp. f ] designate the path-loss exponents from the desired

femtocell [resp. interferers] to user 0. Finally, Pf is the xed

wall penetration loss between neighboring transmissions.

The closed form distribution

from neigh of interference

2

f

is known

boring femtocells If,f =

kf Pf 0k |xk |

only for f = 4. Dening f 2f , the following lemma

[9, Theorem 3] provides an asymptotically tight lower bound.

Lemma 1: With randomized transmissions and lacking

power control, the distribution of If,f is given as:

2

For xed y, as f 0, the tail probability Pr(If,f > y)

0 in (9) indicating that selecting fewer subchannels using FALOHA provides greater resilience against persistent collisions from nearby femtocells. Using Lemma 1 and dening

can be lower bounded as:

Pr (SIRf ) 1 E0 [exp (f f f 0

)]

femtocells per subchannel. With F-ALOHA access of 0 <

1, each femtocell obtains an average subchannel throughput of

Tf (), resulting in ASEf equaling f Tf (f ).

Remark 1 (Boundedness of the ASE): The

maximum

ASE obtained in (11) depends only on the effective

intensity f f . With increasing f , provided f < 1, the

maximum femtocell ASE per subchannel is unchanged (or

f f = constant), implying that the optimal f decreases

inversely as f . Consequently, with increasing number

of femtocells, the network-wide femtocell throughput

|H|W F (1 )ASEf grows linearly with (1 ).

Fig. 4 plots (11) for different Nf with f = 3.5 and

Pf,dB = 2. In all cases, the highest ASE is xed at nearly

0.000121 b/s/Hz/m2 validating Remark 1. With a low femtocell density (Nf = 10), the best strategy is to access the entire

allocated spectrum. In a dense network (Nf = 100), the ASE

is maximized when each femtocell accesses approximately

30% of the available spectrum. Further, in (11), as long as

(10)

4

Combining (1) and (10) yields an upper bound on the mean

femtocell throughput Tf per frequency subchannel.

1.4

7

HA, N =10

f

HA, N =50

HA, Nf=100

LA, N =10

LA, N =50

f

LA, N =100

x 10

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

Nf=10

0.2

N =50

f

N =100

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Fig. 4.

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Fig. 3.

(in b/s/Hz) assuming the entire spectrum is allocated to

femtocells ( = 0). Black dash-dotted curves show results

of numerical simulation. Two cases are considered namely

(1) high attenuation (marked HA with f = 4, Pf,dB = 10)

and (2) low attenuation (marked LA with f = 3.5, Pf,dB =

2) from neighboring femtocells. With f = 1 and Nf = 50

femtocells/cell site, f Tf falls from approximately 4.5 b/s/Hz

in a HA scenario to nearly 0.5 b/s/Hz in a LA scenario.

To calculate the optimum f , we determine the optimal fraction of subchannels accessed by each femtocell for maximizing

spatial reuse, which is given as:

f = f arg max Tf (f ), ASEf = f f Tf (f f ) (11)

0<1

Consequently, as f increases, Tf decreases due to higher

interference from neighboring femtocells. However, if f < 1,

Tf = ASEf /(f f ) remains constant with increasing f .

One may then explore the dependence of the mean overall

femtocell throughput Tf f (1 ) on the spectrum allocation

and F-ALOHA access f . Equivalently: With increasing

femtocell density f , can increasing allocation (1 ) to

femtocells counterbalance decreasing F-ALOHA access f

to cause a net increase in mean femtocell throughput? This

question is answered by the following condition: Given a

spectrum allocation l at mean femtocell density f , let Tf,l

and f,l be the mean subchannel throughput and the optimal

F-ALOHA access respectively. On increasing f by f with

allocation h , let the corresponding quantities equal Tf,h and

f,h . The femtocell network is dened as fully-utilized [resp.

sub-utilized] if a marginal increment in the femtocell density

1586

nearly 70% of spectrum is allocated to femtocells.

(1 l )f,l Tf,l (1 h )f,h Tf,h

1 h

ASEf,l f + f

Tf,l f,l

=

1 l

ASEf,h

f

Tf,h f,h

(12)

90

LA, RR, = 0.01

Equation (12) reects the competing effects of increasing allocation (1) and decreasing F-ALOHA spectrum access f

(or increasing f ) in determining the net femtocell throughput.

Results are presented in Figs. 5 and 6 with the system

parameters in Table I. To model higher data rates at femtocells

relative to the macrocell, QoS parameters of = 0.5 (equal

mean throughputs to all users) and = 0.01 (or 100x higher

throughput per femtocell user relative to a cellular user) are

considered. Two scenarios are considered namely 1) High

Attenuation (HA) of neighboring femtocell transmissions with

parameters f = 4 and Pf,dB = 10 and 2) Low Attenuation

(LA) scenario with f = 3.5 and Pf,dB = 2.

TABLE I

S YSTEM PARAMETERS

Description

Macrocell/Femtocell Radius Rc , Rf

Total users per cell site U

Users per femtocell Uf

Wall penetration loss Pf,dB

Shannon Gap G, Modulation Levels L

Path-loss exponents c , f , f

Lognormal Parameters c,dB , f i,dB , f o,dB

70

HA, PF, = 0.01

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 shows the minimum required spectrum W F , satisfying a target average data rate of Dc = 0.1 Mbps for each

macrocell user. For each femtocell, we consider QoS values

of = 0.5 and = 0.01, corresponding to target average data

rates Df = Dc (1 )/ equaling 0.1 and 10 Mbps/hotspot

user. From (4), the necessary spectrum W F = Dc Uc /(Tc ) =

Df Uf /[(1 )f Tf ].

Two key observations are: First, a macrocell with channel

aware PF scheduling provides signicant spectrum savings to

guarantee Df and Dc ; eg. with = 0.01 and Nf = 50

femtocells/cell site in a HA scenario, the spectrum savings are

nearly 40% relative to RR scheduling. Next, with = 0.01

and a LA scenario, adding femtocells requires a linear increase

in spectrum W F indicating the femtocell network is fullyutilized in (12). Conversely, in a HA scenario, the femtocell

network is sub-utilized in (12), hence adding femtocells increases the mean throughput per femtocell.

Value

288 m, 40 m

300

2

2 dB, 10 dB

3 dB, 8

4, 3, 3.5 & 4

8 dB, 4 dB, 12 dB

1

0.9

0.8

Spectrum Allocation

80

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

R EFERENCES

0.3

a survey, IEEE Comm. Mag., vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 5967, Sept. 2008.

[2] V. Chandrasekhar and J. G. Andrews, Uplink capacity and interference

avoidance in two-tier femtocell networks, To appear, IEEE Trans. on

Wireless Comm., 2009.

[3] N. Hoven and A. Sahai, Power scaling for cognitive radio, in International Conf. on Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile

Computing, vol. 1, June 2005, pp. 250255.

[4] M. S. Alouini and A. J. Goldsmith, Area spectral efciency of cellular

mobile radio systems, IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., July 1999.

[5] K. Yeung and S. Nanda, Channel management in microcell/macrocell

cellular radio systems, IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Nov. 1996.

[6] J. Kingman, Poisson Processes. Oxford University Press, 1993.

[7] V. Chandrasekhar and J. G. Andrews, Spectrum allocation in two-tier

networks, Submitted, IEEE Trans. on Comm., 2008, [Online] Available

at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1226.

[8] A. M. D. Turkmani, Probability of error for m-branch macroscopic

selection diversity, in Comm., Speech and Vision, IEE Proc. I, Feb. 1992.

[9] S. P. Weber, J. G. Andrews, and N. Jindal, The effect of fading, channel

inversion, and threshold scheduling on ad hoc networks, IEEE Trans. on

Info. Theory, Nov. 2007.

HA, =0.5

HA, =0.1

HA, =0.01

LA, =0.5

LA, =0.1

LA, =0.01

0.2

0.1

0

50

100

150

Fig. 5.

With = 0.5, nearly 90% of spectrum is assigned to the

macrocell. The central macrocell serves a higher number

of users who experience relatively poor reception over a

bigger area. Ensuring equal cellular and hotspot throughput

consequently requires assigning nearly the entire spectrum to

cellular transmissions. As decreases, femtocells require more

spectrum for providing greater indoor capacity; eg. in a LA

1587

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