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1987 Constitutional Provisions

on Labor
The 1987 Philippine Constitution, the supreme law of the land, mandates the protection
of labor and the promotion of their welfare. It provides the fundamental labor standards
and labor relations rights of the employees. The constitutional provisions on labor are
provided under Articles II, III, IX-B, and XIII as follows:
Article II, DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
Section 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the
prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through
policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising
standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.
Section 10. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.
Section 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect
the rights of workers and promote their welfare.
Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages
private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments.
ARTICLE III, BILL OF RIGHTS
Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of
law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
Section 8. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private
sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to
law shall not be abridged.
Article IX-B, THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
Section 2.
3. No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except
for cause provided by law.
5. The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees.
6. Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as may be
provided by law.
ARTICLE XIII, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Section 3. The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized
and unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment
opportunities for all.
It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining
and negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in
accordance with law. They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions

of work, and a living wage. They shall also participate in policy and decision-making
processesaffecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law.
The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and
employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes, including
conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial
peace.
The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the
right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to
reasonable returns to investments, and to expansion and growth.
Section 14. The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful
working conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and
opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential
in the service of the nation.