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Material Properties

Lecture #2
References:
1. W. MacGregor, Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design, 6th Ed
2. ACE 318-11M

Objectives
Lecture #2
Objectives

Concrete

To understand the properties of concrete


and steel

Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

Define strain and its relation to stress

Types of Concrete
Lecture #2
Objectives

1.

Concrete
Types
Definitions

2.

3 Phases
Properties

3.

Plain
concrete
Reinforced
concrete
Pre-stressed
concrete

Steel

Definitions
Lecture #2
Objectives

ASTM C125 - a composite material that


consists essentially of a binding medium
within which is embedded particles or
fragments of aggregates.

ACI 318 - mixture of portland cement or


any other hydraulic cement, fine
aggregates, coarse aggregates and water,
with or without admixtures.

Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

3 Phases
Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

Aggregates, Cement,Transition Zone


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3 Phases
Concrete

Aggregates - comprise from 60% to 80%


with an average of 75% of volume

Types

Lecture #2
Objectives

Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Coarse aggregates (4.75 mm - 50 mm, Sieve No.


4 & up)
Fine aggregates (< 4.75 mm)

Steel

Predominantly responsible for the unit weight,


elastic modulus and dimensional stability of
concrete

3 Phases
Lecture #2
Objectives

Concrete

Aggregates - comprise from 60% to 80%


with an average of 75% of volume

Types
Definitions
3 Phases

natural or pyro-processed aggregates having


lower bulk density

Properties

light weight (1800 kg/m3)

normal weight (2400 kg/m3)


containing natural sand, gravel or crushed rock

Steel

heavy weight ( > 3200 kg/m3)


high density aggregates for radiation shielding

3 Phases
Lecture #2
Objectives

Concrete

Hydrated Cement Paste - usually 10%


water and 15% ordinary Portland cement

Types
Definitions
3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Solids: Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate, Calcium


Hydroxide, Calcium Sulfoluminates,
Unhydrated Clinker
Liquid: Capillary water, adsorbed water,
interlayer water, chemically combined water
(suitable for drinking, do not use saltwater)
Gas (Voids): Interlayer space in C-S-H,
capillary voids, air voids

Portland Stone
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3 Phases
Lecture #2
Objectives

Concrete

Hydrated Cement Paste - usually 10%


water and 15% ordinary Portland cement

Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

TYPE I

Ordinary

TYPE II

Moderate Sulfate
Resistance and Heat of
Hydration

TYPE III

High Early Strength

TYPE IV

Low Heat of Hydration

TYPE V

High Sulfate Resistance

Steel

3 Phases
Lecture #2
Objectives

Concrete

Hydrated Cement Paste - usually 10%


water and 15% ordinary Portland cement

Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

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3 Phases
Lecture #2
Objectives

Transition Zone

Concrete

Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Thin shell, typically 10 to 50 mthick


Typically weaker thus, it has considerable
influence on the mechanical behavior of
concrete
concrete has microcracks in the transition zone
even before loading
The reason why concrete behaves non-linear

Steel

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3 Phases

Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

Transition Zone
Non-linearity in the Stress-Strain relation of
Concrete is due to the interfacial transition zone

Lecture #2
Objectives

12

Concrete Failure
Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

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Properties > Concrete Strength


Lecture #2
Objectives

Concrete Strength,
28th-day compressive strength of a standard
4 by 8 or 6 by 12 cylinder concrete
I.

Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Minimum

Steel

17 MPa (2500 psi)


21 Mpa (3000 psi) members subject to
seismic forces (NSCP 2010 Section 421.3.4.2)
ACI 318 Chapter 4: Durability Requirement

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Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

Properties > Concrete Strength


Determining
Specimen

Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete

Types
3 Phases
Properties

Average of the strength of at least

Definitions

Steel

2 6 x 12 cylinders or
3 4 x 8 cylinders

Test Age

ACI gives designer freedom to specify age


usually taken as 28 days
For blended cement, due to slower strength gain,
allowed to use more than 28 days
fc(t) = (t/(4+0.85t))fc28

Curing Conditions

Control of humidity and temperature.


Specimens should be placed in tanks to keep them
fully saturated at the control temperature
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Properties > Concrete Strength


Determining

Lecture #2
Objectives

Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

Normal frequency curves for coefficients of variation of


10, 15, and 20%
V = standard deviation over the mean value
fcr' = required average compressive strength
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Properties > Concrete Strength


Determining

Lecture #2
Objectives

Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

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Properties > Stress-Strain Relationship


Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

Typical concrete stress-strain curves in


compression.
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Properties > Stress-Strain Relationship


Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

Notes:
Max stress, fc, reached
at a strain between
0.0015 to 0.003
followed descending
branch
Initial slope, initial
tangent modulus of
elasticity increases as
fc increases
Rising portion of -
resembles a parabola
with its vertex at fc
Slope of descending
branch tends to be less
than ascending branch
as fc becomes smaller
Maximum strain CU,
decreases as fc
increases
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Properties > Modulus of Elasticity

Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete

Types
Definitions
3 Phases

taken as secant modulus to a stress of 0.5


fc (0.45 from ACI)
Varies with age of loading, rate of loading,
type and size of specimen

Properties

Steel

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Reinforcing Steel
Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Reason for using steel as reinforcement:


Expansion properties for both steel and
concrete are considered to be
approximately the same (compatibility)
steel bonds well with concrete. bond
strength is proportional to the contact
surface of the steel with the concrete

Steel

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Reinforcing Steel
Types of Rebar
Plain Bars

Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete

Types

Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

Round in cross section


Used for special
purposes such as
dowels at expansion
joints or construction
joints in roads and
runways.

Deformed bars

Differ from plain bars in


that they have
indentations or ridges
in them, in a regular
pattern
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Reinforcing Steel
Lecture #2
Objectives
Concrete
Types
Definitions
3 Phases
Properties

Steel

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