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# 4100 AWL/Thomas_ch02p073-146 8/19/04 11:01 AM Page 111

## 2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity

EXERCISES 2.4
Finding Limits Graphically

a.

## 1. Which of the following statements about the function y = sxd

graphed here are true, and which are false?

lim sxd = 1

x: -1 +

y  f (x)

f. lim sxd = 0

g. lim sxd = 1

h. lim sxd = 1

i. lim sxd = 0

j. lim- sxd = 2

x:0

x:0

x:1

k.
1

x:0

c. lim- sxd = 1
x:0

b. lim- sxd = 0

x: -1

x:0

x:0

x:0
x:1
x:2

l. lim+ sxd = 0
x:2

111

112

## 2. Which of the following statements about the function y = sxd

graphed here are true, and which are false?

## a. Find limx:2+ sxd, limx:2- sxd , and (2).

b. Does limx:2 sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
c. Find limx:-1- sxd and limx:-1+ sxd .

y
y  f (x)

d. Does limx:-1 sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
5. Let sxd =

2
1

0,

x 0

1
sin x ,

x 7 0.

a.

lim + sxd = 1

x: -1

x: 2

c. lim sxd = 2

d. lim- sxd = 2

e. lim+ sxd = 1

x:2

x: 1

x:1

x: 1

x:0

x: 0

x0
0,
y 1
sin x , x  0

x:c

x:c

j.

lim sxd = 0

## k. lim+ sxd does not exist.

x: -1 -

x: 3

3 - x,
3. Let sxd = x
+ 1,
2

x 6 2
a. Does limx:0+ sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?

x 7 2.

b. Does limx:0- sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
y

c. Does limx:0 sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
6. Let g sxd = 2x sins1>xd .

y3x
3

y x1
2

y
y  x

1
0

## a. Find limx:2+ sxd and limx:2- sxd .

y  x sin 1x

b. Does limx:2 sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
c. Find limx:4- sxd and limx:4+ sxd .

1
2

d. Does limx:4 sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?

4. Let sxd = d

3 - x, x 6 2
2,
x = 2
x
,
2

1


2


x 7 2.
y
1

y3x

y  x

a. Does limx:0+ g sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?

y x
2
2

b. Does limx:0- g sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
c. Does limx:0 g sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?

## 2.4 One-Sided Limits and Limits at Infinity

7. a. Graph sxd = e

x 3,
0,

sin U
1
U:0 U

x Z 1
x = 1.

Using lim

## b. Find limx:1- sxd and limx:1+ sxd .

c. Does limx:1 sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?
1 - x 2,
8. a. Graph sxd = e
2,

sin 22u

21. lim

sin kt
t

sk constantd

## b. Find limx:1+ sxd and limx:1- sxd .

c. Does limx:1 sxd exist? If so, what is it? If not, why not?

25. lim

tan 2x
x

26. lim

27. lim

x csc 2x
cos 5x

## 28. lim 6x 2scot xdscsc 2xd

x Z 1
x = 1.

u :0

x:0

Graph the functions in Exercises 9 and 10. Then answer these questions.

x:0

## a. What are the domain and range of ?

b. At what points c, if any, does limx:c sxd exist?

x,
10. sxd = 1,
0,

0 x 6 1
1 x 6 2
x = 2

## Finding One-Sided Limits Algebraically

Find the limits in Exercises 1118.
x + 2
11. lim x: -0.5 A x + 1
lim + a

x: -2

x - 1
12. lim+
x: 1 A x + 2

t: 0

15. lim+

2h 2 + 4h + 5 - 25
h

16. lim-

26 - 25h + 11h + 6
h

x + 2
17. a. lim +sx + 3d
x + 2
x: -2
18. a. lim+
x:1

22x sx - 1d
x - 1

t:4

x 2 - x + sin x
2x
x:0

30. lim

32. lim

sin ssin hd
sin h
sin 5x
sin 4x

h:0

34. lim

35. lim

tan 3x
sin 8x

36. lim

x:0

2t
tan t

x:0

sin u
sin 2u

x:0

sin 3y cot 5y
y cot 4y
y:0

Calculating Limits as x :
In Exercises 3742, find the limit of each function (a) as x : q and
(b) as x : - q . (You may wish to visualize your answer with a
graphing calculator or computer.)
2
37. sxd = x - 3

41. hsxd =

38. sxd = p -

1
2 + s1>xd
-5 + s7>xd
2

3 - s1>x d

40. g sxd =

43. lim

x: q

45.

x + 2
b. lim -sx + 3d
x + 2
x: -2
b. limx: 1

22x sx - 1d
x - 1

b. lim-st - : t; d
t: 4

lim

sin 2x
x

3 - s2>xd

42. hsxd =

4 +

t: - q

2 - t + sin t
t + cos t

44.

lim

u: -q

46. lim

r: q

2
x2

1
8 - s5>x 2 d

## Use the graph of the greatest integer function y = :x; (sometimes

written y = int x), Figure 1.31 in Section 1.3, to help you find the limits in Exercises 19 and 20.
:u;
:u;
19. a. lim+
b. limu
u
u :3
u: 3
20. a. lim+st - : t; d

t: 0

33. lim

h: 0

h:0

sin s1 - cos td
1 - cos t

39. g sxd =

2x + 5
x
b
ba 2
x + 1
x + x

x + 6 3 - x
1
ba x ba
b
14. lim- a
7
x:1 x + 1
h: 0

31. lim

h
sin 3h

24. lim-

x + x cos x
x:0 sin x cos x

u :0

-1 x 6 0, or 0 6 x 1
x = 0
x 6 -1, or x 7 1

t: 0

29. lim

## c. At what points does only the left-hand limit exist?

d. At what points does only the right-hand limit exist?

13.

22. lim

22u
sin 3y
23. lim
y:0 4y

21 - x 2,
9. sxd = 1,
2,

113

A 22>x 2 B

cos u
3u

r + sin r
2r + 7 - 5 sin r

## Limits of Rational Functions

In Exercises 4756, find the limit of each rational function (a) as
x : q and (b) as x : - q .
47. sxd =

2x + 3
5x + 7

48. sxd =

2x 3 + 7
x - x2 + x + 7

49. sxd =

x + 1
x2 + 3

50. sxd =

3x + 7
x2 - 2

51. hsxd =

7x 3
x - 3x 2 + 6x

52. g sxd =

1
x 3 - 4x + 1

86

## Chapter 2 Limits and Continuity

end do:
Mathematica (assigned function and values for x0, eps and del may vary):
Clear[f, x]
y1: L  eps; y2: L  eps; x0 1;
f[x_]: (3x2  (7x  1)Sqrt[x]  5)/(x  1)
Plot[f[x], {x, x0  0.2, x0  0.2}]
L: Limit[f[x], x x0]
eps 0.1; del 0.2;
Plot[{f[x], y1, y2},{x, x0  del, x0  del}, PlotRange {L  2eps, L  2eps}]

1. (a) True
(e) True
(i) False

(b) True
(f) True
(j) False

(c) False
(g) False
(k) True

(d) True
(h) False
(l) False

2. (a) True
(e) True
(i) True

(b) False
(f) True
(j) False

(c) False
(g) True
(k) True

(d) True
(h) True

3. (a)

lim f(x)

x #

2
#

##  " #, lim  f(x) \$  # "

x#

(b) No, lim f(x) does not exist because lim  f(x) lim  f(x)
x#
x#
x#
(c) lim  f(x) 4#  1 3, lim  f(x) 4#  " \$
x%

x%

x%
x%
x%
4. (a)

lim f(x)

x #

2
#

## 1, lim  f(x) \$  # ", f(2) 2

x#

(b) Yes, lim f(x) 1 because " lim  f(x) lim  f(x)
x#
x#
x#
(c)
lim  f(x) 3  (1) 4, lim  f(x) 3  (1) 4
x c"

x c"

## (d) Yes, lim f(x) 4 because 4

x c"

lim

x c"

f(x)

lim

x c"

f(x)

5. (a) No, lim  f(x) does not exist since sin "x does not approach any single value as x approaches 0
x!
(b) lim  f(x) lim  0 0
x!

(c)

x!

lim f(x) does not exist because lim  f(x) does not exist
x!
x!

6. (a) Yes, lim  g(x) 0 by the sandwich theorem since x g(x) x when x  0
x!
(b) No, lim  g(x) does not exist since x is not defined for x  0
x!

(c) No, lim g(x) does not exist since lim  g(x) does not exist
x!
x!

7. (a

## lim f(x) " lim  f(x)

x1
(c) Yes, lim f(x) 1 since the right-hand and left-hand
(b)

x 1

x1

8. (a)

(b)

x1

x 1

x1

## limits exist and equal 0

9. (a) domain: 0 x 2
range: 0  y 1 and y 2
(b) xlim
f(x) exists for c belonging to
c
(0 1)  (" #)
(c) x 2
(d) x 0

## 10. (a) domain: _  x  _

range: " y 1
(b) xlim
f(x) exists for c belonging to
c
(_ 1)  (" ")  (" _)
(c) none
(d) none

11.

x c!&

lim

13.

x c#

14.

x 1

15.

lim 

lim

lim

h!

2
0.5  2
3
3/2
xx 

1
0.5  1
1/2

12.

lim

x 1

"
1
0 !
"1 
xx 
#
#

5
x x 1 2x
2 2(2)  5
"
x#  x #  " (#)#  (2) (2) # 1

## x " 1 x x 6 3 7 x 1 " 1 1 1 6 3 7 1 "# 71 27 1

h#  4h  5  5
h

lim 
h!

lim 
h!

ah#  4h  5b  5
h h#  4h  5  5

h#  4h  5  5
# 4h  5  5
hh# 

h
 4h  5  5

lim 
h!

h(h  4)
h h#  4h  5  5

04
5  5

2
5

87