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Competency-Based Learning Material

Participate in Workplace
Communication

HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL


Welcome to the Competency Based Learning Material / module on
Participate in Workplace Communication. This learning material
contains activities for you to complete.
The unit of competency Participate in Workplace Communication
covers the Knowledge, skills and attitudes required for a Motorcycle/Small
Engine Servicing NC II course. It is one of the modules in the Basic
Competencies at National Certificate Level (NC II).
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order
to complete each of the learning outcomes of this module. In each learning
outcome, there are Information Sheets, Resources sheets and Reference
Materials for further reading to help you better understand the required
activities. Follow these activities and answer the self-check. Get the answer
sheet from your trainer to reflect your answers for each self-check. If you
have questions, please don't hesitate to ask your facilitator for assistance.
Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)
You may have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in this
learning material because you have:

Actual experience on the job


Already completed training in this area

If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in a


particular skill or skills talk to him/her about having them formally
recognized so you won't have to do the same training again. If you have
qualification or a certificate of competency from previous trainings, show it
to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still relevant to this module,
they may become part of the evidence you can present for RPL.
At the end of this module is a learner's diary. Use this diary to record
important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace events that will
assist you in providing further details to your trainer or assessors. A Record
of Achievement is also provided for the trainer to complete upon completion
of the module.

This module was prepared to help you achieve the required competency
in performing shop maintenance. This will be one of the sources of
information that will enable you to acquire the knowledge and skills of this
particular trade at your own pace, with minimum supervision or help from
your trainer.

Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the
training of this module. Read through the Competency Based
Learning Material carefully. It is divided into sections which cover all
the skills and knowledge you need to successfully complete this
module.

Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager.


He or She is there to support you and show you the correct way to do
things. Ask for help.

Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to
consider when you are completing the activities and it is important
that you listen and take notes.

You will be given plenty of opportunities to ask questions and practice


on the job. Make sure you practice your new skills during regular
work shifts. This way you will improve both your speed and memory
and also your confidence.

Talk to more experienced workmates and ask for their guidance.

Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test your
own progress.

When you are ready, ask your trainer to watch you perform the
activities outlined in this learning material.

As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback on your
progress. Your trainer keeps feedback/ pre-assessment reports for this
reason. When you have successfully completed each element, ask your
trainer to mark on the reports that you are ready for assessment.

When you have completed this module and feel confident that you
have had sufficient practice, your trainer will arrange an appointment

with registered assessor to assess you. The results of your assessment


will be recorded in your competency Achievement Record.

Qualification

Motorcycle/Small Engine Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Participate in Workplace Communication

Module Title

Participating in Workplace Communication

INTRODUCTION:
This competency unit covers the knowledge, skills, and attitude required in
Participating in Workplace Communication.
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Upon completion of this module, you must be able to:
1. Obtain and convey workplace information
2. Participate in workplace meetings and discussions
3. Complete relevant work related documents
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Specific and
relevant information is accessed from appropriate
sources
2. Effective questioning , active listening and speaking skills are used to
gather and convey information
3. Appropriate medium is used to transfer information and ideas
4. Appropriate non- verbal communication is used

5. Appropriate lines of communication with supervisors and colleagues


are identified and followed
6. Defined workplace procedures for the location and storage of
information are used
7. Personal interaction is carried out clearly and concisely
8. Team meetings are attended on time
9. Own opinions are clearly expressed and those of others are listened to
without interruption
10.
Meeting inputs are consistent with the meeting purpose and
established protocols
11.
Workplace interactions are conducted in a courteous manner
12.
Questions about simple routine workplace procedures and
matters concerning working conditions of employment are asked and
responded to
13.
Meetings outcomes are interpreted and implemented
14.
Range of forms relating to conditions of employment are
completed accurately and legibly
15.
Workplace data is recorded on standard workplace forms and
documents
16.
Basic mathematical processes are used for routine calculations
17.
Errors in recording information on forms/ documents are
identified and properly acted upon
18.
Reporting requirements to supervisor are completed according
to organizational guidelines

Qualification
Unit of Competency
Module Title
Learning Outcome No. 1

Motorcycle/Small Engine Servicing NC II


Participate in Workplace Communication
Participating in Workplace Communication
Obtain and convey workplace information

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Specific relevant information is accessed from appropriate sources.
2. Effective questioning, active listening and speaking skills are used to
gather and convey information.
3. Appropriate medium is used to transfer information and ideas.
4. Appropriate non-verbal communication is used.

5. Appropriate lines of communication with superiors and colleagues are


identified and followed.
6. Defined workplace procedures for the location and storage of
information are used.
7. Personal interaction is carried out clearly and concisely.
CONTENTS:
1. Parts of speech
2. Sentence construction
3. Effective communication
CONDITIONS:
The students/ trainees must be provided with the following:
1. Writing materials (pen & paper)
2. References (books)
3. Manuals
METHODOLOGIES:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Group discussion
Interaction
Self paced learning
Reportorial

ASSESSMENT METHODS:
1. Written test
2. Practical/performance test
3. Interview
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-1
Unit of Competency
Participate in Workplace Communication
Learning Outcome #1
Obtain and convey workplace information
PARTS OF SPEECH
In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest
elements that have distinctive meanings. Based on their use and functions,
words are categorized into several types or parts of speech. This article will

offer definitions and examples for the 8 major parts of speech in English
grammar: noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition,
and interjection.

a. Noun
This part of a speech refers to words that are used to name persons,
things, animals, places, ideas, or events. Nouns are the simplest among the
8 parts of speech, which is why they are the first ones taught to students in
primary school.
Examples:
1. Tom Hanks is very versatile.
2. The italicized noun refers to a name of a person.
3. Dogs can be extremely cute.

In this example, the italicized word is considered a noun because it


names an animal.
1. It is my birthday.
2. The word birthday is a noun which refers to an event.
There are different types of nouns namely:

Proper. Proper nouns always start with a capital letter and refers to
specific names of persons, places, or things.
Examples: Volkswagen Beetle, Shakeys Pizza, Game of Thrones
Common. Common nouns are the opposite of proper nouns. These
are just generic names of persons, things, or places.
Examples: car, pizza parlor, TV series
Concrete. This kind refers to nouns which you can perceive through
your five senses.
Examples: folder, sand, board
Abstract. Unlike concrete nouns, abstract nouns are those which you
cant perceive through your five senses.
Examples: happiness, grudge, bravery
Count. It refers to anything that is countable, and has a singular and
plural form.
Examples: kitten, video, ball
Mass. this is the opposite of count nouns. Mass nouns are also called
non-countable nouns, and they need to have counters to quantify them.
Examples of Counters: kilo, cup, meter
Examples of Mass Nouns: rice, flour, garter
Collective. refers to a group of persons, animals, or things.
Example: faculty (group of teachers), class (group of students), pride
(group of lions)
b. Pronoun
A pronoun is a part of a speech which functions as a replacement for a
noun. Some examples of pronouns are: I, it, he, she, mine, his, hers, we,
they, theirs, and ours.
Sample Sentences:

1. Janice is a very stubborn child. She just stared at me and when I


told her to stop.
2. The largest slice is mine.
3. We are number one.
The italicized words in the sentences above are the pronouns in the
sentence.
c. Adjective
This part of a speech is used to describe a noun or a pronoun. Adjectives
can specify the quality, the size, and the number of nouns or pronouns.
Sample Sentences:
1. The carvings are intricate.
The italicized word describes the appearance of the noun carvings.
2. I have two hamsters.
The italicized word two, is an adjective which describes the number
of the noun hamsters.
3. Wow! That doughnut is huge!
The italicized word is an adjective which describes the size of the noun
doughnut.

d. Verb
This is the most important part of a speech, for without a verb, a
sentence would not exist. Simply put, this is a word that shows an action
(physical or mental) or state of being of the subject in a sentence.
Examples of State of Being Verbs : am, is, was, are, and were
Sample Sentences:
1. As usual, the Stormtroopers missed their shot.
The italicized word expresses the action of the subject Stormtroopers.

2. They are always prepared in emergencies.


The verb are refers to the state of being of the pronoun they, which is
the subject in the sentence.
e. Adverb
Just like adjectives, adverbs are also used to describe words, but the
difference is that adverbs describe adjectives, verbs, or another adverb.
The different types of adverbs are:
Adverb of Manner this refers to how something happens or how an
action is done.
Example: Annie danced gracefully.
The word gracefully tells how Annie danced.

done.

Adverb of Time- this states when something happens or when it is

Example: She came yesterday.


The italicized word tells when she came.
Adverb of Place this tells something about where something
happens or where something is done.
Example: Of course, I looked everywhere!
The adverb everywhere tells where I looked.
Adverb of Degree this states the intensity or the degree to which a
specific thing happens or is done.
Example: The child is very talented.
The italicized adverb answers the question, To what degree is the
child talented?
f. Preposition

This part of a speech basically refers to words that specify location or


a location in time.
Examples of Prepositions: above, below, throughout, outside, before,
near, and since
Sample Sentences:
1. Micah is hiding under the bed.
The italicized preposition introduces the prepositional phrase under
the bed, and tells where Micah is hiding.
2. During the game, the audience never stopped cheering for their
team.
The italicized preposition introduces the prepositional phrase during
the game, and tells when the audience cheered.

g. Conjunction
The conjunction is a part of a speech which joins words, phrases, or
clauses together.
Examples of Conjunctions: and, yet, but, for, nor, or, and so
Sample Sentences:
1. This cup of tea is delicious and very soothing.
2. Kiyoko has to start all over again because she didnt follow the
professors instructions.
3. Homer always wanted to join the play, but he didnt have the guts to
audition.
The italicized words in the sentences above are some examples of
conjunctions.
h. Interjection

This part of a speech refers to words which express emotions. Since


interjections are commonly used to convey strong emotions, they are usually
followed by an exclamation point.

Examples of Interjections:
Sample Sentences:
1. Ouch! That must have hurt.
2. Hurray, we won!
3. Hey! I said enough!
The bold words attached to the main sentences above are some
examples of interjections

REFERENCES
1. http://partofspeech.org/

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #1

SELF-CHECK 1.1-1
Participate in Workplace Communication
Obtain and convey workplace information
PARTS OF SPEECH

Identification
Directions: Write your answer on the space provided after the number. (5
minutes)
1. ________________ is a part of a speech which joins words, phrases,
or clauses together.
2. __________________ this tells something about where something
happens or where something is done.
3. __________________ this part of a speech is used to describe a noun or
a pronoun.
4. __________________ is a part of a speech which functions as a
replacement for a noun.

5. __________________ are the opposite of proper nouns. These are just


generic names of persons, things, or places.
TEST II
Directions: Give at least two examples of the following parts of speech. (15
minutes)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Adjectives
Pronouns
Adverbs
Conjunctions
Interjection

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #1

ANSWER KEY 1.1-1


Participate in Workplace Communication
Obtain and convey workplace information
PARTS OF SPEECH

Identification
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Conjunctions
Adverb of Place
Adjectives
Pronoun
Common Pronoun

TEST II
1. Adjectives
1.1.

1.2.
2. Pronoun
2.1.
2.2.
3. Adverbs
3.1.
3.2.
4. Conjunctions
4.1.
4.2.
5. Interjections
5.1.
5.2.

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-2


Unit of Competency
Participate in Workplace Communication
Learning Outcome #1
Obtain and convey workplace information
SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION
A sentence is the most fundamental and versatile tool available to writers.
Sentences generally flow from a subject to a verb to any objects,
complements, or modifiers, but they can be ordered in a variety of ways to
achieve emphasis. When shifting word order for emphasis, however, be
aware that word order can make a great difference in the meaning of a
sentence.

He was only the service technician. [suggests importance]


He was the only service technician. [defines the number]
The most basic components of sentences are subjects and predicates.
Subjects
The subject of a sentence is a noun or pronoun (and its modifiers) about
which the predicate of the sentence makes a statement. Although a subject
may appear anywhere in a sentence, it most often appears at the beginning.
(The wiring is defective.) Grammatically, a subject must agree with its verb
in number.

These departments have much in common.


This department has several functions.

The subject is the actor in sentences using the active voice.

The Webmaster reported an increase in site visits for May.

A compound subject has two or more substantives (nouns or noun


equivalents) as the subject of one verb.

The doctor and the nurse agreed on a treatment plan.

Predicates
The predicate is the part of a sentence that makes an assertion about the
subject and completes the thought of the sentence.

Bill has piloted the corporate jet.

The simple predicate is the verb and any helping verbs (has piloted).
The complete predicate is the verb and any modifiers, objects, or
complements (has piloted the corporate jet). A compound predicate consists of
two or more verbs with the same subject.

The company tried but did not succeed in that field.

Such constructions help achieve conciseness in writing. A predicate


nominative is a noun construction that follows a linking verb and renames
the subject.

She is my attorney. [noun]


His excuse was that he had been sick. [noun clause]

Sentence Types
Sentences may be classified according to structure (simple, compound,
complex,
compound-complex);
intention
(declarative,
interrogative,
imperative, exclamatory); and stylistic use (loose, periodic, minor).
Structure. A simple sentence consists of one independent clause. At its
most basic, a simple sentence contains only a subject and a predicate.

The power [subject] failed [predicate].

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses


connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction, by a semicolon, or
by a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.

Drilling is the only way to collect samples of the layers of sediment


below the ocean floor, but it is not the only way to gather information
about these strata. [comma and coordinating conjunction]

The chemical composition of seawater bears little resemblance to that


of river water; the various elements are present in entirely different
proportions. [semicolon]

It was 500 miles to the site; therefore, we made arrangements to fly.


[semicolon and conjunctive adverb]
A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one
dependent clause that expresses a subordinate idea.

The generator will shut off automatically [independent clause] if the


temperature rises above a specified point [dependent clause].

A compound-complex sentence consists of two or more independent


clauses plus at least one dependent clause.

Productivity is central to controlling inflation [independent clause];


when productivity rises [dependent clause], employers can raise wages
without raising prices [independent clause].

Intention. A declarative sentence conveys information or makes a factual


statement. (The motor powers the conveyor belt.) An interrogative sentence
asks a direct question. (Does the conveyor belt run constantly?) An
imperative sentence issues a command. (Restart in SAFE mode.) An
exclamatory sentence is an emphatic expression of feeling, fact, or opinion. It
is a declarative sentence that is stated with great feeling. (The files were
deleted!)
Stylistic Use. A loose sentence makes its major point at the beginning
and then adds subordinate phrases and clauses that develop or modify that
major point. A loose sentence could end at one or more points before it
actually does end, as the periods in brackets illustrate in the following
sentence:

It went up[.], a great ball of fire about a mile in diameter[.], an


elemental force freed from its bonds[.] after being chained for billions
of years.

A periodic sentence delays its main ideas until the end by presenting
subordinate ideas or modifiers first.

During the last century, the attitude of the American citizen toward
automation underwent a profound change.

A minor sentence is an incomplete sentence that makes sense in its


context because the missing element is clearly implied by the preceding
sentence.

In view of these facts, is the service contract really useful? Or


economical?

Constructing Effective Sentences


The subject-verb-object pattern is effective because it is most familiar
to readers. In The company increased profits, we know the subject
(company) and the object (profits) by their positions relative to the verb
(increased).
An inverted sentence places the elements in unexpected order, thus
emphasizing the point by attracting the readers attention.

A better job I never had. [direct object-subject-verb]


More optimistic I have never been. [subjective complement-subject
linking verb]
A poor image we presented. [direct object-subject-verb]

Use uncomplicated sentences to state complex ideas. If readers have to


cope with a complicated sentence in addition to a complex idea, they are
likely to become confused. Just as simpler sentences make complex ideas
more digestible, a complex sentence construction makes a series of simple
ideas smoother and less choppy.
Avoid loading sentences with a number of thoughts carelessly tacked
together. Such sentences are monotonous and hard to read because all the
ideas seem to be of equal importance. Rather, distinguish the relative
importance of sentence elements with subordination. See also garbled
sentences.
LOADED

We started the program three years ago, only three


members were on staff, and each member was responsible
for a separate state, but it was not an efficient operation.

IMPROVED

When we started the program three years ago, only three


members were on staff, each responsible for a separate
state; however, that arrangement was not efficient.

Express coordinate or equivalent ideas in similar form. The structure


of the sentence helps readers grasp the similarity of its components, as
illustrated in parallel structure.

REFERENCES:
1. Handbook of Technical Writing Alred, Gerald J.

SELF-CHECK 1.1-2
Participate in Workplace Communication
Obtain and convey workplace information

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #1

SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION
Structure
Directions: Questions 15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence
you will see four words or phrases, marked A, B, C and D. Choose
the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then, on your
answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that
corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
1. Refrigerating meats ________ the spread of bacteria.
A. retards
B. retarding
C. to retard
D. is retarded

2. Throughout the animal kingdom, ________ bigger than the elephant.


A. whale is only the
B. only the whale is

C. is the whale only


D. only whale is the

3. The fact ________ money orders can usually be easily cashed has made
them a popular form of payment.
A. Of
B. that
C. is that
D. which is
4. The first article of the United States Constitution gives Congress ________
to pass laws.
A. the power
B. has the power
C. the power is
D. of the power
Written Expression
Directions: In questions 510, each sentence has four underlined words or
phrases. The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked A, B, C and
D. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order
for the sentence to be correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number
of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the
answer you have chosen.

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #3

ANSWER KEY 1.1-2


Participate in Workplace Communication
Complete relevant work related documents
SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION

1. A
2. B
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. A
7. A
8. C
9. D
10.

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-3


Unit of Competency
Participate in Workplace Communication
Learning Outcome #1
Obtain and convey workplace information
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
What is Communication?
-

Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one


place to another.

Communication is a diverse discipline which includes inquiry by


social scientists, humanists, and critical and cultural studies
scholars. A body of scholarship and theory, about all forms of human
communication, is presented and explained in textbooks, electronic
publications, and academic journals. In the journals, researchers
report the results of studies that are the basis for an ever-expanding
understanding of how we all communicate.

The discipline of communication focuses on how people use messages to


generate meanings within and across various contexts, cultures, channels,

and media. The discipline promotes the effective and ethical practice of
human communication.
Transactional Model of Communication
- The transactional model of communication is a graphic representation
of the collaborative and ongoing message exchange between
individuals, or an individual and a group of individuals, with the goal
of understanding each other. A communicator encodes (e.g., puts
thoughts into words and gestures), then transmits the message via a
channel (e.g., speaking, email, text message) to the other
communicator(s) who then decode the message (e.g., take the words
and apply meaning to them). The message may encounter noise (e.g.,
any physical, psychological, or physiological distraction or
interference), which could prevent the message from being received or
fully understood as the sender intended. Click on the image to
enlarge.
Areas within Communication
- Areas of emphasis differ from one institution to another, but listed
below are some of the most common areas of study.
Applied Communication
- The study of how communication theory, research, and/or best
practices help inform knowledge and theory about communication for
practical issues.
Communication Education
- The study of communication in the classroom and other pedagogical
contexts.
Communication Theory
- The study of principles that account for the impact of communication
in human social interaction.
Electronic Media
- The study of radio, television, media technology, and web design with
streaming audio and video.
Health Communication
- The study of communication as it relates to health professionals and
health education, including the study of provider-client interaction, as
well as the diffusion of health information through public health
campaigns.

International and Intercultural Communication


- The study of communication among individuals of different cultural
backgrounds, including the study of similarities and differences
across cultures.
Interpersonal Communication
- The study of communication behaviors in dyads (pairs) and their
impact on personal relationships.
Language and Social Interaction
- The study of the structure of verbal and nonverbal behaviors
occurring in social interaction.
Legal Communication
- The study of the role of communication as it relates to the legal
system.
Mass Communication and Media Literacy
- The study of how mass forms of communication, such as print, radio
and television disseminate information and influence society.
Mediation and Dispute Resolution
- The study of understanding, management, and resolution of conflict
within intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup situations.
Organizational Communication
- The study of processes used to analyze communication needs of
organizations and social interaction, including how to improve
communication between supervisors and employees.
Performance Studies
- The study of components such as performer(s), text, audience, and
context within the communication discipline.
Political Communication
- The study of the role that communication plays in political systems.

Public Address
- The study of speakers and speeches, including the historical and
social context of platforms, campaigns, and movements.

Public Relations
- The study of the management of communication between an
organization and its audiences.
Rhetorical Criticism
- The process of defining, classifying, analyzing, interpreting, and/or
evaluating rhetorical artifacts.
Semiotics and Philosophy of Communication
- The study of philosophical frameworks and our understanding of
communication, including verbal and nonverbal symbols and signs in
human communication.
Small Group Communication
- The study of communication systems among three or more individuals
who interact around a common purpose and who influence one
another.
Speech Communication
- The study of the nature, processes, and effects of human symbolic
interaction. While speech is the most obvious mode of communication,
human symbolic interaction includes a variety of verbal and nonverbal
codes.
Theatre and Drama
- The study and production of dramatic literature.
Visual Communication
- The study of visual data, such as architecture, photography, visual
art, advertising, film, and television as it relates to communication.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend
upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of
communication channel and your style of communicating also affects
communication. So, there are variety of types of communication.
Types of communication based on the communication channels used are:
1. Verbal Communication

2. Nonverbal Communication
Verbal Communication

Verbal communication refers to the the form of communication in


which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of
mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have
people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication
remember the acronym KISS (keep it short and simple).
When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we
are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case.
usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts
about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning.
So in order to deliver the right message, you must put yourself on the
other side of the table and think from your receivers point of view. Would he
understand the message? how it would sound on the other side of the table?
Verbal Communication is further divided into two:

Oral Communication
Written Communication

Oral Communication
In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-toface conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television,
voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by
pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.
Advantages of Oral communication are:
-

It brings quick feedback.


In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body
language one can guess whether he/she should trust whats being
said or not.

Disadvantage of oral communication

In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about what


he is delivering, so this can be counted as a

Written Communication
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to
communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written
communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo
etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary &
grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.
Written Communication is most common form of communication being
used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills.
Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and
electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal
communication. For communicating with external environment in writing,
electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes,
postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are
used.
Advantages of written communication includes:
-

Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is actually


sent.
Written communication provide record for every message sent and can
be saved for later study.
A written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send
appropriate feedback.

Disadvantages of written communication includes:


-

Unlike oral communication, Written communication doesnt bring


instant feedback.
It take more time in composing a written message as compared to
word-of-mouth. and number of people struggles for writing ability.

Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless
messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written,
such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions,

is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about


the body language of speaker.
Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message
received. Often, nonverbal signals reflect the situation more accurately than
verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal
communication and hence affects the effectiveness of message.

Nonverbal communication have the following three elements:


Appearance
Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings
Body Language
facial expressions, gestures, postures
Sounds
Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate
Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style
Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of
communication and they both bears their own characteristics.
Communication types based on style and purpose are:
1. Formal Communication
2. Informal Communication

1. Formal Communication
In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles
are followed while communicating message. Formal communication occurs
in formal and official style. Usually professional settings, corporate
meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern.
In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided
and correct pronunciation is required. Authority lines are needed to be
followed in formal communication.

2. Informal Communication
Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast
with formal communication channels. Its just a casual talk. It is established
for societal affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face
discussions. It happens among friends and family. In informal
communication use of slang words, foul language is not restricted. Usually.
informal communication is done orally and using gestures.
Informal communication, Unlike formal communication, doesnt follow
authority lines.
In an organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people
express more when talking informally. Informal communication helps in
building relationships.
Communication in the workplace
Can be either your best friend or your worst enemy. It will improve
your overall workplace culture. Another positive is that good solid
organizational communication eliminates barriers and resolve problems.
While at the same time building stronger workplace relationships for
increased productivity.
There are many potential problems that can be caused by poor
communication skills. Increased amount of employee turnover, high
amounts of call outs, poor customer service skills, diminished productivity
and the lack of focus. These are just to name a few.
So why does poor communication in the workplace cause these
issues. Some surveys and discussions have acknowledged that lack of
information is a cause. In others words keeping people in the loop. Some
have said they don't feel important in the eyes of their employers. While
others have stated not enough face to face interactions. Another good reason
is lack of email etiquette. This is typically when an email is written strongly
when it does not have to be.
Business ethics in the workplace and poor workplace behavior ethics
can be directly related to ineffective communications. Understanding ethics
in the workplace and workplace behavior ethics is the all important first
step.

Improve Workplace Culture


Effective communication in the
workplace plays a prominent role in
developing
long
lasting
employee
motivation. One of many positive
benifits gained from well established
organizational
communication
is
improved
relationships.
Improving
relationships between management
and staff is quite important and is
often overlooked. Things will go
smoothly when everyone is on the same page, understanding of goals and
the direction a company is going. The best process of communcating here is
well thought out emails that follow the chain of command and face to face
interactions.
Communications and Time Management
Good Communication skills will help you improve time management in
the workplace. The ability will exist for you to manage your own time as well
as keeping your staff focused on deadlines. Understanding the
communication process will open many doors to improve productivity. Read
this article on understanding and improving time management in the
workplace.
Another positive result is that employees feel important. Many
employees have complained about how they are just a number. Providing a
little feeling and personality to emails will reverse this complaint. Use this
technique when providing recognition or when it involves a sensitive issue.
Express your concerns about their feelings and they will feel important. Face
to face interactions work best here, though email communicating is also
considered effective.
There are barriers to effective business communications. Removing
those barriers will improve your ability to motivate workers. Managers must
Understand and be able to recognize barriers that hurt the communication
process. This is another positive result of proper communication in the
workplace.
13 Barriers to Effective Business Communication

#1 Not Listening
One of the most common barriers to communication is poor listening
skills. So why does not listening happen? Well there are a few reasons. You
may have no involvement or concern with the topic. You will then have no
desire to take part in the conversation. There also may be distractions. For
example working in an area that is loud and noisy.
Here are a couple more reasons for lack of listening. First there might
be differences in opinions regarding the topic. And this last one in which I
have seen many times. Passive listening instead of taking an active role. In
this case you are involved in something else at the same time.
#2 Making Assumptions
How many times have you made a decision based on assuming
something will happen. Only to find out that it didn't go as planned. We all
know that we shouldn't make assumptions. But we still do it anyway.
Assumptions a lot of times will be made to speed up a process or task.
Assumptions are made to cut corners and save time by ignoring the
path of communication. The major problem with making assumptions is
that 9 times out of 10 it doesn't workout. Also by making assumption you
will likely miss out on important information.

#3 Body language
Non verbal signals has the potential to block effective communication
in the workplace. Negative body language like waving your hands, raising
your arms in discuss and even shaking your head will send negative
messages. It is all about interpretation. The impacts of these traits can effect
workplace relationships and your willingness to take part in communicating.
The best action a leader can take is to understand your own body language.
#4 Ineffective Questions
Quite often people ask questions that lack details. The whole point of
asking questions in the first place is to confirm what has been
communicated or for clarification. Asking the right types of questions will
provide effective communication in the workplace. Make sure you use open
ended questions to get the proper answers you seek. This type of question
includes details like who, what, where, when and how.

#5 Information Overload
Many times effective communication in the workplace is blocked by
the overwhelming amount of information. How many times have you seen
the same email covering the same information just from a different sender.
What ends up happening is that many employees start to ignore those
emails. The problem is that some of the emails will have prominent details
that were not included in the original. The best way to avoid this is to
provide new emails, just dont cc and forward emails.
#6 Emotional Distractions
Emotions play a big role in how we approach and accomplish things.
Outside factors like a death or illness can keep your mind out of focus.
Sometimes a listener may interpret a communication as angry. This in turn
will make the listener react in a negative light.
The same happens if the communication message is interpreted to be
positive. The listener will like the message and listen closely.
#7 Conflicting Messages
Communications can be sometimes conflicting and this will cause the
communication process to breakdown. Inconsistent body language tells the
story of one thing, but the message discussed is different. This will create
confusion for the receiver of the message. The resulting confusion may lead
to the message being ignored.
#8 Physical Barriers
This might be the most common type of barrier that blocks the
communication process. Anything that can physically distract you is part of
this barrier. Some examples like temperatures, phones, or even the building
itself can be an distraction.
#9 Perception
There has always been one consistent with communication in the
workplace. That one consistent is called perceptional barriers. The main
problem with perception is that we all look at the world differently. One way
to avoid perceptional barriers is to remember there are other views points
and opinions. Also keep your mind open to new ideas and approaches from
these view points. You never know when there's a good idea on the horizon.

#10 Cultural
Dealing with different cultures can sometimes be difficult to navigate.
Many times its a difference in approach or a process of doing things. All
cultures have different beliefs and customs. They often can clash and build
up walls that negatively effect the communication process.
#11 Language
Differences in languages that are spoken in the workplace can effect
your ability to communicate. Words can be misunderstood and
misconstrued that in turn can cause negative communication barriers.
#12 Workplace Stress
Dealing with stress in this day and age is a 24/7 activity. It shouldn't
be a surprise of its strong affect on the communication in the workplace.
The results of stress on employees can range from change in attitudes, lack
of focus and even calling out. These issues can lead to missing deadlines,
decreased productivity and weakened communication between employees.
Understanding the ins and outs of stress management in the workplace can
provide you ways to handle workplace stress.
#13 Interpersonal
There are six levels of how co workers can avoid interaction with
others.
#1. Withdrawal When someone avoids or refuses to be near a
particular or individual group
#2. Rituals These consist of people being set in ways by following
routines. These routines will keep people from working with others.
#3. Pastimes Interact with others socially, but superficial activities.
#4. Working activities are those tasks which follow the rules and
procedures of contact.
#5. Games are subtle, manipulative interactions which are about
winning and losing.
#6. Closeness is the aim of interpersonal contact where there is a
high level of honesty and acceptance of yourself and others.

Communication in the workplace will always be a work in progress.


There will be a lot of adjustments in the process until it reaches
effectiveness. Remove the barriers that block the process and you will
improve employee motivation. With a two way avenue of information flowing,
you will find solutions more easier. With an open path of communication,
feedback from employees will help in determining solutions.
Effective communication skills in the workplace will improve your
ability to be a strong leader. There are also added benefits to having strong
communication skills. First its a skill that you can use in everyday life.
Secondly Being a good communicator will help you strengthens and improve
other management skills. Refer to the list below for some skills that can be
improved as a result of have strong communication skills. Read more on any
of the these skills by clicking on the appropriate skill.

REFERENCES:
1. www.natcom.org/discipline/
2. http://www.notesdesk.com/notes/business-communications/typesof-communication/
3. http://www.employee-motivation-skills.com/communication-in-theworkplace.html

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #1

SELF-CHECK 1.1-3
Participate in Workplace Communication
Obtain and convey workplace information

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
TEST I
Direction: Give the meaning.
1. What is communication?

TEST II
Direction: Write your answer on the space provided.

________ 1
The study of the role that communication plays in
political systems.
________ 2

Is done using channels that are in contrast with formal


communication channels.

________ 3
The study of communication in the classroom and other
pedagogical contexts.
________ 4

Helps receiver in interpreting the message received.

________ 5
Is most common form of communication being used in
business. So, it is considered core among business skills.

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #1

ANSWER KEY 1.1-3


Participate in Workplace Communication
Obtain and convey workplace information

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
TEST I
1. Communication is simply the act of transferring information from
one place to another.
TEST II
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Political Communication
Informal communication

Communication Education
Nonverbal communication
Written Communication

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-4


Unit of Competency
Participate in Workplace Communication
Learning Outcome #1
Obtain and convey workplace information
SELECTING THE MEDIUM
With so many media and forms of communication available, selecting the
most appropriate medium can be challenging. Which electronic or paper
medium (or channel) is best depends on a wide range of factors related to
your audience, your purpose, and the context of the communication.
Those factors include the following:

The audiences preferences and expectations


Your own most effective communication style
How widely information needs to be distributed
What kind of record you need to keep
The urgency of the communication
The sensitivity or confidentiality required
The technological resources available
The organizational practices or regulations

As this list suggests, choosing the best medium may involve personal
considerations or the essential functions of the medium. If you need to
collaborate with someone to solve a problem, for example, you may find email exchanges less effective than a phone call or face-to-face meeting. If you

need precise wording or a record of a complex or sensitive message, however,


using a written medium is often essential.
Keep in mind that many of the following media and forms of
communication evolve and overlap as technology develops. Understanding
their basic functions will help you select the most appropriate medium for
your needs. See adapting to new technologies for advice on how to learn
and make the best use of new technologies as they continue to evolve.
E-mail
E-mail (or email) functions in the workplace as a primary medium to
communicate and share electronic files with colleagues, clients, and
customers. Although e-mail may function as informal notes, e-mail
messages should follow the writing strategy and style described in
correspondence. Because recipients can easily forward messages and
attachments to others and because e-mail messages are subject to legal
disclosure, e-mail requires writers to review their messages carefully before
clicking the Send button.
Memos
Memos are appropriate for internal communication among members
of the same organization; they use a standard header and are sent on paper
or as attachments to e-mails. Organizations may use memos printed on
organizational stationery when they need to communicate with the formality
and authority of business letters. Memos may also be used in
manufacturing or service industries, for example, where employees do not
have easy access to e-mail. In such cases, memos can be used to instruct
employees, announce policies, report results, disseminate information, and
delegate responsibilities.
Letters
Business letters with handwritten signatures are often the most
appropriate choice for formal communications with professional associates
or customers outside an organization. Letters printed on organizational
letterhead stationery communicate formality, respect, and authority. They
may be especially effective for those people who receive a high volume of e-

mail and other electronic correspondence. Letters are often used for job
applications, for recommendations, and in other official and social contexts.
Faxes
A fax is used when the information a drawing or signed contract,
for example must be viewed in its original form. Although scanning such
documents and attaching them to e-mail is common, faxing is often used
when scanning is not available or when a recipient prefers a faxed
document. Fax machines in offices can be located in shared areas, so let the
intended recipient know before you send confidential or sensitive messages.
Consider using a cover sheet that says confidential and be sure to include
the name of the person to whose attention the fax is being sent and number
of pages in the document to ensure full receipt.
Instant Messaging
Instant messaging (IM) on a computer or handheld device may be an
efficient way to communicate in real time with coworkers, suppliers, and
customers especially those at sites without access to e-mail. Instant
messaging, like text messaging, often uses online slang and such shortened
spellings as u for you to save time and screen space. Instant messaging
may have limited application in the workplace because recipients must be
ready and willing to participate in an online conversation.

Text Messaging
Text messaging, or texting, refers to the exchange of brief written
messages between mobile phones over cellular networks. Text messaging is
effective for simple messages communicated between people on the move or
in nontraditional workplaces. For the real-time message exchanges of brief
messages, use the telephone or instant messaging.
Telephone and Conference Calls
Telephone calls are best used for exchanges that require substantial
interaction and the ability of participants to interpret each others tone of
voice. They are useful for discussing sensitive issues and resolving

misunderstandings, although they do not provide the visual cues possible


during face-to-face meetings. Cell (or mobile) phones are useful for
communicating away from an office, but users should follow appropriate
etiquette and organizational policies, such as speaking in an appropriate
tone and turning off the phone or switching it to the vibration mode during
meetings.
A teleconference, or conference call, among three or more participants
is a less-expensive alternative to face-to-face meetings requiring travel.
Conference calls work best when the person coordinating the call works
from an agenda shared by all the participants and directs the discussion as
if chairing a meeting. Participants can use the Web during conference calls
to share and view common documents. Conference calls in which decisions
have been reached should be followed with written confirmation.
Voice-Mail Messages
Voice-mail messages should be clear and brief. (I got your package, so
you dont need to call the distributor.) If the message is complicated or
contains numerous details, use another medium, such as e-mail. If you
want to discuss a subject at length, let the recipient know the subject so
that he or she can prepare a response before returning your call. When you
leave a message, give your name and contact information as well as the date
and time of the call (if you are unsure whether the message will be timestamped).
Face-to-Face Meetings
In-person meetings are most appropriate for initial or early contacts
with associates and clients with whom you intend to develop an important,
long-term relationship or need to establish rapport. Meetings may also be
best for brainstorming, negotiating, interviewing someone on a complex
topic, solving a technical problem, or handling a controversial issue. For
advice on how to record discussions and decisions, see minutes of
meetings.
Videoconferences
Videoconferences are particularly useful for meetings when travel is
impractical. Unlike telephone conference calls, videoconferences have the
advantage of allowing participants to see as well as to hear one another.

They work best with participants who are at ease in front of the camera and
when the facilities offer good production quality.
Web Communication
The Web can encompass many of the media and forms of
communication described in this entry; it can also include some other
interactive capabilities.
Web Conferencing. The Web can be used to conduct meetings, which
are often referred to as Web conferences. In such meetings, the participants
computers may be connected to those of other participants through a
downloaded application on each of the attendees computers. In such a
conference, a moderator can control the cursor on the participants
computers. Various programs, like Skype with video or phone connections,
can enrich these meetings.
Professional Networking. Using the model of social-networking sites,
like Facebook.com, some professional organizations and businesses are
creating their own networking sites to foster professional contacts. Other
commercial networks, like LinkedIn.com, aim to connect professionals for
business purposes. Many businesses place advertising on both professional
and social-networking sites and, if used with caution, both may be helpful
for your professional advancement and job search.
Web-Site Postings. A public Internet or company intranet Web site is
ideal for posting announcements or policies as well as for sharing or
exchanging documents and files with others. Your Web site can serve not
only as a home base for resources but also as a place where ideas can be
developed through, for example, discussion boards, blogs and forums, and
wikis.

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #1

SELF-CHECK 1.1-4
Participate in Workplace Communication
Obtain and convey workplace information
SELECTING THE MEDIUM

Identification
Direction: Write your answer on the space provided.
________ 1
It functions in the workplace as a primary medium to
communicate and share electronic files with colleagues, clients, and
customers.
________ 2
Are appropriate for internal communication among
members of the same organization; they use a standard header and
are sent on paper or as attachments to e-mails.
________ 3
It is used when the information a drawing or signed
contract, for example must be viewed in its original form.
________ 4
It refers to the exchange of brief written messages between
mobile phones over cellular networks.
________ 5
The most appropriate for initial or early contacts with
associates and clients with whom you intend to develop an important,
long-term relationship or need to establish rapport.

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #1

ANSWER KEY 1.1-4


Participate in Workplace Communication
Obtain and convey workplace information
SELECTING THE MEDIUM

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Email
Memos
Faxes
Text Messaging
Face-to-Face Meeting

Qualification
Unit of Competency
Module Title
Learning Outcome No. 3

Motorcycle/Small Engine Servicing NC II


Participate in Workplace Communication
Participating in Workplace Communication
Participate in workplace meetings and
discussions

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Team meetings are attended on time
2. Own opinions are clearly expressed and those of others are listened to
without interruption
3. Meeting inputs are consistent with the meeting purpose and
established protocols
4. Workplace interactions are conducted in a courteous manner
5. Questions about simple routine workplace procedures and maters
concerning working conditions of employment are asked and
responded to
6. Meetings outcomes are interpreted and implemented
CONTENTS:
1. Technical writing
CONDITIONS:
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Paper
Pencils/ball pen
References (books)
Manuals

METHODOLOGIES:
1. Group discussions
2. Interaction
3. Lecture

4. Self paced learning


ASSESSMENT METHODS:
1. Written test
2. Practical/performance test
3. Interview
INFORMATION SHEET 1.2-1
Unit of Competency
Participate in Workplace Communication
Learning Outcome #2
Participate in workplace meetings and
discussions
TECHNICAL WRITING
TECHNICAL WRITING is a broad term that encompasses a wide
variety of documents in science, engineering, and the skilled trades. The
major types of documents in technical writing can be grouped into four
major categories (Fig. 1.1):

Reports and communications in day-to-day business


Technical papers, magazine articles, books, and theses for purposes of

education, teaching, and the sharing of information and knowledge


Patents
Operational manuals, instructions, or procedures

Most technical writing in day-to-day business involves the preparation of


various reports (Fig. 1.1). Writing reports is common for many technical
people because reports are a major part of the development and application
of technology. Very few companies pay technical professionals a salary
without written words to implement and evaluate what has been worked on
or developed. For example, if an engineer spends a year developing a new
transmission for a car, several types of reports are needed for the design,
evaluation, and implementation of the new component. Engineering must
also report to management on the viability of design, costs, and work
objectives. This usually requires a written document and related engineering
drawingsa report.

A second category of technical writing includes documents for


teaching and education (Fig. 1.1) in the form of scripts, magazine articles,
books, papers, and degree theses. Scripts for videos, movies, magazine
articles, or multimedia presentations are most often written and edited by
professionals in these fields.
Books on technical topics are most often written by academicians,
although technical professionals occasionally may write an entire book in
their area of experience and knowledge. Writing a book obviously requires
much more discipline than the writing of reports, but it still requires the
clarity of presentation and purpose as in the reports and papers of daytoday business. Chapter 4, Writing Strategy, also has relevance for book
authors. The key difference is that books are intended for a larger audience
and should have unique and compelling features for the readers.
Papers and theses are more common forms of educational or
informational documents written by technical professionals. Of course,
many people in science and engineering write theses. However, they usually
only do one per degree, and the formal writing style and related details are
almost always rigorously dictated by the school involved. Papers are the
other category in the grouping of types of technical writing that could be
considered to be teaching or educational. This book includes information on
writing a paper, because it is very possible that a technical person will write
papers throughout his or her career.
Another category of technical writing is for manuals, instructions, and
procedures (Fig. 1.1). This form of specialized writing is not addressed in
this book because these kinds of documents often have legal/liability
implications and are best left to trained technical writers. For example, if
you invent a novel type of bicycle seat, a user who got hurt because he

installed the seat pointing aft could sue you if you did not include in the
installation and use manual a statement like the following:
The prow of the seat (point A in Fig. 6) should be positioned pointing
at the handlebars (Fig. 7).
Similar liability could be incurred by overlooking a safety or
environmental concern in writing a heat treating procedure for a gear. If a
particular career situation requires that you write these kinds of documents,
appropriate references on technical writing are listed at the end of this
Chapter.
Finally, patents require another key type of document in technical
writing. Lawyers usually write patents, but not without lots of writing and
searching on the part of the applicant. Thus, this book addresses the
inventors part of a patent application and the general criteria for
patentability
Attributes of Technical Writing
The remainder of this Chapter describes the specific attributes of
technical writing and shows examples of how technical writing differs from
other types of writing. In general, technical writing has a degree of formality,
and it generally focuses on a specific subject with the purpose of making
something happen or sharing useful information or knowledge.
Ten general attributes of technical writing are listed and described in
the following sections:

It
It
It
It
It
It
It
It

pertains to a technical subject.


has a purpose.
has an objective.
conveys information/facts/data.
is impersonal.
is concise.
is directed.
is performed with a particular style and in a particular

format.
It is archival.
It cites contributions of others.

There are probably more attributes, but the attributes in the above list
define some key characteristics that distinguish technical writing from other
types of writing
Pertains to a Technical Subject
Technical writing must pertain to some aspect of engineering or the
sciences in a given subject area such as the following:

Philosophy, psychology, and religion


History
Geography and anthropology
Social sciences
Political science
Law
Education
Fine arts
Language and literature
Science
Agriculture
Technology
Health/medicine

Libraries usually categorize books into these subject categories, and


technical writing may apply to any of these categories if the work contains
engineering or science as the focus. For example, a paper on the
acoustic/sound aspects of a piano could be very technical and end up in the
music category. Similarly, a book on restoration techniques for antiques
could be rife with chemistry and metallurgy, but it may end up in the fine
arts category. The point is that technical writing can be on one of many
different subjects if the subject is being described or evaluated in an
objective fashion.
Has a Purpose
A technical document always is written for a reason, and the purpose
of reports may be to explain what was done, why it was done, and/or the
results of a study. The purpose of reports on investigations is usually to
present the results of the study.
The purpose of reports and papers should also be clearly stated, as in
the following example:

It is the purpose of this report to present the results of a statistical study


on the failure rate of spring latches on a type D cardiology cassette. There
have been a number of latch failures uncovered in the inspection cycle,
and this work is the first step in reducing the latch failure rate to less
than three ppm failure rate.
This excerpt identifies the purpose of the report as the presentation of
results from a statistical study. Readers are also informed why the author(s)
did the work. If the report is done correctly, it will also close with
recommendations on what should happen next.
Has an Objective
The objective of a technical report is the overall reason for doing the
work. In an industrial situation, the objective of any work is usually to make
or increase profits. In the preceding example, the objective was to reduce
failure rates to a level of less than three ppm. This will save money and
increase profits. Discriminating between purpose and objective requires
some practice, and this distinction is discussed in more detail again in the
Chapters on strategies and introductions.
Conveys Information/Facts/Data
Technical writing should have substance in every statement. If a
sentence does not convey information pertinent to a study, leave it out.
Technical writing is focused on the technology under discussion.
A report without facts or scientific evidence to support an opinion also
usually lacks credibility, and it is likely to be unsuccessful in achieving its
purpose and objective. The following report excerpt illustrates reports with
and without data. Which would persuade you?

No Data
A decision has been made to convert the machine shop grinding
operations into a three-shift operation to increase efficiency and machine
utilization.
Preferredwith Data
A study was conducted to improve the elapsed time required to grind a
set of slitting knives. The average elapsed time for a regrind for the 1997
fiscal year was 11 days. A second study indicated that the largest time
allotment in the 11 day regrind time was 3.4 days waiting for grinder
availability. These studies were based on one shift (day). A three-week test
with three-shift operation reduced the waiting for machine availability
time to zero. The elapsed time for thirty knife sets that were ground in the
three-week test time was less than one day. These test results suggest

The use of data and factual information makes the work a technical
report. The communication without the data is not much different than a
water cooler discussion between coworkers. If the author is the leading
expert of the world on grinding, his or her opinions may make the report
persuasive, but most people are not infallible authorities on subjects.
Most reports need facts or data to support conclusions and
recommendations, and the verbs listed here are probably associated with
factual statements:

Determined
Solved
Built
Accepted
Rejected
Completed
Passed
Failed
Broke
Approved

Cancelled
Invented
Designed
Developed
Discovered
Uncovered
Deduced
Studied

Verbs that are often not associated with factual statements include words
like the following:

Think
May be
Suggest
Appear
Suppose

Impersonal (Third Person) Voice


The use of first person pronouns is usually discouraged in technical
writing. The intrusion of I makes the work less authoritative. Similarly, it
is inappropriate to use names of people and/or trade names unless there is
no other way to describe the item.

Discouraged
I ran a series of hardness tests on the valve seals for Bob MacArther
from the shops division, and I found that three of the seals were below
normal. I also notified Harry Randall and Phylis Carter so that the two of
them could do Rockwell measurements on future value seals.

The preceding excerpt from a report on metal hardness problems


illustrates how not to write a technical report. Judicious use of personal
pronouns is acceptable, but because a novice in technical writing may not
know when it is acceptable, it is probably advisable to avoid the use of
personal pronouns (I, you, me, we, mine) in formal reports and published

papers. Writing in the third person is the style adopted in many journals
and organizations. [The text contains personal anecdotes that may use
personal pronouns. I placed them within brackets so that I can follow the
rule of no personal pronouns in the remainder of the text. Consider these
bracketed sections like the sidebars used in some texts to interject
interesting facts, like biographical sketches, to keep the readers interest. In
my case, the first draft of this book was deemed boring by several
reviewers. The second draft with personal anecdotes was not labeled boring
by the second set of reviewers, just rough. This third rewrite addresses the
dislikes of all ten reviewers, and I left anecdotes like this in because, let us
face itEnglish grammar and writing techniques are not the most titillating
subjects.]
With regard to using peoples names in reports, it is not necessary and
it reads unprofessional. In addition, it adds length, and anything that adds
unnecessary length to a document should not be done. If the intent of
including names is to give credit, the correct placement of credits is not in
the body of a report. Credits belong in end-of-document acknowledgments,
which will be covered in a subsequent Chapter. Personal pronouns and
names should be omitted because they are unnecessary. Trade names
should be avoided because of liability considerations. The message can
usually be conveyed fully without their use:
Preferred
A series of hardness tests were conducted on valve seals at the request of
the Shops Division, and it was determined that three parts had
abnormally low hardness. The appropriate individuals were notified so
that they can request hardness testing on future valve-seal shipments.

Be Concise
Technical reports are usually written for business reasons. They are
not intended to entertain; they communicate information to an identified
person or group. Say what you want to say and get out! Wandering
sentences and extra words reflect badly on the author and often have a
negative effect on the readership that you are trying to reach.

Wordy
Polymer surfaces were studied to determine if physical surface changes
occur with continued UV exposure. This program was necessitated to meet
customer expectations for a longtime company with world-class name
recognition. If surface degradation is in fact occurring, we need to
ascertain and assess the severity of this degradation. Moreover, it is
imperative that we address any product deficiencies so that the company
image as a supplier of robust products is not denigrated.
Preferred
A study was conducted to quantify UV damage to polymer surfaces. This
work was done to satisfy customer concerns about the weatherability of

Concision can become an acquired writing trait. There are text books
on the subject, but a major source of extra words are phrases such as it
follows that, in any case, and nonetheless. It is often possible to replace
these phrases with a punctuation mark.
Not Concise
The biopsy results were negative. Nonetheless, the nurse-practitioner sent
a sample for retest to be sure.
Preferred
The biopsy results were negative, but the nurse-practitioner sent a
sample for retest to be sure.

Concise writing is described further in subsequent Chapters, but


every writer should strive to state his or her message with the fewest words.
Invariably, the people who read technical documents are busy. Extra words
mean extra work for them and that they like your document (plan, proposal,
etc.) less.
Directed to Readers

Chapter 4 Writing Strategy discusses readership of reports, but at this


point it is sufficient to say that technical reports must be directed to a
particular readership. The author is responsible for determining the specific
individuals or parties who will receive a technical document. Writing should
be aimed at the readership. Directing a report determines the technical level
of the writing. If you direct a report to your coworkers, you do not have to
bring them up to speed on the organization of your department. They
already know it.
Parochial Report
The attached procedure covers the operation of an infrared camera on the
departments SEM. This equipment upgrade addresses the problem that
exists in determining the exact location of beam impingement within the
sample holder area.

The readers know what an infrared camera is, where it goes on the
instrument, what an SEM (scanning electron microscope) is, and about the
impingement problem, or they should know, if the document is correctly
directed. If this report was to be circulated outside the department or to
upper level management, it would be necessary to give background
information and define terms.
Style and Format
The attributes of technical writing also include style and format. Style
is the way that you write; format is the ordering and physical layout of a
document.
The appropriate style for technical writing is objective. Technical
documents present data, facts, calculations, test results, and theories, and
these must be presented in an accurate manner that is not opinionated.
Conclusions are inferred from test results; recommendations are the logical
outcome of the conclusions.

Not Objective
The damaged gear train was removed in a bushel basket. Only a miracle
worker could put this puppy back together. The operators must have
fallen asleep at the controls.
Preferred
The damaged gear train was removed for inspection to determine the root
cause of failure. At this point in the failure analysis, it appears that the
unit cannot be returned to service. Testing will be completed by
Wednesday.
The format (the basic elements and their placement) of technical
papers and reports is a more structured one than that used for other forms
of writing. Formal technical reports have basic elements and a structure as
follows:

Introduction (why you are doing the work)


Procedure (what you did)
Results (what happened)
Discussion (what it means)
Conclusions (what was learned)
Recommendations (what is to be done with the new information
or knowledge)

This style and format have been agreed to by international technical


journals, most educational institutions that teach in English, and most
industries or organizations that employ engineers and scientists. As shown
in subsequent Chapters, all of these report elements may sometimes be put
on one page.
[I recently acquired a new supervisor who is not familiar with
engineering or laboratory testing. He receives a copy of all my reports. He
recently annotated one of my reports with seems rather segregated. He is
right; technical reports are segregated. The problem statement goes in the
introduction; what you did goes in the investigation section. The results go
in the results section, and so forth. Technical reports have a definite order.]
In summary, technical reports have a standard style and format, and,
as this book shows, this makes writing technical reports easy

Archival
An intrinsic part of the value of technical writing is that it is written in
such a manner that it can be archived and produce valuable and usable
information in the future. Conversely, technical documents should not be
generated on transient issues or subjects that will not be pertinent in the
future.
Not Archival
The BCH perforators were shut down last Thursday because of a power
interruption. The shutdown caused the loss of three master rolls of
product. The root cause of the shutdown was determined to be a faulty
relay in the control point of the perforating center. The specific details of
the product loss are:

REFERENCES:
1. http://www.asminternational.org/documents/10192/3448649/ACFA
A62.pdf/5890813c-31ba-46b4-b7fa-8f20eb03fb6e

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #2

SELF-CHECK 1.2-1
Participate in Workplace Communication
Participate in workplace meetings and
discussions
TECHNICAL WRITING

Directions: Rewrite the following.


Question 1
The Company had an opportunity in the first quarter to drill two wells it had
originally planned for the third quarter because of the unexpected
availability of a coiled tubing drilling unit before breakup, and with enough
of a window to complete both wells.
Question 2
The Company drilled 24 wells in 2005 of which six were drilled at Oil City
resulting in five gas wells and one dry hole, seven were drilled at Oil City
South resulting in six gas wells and one dry hole and 11 were drilled at Oil
City North resulting in eight oil wells and three dry holes.

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #2

ANSWER KEY 1.2-1


Participate in Workplace Communication
Participate in workplace meetings and
discussions
TECHNICAL WRITING

Question 1
The Company was able to drill two wells originally scheduled for the third
quarter because a coiled tubing drilling unit became available in enough time
before breakup.
Question 2
The Company drilled a total of 24 wells in 1998: 5 gas wells and 1 dry hole at
Oil City, 6 gas wells and 1 dry hole at Oil City South, and 8 oil wells and 3
dry holes at Oil City North.
or
The Company drilled a total of 24 wells in 1998 as summarized in the table
below:
Oil City
Gas
Oil
Dry
Total

5
0
1
6

Oil City

Oil City

South
6
0
1
7

North
0
8
3
11

Total
11
8
5
24

Qualification

Motorcycle/Small Engine Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Participate in Workplace Communication

Module Title

Participating in Workplace Communication

Learning Outcome #
3

Complete relevant work related documents

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Range of forms relating to conditions of employment are completed
accurately and legibly
2. Workplace data is recorded on standard workplace forms and
documents
3. Basic mathematical processes are used for routine calculations
4. Errors in recording information on forms/ documents are identified
and properly acted upon
5. Reporting requirements to supervisor are completed according to
organizational guidelines
CONTENTS:
1. Basic mathematics
2. Storage of information
CONDITIONS:
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:
1. Paper

2. Pencils/ball pen
3. Reference books
4. Manuals
METHODOLOGIES:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Group discussion
Interaction
Lecture
Self paced learning

ASSESSMENT METHODS:
1. Written test
2. Practical/performance test
3. Interview
INFORMATION SHEET 1.3-1
Unit of Competency
Participate in Workplace Communication
Learning Outcome #3
Complete relevant work related documents
BASIC MATHEMATICS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division

Addition
Definition:
The act of adding to or more things/numbers.
Parts:
1. Addends refer to two or more numbers being added.
2. Sum is the result of addition or the total.
Example:
2 + 6 = 8;

Where
2 and 6 are addends, and
8 is the sum.
Subtraction
Definition:
It is the inverse of addition. It is taking away something from another.
Parts:
1) Minuend is first number where the second number is subtracted from.
2) Subtrahend is the number being subtracted.
3) Difference is the result of subtraction or also known as the
remainder.
Example
4 - 3 = 1;
Where:
4 is the minuend,
3 is the subtrahend, and
1 is the difference.
Multiplication
Definition:
The process of combining matrices, vectors, or other quantities under
specific rules to obtain their product.
Parts:
1) Factors are numbers you can multiply together to get another number
2) Product is the result of multiplication.
Example

2 x 3 = 6;
Where:
2 and 3 are factors, and
6 is the product.
Division
Definition:
The operation of determining how many times one quantity is contained in
another; the inverse of multiplication
Parts of Division:
1) Dividend is the number that is divided by another number in a
division operation
2) Divisor is the number used to divide.
3) Quotient is the result of division.
4) Remainder is a part that is left over
Example
7 2 = 3 r1;
Where
7 is dividend,
2 is the divisor,
3 is the quotient, and
1 the remainder.

REFERENCES:
1) www.slideshare.net/eunice6ix/the-four-fundamental-operations

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #2

SELF-CHECK 1.2-1
Participate in Workplace Communication
Participate in workplace meetings and
discussions
BASIC MATHEMATICS

Multiple Choices
Direction: Encircle the best answer. You only have 10 minutes to answer all
the given problems below.
1) 3 x 4 + 5 5 / 5
a. 19
b. 12/5
c. 16
d. 23

2) 2 26 13
a. 0
b. -24/13
c. 2
d. 4
3) 290 x 3
a. 807
b. 708
c. 870
d. 780
4) 9782 - 5687
a. 5094
b. 5049
c. 4059
d. 4095
5) 9 18 9 9
a. 2
b. -2
c. 4
d. -4

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #3

ANSWER KEY 1.3-1


Participate in Workplace Communication
Complete relevant work related documents
BASIC MATHEMATICS

Multiple Choices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

C
A
C
D
B

INFORMATION SHEET 1.3-2


Unit of Competency
Participate in Workplace Communication
Learning Outcome #3
Complete relevant work related documents
STORAGE OF INFORMATION

Information storage and retrieval


Information storage and retrieval, the systematic process of
collecting and cataloging data so that they can be located and displayed on
request.

Computers and data processing techniques have made possible the


high-speed, selective retrieval of large amounts of information for
government, commercial, and academic purposes. There are several basic
types of information-storage-and-retrieval systems.

Document-retrieval systems store entire documents, which are usually


retrieved by title or by key words associated with the document. In some
systems, the text of documents is stored as data. This permits full text
searching, enabling retrieval on the basis of any words in the document. In
others, a digitized image of the document is stored, usually on a write-once
optical disc.

Database systems store the information as a series of discrete records


that are, in turn, divided into discrete fields (e.g., name, address, and phone
number); records can be searched and retrieved on the basis of the content
of the fields (e.g., all people who have a particular telephone area code). The
data are stored within the computer, either in main storage or auxiliary
storage, for ready access.

Reference-retrieval systems store references to documents rather than


the documents themselves. Such systems, in response to a search request,
provide the titles of relevant documents and frequently their physical
locations. Such systems are efficient when large amounts of different types
of printed data must be stored. They have proven extremely effective in
libraries, where material is constantly changing.

Information Storage
The computer stores different types of information in different ways,
depending on what the information is, how much storage space it requires,
and how quickly it needs to be accessed. This information is stored in its
"short term" memory and its "long term" memory.
Your system memory (or RAM) holds information that you or the
computer are working with right now. This is the computer's "short term
memory", and is designed to be able to feed information to the processor at
high speed so the processor isn't slowed down too much while waiting for it.
However, this short-term memory disappears when the computer is turned

off. This is why you must always save a file that you are working on before
turning off the machine.
Longer-term storage is provided by your hard disk drive, floppy
drive and other devices, where information is stored permanently in the
form of files, ready for you to retrieve when you need it. When you want to
use your spreadsheet program, for example, the computer loads the
instructions that are stored on the hard disk that tell the computer how to
run it, from long-term storage (your hard disk) into short-term memory.
How to set up an effective filing system
The importance of record-keeping and filing systems cannot be too
highly stressed. A well-planned system contributes significantly to efficiency
of operation as well as to a company's image. Whether records are filed in a
computer or in a steel cabinet, they have to be readily accessible.
Make a study of your system. Conducting such a study is no more
than taking an inventory of the records in your files.
Some of the questions you should ask are:

What are the records


Where should they be filed
Who uses the records
How often are they used
How are they used
How are the records referred to
What is the size of each record
How many of each record are filed
Who else has copies of the same record

Also check if your filing system shows any of the following symptoms:
You find the information you need is difficult to obtain due to your
system or lack of one
You are repeatedly having to expand your file system capacity
You are maintaining duplicate files of the same information
You are filing material to protect the function and not because of
information or legal requirements
You are using your filing system or equipment for non-records storage
Your file folders are too full for easy access

Your filing drawers or shelves are too full for easy access
You are not finding the information you require in the first place you
look

Your analysis is now complete - your records inventory reveals the strengths
and weaknesses of your record-keeping system.
Once you have analyzed your records inventory, you should determine:

Best arrangement of the records

Type of media to be filed (paper, microfilm etc)

Proper equipment for adequate storage and retrieval

Proper systems to complement the equipment

The required record retention schedule and facility

Basic Filing Procedure

Inspecting
Each document is inspected to see that it has been released. If not, it
should be returned to the interested party.
Marking
Determine under what name or caption the paper is to be filed
Follow-up and Cross-reference
If the letter is marked for follow-up, then a record should be made and
placed in the follow-up file. If there is more than one place in which to
file the document, make a cross-reference.
Sorting
Sorting is the preliminary arrangement of papers according to the first
filing unit of the name or number. This is the last step prior to actual
filing. Sorting also makes documents easy to find if they are needed
while out of the file. Documents should be arranged in sequence so
they can be placed in the proper folders quickly, without moving back
and forth
Filing
Filing is the actual placing of documents in folders in a predetermined plan. Torn papers should be mended before they are filed.

Raise the folders slightly in the file drawer when placing papers in
them so the papers will go entirely to the bottom of the folder.
Check the caption of the document and folder as a precaution against
misfiling.
All documents should be placed with the tops to the left as you face
the folder. Never overcrowd folders. Break them down by date, name or
subject using additional folders.

Filing systems utilize one of the following methods:

Alphabetical

Numerical

Geographical

Subject

Chronologic

All these methods have advantages and disadvantages and you must
decide which one would be best for you.
Alphabetic Filing

Alphabetic systems group documents together by letters of the name


from A - Z. These systems can be used for any volume of records.

There are a number of protocols or rules for filing alphabetically that


must be committed to memory:

The alphabetical sequence must be strictly adhered to abbess comes


before abbot and Richards before Richardson
Files or entries are sequenced letter by letter:
Dun
Dunn
Dunstable

Indefinite and definite articles (a, the) are ignored in entry titles
Abbreviations are filed as written: Messrs Smith and Williams
Abbreviated names like BBC, ITV etc are filed according to their
abbreviated letter sequence
St is filed as Saint and foreign versions like San or Sainte are filed as
spelled. Some filing systems treat Mc, Mac or M' as different versions
of 'Mac' and file them according to their individual letter sequence;
others tream them all as 'Mac'.
Entries which are shorter come first:
Elizabeth
Elizabeth
Elizabeth I, Queen of England

Personal names are normally filed surname first:


Richards, Sir Gordon
Richards, Jack
Richards, Dr John

Titles like Mr, Mrs, Dr, Prof, Sit etc are ignored, save for forming part
of the entry after the initial surname shown.
Where the same word occurs as a name, then the convention is to
enter the forename followed by the surname, followed by the corporate
name and then the name as the subject:

Heather
Heather, Arnold
Heather, Products Limited
Heather, British Species

Advantages:
Its advantages include the fact that it gives direct reference and also groups
common and/or family names together. It enables files to be read and
accessed quickly and is also readily expandable.

Disadvantages:
By the same token, common names do not occur evenly throughout the
alphabet. There are, for instance, more names beginning with S than with
Q. As an alpha file grows - say to hundreds or thousands of names identification and locations become more cumbersome. Items within a
named file require some additional system of classification - letters to an
account client may need to be numbered or filed chronologically, making
cross-referencing laborious.

Numerical Filing
Numerical filing refers to all systems in which documents are prenumbered
to distinguish them from each other or from alpha documents. Numerical
systems can be as simple as numbering and filing from the lowest number
to the highest. Files may be numbered from 1 to 1000 and major sections
may occur at regular intervals (100, 200, 300). Sub -sections within a file
may be introduced by the addition of a decimal point: 100.1, 235.64 etc

Advantages:
The greatest benefit of a numeric system is speed of filing and finding. It is
twice as fast to file and find by number than by name. Even though a
numeric file requires a cross index, it can increase production time by 40 to
50%.
Numeric systems provide both a positive identification of the record and a
degree of confidentiality. This system is capable of infinite expansions and
can cope with a very large number of sub-sections, sub-divisions and
diverging branches of data.

Disadvantages:
In order for the numbers to convey readily what they mean, it is necessary
for an index to be created, eg:
600 Technology
650 Business Practices
658 Management etc
This system is therefore more time-consuming to use than one in which
each file is given an instantly identifiable name.
Geographic
Geographic filing systems operate generally by county or country and then
alphabetically or numerically by account name or number. Reasons for this
type of filing can be several. Since countries have differing laws and
licenses, a commercial enterprise may have to consider these constraints as
of primary importance.

Advantages:
Such a system enables statistics to be held in manageable and comparable
units and also permits a large or 'macro' figure or total to be evaluated in
terms of its 'micro' or component parts.

Subject Filing
This is the arranging of material by given subject. It is filing by descriptive
feature instead of by name or number. Such filing involves choosing a word
or phrase to stand for each subject or to point out one phase of it.
A subject folder may contain any combination of correspondence, bulletins,
clippings, pictures, statistics, trade journals and other printed information
relating to the subject.
Subject filing is considered the most difficult of all methods of filing. It is a
system which demands that the person installing such a system has a
complete knowledge of the business. The greatest problem is knowing under

which subject an item will be filed. Because a subject file is expensive to


maintain, subject filing should be used only where necessary.

Chronologic Filing
Chronologic filing is filing by date. This system is necessary to file items
according to the day/date received - such as applications for permits or
licenses or the dates when vehicles in a company fleet were services.

Advantages:
Particularly useful when actions need to be taken on a cyclical basis - like
relicensing cars annually, good for cross-referencing - file on vehicle and
relicensing date records can be quickly matched.
Disadvantages:
This systems requires an index and explanatory back-up system. It is timeconsuming to access data held in a manual filing system.

TIPS

Space:
A file drawer or shelf should be filled to no more than 90% of its capacity.
Tightly packed files slow filing and finding to a crawl.

Index Guide
All active files should have a guide every 10 to 15 folders. Anything less
means you are wasting time pushing and pulling folders back and forth,
looking for the required record.

Folder Tabs

Folder tabs should be visible immediately upon opening the file. A well-run
file must have folders of uniform size and tab styles. Mixing folder heights
and tab positions can reduce the efficiency of a filing system.

Folder Tab Identification


Identification on the tabs should be typewritten. Handwritten labels or
labels with the names crossed out and re-typed should never be permitted.

File Overload Don't overload your files to hold more than its capacity. If
more files are placed in a folder than it can hold, the tab will slump down
and out of sight.

Cross Indexing
Make a reference in one file of related or helpful/additional data held in
another file.

Noting Files In Use


A file borrowed without a record of who has it, when it was removed from
the filing system etc, is a file lost! Make sure you have a 'file in use' set of
slips to be filled out showing: user, date out, date due back etc.
Maintaining Security
Some files will certainly contain highly confidential data; make sure you
control who may access what and keep a secure system for sensitive files.

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #3

SELF-CHECK 1.3-2
Participate in Workplace Communication
Complete relevant work related documents
STORAGE OF INFORMATION

Questions:
Discuss the five (5) Basic Filing Procedures?

Unit of Competency
Learning Outcome #3

ANSWER KEY 1.3-2


Participate in Workplace Communication
Complete relevant work related documents
STORAGE OF INFORMATION

1. Inspecting
Each document is inspected to see that it has been released. If not, it
should be returned to the interested party.
2. Marking
Determine under what name or caption the paper is to be filed
3. Follow-up and Cross-reference
If the letter is marked for follow-up, then a record should be made and
placed in the follow-up file. If there is more than one place in which to
file the document, make a cross-reference.
4. Sorting
Sorting is the preliminary arrangement of papers according to the first
filing unit of the name or number. This is the last step prior to actual
filing. Sorting also makes documents easy to find if they are needed
while out of the file. Documents should be arranged in sequence so
they can be placed in the proper folders quickly, without moving back
and forth
5. Filing
Filing is the actual placing of documents in folders in a predetermined plan. Torn papers should be mended before they are filed.
Raise the folders slightly in the file drawer when placing papers in
them so the papers will go entirely to the bottom of the folder

Competency Standard

Motorcycle/Small Engine Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency

Participate in Workplace Communication

Obtain and convey workplace information

Participate in workplace meetings and

discussions
Complete relevant work related

documents

Note: *Critical Aspects of Competency


Prepared by: __________________________________
Checked by: __________________________________

Demonstration
Candidates Name:

Date
:
Date
:

Portfolio

Demonstration

Observation

[tick the column]

Questioning

Ways in which evidence will be collected:

Assessors Name:
Unit of Competency:

Participate in workplace communication

Competency Standards:

Motorcycle/Small Engine Servicing NC II

Date of Assessment:
Time of Assessment:
Instructions for the Demonstration
Given the necessary materials, the trainees will participate in workplace
communication
Materials;
Paper, Pencil, Writing Pad
Observation
During the demonstration of skills, the candidate:

Please check () to
show if evidence is
demonstrated

The candidates demonstration was:

Satisfactory

QUESTIONS

Not Satisfactory

SATISFACTORY
RESPONSE

The candidate should answer the following questions:

YES

1. How do you apply effective communication?


2. What are the four basic mathematical operations?
3. What is a sentence?
4. Give the eight parts of speech?
5. Give at least five barriers of effective
communication?

The candidates underpinning knowledge was:


Satisfactory

Not Satisfactory

Candidates Signature:

Date:

Assessors Signature:

Date:

NO