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The Reconstruction
of Religious Thought
in Islam

Allama i\llIhammad Iqhal

Edited and Annotated


Institute of Islamic Culture

2-Club Road. Lahore
This book has been published in collaboration wilh The Academy
Leifer.\'. Islamahad. Department of Infonnation & Cultural, Gov1. oft
Punjab, and InLlq Foundation. Karachi.

51h Edition June,200J

I.LC All Rights Reserved
('oples 1100

Published by
Dr. Rash:d Ahmad (Jullundhfl)
Dlfcctor. Institutc of Islamic Culture, Lahor!:

Primed at
Naqoosh P/"IlITil/gPress. Lahvre.
Price:- Rs- 250.00


PREFACE xxi-xxii
INDEX 225-249

Editor's Introduction

Why this almost an ascetic self-denial of philosophy? There

could be many reasons for this. Among these, due allowance
has to be made for his preoccupation of two different orders:
one which suited his superb poetic genius most; and the
other, of more practical nature, which increasingly took
possession of his time and attention towards guiding and
helping the Muslims of India in their great struggle for an
autonomous homeland. Allama Iqbal all along keenly felt
that Islam was to have an opportunity 'to mobilize its law,
its education, its culture, and to bring them into closer
contact with its own original spirit and with the spirit of
mcdem times' (Speeches, Writings and Statements of Iqbal,
p. 11). From the depth of these feelings there emerged a
prophetic vision of a geographical fonn - now called Pakistan.
As stated above Allama's avowed main purpose in his
Lectures is 'to secure a vision of the spirit of Islam as emanci-
pated from its Magian overlayings' (p. 114). There is, how-
ever, not much mention of Magianism, nor of the specific
Magian overlayings of Islam, in the Reconstnlction. In all
there is a brief reference to Magian cuJture in the opening
section of Lecture IV and to Magian idea or thought in the
concluding passage of Lecture V. In the Jatter case Allama's
statement that Ibn Khaldun has 'finally demolished the
alleged revelational basis in Islam of an idea similar. . . to the
original Magian idea' (p. 115) is an implied and may be some-
what suppressed reference to his view that 'all prophetic
traditions relating to mahdi, masilJiyat and mujaddidiyat
are Magian in both provenance and spirit' (/qbalnIlmah,
II, 231). ]t may be rightly said that Allama's whole Weltan-
schauung is so completely anti-Magian that he does not
aJways have to name Magianism whenever he says something
which implies anti-Magianism. A good instance of this,
perhaps, would be his observation in Lecture VII on the
'technique' of medie'o'al mysticism in the Muslim East. 'Far
from reintegrating the forces of the average man's inner life,
and thus preparing him for participation in the march of
history', this Muslim mysticism, he tells us, 'has taught man
a false renunciation and made him perfectly contented with


perience, he prefers to base his judgement on vulgar beliefs as to

the beginning and end of time. Just imagine a man of
overwhelming learning finding support for the supposed fata-
lism of Islam in such Eastern expressions and proverbs as the
'vault oftime',58 and 'everything has a time!'59 However, on the
origin and growth of the concept of time in Islam, and on the
human ego as a free power, I have said enough in these lectures.
It is obvious that a full examination of Spengler's view ofIslam,
and of the culture that grew out of it, will require a whole
volume. In addition to what I have said before, I shall offer here
one more observation of a general nature.
-i' 'The kernel of the prophetic tcaching,' says Spengler, 'is
already Magian. There. is on!! God -be He called Yahweh, 60
Ahuramazda, or !\1arduk-Baal-who is the principle of good,
and all other deities are either impotent or eviL To this doctrine
there attached itself the hope of a Messiah, very clear in Isaiah,
but also bursting out everywhere during the next centuries,
under pressure of an inner necessity. It is the basic idea of
:\1agian religion, for it contains implicitly the conception of the
v\'orld-historical struggle between Good and Evil, with the
power of Evil prevailing in the middle period, and the Good
finally triumphant on the Day of Judgement.' &0If this view of
the prophetic teaching is meant to apply to Islam it is obviously
a misrepresentation. The point to note is that the Magian
admitted the existence of false gods; only they did not turn to
worship them. Islam denies the very !!xistr!nCr! of false gods. In this
connexion Spengler fails to appreciate the cultural value of the
idea of the finality of prophet hood in Islam. No doubt, onc
imponant feature of .\lagian culture is a perpetual attitude of
expectation, a constant looking forward to the coming of
Zoroaster's unborn sons, the Messiah, or the Paraclete of the
fourth gospeL I have already indicated the direction in which
the student of Islam should seek the cultural meaning of the
doctrine of finality in Islam. It may further be regarded as a
psychological cure for the Magian attitude of constant expec-
tation'which tends to give a false view of history. Ibn Khaldiin,
seeing the spirit of his own view of history, has fully criticized
and, I believe, finally demolished the alleged revelational basis
in Islam of an idea similar, at least in its psychological effects, to
tlw original :\.lagian idea which had reappeared in Islam under
the pressure of :\Iagian thought~1

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in lsillm

2; 164; 3: 190; 10:6; 23:80; 45:5.

'l'erles of the QuI'in such as
50. Ibid., 55:29.
51. Cf. p.107.
52. cr. p. 106.
53. On the notion of time as held by Zeno, Plato, Heraclitus and Stoics, cf.
A.}. Gunn, The Problem of Time, pp. 19.22.
54. a. O. Spengler, op. at., II, 189-323.
55. cr. Lecture I, p. 3, Lectur...m, p. 56 and p. 102.
56. Cf. Spengler, op. at., II, 2..8.55.
57.' Ibid., pp. 235, 240; cf. also note 33 in Lecture IV.
58. Ibid., p. 238
59. Ibid.
60. Ibid., pp. 206.()1.
-+ 61. Cf. Muqaddimllh, Chapter III, section 51: The Fatimid . . .., trans.
ROlenthal, II, 156-200. Ibn Khaldfm recounts formally Iwenty.(our traditions
bearing upon the belief in MaMi (none of which is from Bukhiri or Muslim) and
questions the authenticity of them aU. a. also the artide 'al.Mahdi' in Shorter
Encycioptledia of llJom and P. K. Hitti, Hisrory of the Arabr, pp. 439-49, for the
religio-politica1 background of the imam.mohd; idea.
Reference may also be made to Allama Iqbal's letter dated 7 April 1932 to
Ml$ammad A!}un wherein, among other thin8s, he states that, according to
his filmbelief ('oqidoh), all traditions relating to trJOhdr. moni)jyot and mujod-
didiytlt lie the producf of Penian and non-Arab imagination; and be adds that
certainly they ha~ nothing to do with the true spirit of the Qw'in' (/qbmnamah,
And fmally it shall be rewarding to read this last paragraph in conjunction
with Allama's important notes on the back co~r of his own copy of Spenpet's
Decline of the WQt, facsimile of which is reproduced in Dercrlptivi C4i11lotue of
AI14mo Iqbal's Pm;oNlI Librury. Plate No. 33.

Lecture VI
1. The Qw'in maintains the divine brigin of man by aframing that God
breathed of His own spirit unto him as in Tene! 15:29; 32:9; &nd 38:72.
2. COlUtantine the Great was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. He wu
ron'l'erted to Ouistianity, it is uid, by seeing a luminous cross in the aky. By his
~Iebrated Edicl of Toleration in 313 he raised Christianity to equality with the
public pagan culu in the Empire. For his attempt at the unification of Chris.
tinity, cr. Will Dauant, OU$Qr D.nd Christ. pp. 655-61, and The Cambridge Medi-
ewrl History, volJ, chapter i.
3. Flavius Claudius Julianus (331-363), nephew of Constantine, traditionally
known as Julian the Aposute, ruled the Roman Empire from 361 to 363. Study-
ing in Athens in 355, he frequented pagan Neoplatonist circles. As emperor, he
al once proclaimed himself a pagan, restored fieedom of worship for pagans
and began'a campaign apinst the orthodox church. a. Alice Gasdnet,Julill'n and
the Loll Struggle 01 PllStlnUm qainn Chrlstillnity, and Will Durant, The Age of
Ftlith, pp. 10-19.

Nota d: Rejutnca

oompleua of the natioDJ of Ihe world are deatroyod and there oorne. into beiDa;
a community which can be 1ty1ed 1UftIIW,..m mua/bMt.., ld;Q (a community
submia:!" to n-, 2; 128) aDd to whoae tIaoUJhts aDd actions the diviDe dictate
tIIuhtuli'. lIi,.t (a oommUDity that bean .ntDell to the truth before an
DW1kind, 2; 143) jUitly appHa' (SpcecIta, It'rltirIp 8Nl Shr,emmtl of Iqbld,

Lecture VII dcliYW8d in a meetina of the fiftY.(ourth sn.sion of the Aristo-
telian Sodet)', London, beld on.s December 1932 with Profeuor J. Macmurray
In 1IIe chair, foUowed by a di8cuaion by ProfellOr Macmurray and Sir Francia
YOUlJlhU8band-d. 'Abstract of che Mmutes of the Prooecdings of the Aristo-
telian Soiety for the Fifty-Fourth Seuion', iD ~ftp 01 die Arlnotelian
!iot.Vty (Now Series), XXXW (1933). 341.
'The Loctun wu pubWhod in the saidho««liltpoltheAristotelM" SocietY,
pp.47-64,u wIl.. in neMUllimRewWJ/ (Lahore),l/iy (Dec. 1932), ]2949.

1. This is a reference to AJIama Iqbal'. own father, who wu a devout Sufi;

d. S. Sulaimin Nadvr, &;-1 A/PinUtill, p. 179; aDo S. Nadhir NiyizI, Iqbiil
h 1;lII(iDr, pp. 6D-61. nus peat Sufhtic idea later found upre..ion In Allama'.
waae, m. KIJ/iyit-i Iqbill(Urdw), aiM JUwfI, Pt. II. GlwurJ 60, Y. 4;
./,{ / .
. .~ ".,//
UDlea the Boot'.II8d:t -ne and put
Be revealed unto your heart,
Interpreten, though much profound,
ItI.ubtle points caDDOt expoWid.

2. a, O'ttiqwe olPJn RetUOlI, Introduction, aection vi, pp. 57-58; abo Kemp
Smith Commen141')' 10 K.llt" 'O'ttique', pp.
68-70. Me1aphyliics, if it II1eJW
knowledge of the 'transcendent', or of thingHn-themle1ve., wu rejected by Kant
a dogmatic, bec:auJe it doe. not begin with a aitica.l examination of human
capacitY for such knowledge. Reference may here be made to one of the ~ry
significant jottings by Anama Iqbal on the cIosin! back. page of hit own oopy of
Carl Rahn'. Sdmce .,w the RfllJgjoul Life (London, 1928), viz.
'II religion
possible? ~t'. prob&cm'; d. Muhammad Siddiq, De,criptive Ctztalogue 01
AI/Qma Iqt.l'l Penortlll libnIT)', pp. 21-22 and Plate No.7.
3. The 'principle of indeterminacy' wu 10 r~tened by A.S. Eddington
In his Ntltlle of the PhyaCllI Mbrld, p. 220. Now more often known II 'principle
of Wlcertainty' or 'uocertaint)' principle', It wu 'annoWlced' by the phy.kist
pbiloJOpher HeiJeDbcq in ZettJchrlft fWPhyrik, XLm (1927), 172-98. Broadly
speak"', the principle ltates that then is an wwertainty ill deKrlbing
lUb-miaOlCOpic prooOues. For matance, if the poIitiorf of an electron iI deter.

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

theistic, 48; mo~s with the weight nOI evolve the inner richnes.) of
of its own past on its back, 132; his being,"'e spirit within him
of the ideal consun in in perpetual hardens in1", stone, 10 (I 26);
endeavour to appropriate the real, impossible for one, to bear the
eventually to illuminate its whole bwden of another, 76 (IV 2);
being, 7; physical and mental in the individuality and uniqueness of,
evolution of, 85; see a/so religious 76, 79 (IV I, 2); in his inmost
life being, a~ conceived by the Qur'in,
Life and Finite IruiMdU4/ity (H.\\'. is a creative activity, an ascending
Carr), quoted: 35 (1121) spirit, 10; no form of reality so
Locke,John (1632.1704), 21 powerful, so inspiring, so beauti.
Luther, Martin (148).1546), 129 (VI ful as the spirit of, 10; not a
33) stranger on this eanh, 67; occupies
a genuine place in the heart of
Ma'bad b. 'Abd Allah ai-Juhan! Divine aeative energy, 58; only
80/699),88 a candidate for immortality, 95;
MabQ~ith af.Mashriqiyah. AI- (Fakhr open to, to belong to the universe
aJ.Din Razi).quoted: 61 (III 37) and tiecome immortal, 94; Quranic
Macdonald, Duncan Black (1863-1943), view of the destiny of, is partly
14, 121 (I 32, VII 13); and the ethical, partly biological, 92; rest-
growth of atomistic kaLfm in Islam, It'ss being engrossed in his ideals,
54(11113) 9 (I 25): rises from one stale of
Mahdi, Ibn KhaldUn's repudiation of being to another, 10, 93; with all
- the ideaof,I15 (V 61) his failings, superior to nature, 9:
Mairnonides, Moses ben (1135-1204), with all his faults, representative
54(11112) of God on earth, 76; see 41110
Making of HIJ.ffIl1nity. The (Roben Adam and ego
Briffault),Quoted: 103~ mankind, unity of, 7S (III 75);
Maktubilr.; lmam.i RaMoni' (Shaikh idea of, a living factor in the
Ahmad Sirhindi), quoted: 153 Muslims' daily life, not a philoso-
(VII 16) phical concept nor a dream of
Mal, one of the five things that -the poetry,112
Law of Islam aims at protecting ManrUj al-Tair (Farid at-Din 'A,~),
(Shitibn, 134 quoted: I (II)
Malik b. Anas (d. 179/795), 140 MaqtuJ, Shihab at-Drn Suhrawardi, see
man, approaches the observable IshriQI
aspect of Reality with the weapon Massignon, Louis (1883-1962), 77
of oonceptu.aJ knowledge, II; cap- (d, 346/957),
Mas'udi Abu1-Hasan
able of participating in the creative 112 (V 45)
life of his \faker. 58, 6t;ch().',en of materiaL the merely, has no substance
God, 76; destined, perhaps, to until we discover it rooted in
become a permanent element in the spiritual,123
constitution of being, 9; endowed materialism, 33,43, 89, 90, 95, 148;
with the faculty of naming things, refutation of, 26-28,83-84
10; entitled to only what is due to MathemotiCtlI Principles of Natural
his oWn personal effort, 76 (IV 3); Phi/osvphy, The (Newton), quoted
God becomes co-worker of, in his S9 (11131)
progre5S.ive adjustment with the Mathnawi-i.Ma'nawi (Jatil aI.Din
forces of the universe, 10; God's Rflm'i), Quoted: 13, 57, 72-73,
immense faith in, 68; if, does 88, 97, 14748, (I 28, III 24,72,


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