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March 2015 | Volume 4 | Issue 3

Now, Also
AvAilAble oN
Its on

14

IntervIew
Philippe Desnos, Global President and
Faisal Matin, Country Director, India,
Delphi Product & Service Solutions

18

technology foresIght
Prospects Of Magnesium For
Automotive Lightweighting

60

new vehIcle
Hyundai 4S Verna
Old Wine, Served Fresh

hvac systems
focus on green solutions

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Editorial

ANALYSING BUDGET 2015


Dear Reader,
With the NDA government at the centre nearing completion of a year in office, there is a growing
demand for delivery, as patience among the citizens and industry at large, seems to be waning out
fast. The Union Budget presented on February 28 last has brought in some cheer to the overall
mood of the nation, and there seems to be some promise for the future.
The automotive industry too had expected Finance Minister Arun Jaitley to announce a few decisive
steps for the sector that has been struggling for the past couple of years. That, however, didnt
happen. The announcements he made may not be enough to steer the industry out of its current
difficulties, but the general mood for the future seems positive.
The much-anticipated excise duty cuts were not announced; neither did the FM announce any other
forms of incentives to increase demand. In the interim budget last year, Jaitley had withdrawn the
excise duty cut implemented by the earlier UPA government, starting January 1, 2015. This in effect
led to price increase across vehicle segments up to about 6 %, and a resultant fall in demand.
Moreover, he made no mention of any loan-related measures that would make buying cars cheaper
for the consumer.
By hiking the tariff rate on commercial vehicles to 40 % from the earlier 10 %, and effective rate
from 10 % to 20 %, the government is clearly hoping to offer a fillip to the domestic manufacturers,
and also encourage global CV importers to start making their products in India. This is also likely to
support bus manufacturers in selling their products to state transport undertakings (STUs), under
schemes like the JNNURM.
The FM also reiterated his promise for rolling out goods and services tax (GST) from April 1, 2016
replacing multiple central and states taxes.
The ` 75 cr initial outlay towards the FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric
Vehicles) scheme will at least ensure initiation of a few pilot projects under the National Electric
Mobility Mission Plan 2020. The government, however, would need to be more proactive if it is any
serious about encouraging green mobility in the country. Interestingly, the FM stayed away from
making any mention on the much talked about plan to build 100 smart cities. One can only hope
that the ` 7,060 cr outlay announced in the interim budget will be put to effective use.

Deepangshu Dev sarmah

Editor-in-Chief
New Delhi, March 2015

@deepangshu

autotechreview.com

M ar ch 2 0 1 5

Volu m e 4 | Issu e 3

Cover Story

hvac systems
focus on green solutions
24, 30, 36 | Irrespective of the geographical location, a vehicles cabin can be comfortable only with an
effective heating, ventilation & air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Polluted environment in urban centres
across the world further increase the importance of HVAC systems from a health perspective. Apart from
improving performance on these fronts, engineers are now developing solutions that enable HVAC systems
to lower fuel-consumption and emissions. In this issue, Auto Tech Review takes a look at the present and
upcoming technical trends in the area of HVAC systems.

gueSt Commentary

12 What Ails The Indian


Automotive Industry
Dr Ravi Damodaran, President Technical,
Strategy & HR, Varroc Group

IntervIeW

14 GST Implementation Can Change


Indian Aftermarket Landscape
Philippe Desnos, Global President and Faisal Matin,
Country Director, India, Delphi Product & Service
Solutions (DPSS)

contents

neWs

cover story

4 Interactions
10 Events
11 News

24 Reducing Real-World Fuel


Consumption with Efficient Air
Conditioning Systems
Markus Wawzyniak, Dominik Hainke,

shoPfloor
56 Ace Designers Aiming Global
Excellence In Machine Making

neW vehicle

Ralph Trapp, Michael Frigge

stuDy
30 Reduced Power Demand with Hybrid
Air Conditioning

18 Prospects of Magnesium for


Automotive Lightweighting
Applications Part I

Sanghun Kim, Donghyun Kong,

60 Hyundai 4S Verna Old Wine,


Served Fresh

DecoDing technology

Taewoong Lim, Joonhyung Park

64 HVAC: Blowing Hot & Cold

Suresh Babu Muttana, Deepak Aggarwal

36 Thermal Insulation of the Passenger


Cabin of EVs

Arun Jaura

Steffen Wirth, Marco Eimler, Frank Niebling

others
technology

01 Editorial
03 Imprint

42 Analysis of Pre-Ignition Initiation


Mechanisms with CFD
Michael Heiss, Thomas Lauer

46 Addressing Future Turbocharging


Challenges with CFD, Fea
Lalan Singh

52 Volkswagen Jetta
Decrypting The Mild Facelift

FolloW uS on

Cover FIgure Mercedes-Benz C-Class

@autotechreview1

ImprInt
editor-in-chief: Deepangshu Dev Sarmah
deepangshu@autotechreview.com /
@deepangshu

Publisher & managing Director:


Sanjiv Goswami

assistant editor: Arpit Mahendra


arpit@autotechreview.com /
@arpitmahendra3

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senior correspondent: Naveen Arul (Bangalore)


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Mar ch 2 0 1 5

Volu m e 4 | Issu e 3

I N T E R A C T I O N BORGWARNER, UM INDIA

BORGWARNER | INDIA KEY FOR FUTURE GROWTH OF TECHNOLOGIES, PRODUCTS


Over the last decade or so, OEMs in the European
region have been the most receptive to new technology introductions in the powertrain area. And
that has primarily been the reason why BorgWarner, the global product leader in powertrain solutions, has had its strongest growth in this market.
Roughly, half the companys sales came from
Europe, while the other half was split equally
between the Americas and Asia.
That, however, is likely to change over the next
five years. Bulk of the growth would move to Asia
led by China and India and would account for
about 30-35 % of BorgWarners global sales,
while Europe is likely to go down to approximately
40-45 %. The Americas are likely to contribute
between 25 and 30 %.
In his recent visit to India, James Verrier,
President & Chief Executive Officer, BorgWarner
reiterated the growth potential of the Indian
market not just because of the countrys promised
economic growth over a long term, but also
because of the strong opportunity for adoption of
the companys technology and products. We are
convinced that India can become one of the top
three to four markets in the world in the next 10
years, he said.
The company currently has six entities in India
representing all its business units. While business
from its global customers (OEMs) continues to
grow, importantly, there is increased demand for
BorgWarner technologies among domestic OEMs
as well. And thats a welcoming trend for the
American supplier.
At the same time, the company recognises

that it is experiencing high saturation of all its


technologies in Europe. While it would continue to
grow at a slower pace, the good news is that all
such technologies applied successfully in Europe
over the last several years will be the same technologies that will be brought to markets like India
and China. Verrier believes thats the USP BorgWarner can offer to this market.
A case in point is BorgWarners 2014 acquisition of Gustav Wahler GmbH & Co. KG, a manufacturer of exhaust gas recirculation valves and
tubes as well as engine thermostats for on- and
off-road applications. Prior to this acquisition,
BorgWarner didnt have products like thermostats
in its portfolio, which incidentally would also be
manufactured in India, the CEO announced. Additionally, as emissions regulations become more
stringent and drivers demand better fuel economy,
demand for EGR technologies is expected to grow
further in the Indian market.
Meanwhile, the saturation of the BorgWarner
technologies in Europe offers a great opportunity in
terms of innovating and developing new products.
Generally, the company believes in continuing to
work on current products to get to the next level of
technology. Transmissions offer an example: speeds
have continued to increase in transmissions, going
from the six-speed and seven-speed earlier to nine
and 10-speed transmissions today. Similarly, the
number of turbochargers being used today has
gradually gone up from a single unit to about three
turbochargers in some engines. And it might probably move to four, Verrier said.
Add to that a host of brand new products Borg-

Saturation of the BorgWarner technologies in Europe offers a great opportunity for the company to innovate
and develop new products, said Verrier

Warner has launched in the last two years. One


such product is the ECO-Launch Solenoid for transmission stop/start accumulator control that was
launched in the US market. This product helps the
transmission work smoother and better for the
driver, when it goes into stop and start mode.
FOCUS ON INDIA

The technologies and products that BorgWarner has


in India today, is capable of meeting the demands
and requirements of 2021 and beyond, said Sudhir
Kumar Chawla, Chief Operating Officer, BorgWarner
Emissions Systems, indicating the company is prepared to meet the future BS V emission norms.
Nonetheless, Verrier assured there would be
more money pumped into this market, but that
may not necessarily be in new facilities. But with
the growth rate in India, BorgWarner would definitely need to invest more in capital equipment to
support the product programmes that it has been
awarded. Youll see continued investments
around technical infrastructure capability, including investment in production equipment, he said.
Over the next few years, the company intends
to launch a lot of derivative products, primarily
from Europe, in India. The base design could come
from Europe, and the strong application engineering capabilities that have been developed in
India, will ensure the products are adapted well
for the Indian market.
Verrier is mindful of the engineering capability
that exists in India, and said the company cant
afford not to capitalise on it. Core research and
development work is possible here, and that could
well be the next major step for the company. But
as Verrier put it aptly, BorgWarner in India wants
to walk before it can run!
Overall, the $ 7.4 bn company, as per consolidated 2013 results, aims to grow to $ 15 bn in revenues by 2020. That would roughly imply doubling
the company over a seven-year period. In the
changing scheme of things globally, the Asian
market is likely to get more manufacturing presence over the next five years, primarily in China and
India. While manufacturing footprint will continue
to grow, the real push, Verrier concluded, will be on
adding more equipment inside the facilities.
TexT: Deepangshu Dev Sarmah
PhOTO: Bharat Bhushan Upadhyay

www.autotechreview.com

UM INDIA | FIRST PRODUCT TO BE A 400 CC CRUISER, NOT 300 CC AS ANNOUNCED


While most vehicle segments in the country grappled with falling sales in the past few years, the
two-wheeler segment managed to stay out of the
red. The segment above 250 cc in particular has
witnessed rapid growth, although on a smaller
market base. Trying to make the most from this expected-to-carry-on growth, UM Motorcycles has
entered the Indian market and is prepping-up for
its first product launch. We recently caught up with
Rajeev Mishra, Director, Indian & AMEA, UM India
Two Wheelers to understand the companys expectations from the market and its product plans.
DeLAYeD START BUT NOT eNTIReLY

Last year, the company had announced the launch


of its first and made-for-India 300 cc cruiser motorcycle in the second quarter of 2015. This,
however, has been moved to the end of 2015, said
Mishra. What the company will launch, nonetheless, by the second quarter this year is a 400 cc
cruiser from UMs global portfolio, developing about
32 hp. The 400 cc cruiser would have some amount
of localisation, Mishra informed, and added that all
models thereon would be fully localised.
Mishra attributed the delay to homologation
and localisation process, of which the latter took
longer than expected. The key problem UM faced
with setting up a supply chain was the inclination
of Indian suppliers towards volumes. While a supplier might promise product development in 45
days to an Indian mass-market OEM, the same
supplier would quote nine months or so when
volumes are much lesser, as is the case with UM,
said Mishra.
Homologation of the 300 cc cruiser is still
awaited, but the company is now waiting for the
last process of an extensive road-test to begin. As
the standard operating procedure suggests, the
company will put the newly developed
300 cc bike through an extensive test
over varied road and climatic conditions
across the country before launching it
commercially. Production is expected

autotechreview

Mar ch 2 0 1 5

to begin sometime in September or October 2015,


making the market launch possible only by December. The companys Kashipur plant in Uttarakhand is
undergoing completion and should be ready with a
capacity of 100,000 units per annum, further extendable by another 50,000 units, if and when required.
POSITIONING & PRODUCTS

UM plans to play primarily in the 300 cc to 500 cc


segment for now and considers this to be a lucrative segment for the years to come. UM estimates
the volume base for this segment to be around
300,000 units per annum, with Royal Enfield
commanding bulk of the market. This makes it
easier for new players to find a firm footing in this
segment, believes Mishra.
Auto Tech Review believes that the volume-tomargin ratio seems to be the healthiest in this
segment, making it lucrative enough for global
attention, as is turning out to be the case now.
Mishra agreed with this thought and added that
its easier to incorporate technologies such as dual-disc brake set-up and ABS in this segment,
making it possible to position products uniquely.
Entering the lower displacement segments hence
is not in the plans of UM, Mishra confirmed.
On the engine front, the company will start
with water-cooled designs but will subsequently
launch air-cooled engines as well. On some of its
products, UM will also offer its customers a
choice between single and twin-cylinder engine
layouts. The two products marked for 2015 will be
launched across a total of six variants the 400
cc bike with two variants, while the 300 cc cruiser
will be available in four variants. The 300 cc motorcycle could be launched with a twin-cylinder
variant as well, lending it with a wide price range.
It is this ability to offer choice to its customers
that will set UM apart from other players in the
segment, beyond the technology it
brings in.
The company will adopt a multipronged approach on safety as well,
offering technologies such
as dual disc brake
set-up and ABS as
standard, barring
the base variant for
some models. The

Volu m e 4 | Issu e 3

company will also introduce Bluetooth-enabled


helmets, which will allow riders to pick calls and
even talk to other connected riders, for example in a
group without having to stop or remove the helmet.
These helmets are DOT-compliant, added Mishra.
ROUND-UP

UM seems to have put in a good strategy in place


for the 300 cc to 500 cc segment. The ability to
choose between single and twin-cylinder layouts
will improve the sales channels ability to retain
customers of multiple prerogatives. In order to
make the India operations sustainable, the
company has a sound R&D plan in place as well,
with 12 engineers currently working on engines for
India in 400 cc and 500 cc displacements. Development of these engines will take another year or
so, said Mishra. The long-term idea is to carry out
maximum possible development of any product in
India, and the company is committed to increasing
its R&D strength towards this.
The company will also export motorcycles from
India, and expects this to account for about 30 %
of the total production in an undisclosed timeframe. Talking of the sales network, Mishra told us
that UM is presently working on appointing dealers
and is targeting about 75 dealers across 50 cities
by July 2015. He refused to divulge sales projections, but told us that the company is looking at
two to three per cent marketshare in its targeted
segment, without committing a specific timeline to
achieve that.
TexT: Arpit Mahendra

I N T E R A C T I O N CONTINENTAL

CONTINENTAL | INTERNET, AND THE FUTURE OF CONNECTED CARS


There still may be varied views on the usage of
the terms internet of things (IoT) and internet of
everything (IoE). But for global automotive supplier Continental, the internet of everything seems
to have become a guiding philosophy in their development roadmap for the connected car. Helmut
Matschi, Member of the Executive Board of Continental and head of the Interior Division recently addressed the SIAT 2015 in Pune, and later
briefed a select media, on the subject.
Continental has stated a clear roadmap for
automated driving, which envisages partially
automated driving to be introduced as early as
next year. Highly automated driving would
become a reality in 2020, believes Continental,
which would mean no amount of monitoring
would be necessary. Five years hence, the
company estimates that highway driving up to
speeds of 130 km/h would be possible in a fully
automated driving scenario.
In this journey from partial to fully automated driving, IoE could provide a range of solution
approaches for traffic optimisation, believes
Matschi. Importantly, he also said connectivity
can play a major role in India, if done in the
right manner. He referred to the use of horns in
India as a uni-directional connectivity tool.
Imagine the possibility of sending back an acknowledgement that yes weve heard you and
everything is fine; that would be a strong improvement, he said. The company believes it
can do a lot for connected vehicles in India, directly tailored to the local market.

ALWAYS CONNeCTeD

A key cog in Continentals connectivity strategy is


the belief that the internet can be an additional
sensor that helps it develop solutions around the
three strategic elements of human-machine interface (HMI), connectivity and systems integration.
Matschi affirmed that we will see the car being
incorporated into the IoE the internet will not be
coming into the car, but rather the car will
become part of the IoE.
In India, 240 mn people have devices that
are connected to the internet. To put that in
context, it is three times more than the population of Germany. A Cisco IBSG study has put the
total connected objects globally at about 25 bn
in 2015, which is likely to double in 2020. The
future will see a seamless integration of personal devices, with high-speed data pipeline to the
car (LTE). Smart integration of mobile device
functionality and full cloud connectivity with
apps & internet services are the other possibilities of the future.
Vehicle connectivity also means the use of a
large amount of data that needs appropriate processing to ensure vehicles are safe and secure.
Continental has created a robust IT backend by
forming three major alliances, which are expected
to give rise to connectivity-based applications.
The collaboration with IBM undertakes big data
analysis in the backend, while data compression
and data security is done together with Cisco. Information on the surrounding areas with high precision and cloudbased digital map
data will come from
Nokia HERE.
Vehicles of the
future will have to
offer a holistic HMI,
one that is flexible to
adapt to the traffic
situation and also to
the drivers momentary status, said
Matschi. A key enabler
for a holistic HMI in
the future would be
interior cameras.
These cameras would
help close the infor-

mation loop between the driver, the vehicle and


vehicles environment, he mentioned.
Continental has developed a system for driver
monitoring that can observe and analyse the position of the drivers head and viewing angle. The
centred micro camera is equipped with infrared illumination and has a lateral rotation of 30
currently, and its extension to 90 is currently
being developed. In the Driver Focus demonstration vehicle by Continental, states a company
release, this principle is exemplified by LED
powered light strips, which are part of a larger
concept that can also activate acoustic and
haptic warnings, depending on the type of danger.
In this case, the interior camera monitors the
drivers direction of view, and the LED lights fetch
the eyes right there. In a critical situation, suitable signals guide the drivers attention to where it
is needed.
CONCLUSION

In the world of HMIs, Matschi expects major


changes to come in the next five years. New
trends of gesture, touch, colourful displays even
for HUDs are visible. Developments in the area of
advanced driver assistance systems will be far
more rapid, and the newly inaugurated Technical
Centre (TCI) in Bangalore is expected to play a
significant role in the future. We dont just want
to develop and manufacture in India, but want to
have the entire value chain localised in India,
Matschi concluded.

TexT: Deepangshu Dev Sarmah

www.autotechreview.com

I N T E R A C T I O N BROADCOM

BROADCOM | AUTOMOTIVE ETHERNET IS SAFEST TECH FOR CONNECTED CARS


connected cars due to the fact that the technology
is hard-wired into the car.
AUTOMOTIVe BUSINeSS

Communication technologies are being developed


presently in order to connect devices with one
another. Within this connected-devices sphere, connected cars are something that all major car manufacturers are looking into. For the development of
connected car technologies, as well as other interdevice communication technologies, semiconductors and microchips are the most essential bit of
hardware required. Broadcom is a leading provider of semiconductor solutions for wired and wireless communications, which ships about two
million chips a day. Ravi Manik, Director
Business Development, Broadcom Semiconductor India Pvt Ltd told us about the various
communication technologies around connected
vehicles, wired and wireless technologies and
their future in the automotive segment.
The company offers diverse communication
technologies covering every area of wired and wireless communication, Manik said. He also noted that
automotive Ethernet is the safest technology for

Broadcom has been developing solutions for the


automotive industry from around 2007, but the
announcement for the specially-designed automotive Ethernet chip was made in 2010. The 2013
model year of BMWs X5 SUV was the first vehicle
to feature this automotive Ethernet wired technology, Manik noted. Currently, a few other companies have also incorporated this technology into
their global models, all of which are considered
premium in India.
Analysts are predicting that 100 % of vehicles
will have some form of connectivity by 2025, which
also makes it the fastest growing segment for the
chip industry, Manik said. The segment will show a
CAGR of about 10.8 % till 2018, analysts predict.
In the Indian scenario, communication technologies and connected vehicle technologies can
be adopted for a separate category of applications. Automotive Ethernet chips can be used for
telematics applications like tracking vehicles, following traffic information, as well as creating car
hotspots. But in India the technology is still only
available in the luxury segment, and a large
amount of awareness around the technology
needs to be created, Manik noted.
A number of enhancements have been made
to regular Ethernet to make it usable in automotive applications. The automotive Ethernet runs
along a single pair of cable, which is unshielded,
with a cheaper and lighter connector, and is
capable of transmitting at speeds of 100 Mbps,
noted Manik. This
makes it a lightweight, low cost,
and high speed
technology, which
has a switch
network that is
scalable and has a
high throughput.
The first application that this chip
was used for is the
360 view, or birds
view of the car,
which is used for

parking assistance and other advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). The technology takes high
resolution images and processes them for more
ADAS applications, thus requiring higher bandwidth. The technology can also support the connection of entertainment systems for storage, streaming and connectivity of more screens, mainly due
the higher speeds offered. Additionally, the chip
has always supported on-board diagnostics (OBD),
which is now assisted further by the efficiency of
the Ethernet chip.
Broadcom offers wireless communication
technologies in the form of Bluetooth, Wi-Fi,
global positioning system (GPS), near field communications (NFC) and set top boxes, among
others. But within the automotive segment, technologies like NFC, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are trending above others. Another upcoming application
that is being looked into by a number of customers is wireless charging.
ReCeNT PRODUCTS & UPGRADeS

At the 2015 Consumer Electronics Show (CES),


Broadcom unveiled the 2nd-gen Ethernet technology, which extends Ethernet applications to telematics, shark fin antennas and instrumentation cluster
applications. The new BroadR-Reach automotive
Ethernet chips are also equipped with advanced
security features, making them unsusceptible to
cyber threats. The new package has a more
compact design, which consumes lesser power and
is cheaper to make than the previous generation.
These aspects would help in the miniaturisation of
systems and enable OEMs to use them in more
products, even on mass segment models.
CONCLUSION

Manik said future technologies will be developed


based on consumer-driven trends and preferences,
as well as OEMs driving technologies and markets.
Broadcom is looking at focusing on marketing the
whole range of communication technologies, as the
expectation of cars in the future will be very different. The level of connectivity in a vehicle is expected to be the main criteria for future generations of
car buyers, Manik concluded.

TexT: Naveen Arul

www.autotechreview.com

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E v E n t s ACMA AUTOMECHANIKA,

ACMA AUTOMECHANIKA | 2ND EDITION HELD SUCCESSFULLY IN NEW DELHI

Held between February 26 and March 1, 2015, the


second edition of ACMA Automechanika witnessed
a healthy growth over its first edition in participation, and judging by the responses we received
from several domestic and international exhibitors, this was a successful event. The show attracted more than 400 exhibitors from 16 countries and a healthy number of visitors from
various facets of the industry.
Automechanika is a show focussed on the automotive aftermarket and served as a good indicator of the technical progress made in the sector,
especially by the smaller companies.
The event was inaugurated by Dr Rajan
Katoch, Secretary, Department of Heavy Industry,
Ministry of Heavy Industry & Public Enterprises,
Government of India. Opening remarks suggested
that the Indian automotive component aftermarkets turnover in 2013 amounted to ` 36,000 cr
and is expected to touch ` 77,000 cr by 2020.
Fuelling this optimistic growth is a cumulative
growth of 15 % in 2014.
TRENDS & ACTION POINTS

With the Indian market witnessing strong growth


in new model launches, participants agreed that
the component makers will need to ensure that
they provide a steady flow of parts and solutions.
The industry will also need to ensure that their
products are seamlessly integrated with the
service and repair segment.
Many players at the show stressed on the im-

10

portance diagnostics will play in the years to


come. As newer vehicles get increasingly complex,
it will become essential to ensure correct diagnosis at the earliest. Many companies showcased
their existing and future tools at the show, which
significantly cut down the complexity of identifying problems in vehicles.
The show was attended by a huge delegation
of Chinese companies, as well as aftermarket
players from Thailand, Germany and the United
Kingdom. Most of these companies were convinced about the market potential in the Indian
aftermarket, and their endeavour was to scout for
local partners.
On the sidelines of the show, the organisers
conducted ACMAs first Global MSME Summit
Make in India
Evolving Manufacturing through Globalisation, which
focussed on Indian
small and medium
enterprises and their
evolution in terms of
entrepreneurial
ability and technology development. The
session also offered
an understanding of
business openings
in adjacent industries like off-highway vehicle, urban

transport system, defence and agricultural machinery.


A business conclave on opportunities & challenges before the Indian auto components industry OEM supply and aftermarket was also organised under the theme transformation to be world
class. The seminar brought together top industry
experts from India and overseas, who share valuable insights and international best practices to
help the Indian auto component manufacturers
respond to the challenges and tap not only these
OEM supply and aftermarket opportunities, but
also those in the emerging export markets.
At the show, ACMA showcased their Asli
Naqli campaign in tandem with Messe Frankfurts Against Copying campaign. These displays
aimed at educating aftermarket players about the
disadvantages and hazards associated with using
fake parts. The organisers arranged for a side-byside display of fake and genuine parts, allowing
visitors to make out the differences, which would
help them in turn to make better buying decisions.
Exhibitors in general left the show on a positive note and appreciated its diverse and detailed
approach. Tez Magazine of MM Auto Industries
found the show to have a healthy number of visitors and appreciated the efficient and smooth way
it was organised.
The next edition of the ACMA Automechanika
will be held in 2017.

Auto Tech Review was a media partner for the


ACMA Automechanika.

www.autotechreview.com

N e w s MISCELLANEOUS

NEW LAUNCH | BMW LAUNCHES i8 AT ` 2.29 Cr


BMW Group India introduced its i brand in India,
with the launch of its i8 plug-in hybrid sports car
at `2.29 cr, ex-showroom. The BMW i8 features the
BMW eDrive system, and is be available as a
Completely Built-Up (CBU) unit at BMW i dealerships in Mumbai, New Delhi and Chennai.
The BMW i8 uses a plug-in hybrid system
combining an electric motor and a petrol engine
allowing forhigh performanceand efficiency. The
front axle is powered by an electric drive system
delivering 131 hp of maximum power and torque
of 250 Nm, with a range of 35 km. The car
achieves a claimed top speed of 120 km/h on pure
electric power. The rear axle is powered by the
BMW TwinPower Turbo 1.5 l, three-cylinder, petrol
engine putting out 231 hp at 5,800 rpm, and a
peak torque of 320 Nm. Power to the BMW i8 is
transmitted to the wheels via a specially modified
six-speed Steptronic transmission. BMW i8s combined drivetrain power of 362 hp helps the car
reach a top speed of 250 km/h, with an average
fuel efficiency of 47.45 km/l, and emission level of

50.36 g/km.
The BMW i8 features a Life Drive vehicle architecture that contributes to its unladen weight of
1,485 kg. The Life module consists of the passenger cell that is made from carbon-fibre- reinforced plastic (CFRP). The Drive module comprises
the aluminium frame that houses the petrol
engine, electric motor, battery pack and suspension system. The BMW i8 also features BMW ConnectedDrive that offers connectivity in the form of
driver information system, navigation, entertainment system and parking assistance system.

AUTONOMOUS DRIVING | FrEESCALE SEMICONDUCTOr


S32v vISION MICrOprOCESSOr
Freescale Semiconductor has launched the S32V
vision microprocessor, which is claimed to be the
first automotive vision system-on-chip (SoC)
with the required level of reliability, safety and
security measures to automate and co-pilot a
self-aware car.
Stepping further ahead of the presently
popular assist-type technologies, the S32V
pushes mobility in to the next stage, where it is
possible to capture data and process and share
it with drivers in needful circumstances. The
company claims that the S32V offers the capability to progress from assist-type technologies

autotechreview

Mar ch 2 0 1 5

to fully-autonomous vehicles.
The S32V is part of Freescales SafeAssure
functional safety programme and has structurally been designed to comply with the ISO 26262
functional safety standard. Additionally, the performance/power ratios of integrated second-generation CogniVue APEX Image Cognition Processing technology supports the integration of vision
data captured by the S32V device with multiple
other data streams, including radar, LiDAR and
ultrasonic information to enable optimal resolution and image recognition accuracy, the
company said.
The S32Vs software platform includes Green
Hills Softwares INTEGRITY, a safety-certified, real-time operating system including a ISO 26262
and ASIL-D certified development tools with optimised target solutions. The platform also includes Neusoft Corporations advanced, realtime object recognition algorithms to seamlessly
detect partial objects, allowing the S32V to interpret and distinguish between road hazards
and pedestrian risk. The S32V is expected to be
available in markets by July, 2015.

Volu m e 4 | Issu e 3

AGREEMENT | LIQUI
MOLY & ANSYSCO TO
SUppLY AUTOMOTIvE
CHEMICALS
LIQUI MOLY, German automotive motor oil and additives supplier, has signed an agreement with
ANSYSCO, an ANAND Automotive group company
at the Automechanika trade expo, to expand into
the Indian market. LIQUI MOLY will leverage the
ANAND groups network across the country in order
to expand its reach. ANAND group is already wellplaced in the Indian automotive market in both
the OEM, as well as aftermarket spaces.
Michael Karl, Export Area Manager, LIQUI
MOLY, said the company offers everything regarding automotive chemicals, and that it is part of
LIQUI MOLYs philosophy to work with local partners in respective countries.
The Group has significant presence in the OE
segment, and many of its products are supplied in
the aftermarket as well, said Mahendra Goyal,
Group President Aftermarket and Business
Group III, ANAND. He added that 10% of the
groups sales come from the aftermarket, and it
has a large established network in India comprising of distributors/dealers, retailers, service stations and mechanics. The group has a very reputable brand image in Indian auto industry, which
LIQUI MOLY can leverage to establish its products
in India, Goyal said.
LIQUI MOLY produces motor oils and additives
along with car care products, service products,
greases and pastes and is claimed to be one of
the most popular oil brands in Germany.

11

G u e s t commenTaRy

DR RAVI DAMODARAN
President Technical, Strategy
& HR, Varroc Group

WHAT AILS THE INDIAN


AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
There are only three times in Indian history, when India has
come together as a country. Our culture is replete with stories of
small players, short-term thinking leadership and lack of collaboration between them; the big picture has always been lost and it
could well have to do with our philosophy of detachment. However, in these times, when economic development pervades and
detachment is the last thing on anyones mind, there are interesting lessons from Indian history that can be applied to the auto
industry today.
We continue to appear as a bunch of small organisations refusing to see the big picture and come together as a force to reckon with in the world. The industry has had its share of scorching
growth post liberalisation but has been relatively quiet in the last
five years, as the industry captains and analysts continue to hope
for the elusive upturn next year.
The high growth rates witnessed in the industry was driven
primarily by demographics, which saw a high proportion of
working population in India compared to the ageing population
in all other parts of the world. We took advantage of availability
of cheap labour to get competitive, albeit temporarily, and made

12

the best of it between 1990 and 2007, mainly to grow exports.


However, the high wage inflation has almost wiped out the low
labour cost advantage because we have not offset the rising wage
costs by higher productivity.
The industry has often quoted the lack of an exit clause in
the labour policy for retaining 60-70 % temporary labour force
that has prevented any productivity gains. Lack of investments in
R&D and skill upgradation to improve technology usage in manufacturing also has played its part in low productivities. The Indian automotive industry spends less than one per cent of its turnover in R&D primarily to create assets and get a tax advantage,
rather than create knowhow and skill compared to 4-6 % in the
advanced economies.
It is small wonder then that there have been only the often
hyped but forgettable jugaad in the form of innovation. This
has not, and will not help us accelerate growth. Lastly, poor infrastructure (roads, power, ports etc.) has ensured that we are
not competitive even in input costs such as freight and energy.
The low cost country is no more than a tag that is fast giving
way to a new tag poor quality.
www.autotechreview.com

LEADERSHIP TO BECOME COMPETITIVE

There needs to be a transformation in the way we think. There is


no such thing as low cost and high quality. High quality and
technology invariably means high costs. The faster we accept
this as leaders, the faster we can bring about the transformation.
This then is the first peg in the tent called sustainable growth
leadership.
India has seen pockets of excellence post-independence, driven by leaders with a long-term vision and clarity of thought, to
bring about sustainable development in specific areas. Homi
Bhaba in nuclear energy, Vikram Sarabhai in space research, MS
Swaminathans green revolution, Verghese Kuriens milk revolution and most recently, Metro man E Sreedharan in rail infrastructure are a few shining examples. Each time, these leaders
have shown that Indians can dig deep and rub shoulders with
the best in the world to realise our potential.
This is the time for the automotive industry to also realise the
potential the world has been recognising for over two decades. A
leadership that thinks long-term (total costs) and sheds the low
initial cost mindset will force us to stop chasing the Holy Grail
called low cost, high quality and instead, start investing to become competitive.

Talent creation also does not come cheap and has a long
gestation period. Again, scale plays a role and the OEMs and
large Tier I suppliers have started to show the way by hiring
world class talent in leadership roles. Paucity of management
and technical talent, together with few skill upgradation programmes for workers, which are all stifling the industry growth,
need attention. Productivity will be realised only if we have the
talent to manage technology, and subsequent scale created by
our R&D investments.
Interestingly, for the last four years of the so-called sluggish
growth, the industry is still clocking 5 % growth in terms of vehicle units, and successes are seen in pockets at the vehicle model
level rather than at the segment or industry level. Honda Activa,
Mahindra Bolero, Maruti Suzuki Swift and Hero Splendor continue to do well consistently with double digit growth because these
products clearly meet the market needs.
We observe that despite the negatives of high inflation, interests and fuel costs, the user needs today are driven by urbanisation, more participation of women in the workforce, proper roads
in the rural areas and extensive service networks. Whether the
right understanding of the market needs for these products were
coincidental or the result of a robust product development process remains to be seen. Discipline and rigour in our product development can convert our organisations from churning out an
occasional success to an engineering factory.

LACK OF COLLABORATIONS

While we all accept that investments have to be made in R&D


and talent with a focus to create lasting technological expertise,
the long gestation period has often discouraged us. But then, the
Taj Mahal also took over 20 years to build. The issue of large
scales required to support such investments, in this largely fragmented industry, can be resolved by collaboration. And that is
the second element missing in our growth story.
Practices such as global sourcing of intellectual capital, collaborating with world class institutions and teaming up within
the industry and national institutions to sustain an innovation
culture are rare in this industry. The most vital of these collaborations is at the OEM-Tier I level, to make it long-term and build
the confidence in the supplier community to invest in the necessary technologies. A quick look at the major markets reveals that
India is bucking the general trend of collaboration at the OEMTier I even now.
The North American market, led by the big three (GM, Ford
& Chrysler) created their own Tier I majors including the likes of
Magna, Delphi, Johnson Controls, Lear, and TRW, that are technology leaders in the world today. Similarly, the big five in Europe Volkswagen, Renault, Fiat, BMW and Daimler drove innovations in Bosch, ZF, Continental, Valeo and Faurecia, among
others. Toyota, Honda and Nissan spawned Denso, Aisin and
Yazaki as technology suppliers. Now Hyundai is following suit in
Korea with Mobis.
The resurgent Chinese economy has seen Tier I suppliers invest in creating a technology base. India, however, seems to be
ignoring the benefits of long-term OE partnerships with suppliers
to create value, and continuing the practice of switching suppliers to pursue that easily available low cost we-will-managequality-later commodity.
autotechreview

mar ch 2 0 1 5

Volu m e 4 | Issu e 3

BEING READY

Thirdly, the obvious improvement in infrastructure and labour


policies will provide the much required fillip to this industry. The
investments in R&D and creation of talent is very much in the
hands of the industry and we have only taken baby steps in
these areas, while crying hoarse about infrastructure and policies. It is only a matter of time, when the government will come
up with the expected policies and grand infrastructures (which
our Prime Minister firmly believes in creating quickly). But when
it does, will the Indian players be prepared to reap the benefits or
risk being beaten by the talent-led, disciplined and technologyheavy multinationals with deep pockets, waiting and watching
on the sidelines today?
It all depends on how soon we as industry leaders shed the
quick gains and cheap mindset and pursuits to drive R&D investments, talent creation, collaboration and creation of engineering factories. Let us not be found wanting because we did
not make these long-lead investments early enough.

Read this article on


www.autotechreview.com

13

i n t e r v i e w DELPHI AFTERMARKET

GST IMPLEMENTATION CAN CHANGE


INDIAN AFTERMARKET LANDSCAPE
As an industry, the aftermarket has benefitted from the recent downturn, and the recently-held Automechanika show in New Delhi was a good indicator of the growth in the sector and of the underlying opportunities. At the show, we caught up with Philippe Desnos, Global President, Delphi Product
& Service Solutions and Faisal Matin, Country Director, India, Delphi Product & Service Solutions.
Philippe Desnos began his association with Delphi in 1995 as
engineering manager for the Diesel Aftermarket Operation in
Blois, France. In 2005, he moved to Troy, Michigan as MD for the
Diesel North American business. Four years later, Desnos
returned to Europe as Global Delphi Service Centre (DSC) Director, and also served as Director of Global Diesel Marketing & Delphi Service Centres, leading the development of emissions and
engine-efficiency technologies. Desnos holds a Masters in Business Administration from Warwick Business School, UK, a Masters in Engineering from ESTACA University, France, and a Masters in Engine Combustion from The Pierre-and-Marie-Curie Uni-

14

versity in Paris, France.


Faisal Matin brings in more than 18 years of experience from various
fields and has been a part of Delphi aftermarket operations since the
inception of Delphi Product & Service Solutions (DPSS). His previous assignment was as General Manager, Sales, Business Planning
& Marketing, India. He has led and worked closely with the product
development team in marketing function and has been responsible
for spearheading the product strategy for India. He has handled
sales assignments in different regions of the country in conceiving,
setting and implementing the go-to-market strategy for DPSS India.
www.autotechreview.com

ATR _ What is the key product-related


activity being done by Delphi, both globally and in India from an aftermarket
perspective?
PHILIPPE DESNOS _ Globally, were trying to better align our product portfolio
and on the OEM side of the business
there are three key trends were witnessing and working towards. These are
green, safe and connected. On the green
aspect, we already have a strong product portfolio and the increasing complexity of engines is leading to an
increase in number of components,
which is good for us and the aftermarket. We are also increasing the number
of products in the safety and connected
segments of the aftermarket. Steering is
a fast-growing area for us and were the
second largest player in Europe for this
product area.
Another area where we are growing
rapidly in the global context is service,
which includes diagnostics, training and
service concept. Telematics too is offering great traction for us and we believe
that this technology will lead to a transformation in the aftermarket.
FASAL MATIN _ We have the advantage
of being a part of Delphi, which already
possesses more advanced technology
than the requirements of the Indian market. This makes it easy for us to get a
new product line in the country. The
steering & suspension product portfolio
is a good example of this efficient work
model. This product portfolio is now
being launched in India and is our latest
offering in the countrys aftermarket.
Having global knowledge about market
trends and technologies enables us to
foresee the changes in the Indian market
and choose the right products.

ence comes in handy as we just need to


assess the market correctly and the
required technology/ expertise can easily be brought in as per requirement.

and connected. Importantly, our divisions have been trend setters in their
respective operating space and we aim to
maintain this momentum.

What are key product areas, where you


see potential in the Indian aftermarket?
DESNOS _ The steering business in our
view has great potential for the Indian
market among many other product
areas. Its also important for Delphi OE
business to increase its content on
Indian cars, directly translating into
additional business for the aftermarket.
With such growth coming in, we also
see a strong growth in engine management systems, air conditioning and fuel
pumps among other products.

Phillipe, how important is the Indian market to you?


DESNOS _ India is a very important
market for us and given the market
potential, its importance in the future
will be significantly more than what it is
today. This is the reason Im here, and
were trying to understand the market
better and support it in the best and
most efficient way.

Steering & suspension is our


newest product line in India

Of the four divisions you mentioned,


which one is the largest business contributor in India?
MATIN _ As per company policy, we do
not disclose the revenue share of our
divisions. That said all our divisions play
a critical role towards our goal of offering
technologies on the lines of green, safe

What has been the focus area for the


Indian operations lately?
MATIN _ In the last couple of years,
weve been strengthening our four product categories chassis, thermal, electronics and maintenance parts. Strengthening these portfolios isnt limited to
increasing the number of products but
also includes our coverage of the car
park, which has been on a steady rise.
With a continued focus on this aspect
we expect this trend to continue in the
coming years. Even here, global experiautotechreview

Mar ch 2 0 1 5

Volu m e 4 | Issu e 3

The steering business is the newest in the


country. Tell us more about the key technology differentiators for you against
competition.
MATIN _ We follow a global product policy in India and the same has been
applied to the steering business as well.
Beyond this, our effort is to improve our
car park coverage, which will be aided
by a continuous increase in the number
of parts for the steering portfolio. The
same strategy will be used for other
product segments too. With car launches
growing at a healthy rate, the present
focus is on covering the maximum possi-

Service and telematics offer good potential for the Indian automotive aftermarket

15

i n t e r v i e w DELPHI AFTERMARKET

with such an extensive product portfolio?


MATIN _ We do not disclose numbers
related to revenue and growth but I can
share with you that Asia is one of the fastest growing markets for Delphi, both for
the OE and aftermarket business. India
too is a fast-growing market and our projections for the market are positive in the
long-run. Also, the fact that were launching a new product category is a good indicator of our confidence in the market.

I
Continuous increase in car park coverage is the core of Indian strategy

ble vehicles in the country.


Whats the engineering set-up in India for
the aftermarket division?
DESNOS _ We have about 200 engineers
outside India looking at the aftermarket,
who primarily focus on quality of parts.
We have some engineers in India as well,
who look after validation of products.
Each part on sale in India or any other
market goes through a pre-designed validation process.
Is your sourcing global, local or a mix of
both?
MATIN _ We follow a global sourcing
strategy and hence source parts from
countries, where they make the best
economic sense to us. Hence, India
could source a part from Europe or supply one to it, based on requirements.
Is there a number you can put to the percentage of parts being imported and those
being manufactured/ assembled here?
MATIN _ I cant reveal that number but
can confirm that its a mix of both and
we will continue to follow this method.
From a policy perspective, is there anything that could help the aftermarket in
the country?
MATIN _ The aftermarket is waiting for

16

the Goods & Services Tax (GST) to be


implemented, which can change the
landscape of not just the industry, but
the country as a whole. On our end, we
need to study this well and make the
necessary changes so that were able to
make the most of this policy, when
implemented. The implementation of
GST will change many aspects of businesses and hence its important for us
and the sector to understand the policy
well and prepare in advance.
What are the new product areas youre
planning to bring in to India in coming
times?
MATIN _ This is an on-going investigation for us, and as market dictates, we
will launch new products leveraging our
global expertise.
Give us an idea of the scope of your product offerings in the country along with the
sales network size.
MATIN _ We have four product categories in India, which in turn have a total
of 10 product lines. Put in numbers, the
portfolio is sized at more than 750 stockkeeping units (SKU). On the sales side,
we have 75 dealers nationwide and more
than 75 wholesale distributors.
Hows the business doing in the country

DPSS expects a strong demand


for sensors in the aftermarket

So is India the 2nd fastest market after


China?
DESNOS _ Yes, that is correct. The gap
between both markets is quite significant
at the present but looking at economic
indicators, we expect this gap to reduce
over a period of time.
EGR is a strong product for you in Europe.
How critical is it in India?
DESNOS _ Yes, it isnt important in India
as of today but we do expect a strong
demand for the sensors, especially in the
engine management system. A change in
legislations though could open up opportunities for newer technologies.
What is the message youre trying to get
across at Automechanika this time?
MATIN _ Were showcasing Delphis 360
Cycle of Innovation, which highlights our
thorough strategy for the market. It
showcases our strengths across areas
such as air-conditioning, ignition, fuel
systems, diagnostics & test equipment,
maintenance, training & technical support, engine management, brakes, diesel
systems and the newly added steering
and suspension category. This wholesome strategy will help us improve our
car park coverage and business in turn.

INTERvIEW: Arpit Mahendra


PHOTO: Bharat Bhushan Upadhyay

Read this article on


www.autotechreview.com

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T e c h n o l o g y f o r e s i g h T magnesium

PROSPECTS OF MAGNESIUM FOR AUTOMOTIVE


LIGHTWEIGHTING APPLICATIONS PART I

18

www.autotechreview.com

auTHors

SURESH BABU MUTTANA

is scientist C at TiFaC, Department


of science & Technology,
government of india.

DEEPAK AGGARWAL

is an intern at TiFaC.

INTRODUCTION

The constant changes in powertrain strategies and increasing emphasis on fuel


economy are forcing automobile giants to
make significant changes in material
selection and vehicle design approaches.
Lightweighting of vehicles is crucial in
meeting these requirements due to the
inherent relationship between mass and
fuel economy. Of the several associated
benefits that lightweighting brings, the
most obvious is that it reduces the net
fuel consumption of a vehicle. A 10 %
reduction in mass, for instance, results in
5 to 8 % savings in fuel consumption.
Use of lightweight materials provides
sustained reduction in CO2 emissions over
the entire lifecycle of a vehicle. Further,
lightweighting improves vehicle performance characteristics like acceleration,
rolling friction, and noise & vibration handling properties. As we move towards the
era of electric cars, heavy components like
batteries would increase the weight,
thereby reducing vehicle performance.
Thus, by reducing weight of the entire
vehicle, these new technologies can easily
be introduced with limited decline in
vehicle performance.
In this two part article, the focus is on
magnesium as a potential lightweighting
alternative. In the first part, we evaluate
various lightweighting strategies and
approaches, potential use of magnesium
for automotive applications, barriers for
commercial use of magnesium and its
production. In the concluding part in our
April 2015 edition, we will review the
manufacturing technologies along with
the strength and opportunities for India.
We shall also highlight a list of priority
areas for technology intervention for
wider application of this material in the
automotive sector.

APPROACHES FOR LIGHTWEIGHTING

Vehicle Redesign & Content Reduction:


One way to reduce weight of a vehicle is
to redesign the entire vehicle. For example, one may switch from a monocoque
chassis to a space frame if the latter helps
in weight reduction. However, the alternative should not compromise the crashworthiness and safety of the vehicle. Also, the
content of material applied may be
autotechreview

mar ch 2 0 1 5

Volu m e 4 | issu e 3

19

T e c h n o l o g y f o r e s i g h T magnesium

Magnesium alloys have better manufacturability, and solidify faster due to


low latent heat. It has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than aluminium and thus has excellent ductility and
formability at elevated temperatures. It
can readily be alloyed with aluminium,
zinc, manganese, and silver, among others, to produce alloys having high
strength-to-weight ratio. Of all the alloys
of magnesium, cast magnesium alloys
clearly dominate with 85-90 % existence
in the market and applications, with the
most widely used alloy combination
being Mg-Al-Zn system.

1 magnesium is the lightest structural metal; its high strength-to-weight ratio makes it more attractive than steel

reduced, wherever possible.


Compact Size: Reduction in overall
size of the vehicle is one of the easiest
ways of lightweighting. However,
current consumer market trends indicate
a steady rise in preference for bigger
vehicles like SUVs, which may make it
impractical. So, this solution may be
applicable to a limited number of car
models like hatchbacks.
Material Selection: Advanced lightweight
materials can be introduced into the vehicle, which would increase its overall performance without negotiating with its
size. Parts of even bigger cars can be fabricated using alternative lightweight materials like carbon fibre, aluminium, magnesium, and composites, etc.

Due to its vast resources and superior


lightweighting characteristics, magnesium
has been a good candidate material for
future vehicle lightweighting applications.

MAGNESIUM: A CHOICE
MATERIAL FOR FUTURE

Magnesium is the lightest structural


metal, yet its high strength-to-weight
ratio makes it more attractive than steel.
The low density of magnesium combined
with good machinability, damping capacity, good recyclability and alloying abilities have rendered it suitable for wide
automotive applications, 1. With a density of 1.74 g/cc, magnesium is 33 %
lighter than aluminium and 75 % lighter
than steel, 2.

LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL

MATERIAL REPLACED

MASS REDUCTION (%)

magnesium

steel, Cast iron

60-75

Carbon Fibre composites

steel

50-60

aluminium matrix composites

steel, Cast iron

40-60

aluminium

steel, Cast iron

40-60

glass Fibre composites

steel

25-35

Titanium

steel

40-55

advanced High strength steel (aHss)

mild steel

15-25

2 Comparison of lightweight materials

20

USE OF MAGNESIUM IN
AUTO COMPONENTS

Magnesium has been used by OEMs


across the globe, for a number of car and
light truck vehicle components including
ultra lightweight car engines, engine
valve covers, instrument panels, steering
components, radiator supports, seat
structures, and wheels, et cetera. Die cast
magnesium alloys have historically been
used, where a high level of part integration is feasible, such as for instrument
panel beams.
Other applications include knee bolsters, seat frames, intake manifolds, and
valve covers. While 44 % of worlds
magnesium is being used as an alloying
element for aluminium, 32 % of the
metal is being used in cast metal components. 3 provides a detailed list of magnesium components being used by different OEMs.

BARRIERS FOR COMMERCIAL USE


OF MAGNESIUM

While application of magnesium alloys in


the automotive industry is an effective
way in improving vehicle fuel economy
and reduction of emissions, a few challenges are inhibiting wide spread applications of this material in the automotive
sector. The major barriers include:
:: Poor corrosion resistance;
:: Poor creep resistance;
:: Low formability at room temperature;
:: Highly reactive in molten state due to
low melting point;
:: Inferior fatigue resistance;
www.autotechreview.com

COMPANy/ OEM

Volkswagen
BmW
Ford

COMPONENTS

Frame, transmission case, brackets for air comfort system compressor, steering
booster pump and generator
Die cast engine blocks [mg-al-sr system (aJ-62)], cylinder head, steering wheel
frame, air intake system
steering wheel frame, instrument panel, cylinder head, engine block, oil pan,
engine cradle
steering wheel frame, instrument panel, cylinder head, lower crankcase, intake

Chrysler

manifold, brackets for air comfort system compressor, steering booster pump
and generator

Toyota

steering wheel frame, instrument panel, wheel rims

Lexus

steering wheel frame, seat frame


seat frame, instrument panel, lower crankcase, cylinder block without liners and

gm

main bearing heads, top closure panel, intake manifold, steering link bracing,
wheels

mercedes-Benz

seat frame 4, transmission case. Developed a new 7g-Tronic seven-speed


automatic transmission using magnesium

audi

instrument panel (a8), transmission case (a4, a6)

alfa romeo

Wheel rims, cylinder head, clutch case, lower crankcase

Porsche ag

engine, wheel rims, transmission case, camshaft driven chain case

Dodge

Cylinder head

auto ZaZ-Daewoo

Cylinder head, clutch case, transmission case, gear controls housing

Honda motors

Cylinder head

isuzu

Cylinder head

Volvo motors

Cylinder head, clutch case, transmission case

mcLaren motors

Lower crankcase, oil pump body

::

Higher cost than aluminium and steel


alloys; and
Inflammable and poses fire hazards.

MAGNESIUM PRODUCTION

4 The basic structure of the sports seats on the


mercedes-Benz sLK is of robust magnesium
autotechreview

mar ch 2 0 1 5

PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

Considerable research efforts are going on


in the areas of magnesium processing,
alloy development, joining, surface treatment, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties improvement.

3 existing use of magnesium components by oems

::

The silicothermic reduction processes


such as Pidgeon and Magnetherm are
extensively used for extraction of magnesium from terrestrial sources, whereas
electrolysis is used extensively for extraction of magnesium from sea water. Pidgeon and Magnetherm processes are economical and feasible even at a low production capacity of 500 tonne per year.
Also, the maintenance costs are low in
case of these processes. The production
capacity of plant can be varied as and
when required without substantially
affecting the economic factors. Although,
the Magnetherm process consumes less
energy than Pidgeon, it produces a lower
grade of magnesium.
In case of electrolysis process, low corrosion resistance is an issue. But this technology is evolving and there have been
constant efforts to improve corrosion
resistance with development of new and
effective Teflon coatings, there exists
potential to adopt economically feasible
solutions. Further, the availability of high
purity magnesium, which has good corrosion resistance comparatively, has now
gone up.

Readily available in the environment,


magnesium is the sixth most occurring
element on earth, accounting for 2.1 % of
the earths crust. In addition to earths
crust resources, it is enormously found in
sea water (2.8 %). Terrestrially, magnesium is found in dolomite and magnesite.
There are broadly two major extraction
processes of magnesium being used globally, known as silicothermic reduction and
electrolysis processes. 5 highlights merits
and demerits of these processes and 6
provides comparison of these processes in
terms of their parameters.

Volu m e 4 | issu e 3

Alloying
Due to low mechanical strength, magnesium needs to be alloyed with other elements for desired automotive applications. Al and Zn are the most common
alloying elements for room temperature
applications and form the Mg-Al-Zn
group. For elevated temperature applications, thorium, cerium, and zirconium
(without aluminium) are used and form
the Mg-Zn-Zr group. Two to 10 % aluminium with minor additions of zinc and
manganese increases strength and hardness, without impairing weldability, and
making the alloy responsive to heat treatment. But magnesium alloys containing
more than 1.5 % Al are susceptible to
stress corrosion and must be stress
relieved. Addition of manganese improves
yield strength and the salt water resist-

21

T e c h n o l o g y f o r e s i g h T magnesium

PROCESS

silicothermic reduction

Pidgeon Process

MERITS

DEMERITS

Low investment, economical process,

Labour and energy intensive, high processing temperatures,

feasible even at low production rates,

not economical for high volume production

high purity magnesium can be obtained

magnetherm Process

electrolysis

Less energy and labour intensive,

High investment and capital intensive, production of quality

profitable for high volume production, low

anhydrous feed an issue, problem of magnesium

processing temperature

recombination, requires cheap electricity

5 merits and demerits of magnesium production technologies

PARAMETERS

SILICOTHERMIC REDUCTION

ELECTROLySIS

PIDGEON

MAGNETHERM

15-30

10-20

% Purity of mg obtained

99.95

99.5

<=99.8

Processing Temperature ( C)

1200

1550

700

reaction Cycle Time (hr)

18

suitability for Volume

suitable for low production rates of

Production

even 500 tonne/yr

Countries

China, Canada, serbia, Brazil

usa, israel, Canada

Capital Cost ($/ tonne)

400 500

10,000

energy intensity (kWh/kg of


mg produced)

suitable for high production rates

weight saving option, university of Burgos, spain,


F2008sC031
[6] Zuliani J Douglas, reeson Douglas, making
magnesium a more Cost and environmentally
Competitive option
[7] alan a. Luo, magnesium Casting Technology
for structural alloys, Journal of magnesium and
alloys, Vol.1, issue 1, march 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.
jma.2013.02.002
[8] C. Blawert, n. Hort and K.u. Kainer, automotive applications of magnesium and its alloys,
Trans. indian inst. met. Vol.57, no. 4, august
2004, pp. 397-408
[9] mg showcase, issue 7, January 2009, international magnesium association
[10] indian minerals Yearbook 2012

(Part II to appear in the April 2015


edition)

6 Comparison on process parameters

ance of magnesium alloys.

magnesium alloys.

Coating
Due to low corrosion resistance, coating
of magnesium component surfaces
become crucial. Surface coatings developed for magnesium die-casting by hexavalent chromium baths have been used to
provide protection and as a pre-treatment
for painting, but these baths are not environment friendly. New alternative coating
methods are being examined. A new Teflon resin coating has been developed for
magnesium alloys. The coating is attained
with an aluminium vapour deposition and
finish treatment with a Teflon resin coating. This newly developed coating is a
low cost, chromium-free corrosion resistant coating for magnesium alloys. The
coating not only has corrosion resistant
properties, but also good lubricity, high
frictional-resistance and non-wetting
properties. The future of the coating lies
in the application of Teflon coating on

REFERENCES

22

[1] energy efficiency report, Trends in global energy efficiency 2011


[2] Danny Codd P.e., advanced, Lightweight materials Development and Technology for increasing
Vehicle efficiency, KVa incorporated, Dec 9,
2008
[3] ranganathan s., extraction of magnesium, Titanium and aluminium, emerging Technological
options relevant for india, eprints.nmlindia.
org/5843/1/38-50.PDF
[4] Wulandari Winny, rhamdhani akbar, monaghan Brian, magnesium: Current and alternative
Production routes, 2010-09-27, swinburne institute of Technology
[5] abasolo guillen, David, magnesium: The

read this article on


www.autotechreview.com

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look ahead in technologies, assess the technology trajectories, and support technology
innovation by network actions in select technology areas of national importance.
send in your feedback to technologyforesight@autotechreview.com

www.autotechreview.com

C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS

REDUCING REAL-WORLD FUEL


CONSUMPTION WITH EFFICIENT
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
The objective of an advanced engineering project by Mahle Behr and Behr-Hella Thermocontrol (BHTC) called
Cool Efficiency was to significantly reduce the additional fuel consumption caused by vehicle air conditioning
systems. This was achieved by design improvements and precise matching of all air conditioning components,
including system control. As a result, the additional fuel consumption caused by the air conditioning system was
reduced by 40 % in a test vehicle.

24

www.autotechreview.com

DR.-ING. MARKUS WAWZYNIAK


is Director Advanced Engineering at
Mahle Behr in Stuttgart (Germany)..

DOMINIK HAINKE, B.ENG.


is Project Leader Thermodynamics
and Systems Advanced Engineering
Air Conditioning at Mahle Behr in
Stuttgart (Germany).

MOTIVATION

Real-world fuel consumption in a vehicle


often differs significantly from the standard fuel consumption figures that are published. While the reasons for this are varied, they commonly result in car owners
struggling to make sense of the discrepancies, which leads to growing discontent.
The Cool Efficiency project contributes to
fulfilling customers expectations. The
motivation for the project was to reduce
fuel consumption by optimising the
design of air conditioning systems. In this
process, the task facing development engineers was to maintain or, ideally, even
increase the level of climate comfort to
which vehicle passengers are accustomed.
The resultant challenge was to optimise
the air conditioning system as a whole,
including the HVAC module, the refrigerant circuit and the control system.

FUEL-SAVING CONCEPT
DR.-ING. RALPH TRAPP
is Director Advanced Engineering
at Behr-Hella Thermocontrol in
Lippstadt (Germany).

DR.-ING. MICHAEL FRIGGE


is Manager Advanced Engineering
Software and System Design
at Behr-Hella Thermocontrol in
Lippstadt (Germany).

For the purpose of achieving a major


reduction in fuel consumption, an integrative concept was developed, entailing the
redesign or upgrade of individual components, as well as measures to enhance
control of thermal energy flows. To this
end, the test vehicle, a Mercedes-Benz
E-Class 220 CDI Blue Efficiency, built in
2012, with a three-zone air climate control
system, was modified as follows:
:: Optimisation and adaptation of
refrigerant circuit components to
boost overall efficiency;
:: Installation of a storage evaporator
to maintain thermal comfort
over prolonged periods during engineoff phases;
:: Installation of an HVAC module with
an evaporator bypass on the air side to
ensure demand-based reduction of the

cooling performance provided; and


:: Implementation of software
modules for thermal recuperation of
braking energy.

OPTIMISATION OF THE
COOLANT CIRCUIT

A comprehensive analysis and further


refinement of all components in the
refrigerant circuit and a corresponding
readjustment of the refrigerant circuit to
improve operational stability and efficiency resulted in an average COP
increase of 17 % compared with the
standard circuit, without any sacrifice in
cooling performance. This was achieved,
in particular, by the combination of a
condenser with a three-pass sub-cooling
area, a storage evaporator, a modified
thermostatic expansion valve and an
improved compressor.
Refrigerant flow velocities in the individual zones of a condenser with a threepass sub-cooling area were optimised in
such a way as to significantly boost local
heat transfer coefficients. In conventionally designed condensers, the liquefied
refrigerant normally flows through a single-pass sub-cooling area downstream of
the integrated accumulator before it
reaches the internal heat exchanger or the
expansion device directly.
In condensers with a three-pass subcooling area, the number of refrigerant
tubes in the sub-cooling zone is higher
and the refrigerant is diverted twice, 1.
This means that high flow velocities can
even be maintained in this area, in which
the highest refrigerant densities prevail.
This enables a considerably lower outlet
enthalpy of the refrigerant, hence resulting in the required boost in performance
or efficiency of the refrigerant circuit. The
simultaneously increased pressure drop in

Single-pass subcooling

Three-pass
subcooling
3UKS

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6

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2
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AuTHorS

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1 Comparison of condensers with single-pass and three-pass subcooling area


autotechreview

M ar ch 2 015

Vo lum e 4 | I s su e 3

25

C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS

Pressure

Higher
pressure loss

Condensation

Expansion
Compression

Evaporation
Performance increases
with three-pass subcooling

Enthalpy
Single-pass subcooling
Three-pass subcooling

2 Single-pass versus three-pass subcooking in the log p, h diagram

Air temperature
evaporator outlet [K]

Standard evaporator

With
storage evaporator

EVAPORATOR BYPASS

Time [s]
Engine stop

Engine start

3 Comparison of the discharge behaviour of storage evaporaors and standard evaporators

the sub-cooling area has no negative


impact in this process; the expansion
device provides expansion based on a
slightly lower initial pressure.
Provided that the total number of
tubes carrying refrigerant in the heat
exchanger remains identical, the assignment of more tubes to the sub-cooling
area automatically results in a reduction
in the number of tubes in the de-heating
and condensation zones, which results in
a slight increase in final compression
pressure. However, this intrinsically negative effect is more than compensated for
by the reduced outlet enthalpy, and
results overall in a beneficial effect [1], 2.

STORAGE EVAPORATOR

Mahle Behr was quick to develop this


technology as a means of maintaining climate comfort during vehicle standstill
periods [2]. This has resulted in series
application of the storage evaporator in

26

engine is off. In terms of energy, it makes


sense in this context to use the enhanced
evaporator temperature control, which
permits an increase in evaporator air temperature beyond the melting point of the
storage medium, thus making ideal use of
the latent mediums energy storage potential. The BehrOxal coating [4] prevents any
potential formation of odours at elevated
evaporator temperatures.
The controlled compressor (approximately 160 cc displacement) originally
installed in the test vehicle was replaced
by a smaller, more efficient compressor
with an approximately 15 % smaller displacement. A clutch has been fitted to
both compressors to enable demandbased (de)activation. Despite downsizing,
the system meets series standard cooling
performance levels thanks to the optimised heat exchangers and improved
compressor efficiency.

BMW 5, 6, and 7 Series vehicles since


2010. The storage evaporator is an evaporator with an integrated cold storage function enabled by a latent storage medium.
The so-called phase change material enables a transition from the solid to the liquid state at moderate temperatures. Compared with series evaporators, the air temperature downstream of this evaporator
increases at a much slower rate, when the
vehicle is stopped, 3.
The discomfort range is reached much
later, enabling climate comfort to be
maintained in 90 % of all phases in which
the vehicle is stopped without having to
restart the engine to support an air conditioning function. Even in enhanced startstop mode and coasting mode, the storage
evaporator allows for similarly extended
engine-off phases [3].
The cooling potential of the storage
evaporator can be used to maximum
effect by reducing the air flow for cabin
air conditioning and switching to re-circulated air mode in phases in which the

An evaporator bypass enables control of


air flow fractions through and around the
evaporator. For dehumidification purposes, the system usually runs in the socalled re-heat mode, which serves to
maintain temperatures in the vehicle
cabin within the comfort range. Specific
cooling of the air using the evaporator
dehumidifies the air by condensing the
water contained in it. As a result, the air
downstream of the evaporator is often
cooler than the required vent outlet temperature in the cabin, and the air must be
re-heated accordingly in re-heat mode
using the heater core or auxiliary PTC
heater. At many operating points, the
evaporator bypass allows the system to
operate in re-heat mode without heating
energy, thanks to targeted blending of
bypass air, 4. The refrigerant circuit is
not operated as intensively because only a
fraction of ambient air is cooled.
In hybrid and electric vehicles, this air
ducting arrangement enables additional
energy savings, as the lack of heat from
the powertrain does not need to be compensated for by using battery energy,
which would compromise the vehicle
range. Calculations on the potential boost
in efficiency in relation to the package
space required for the bypass duct indicated a volume of 50 % of the total air
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4 Example of air flow ducting through the HVAC module at 15 C ambient temperature and 100 % ambient
air at dehumidification

THERMAL RECUPERATION

In addition, thermal recuperation is implemented by enhancing compressor control


in conjunction with the storage evaporator and the evaporator bypass on the air
side. In coasting mode or when braking,
the vehicle subsequently recovers as
much cooling power as possible at the
evaporator through increased control of
the A/C compressor, without increasing
the fuel consumption. This reduces the
evaporator temperature and the storage
evaporator is charged with coldness. The
evaporator bypass on the air side is used
in this state to maintain a constant temperature at the blower vents by mixing
the sub-cooled air with warmer bypass air
downstream of the evaporator.
Once the storage evaporator is sufficiently charged and the recuperation
phase is complete, the refrigerant compressor is disengaged from the engine
and no longer actuated. In the subsequent phase, the required cooling performance is extracted from the coldness
stored in the evaporator, thus discharging
it and causing its temperature to rise
again. The evaporator bypass controls
the discharge of the storage evaporator
according to demand. As soon as the air
temperature downstream of the evaporator exceeds a threshold value, the compressor is re-engaged, 6.
autotechreview

M ar ch 2 015

The threshold value was raised above


the temperature value that was set by the
original comfort control. This ensures that
the storage evaporator is fully discharged
and the full potential of the latent
medium is available for the next charging
phase. An application of standard evaporators according to this logic would result
in the formation of unpleasant odours and
a humid feeling in the vehicle cabin. The
BehrOxal coating and the storage evaporator prevent these effects.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS

Initially, reference consumption measurements were performed with the production version of the aforementioned Mercedes-Benz E-Class. The four-cylinder,
low-displacement diesel engine was chosen as it will become the dominant design
in the mass-market segment in the fore-

Bypass dimensioning for air conditioning


High

Selected bypass
dimension

Fuel savings potential

flow as being a suitable dimension for the


bypass, and these findings consequently
found application in the test vehicle, 5.
The bypass design had no appreciable
impact on temperature distribution (temperature stratification) between individual
outlet vents.

seeable future. In addition, the efficiency


of the diesel engine is relatively constant
across a wide performance range. For this
reason, changes in consumption as a
result of modifications to the air conditioning system can be illustrated more
transparently than with petrol engines.
The consumption figures published
by manufacturers often do not correspond to those determined by vehicle
users. This is partially attributable to
the specified measurement procedure
for consumption values as per ECE
standard R83. This standard specifies
that auxiliary consumers, such as air
conditioning systems, must be switched
off during measurements.
The NEDC (New European Driving
Cycle) is the legally stipulated test
method. It has transpired that this cycle is
not really representative of real-world,
everyday driving conditions, and for this
reason it was not used for the vehicle
measurements. Instead, the more
dynamic Common Artemis Driving Cycle
(CADC) was used to assess fuel consumption values, as it is also more relevant to
the actual driving conditions.
The CADC comprises three driving
schedules: urban, rural road and motorway. In a first step, the consumption of
the series vehicle was tested with the air
conditioning system switched on and then
with the air conditioning system switched
off. Repeat measurements were conducted
in different climatic conditions to build up
a comprehensive database, which was
used at a later stage in the project as the

Low

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Ratio of bypass air mass flow to total air flow [%]


5 Fuel savings potential of the air conditioning systen in relation to the bypass air flow

Vo lum e 4 | I s su e 3

27

C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS

Partially loaded storage evaporator

Temperature / signal

Temperature / signal

Fuel loaded storage evaporator

Time [s]

Time [s]

Evaporator actual value

Evaporator set point

Evaporator actual value

Evaporator set point

Compressor input signal

Trailing throttle

Compressor input signal

Trailing throttle

6 Thermal recuperation process with fully or partially loaded storage evaporator

Artemis driving cycle

Europe climate profile


1.8 %
20.1 %
18.5 %

19.2 %

34 C / 32 % RH
26 C / 50 % RH

40.4 %

25.9 %

29.2 %

Urban
Rural

44.9 %

16 C / 63 % RH

Motorway

7.5 C / 72 % RH

REFERENCES

Below 5 C

7 Portions of the driving cycle and the European climate profile used to calculate consumption values

basis for analysing potentials. During the


fuel consumption measurements, only the
application for cooling the vehicle was
analysed, as all integrated functions can
be applied in this mode of operation.
The series measurement results illustrate that emissions increase by 4.8 g
CO2/km when the air conditioning system
is switched on. This value is based on the
cycle portion weighting and the climatic
conditions according to the European profile [5], 7.
Fuel consumption measurements
were repeated in the same way after
installation of the optimised air conditioning system and adaptation of the
control system in the vehicle. The effective combination of individual measures

gCO2/km

5
4

4.8

-40 %

2.9

2
1
0
Series

8 reduction in Co2 emissions

28

Cool Efficiency

areas in the cabin that are actually occupied, and enhanced re-circulated air control that takes into account CO2 concentrations in the cabin. This ensures a constantly adequate air quality level at high
re-circulated air flow rates, [6].

(weighted as per the CADC and the climatic profile for Europe) resulted in a
savings potential in terms of additional
fuel consumption of 40 % (corresponding to 1.9 g CO2/km), 8.

SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK

The results obtained demonstrate that


the objective of the Cool Efficiency
advanced engineering project, which was
to significantly reduce the additional fuel
consumption caused by the air conditioning system under realistic conditions,
has been met. An important tool in
achieving this goal was the analysis of
the energy flows at different times and
their potential to reduce fuel consumption. The Mahle Behr heat exchangers, as
integral components of an efficient refrigerant circuit, and the corresponding
enhancement of the control system by
BHTC, played a key role in bringing this
project to a successful conclusion.
The separate assessment of the individual measures presented above and further approaches will be examined in a follow-up project. These include single-seat
air conditioning activated only for those

[1] Wawzyniak M.; Walter C.; Kemle A.; David, G.:


High Efficiency Subcool Condenser, SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical
Systems 6(2) (2013), doi: 10.4271/2013-01-1295
[2] Manski, r.; Weinbrenner, M.; Hainle, D.; Kerler, B.: Speicher-Klimatisierung fr Hybridfahrzeuge mit Start-Stopp-Funktion. In: ATZ 108
(2006), Nr. 12, pp. 1002-1008
[3] Walter C.; Wawzyniak W.; Link J.; Sickelmann
M.: Speicherverdampfer fr Fahrzeuge mit StartStopp-Funktion. In: Haus der Technik Fachbuch
124 (2012), pp. 187-204
[4] Behroxal fr Klimagerte ohne Chrom und
Geruch. Firmenschrift Behr GmbH & Co. KG,
Stuttgart (2005)
[5] Khler, J.: Klimatische Daten und Pkw-Nutzung (FAT-Modell), Institut fr Thermodynamik,
Technische universitt Braunschweig (2008)
[6] Trapp, r.; Finkeldei, T.; Baruschke, W.: Potenziale zur Energieeinsparung bei intelligentem
Betrieb von Klimaanlagen. Baden-Baden Spezial
(2008)

ThANks
The authors would like to thank Elke Dettling
and Robert Anranter at Mahle Behr and David
Michalek at BHTC for their active support during
this project and the production of this article.

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C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS

REDUCED POWER DEMAND WITH


HYBRID AIR CONDITIONING
To reduce energy demand and unpleasant odours of vehicles air conditioning unit, Hyundai introduces a hybrid
system with desiccant wheel applied with separate sensible and latent cooling (SSLC) technology. This technique allows to separately control temperature and humidity of the cabin air. Two cooling systems meet the cabins demand a sensible cooling sub-system and a latent cooling sub-system. In addition, the new air conditioning also improves fuel economy.

30

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AuTHorS

DISADVANTAGES OF
CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS

Conventional air conditioning (A/C) systems utilise low evaporator temperatures


to decrease the cabin air temperature and
to remove moisture from hot and humid
air, 1. In order to remove moisture, it is
necessary that the supply air temperature
must be below the dew point temperature
of the cabin air. Therefore, the air temperature must be reheated to achieve an
appropriate, comfortable level, but this
process wastes energy. In addition, the
condensed water from the evaporator can
give rise to unpleasant odour problems.
Hyundais desiccant wheel hybrid system (DWHS) presents a potential solution
to compensate these drawbacks of conventional air conditioning. It proposes the
application of separate sensible and latent
cooling technology to the automobile
heating, ventilation and air conditioning
(HVAC) system. The total cooling
demand is delivered by a sensible cooling
sub-system, which only provides sensible
cooling, and a latent cooling one for
dehumidifying incoming air. DWHS
allows differentiating between tasks: the
desiccant wheel contributes to the latent
cooling demand, while the conventional
air conditioning contributes to the sensible cooling demand. The application of
this technology to the automobile HVAC
system by Hyundai is the first attempt of
its kind in the world.
The main development process steps
are described as follows:

SANGHUN KIM
is Senior research Engineer for
Thermal Management Systems at
Hyundai Motor Company in Seoul
(South Korea).

DONGHYUN KONG
is research Engineer for
Thermal Management Systems
at Hyundai Motor Company in
Seoul (South Korea).

TAEWOONG LIM
is research Engineer for
Thermal Management Systems
at Hyundai Motor Company in
Seoul (South Korea).

JOONHYUNG PARK
is research Engineer for
Thermal Management System
at Hyundai Motor Company in
Seoul (South Korea).

:: System design: The supply air streams


through the desiccant wheel, gets
dehumidified and will afterwards be
provided to the evaporator. Parallel to
the supply air duct a bypass air duct is
installed, which controls the latent
cooling capacity.
:: Numerical and experimental research:
System performance is evaluated by
simulation. The results are validated
through experimental testing.
:: Optimisation: Optimal cooling capacity and dehumidification are found
using an optimised desiccant wheel
and control algorithm.

PRINCIPLES OF THE SYSTEM

As described, the desiccant wheel hybrid


system allows for separate temperature
and humidity control of the cabin by two
sub-systems: a sensible cooling sub-system and a latent cooling sub-system. The
desiccant wheel and heating (regeneration) device installed inside the HVAC and
intimately combined, absorbs water
vapour and reduces power demand and
odour problems, enhancing the HVAC systems performance.
As shown in 2 (a), hot and humid
air is dehumidified by passing through
the desiccant wheel, and then the air
is cooled by the evaporator. (b) clarifies that no reheating process is necessary for increasing air temperature up
to set temperature, so both, the HVAC
energy demand and the amount of con-

Cause

Current Status

: Function of A/C: dehumidification, lowering supply


air temperature

I: Reduced fuel efficiency


: In summer (+ 20 %)
Fuel efficiency
A/C OFF 8.3 l/100 km

Notable fuel efficiency


degradation

A/C ON 10.4 l/100 km

HVAC

High temperature E
High humidity V
A

Time
: Need for air conditioning for defogging between seasons
Fog

Additional power
demand

II: Odour problems due to condensed water


Reduced indoor
air quality

Compressor I

Low temperature
Low humidity
II

: Dehumidification of evaporator Defogging,


condensed water
: Latent cooling load: 20 % of total power demand
: Lowering supply air temperature Control of cabin
air temperature
: Sensible cooling load: 80 % of total power demand

Additional power demand/odour problem


decreasing A/C power demand is essential

1 Problems of the conventional heating, ventilation and air conditioning system


autotechreview

M ar ch 2 015

Vo lum e 4 | I s su e 3

31

C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS
a)

b)

Sensible
cooling

Evaporator

Bypass air
Supply air
to cabin

Latent
Cooling

Dry air
Heated air

Refrigerant
loop

Air

Humidity ratio [kg/kg dry air]

High temperature /
humid air

Heater

Condenser

0.020

Compressor
- temperature drop + dehumidification
condensed water
100 % 80 % 60 %

0.016 Conventional A/C


compressor work
0.012

SSLC
compressor
work

0.008

Desiccant wheel
- dehumidification

0.004

0.000
0

Desiccant wheel (DW)

40 %

Conventional A/C
SSLC A/C

Target
temperature
5

10

15

20

25

Waste heat
- regeneration

30

35

40

Temperature [C]

Waste heat
Compressor
- reheating - temperature drop

c)

0.020

100 % 80 %

: Process side: dehumidification


from incoming air
: Regeneration side: desiccant
is dried and the moisture expelled

: Corrugated sheet
or honey comb

Humidity ratio [kg/kg dry air]

Process side

60 %

40 %

Amount of
regeneration

20 %

Regeneration side

0.016

0.012

0.008

III

Amount of
dehumidification

II

0.004

IV
I

0.000
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Temperature [C]

d)
200

SDP
Silicagel

Sorption capacity [%]

Zeolite

Silicagel

SDP

40

70

100
140
200

Regeneration temperature [C]

250

NaX zeolite

150

Ombra Siogel
100

50

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Relative humidity [%]

2 a) Schematic of the desiccant wheel hybrid system; b) comparison of conventional A/C and separate sensible and latent cooling technology applied systems;
c) structure and temperature-humidity-diagram for desiccant wheel; d) performance characteristics of super desiccant polymer materials

densed water from the evaporator can


be reduced.
The SSLC system dehumidifies the
incoming air stream by forcing it through
a desiccant material and then decreases
the air temperature to the desired cabin
temperature. To ensure a smooth operation of the A/Cs working cycle, the
adsorbed water vapour must be driven
out of the desiccant material for regeneration. This means it has to reach a defined
level of dryness for further adsorbing

32

water vapour in the next cycle. This is


conducted by heating the desiccant material to its temperature of regeneration,
which depends on the nature of the desiccant used.
In general, the desiccant wheel has a
honeycomb design or is built as corrugated sheet to increase its surface area for
contact with air. (c) illustrates the temperature and humidity changes of the desiccant wheel. In the right chart of (c),
the blue arrow from IV to I shows the

decrease of the temperature, while the


one from I to II represents adsorption. The
red line from II to III symbolises the heating process by regeneration, while III to
IV marks desorption by desiccant wheel.
Due to engine coolants low waste heat
temperature of 60 C, an appropriate
material for the desiccant wheel must be
chosen. The regeneration temperature of
typical desiccant materials such as Silica
Gel or Zeolite is about between 100 and
250 C. In its current hybrid system,
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a)

b)

: Conventional

: Simulation condition
E
V
A

Ambient
air

Condensator

: Concept 1

Supply air
to the cabin

H
X

Defrost door
Face door

D
W

Foot door
Heater
OA

Cabin

Compressor

Evaporator

Relative humidity
90 %

25 C

Power demand

Compressor
RPM

Compressor

Blower

Total

2650 rpm

739 W

37 W

776 W

: Concept 1
Desiccant
wheel size

Condensator

: Concept 2

Temperature

: Conventional

Compressor

Evaporator

Condition
Summer rainy

200 mm

Power demand

Compressor
RPM

Compr.

Blower

Total

1670 rpm

402 W

63 W

530 W

Compressor
RPM

Compr.

Blower

Total

1670 rpm

402 W

63 W

530 W

Defrost door
Face door

D
W

Foot door
Heater

OA

Cabin

: Concept 2
Desiccant
wheel size
250 mm

Power demand

3 Concepts and cycle simulation analysis for automobile application

Hyundai applied a super desiccant polymer (SDP) material for its relatively low
regeneration temperature, (d). Due to
high performance capability and low density of the material, the SSLC based system fits in a compact package. In addition, the material is environmentally
friendly and has characteristics of antibiotics and deodorants.

SYSTEM DESIGN

Hyundai has discussed the package layout in order to apply the proposed desic-

Bypass door
HVAC

High temperature
Low humidity

High temperature
V
Low humidity A

D
W

Temperature control

Compressor

High temperature
High humidity

H
X

cant wheel separate sensible and latent


cooling technology to the automobile as
shown in . Two different configurations
of the desiccant wheel SSLC system can
be applied to the current air conditioning
system. The first concept places the desiccant wheel behind the evaporator.
While this configuration allows for compactness of the system, an installation in
the limited space of current HVAC units
is difficult. In the second configuration,
the desiccant wheel will be installed
before the evaporator. This configuration
allows the system to be installed in a
more spacious area, which makes this

option better suited for application to the


current air conditioning system. Therefore, Hyundai selected the second concept for their study. The performance of
the hybrid system was predicted with
cycle simulation, while the desiccant
wheel size and climate control units
power demand were estimated.
In the cycle simulation, 32 % of compressor power demand has been saved
during rainy conditions in the summer,
with a supply air temperature of 15 C in
the cabin and a relative humidity of 35 %.
Based on simulation results, Hyundai
designed the hybrid air conditioning system using the desiccant wheel experimentally, and installed it as follows:
:: The evaporator, newly-made desiccant
wheel and case assembly as well as
the blowing passage, which provides
dried air to the evaporator, are installed
in line. A variable speed motor, belt
linkage and controller are also installed
to control the rotational speed of the
desiccant wheel;
:: A bypass door is mounted just before
the desiccant wheel to regulate the
moisture removal capacity;
:: Hyundai has installed a small coolant
heater core, blower and air flow passing duct for providing hot air needed
to the operation of regeneration-side.
4 illustrates the design idea and installation for implementation of a new desiccant wheel hybrid system.

Low temperature
Low humidity

High temperature
High humidity

Blower for
process side
Blower for
regeneration side

Humidity control
Waste heat

Process side

Heater

Desiccant wheel

Regeneration side
Desiccant wheel
DW: Desiccant wheel
EVA: Evaporator
HX: Heat exchanger for waste heat utilisation
HVAC: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

4 DWHS system design and automobile installation


autotechreview

M ar ch 2 015

Vo lum e 4 | I s su e 3

33

C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS

Effects of regeneration temperature on MRC

Effects of flow rate on MRC


1.6
1.4

0.7

VFR = 200 m /h
3

1.2

0.6

1.0

0.5

MRC [g/s]

MRC [g/s]

0.8

VFR = 350 m3/h

0.8
0.6

0.3
0.2

0.4

Target MRC in rainy conditions


in summer

0.2
0.0

0.4

20

40

Tgen = 60 C
Tgen = 50 C
Tgen = 40 C

0.1
0.0
60

80

Target MRC in rainy conditions


in summer

20

Rotation speed of desiccant wheel [rph]

40

60

80

Rotation speed of desiccant wheel [rph]

The humidity, however, was within an


optimal range, and the condensed water
at the evaporator was dramatically
reduced by about 73 % (0.16 g/s) through
moisture removal of desiccant wheel. In
addition, the cabin temperature was also
controlled to the set temperature and the
climate controls power demand was
reduced by 24 % compared to the baseline of the conventional system.

5 Bench test result for moisture removal capacity (MrC)

CONCLUSION
Condition

Temperature

Relative
humidity

Rainy conditions
(Summer)

25 C

90 %

Target temperature

Vehicle speed

Test time

23 C Auto

80 km/h

30 min

Test car

a)
c)

24.0

80.0

23.0

60.0

22.0
21.0

40.0

Optimum humidity range

20.0

20.0

19.0
18.0

100
Power Conventional

90

Power SSLC

250

Power [W]

Temperature [C]

25.0

300

100.0

Conventional Temperature
SSLC Temperature
Conventional RH
SSLC RH

Relative humidity [%]

26.0

Power Demand Conventional


Power Demand SSLC

200

80

78 Wh
24 %
59 Wh

150

70
60
50
40

100

30
20

50

10
0

10

15

20

25

30

0.0

Time [min]

10

15

20

Time [min]

25

30

6 Vehicle test result for cabin air-conditioning control and HVAC power demand: a) test conditions; b)
temperature and humidity control comparison; c) power demand comparison in rainy conditions

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

The experimental test of the hybrid air


conditioning unit was conducted during
rainy conditions in summer. The ambient
air temperature and relative humidity
were maintained at 25 C and 90 %,
respectively. Target cabin air temperature
and humidity have been determined to 23
C and 35 %, respectively. The target
moisture removal capacity was 0.6 g/s,
which Hyundai has obtained by observing
the conventional A/C system maintain the
same cabin air. The regeneration air flow
rate and desiccant wheel speed were varied, 5. As either the regeneration air flow
rate or the regeneration temperature was
increased, the moisture removal capacity
increased too. The highest moisture
removal capacity was observed at 20 revolutions per hour. The test results showed
that the target moisture removal capacity

34

of 0.6 g/s can be obtained at 200 m3/h of


the air flow rate and at 60 C of the regeneration temperature.
Even though the temperature of the air
processed through the desiccant wheel
was increased, the power demand was
similar to, and at several times lower than
that of the baseline. If a reheating process
was required to increase the air temperature in the baseline of the conventional
system, there would be additional potential to reduce the energy demand in the
separate sensible and latent cooling technology for the desiccant wheel hybrid
system.
Based on the bench test results, Hyundai also conducted vehicle tests with
DWHS. The evaluation results for cabin
air temperature and humidity inside the
cabin are illustrated in 6. The cabin air
humidity was between 40 and 45 %,
which is slightly higher than the target.

Power demand [Wh]

b)

The investigation of the SSLC technologys application for using the desiccant
wheel proved to be successful. The module was optimised and the system performance was experimentally tested. Under
rainy conditions in summer, temperature
and humidity of the cabin were successfully controlled using the desiccant wheel
hybrid system. Moreover, the air conditionings power demand was reduced by
24 % compared to the baseline of the
conventional system. Plans for future
research include studies on noise reduction, compactness, reliability, enhancement and cost reduction. Future research
will be aimed at further improving the
system performance and reducing fuel
consumption of automobiles. Hyundai
plans to apply this technology to any
hybrid electric vehicle that the OEM may
produce in the future.

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+91 80 23121811 | sales-metalprecision@tyrolit.co.in

A Company of the SWAROVSKI Group

www.tyrolit.com

C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS

THERMAL INSULATION OF THE


PASSENGER CABIN OF EVs
Increasing demands regarding energy efficiency result in conflicts of objectives between driving range and thermal comfort. In contrast to measures aimed at optimising the efficiency of heating and air conditioning systems,
thermal cabin insulation offers potential that has not yet been investigated in sufficient depth. Studies carried
out at Daimler AG are addressing this issue.

36

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AuTHorS

DIPL.-WIRT.-ING. STEFFEN WIRTH


is a PhD Student in the Field of
Energy Flow Simulation in the
research and Development
Department of Daimler AG in
Sindelfingen (Germany).

DIPL.-WIRT.-ING. MARCO EIMLER


is Consultant at the unity AG;
the paper is a result of his
diploma works at Daimler AG
in Sindelfingen (Germany).

DR.-ING. FRANK NIEBLING


is Project Leader for Cabin
Insulation in the Field of
Energy Flow Simulation in the
research and Development
Department at Daimler AG in
ulm (Germany).

MOTIVATION

Unlike combustion engines, electrified


powertrains have much lower levels of
waste heat that can be used to heat the
passenger cabin. Additionally, the refrigerant compressor that is traditionally linked
directly to the internal combustion engine
needs to be powered electrically. Consequently, in fully electrically-powered vehicles, independent heating and air conditioning systems need to be implemented,
and these have to be powered by the vehicles battery itself. The operation of these
systems has immediate effects on the
driving range, thus resulting in conflicting
objectives between driving range and
thermal comfort [1, 2, 3].
Several approaches are aimed at
increasing the efficiencies of the air
conditioning and heating systems by
active measures. However, improving
the thermal cabin insulation offers
untapped potential. Reliable conclusions
regarding the impact of improved
thermal insulation of cabin components
on the vehicles thermal management
are only feasible using detailed
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
analysis or climate and wind tunnels.
This is due to the large in-homogeneities
in flow and temperature ratios.
Previous studies assessing passive
measures in cars are largely based on
highly simplified models that neglect the
above mentioned in-homogeneities. In
particular, the assumption that the cabins
air volume can be represented by a single
node leads to an underestimation of the
local potential of thermal insulation.
Claims of driving range benefits of 3 to 4

% relating to a full-surface insulation of


the cars exterior components with a very
low heat transfer value of 0.5 W/(m2K) at
ambient temperatures of -10 C in a modified NEDC (accounting for the required
power to operate the heating and air-conditioning systems) need to be re-considered in 3D simulations [4].

SUBJECT OF THE INVESTIGATION

The goal of the investigation is to present


a comprehensive assessment of the technical and economic aspects of cabin insulation for alternatively powered vehicles.
Firstly, a fundamental understanding of
the system and an objective basis for the
evaluation of insulation concepts is developed with the aid of a CFD-based Design
of Experiments (DoE). Subsequently, a
packaging analysis of relevant components is carried out to demonstrate
options for the implementation of insulation technology for a conversion design
electric vehicle.

THE CAR AS A
THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM

The heating and air conditioning of the


passengers cabin is accomplished
through a temperature-conditioned air
mass flow through three different blowers ,
and , 1. The percentage distribution of air mass flow between the
different blowers depends on the surrounding temperature conditions. In
summer, the conditioned air mass flow is
equally divided between the upper vents

1 Structure and functionality of the HVAC unit [5]


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M ar ch 2 015

Vo lum e 4 | I s su e 3

37

C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS

and the defroster vents . The mix of


ambient and already conditioned cabin
air is cooled and dehumidified at the
evaporator .
Depending on the existing climatic
conditions and requirements, air is in
some cases cooled more than necessary
for comfortable climate control of the
cabin. In order to achieve the desired temperature level at the outlet nozzles, the air
is re-heated by the heat exchanger .
Therefore, the approach of raising the
incoming air temperature by using
improved cabin insulation does not necessarily lead to an energy saving potential in
summer scenarios.
Based on knowledge gained in the sector of climatic physiology, it is observed
that the largest amount of the air mass
flow for heating in winter enters the cabin
via the foot vents . Only a small
amount of the volumetric air flow is led
through the defroster vents
within the
dashboard to prevent misting. The air
being drawn in is heated and dehumidified via the heat exchanger
and the
evaporator
respectively.
In stationary heating scenarios, heat
loss via radiation, convection and the outlet vents equals the heat flow that is necessary to condition the cabins interior.
The use of insulation materials is aimed
at reducing the heat loss via the cabins
exterior panelling. For a medium-sized
car, this energy flow can be quantified to
about 1,200 W at a surrounding temperature of -7 C and an input power of
approximately 3,100 W [6].

LAYER BUILD-UP OF
THE BODY-IN-WHITE

With regard to a thermal analysis,


the components of the vehicle cabin
can be categorised into the following
three groups:
:: Transparent components (windscreen,
windows and sunroof);
:: Components with air gaps (door, roof,
A-, B-, C-pillars and boot lid); and
:: Components without air gaps
(floor, firewall).
Depending on the characteristics of the
above mentioned layer build-up, the
opportunity of integrating either insulating materials, low-emissivity (low-e) surfaces or functional textiles (low-e textiles)

38

2 Available options for component modification of the Smart Fortwo electric drive

presents itself.
The prerequisite for the use of low-e
coatings is an air gap in the layer build-up
of the component, leading to a reduction
in the exchange of radiation between the
two end surfaces. Simultaneously, the
temperature difference generated through
the air gap increases, which could possibly lead to compensating effects due to a
larger amount of convection in the air
gap. Therefore, the integration of low-e
coatings in the layer structure of components might result in the phenomenon of
thermal cannibalisation. Possible simplified modifications of automotive components are shown in 2.
For a better understanding, the relevant modifications to the door system are
described as examples. The door of the
Smart Fortwo electric drive (frame design
variant) consists of a 2.8 mm thick polypropylene (PP) exterior surface, a 2 mm
thick door separation layer of polyethylene separating dry and wet areas, the
door interior surface of a 3.7 mm thick PP
and a laminated textile structure.
Possibilities for material integration
and reinforcement arise either at the door
separation layer or directly at the inner
surface. Insulation options that do not
influence packaging space, such as lowemissivity coatings, can be included on
one or both sides in damping or laminating scenarios of the separation layer and
the inner surface. Additionally, the integration of functional textiles in the pas-

sengers field of vision provides an interesting approach towards increasing the


passengers experience of an insulated
drive cabin.
As is shown in the temperature
curves, the temperature difference
between the ambient surroundings and
the air volume of the cabin is distributed
in accordance with the thermal resistances of the constitutive layers, . These
resistances comprise convective and radiant heat transfer at the outer and inner
surfaces, coupled with the heat transfer
mechanisms that exist in the individual
component. For components with relatively low thermal resistance, such as the
windscreen, the convective heat transfer
on the inner side is the dominant mechanism. The influence of this effect is
reduced as the thermal resistance of the
component increases.

EVALUATION CHALLENGES

Energy saving potentials of active measures can easily be evaluated by simply


measuring the energy consumption. The
assessment of passive measures, however,
is facing specific challenges. The complexity of an objective ground for evaluation
of passive methods is explained by the
causal dependencies for a winter scenario
in 3. Leaving input power unchanged, an
improvement in the thermal insulation
leads to an increase in the averaged cabin
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same play an important role in the overall


evaluation of the insulation potential of a
system functioning at the desired thermodynamic optimum.

BENEFITS IN WINTER SCENARIOS

3 objective evaluation of insulation concepts

air temperature. For the neutral determination of relevant effects, constant cabin
comfort is considered as a reference. In
order to achieve this, HVAC units offer
two configuration options: the adjustment
of the incoming blower temperature or
the alignment of air mass flow.
The adjustment of the incoming air
temperature is accompanied by a
change in local cabin temperatures. This
effect is especially noticeable in cabin
areas that are exposed to stronger circulation. The reduction in air mass flow
results in a reduction in circulation
velocities within the cabin. Thus, the
convective heat transfer resistance in
boundary layers rises. This has a significant effect on heat transfer, especially
for components with a relatively lower
heat transfer resistance, such as windows. The decrease in air mass flow is
restricted due to a higher risk of misting. Both modified variants are accompanied by secondary effects, thus resulting in an unclear conclusions criterion.
In an attempt to derive an efficient
insulation strategy, greater importance is
placed here on the modification of the
incoming air temperature subject to lower
secondary effects. Although secondary
effects are to be minimised during the
analysis of the system behaviour, the
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M ar ch 2 015

Due to various system interactions, the


effect of specific measures on the power
consumption required for cabin conditioning is not always additive. In order
to mathematically describe the power
consumption in accordance with the
individual measures and their combination, a simulation-based Design of
Experiments (DoE) with the aid of the
CFD programme Star-CCM+ from CDadapco Group was executed, 4.
With reference to the thermal insulating properties of different components,
limiting input values between the contemporary series scenario and a thermal
resistance value equivalent to a 3 cm
thick polystyrene layer were used. With
the intention of maintaining an approximately constant average air cabin temperature of 25 C (comfort requirement)
subject to all parameter combinations,
the incoming air temperature was
adjusted linearly in accordance with the
state of cabin insulation. The premise of
a linear relation of the state of cabin
insulation and the incoming air temper-

ature leads to a measurement uncertainty (approximately 2 %) of the volume-averaged cabin temperature. In


order to achieve more precise observations for comparable cabin comfort,
future simulations should be expanded
by the addition of a passengers model.
The results for power dissipation
show significant influences from the
main effects, with the exceptions of the
windscreen and windows. This can be
attributed to the fact that the study was
carried out for a winter scenario only
varying the window surface emissicity
that does not have a great impact on the
heat loss. Interaction effects at the 5 %
significance level (p < 0.05) could not
be accurately proven. These interactions
are possibly very small, leading to their
compensation by numerical oscillations
in the average cabin temperature.
The equation shown in can directly
be adapted to the Smart Fortwo electric
drive for this specific winter scenario by
considering the assumed coding of factors. A roof structure insulation equivalent to a thermal resistance of a 3 cm
polystyrene layer results in a reduction in
dissipated power of approximately 49 W
(2 x 24.5 W). The large area of the Tridion cell is responsible for its significant
influence on the power dissipation of the
cabin. Modifications to this specific component group are, however, subjected to

4 Design of Experiments (DoE) set-up

Vo lum e 4 | I s su e 3

39

C o v e r S t o r y H VAC SYSTEMS

packaging restrictions.
For the derivation of a desired component insulation strategy, the effect
resulting from the combination of various parameter combinations (DoE) is to
be linked to the development effort
involved in series production (development and production effort), costs
(material costs) and other automotivespecific material requirements (weight,
long-term behaviour, geometric flexibility, package restraints). Only thereby a
holistic evaluation is guaranteed. Taking
the constructive component set-up into
consideration for the Smart Fortwo electric drive, individual insulation concepts
for the door, the firewall, the roof, the
floor and the Tridion cell have been
developed, 5.
Overall, from 144 possible scenarios,
14 insulation concepts were shortlisted,
primarily taking insulation and economic effects into consideration. The
approach of a vacuum insulation panel
within the door has not been regarded
due to shortcomings in geometric flexibility, long-term behaviour and material
costs. Feasible solutions which have
been implemented in the development
process are polyurethane (PU) foams of
varying thicknesses on the firewall (D1),
roof (A1) and floor (E2) similar to the
integration of a low-e coating in the
door construction (C1).
The implementation of these
approaches reduces the power consumption of the HVAC unit by up to 20
%, assuming a constant driving speed
of 50 km/h and a surrounding temperature of -7 C. An equivalent adjustment
of heating power results in a total driv-

5 Insulation concepts

40

ing range benefit of approximately 12


km for the Smart Fortwo electric drive
related to the power consumption
required in the NEDC with a consideration of secondary loads.
Some of these approaches have
already been implemented in series production within the framework of a quickwin package. A low-e coating in the air
gap of the door construction and PU
foam on the inner side of the firewall
make it possible to reduce consumed
heating power by about 350 W via a
modification of the air mass flow. This
was proven by tests carried out in the climate and wind tunnels at Daimler AG.

CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK

The methodological coupling of CFDbased DoE with an automotive-specific


criteria catalogue leads to an objective
conclusion basis that allows clear recommendations for an insulation strategy to
be developed. This strategy has been
implemented for the optimisation of the
Smart electric drives thermal insulation.
In order to be able to evaluate the
effect of passive methods on the cabins
heat management system more accurately, contemporary cabin models must
be further detailed. The ultimate aim is
the analysis of local temperature differences and locally refined circulation and
radiation phenomena in the interiors of
automotive components. The set-up of
three-dimensional CFD component models would enable a better fundamental
understanding of system behaviour and
forecast validity of simulation models.

Against this background, contemporary


cabin models at Daimler AG are being
optimised.
REFERENCES

[1] Bloch, A.: Bis zu 47% weniger reichweite.


Elektroauto-reichweite im Winter. urL: http://
www.auto-motor-und-sport.de/eco/elektroauto-reichweite-bis-zu-47-prozent-geringere-reichweiteim-winter-3295701.html [12.06.2012]
[2] Hesse, B.; Hiesgen, G.; Koppers, M.; Schramm, D.: Einfluss verschiedener Nebenverbraucher auf Elektrofahrzeuge. In: Proff, H.
(Hrsg.): Zuknftige Entwicklung in der Mobilitt.
Betriebswirtschafliche und technische Aspekte, 1.
Aufl. Wiesbaden: Gabler, 2012, pp. 91-104
[3] Hinrichs, J.; Schfer T.: Thermomanagement
von Elektrofahrzeugen. In: Mager, r. (Hrsg.): PkwKlimatisierung VII. (reihe: Pkw-Klimatisierung,
Bd.7). renningen: Expert, 2011, pp. 205-209
[4] Konz, M.; Lemke, N.; Frsterling, S.; Eghtessad, M.: Spezifische Anforderungen an das HeizKlima system elektromotorisch angetriebener
Fahrzeuge. In: Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik e.V. (Hrsg.): FAT-Schriftenreihe 233,
2011
[5] Schweizer, G.: Heizung und Klimatisierung.
In: robert Bosch GmbH (Hrsg.): Sicherheits- und
Komfortsysteme. Funktion, regelung und Komponenten. 3. Aufl. Wiesbaden: Vieweg, 2004, pp.
285-287
[6] Currle, J.: Thermische Isolation der Pkw-Fahrgastzelle. Daimler AG, unpublished report, 2012

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t e C h n o l o g y DYNAMIC s

ANALYSIS OF PRE-IGNITION
INITIATION MECHANISMS WITH CFD
For downsized sI-engines at high loads, and particularly at low engine speeds, spontaneous auto-ignitions randomly occur before the regular spark timing, leading to severe engine damage. these pre-ignitions limit the fuel
efficient combustion process and the underlying mechanisms must be understood. therefore, experimental and
numerical investigations were carried out at the Institute for Powertrains and Automotive technology at the Vienna university of technology.

AutHors

MICHAEL HEISS
is Project Assistant at the
Institute for Powertrains & Automotive
technology at the Vienna university
of technology, Vienna (Austria).

PROF DR THOMAS LAUER


is Associate Professor at the
Institute for Powertrains & Automotive
technology at the Vienna university
of technology, Vienna (Austria).

a)
-15 ATDC

b)

c)

High-speed images of pre-ignition events: (a) initial pre-ignition event; (b) follow-up event with glowing
particles; (c) Progress of one subsequent pre-ignition event due to a glowing particle

42

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INTRODUCTION

CO2 emissions from anthropogenic


sources are suspected to have an impact
on global warming. Governments around
the globe react by defining targets for the
reduction of greenhouse gases and CO2
fleet emission. This is particularly a challenge for vehicles that are propelled by
gasoline engines. A step towards a more
efficient working process is the downsizing of gasoline engines using high boost
pressures and direct injection. It allows
the shifting of operating points to higher
engine loads with higher efficiency.
However, experiences with highly
boosted engines showed that at high
loads, and particularly at low engine
speeds, spontaneous self-ignitions randomly occurred before the regular spark
timing followed by a mega knock that
may lead to engine damage in serious
cases. Recent experimental studies
revealed that oil/ fuel droplets or deposits
are a possible source of pre-ignition [1-3]. It
is the aim of the presented work to analyse the mechanisms that initiate pre-ignition using different measuring techniques
and CFD-simulation method.

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND


OPTICAL DIAGNOSTICS

A turbocharged 4-cylinder DI test engine


with 1.4 l displacement and a central sixhole injector was set-up on a test bench.
The engine was operated at an engine
speed of 2,000 rpm, a boost pressure of
2.1 bar and a brake mean effective pressure of 21 bar. A video access was
installed on cylinder 4 for high-speed
imaging of pre-ignition. Two bores were
applied to the cylinder head for the light
source and the camera.
As previously stated, pre-ignitions frequently occur within clusters of three to
five events alternating with regular combustion cycles. The first observed pre-ignition of a cluster showed distinct differences in light-emissions to all following
events: during the first pre-ignition cycle,
a light source occurred spontaneously and
immediately ignited the entire mixture.
Due to the fact that there was no previous
light emission, it is likely that the first preignition was triggered by oil/ fuel droplets
that reached their critical condition for
autotechreview

M ar ch 2 015

self-ignition at the moment, when they


became visible, 1 a .
It was common to all pre-ignitions that
in the following regular burning cycle,
glowing particles were observed, particularly during the final combustion phase,
b . Obviously, these particles are
deposits. The videos suggest that some of
these particles remain in the combustion
chamber and are heated up during the following regular combustion, where the
time is sufficient for the heat transfer
between gas and particle. Subsequent preignitions are usually repeated three to five
times until no major deposits were present in the combustion chamber, c .

mixing of fuel and lube oil and the accumulation of the fuel-oil-mixture in the piston crevice is therefore probable. The
crevice volume was not modelled in
detail. Therefore, droplets with an
assumed diameter of 500 m were
released in regions with intensified wall
wetting to mimic droplet stripping and the
droplet traces in the combustion chamber,
2. The trajectories were calculated up to
the crank angle, where the pre-ignitions
were typically observed. A reasonable correlation between the endpoints of the trajectories and the locations of pre-ignitions
from the video observations (yellow symbols) could be found, which supports the
assumption of stripped droplets from wet-

SIMULATION OF THE WALL


FILM FORMATION AND
DROPLET TRACES

A CFD-simulation was carried


out in order to analyse the
wall film formation on the
piston and the liner and
hence the behaviour of droplets that are released from the
film. Fuel components with
high boiling temperatures
were considered by introducing a five-component surrogate fuel. The mass fractions
of the constituents were chosen to fit the measured distillation curve assuming ideal
gas and liquid [4, 5].
The prediction of wall film
formation on surfaces with a
temperature in the range of
the fluids boiling temperature
requires a multi-regime
impingement model that takes
into account the wall temperature and the droplets stability.
In this work, an adapted BaiGosman model was used [6].
The spray was modelled with
a Lagrange-approach using the
measured droplet spectrum as
a boundary condition and the
Reitz-Diwakar model for secondary break-up. The turbulent flow field was modelled
with a 2-equation k- model.
The simulation of an injection event revealed a distinct
wetting of the piston crown. A

Vo lum e 4 | I s su e 3

Crevice
pos. 1

Crevice
pos. 2

Crevice
pos. 3

Low

Wall Film Thickness

High

trajectories of droplets (coloured lines) released from wetted


crevice areas in comparison with recorded origins of pre-ignitions
(yellow symbols).

43

t e C h n o l o g y DYNAMIC s

ted crevice areas as a source of


pre-ignitions.

INVESTIGATIONS ON FOLLOW-UP
PRE-IGNITIONS

The optical investigations suggested that


the follow-up pre-ignitions are triggered
by glowing particles. They frequently
occur after a regular combustion cycle.
For a more elaborate analysis of the
underlying mechanisms, a CFD-simulation was carried out for the first pre-ignition, the following regular combustion
cycle and the first follow-up pre-ignition.
For the combustion, a three-zone
enhanced coherent flame model was
used. Its model parameters were adapted
to the measured burn rates.
Particles were released briefly after
the first mega knock event from the discs
of the exhaust valves and the crevice volume, where a formation of solid deposits
due to intensive wall wetting or high
temperatures is likely. The initial properties of the particles are summarised in 3.
Their initial speed after being detached
by the pressure oscillations and their
diameter has been varied to study the
impact of both parameters on their further behaviour. The particles initial temperature was chosen to a typical cylinder
wall temperature.
4 shows the number of particles that
remain inside the combustion chamber
until the first follow-up pre-ignition event
occurs. For a better visualisation, the cylinder pressure is plotted on the 2nd ordinate. The opening of the exhaust valves is
illustrated with shaded bars.
It becomes obvious that more than
60 % of the originally released particles
remain in the combustion chamber. It
could be further shown that a disproportionately high amount of small particles leave the combustion chamber,
whereas the bigger particles rather
remain in the combustion chamber. This
outcome is qualitatively in a good agree-

TOTAL NUMbER

6,000 particles

Diameter

50 m d 500 m

Velocity:

0 m/s V init 10 m/s

temperature

500 K

3 specification of Inserted Particles

44

4 Evolution of the number of particles over 3 cycles

5 temperature history of the hottest particles at


compression start of the 3rd cycle

ment with the observations at the


engine test bench and can be argued
with the fact that the bigger particles do
not follow the flow field instantaneously
due to their higher inertia.
In order to study the heating and thermal inertia of the particles, properties of
solid soot were assigned. The particles
were estimated as spherical without any
temperature distribution inside the particle. Furthermore, no exothermal reactions
were considered.
It could be shown with this simplified
approach that the small particles are
immediately heated above the self-ignition temperature of soot that was
assumed to be 900 K. Further, the investigations revealed that the bigger particles
significantly increase in temperature during the regular burning cycle and distinctly exceed the self-ignition limit in the
third cycle. In 5, the temperature curves
of the five hottest particles are plotted.
Additionally, the self-ignition limit of soot
is added to the diagram.
Although no exothermic reactions were
considered, what is a severe simplification, it becomes clear that the temperature of the particles increase steadily if
they survive the exhaust stroke of the first
pre-ignition event. Therefore, the observation of an alternating succession of cycles
with pre-ignition and regular combustion
can be explained with the intensive heating of the remaining particles during the
regular combustion.

pre-ignition events and their alternating


occurrence at the test bench. It could be
confirmed that the stripping of droplets
and the detachment of deposits are possible causes for pre-ignitions. However, further model details like the exothermic
reactions on the particles surfaces must
be considered. That could be the content
of future work.
REFERENCES

[1] takeuchi, K.; Fujimoto, K.; Hirano, s.;


Yamashita, M.: Investigation of Engine oil Effect
on Abnormal Combustion in turbocharged Direct
Injection - spark Ignition Engines. In: sAE technical Paper: 2012-01-1615
[2] Yasueda, s.; takasaki, K.; tajima, H.: Abnormal Combustion caused by Lubricating oil in High
BMEP Gas Engines. In: MtZ Industrial (2013),
Vol. 3, pp. 34-39
[3] Zahdeh, A.; rothenberger, P.; Nguyen; W.;
Anbarasu, M.; schmuck-soldan, s.; schaefer, J.;
Goebel, t.: Fundamental Approach to Investigate
Pre-Ignition in Boosted sI Engines. In: sAE technical Paper: 2011-01-0340
[4] Lauer, t.; Hei, M.; Bobicic, N.; Holly, W.;
Pritze, s.: A Comprehensive simulation Approach
to Irregular Combustion. sAE technical Paper
2014-01-1214
[5] Batteh, J. J.; Curtis, E. W.: Modeling transient
Fuel Effects with Alternative Fuels. In: sAE technical Paper: 2005-01-1127
[6] Heiss, M.; Lauer, t.: simulation of the Mixture
Preparation for an sI Engine using Multi-Component Fuels. stAr Global Conference 2012, Amsterdam: 2012

CONCLUSIONS

CFD simulations were carried out in order


to explain the underlying mechanisms to

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Email: info@roots.co.in | Website: www.rootsindia.com

t e C h n o l o g y turBo CHArGErs

FUTURE TURBOCHARGING
CHALLENGES WITH CFD, FEA

A typical turbocharger
PHOTO: Cummins turbo technologies

46

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AutHors

LALAN SINGH,
regional technical Manager,
ANsYs India

INTRODUCTION

The auto industry globally, and particularly in India, is going through tough economic phases because of various reasons.
Increase in fuel prices, emission regulations, labour and raw material costs are
making it tough for OEMs to produce
vehicles for cost conscious buyers. Manufacturers are forced to develop fuel efficient engines to keep customers interested in their products.
Engine manufacturers are trying to
bring the efficiency up by downsizing
the engine. This downsizing is generally
achieved by reducing the number of cylinders of an engine, which in turn
brings down the engine power. Designers use turbochargers to reduce engine
size without compromising engine performance outputs. Reduction of engine
size also reduces the material cost
directly. Another advantage is that
lower weight means that it requires
lesser fuel to operate.
The first turbocharger technologies
developed by Sulzer Brothers in Switzerland were used in marine applications. The initial turbocharged engines
had a large axial turbine, but radial turbine development offered opportunities
to use this technology on smaller and
lighter automotive engines. Most of the
automobile manufacturers believe that
increasing oil prices, along with environmental emission regulations, will
drive the growth for efficient turbocharger developments.
It has been discussed on many occasions that the market for turbochargerfitted vehicles will grow close to 80 % by
2025. The Indian economic growth story
is exciting a lot of OEMs, both multinational and local, as well as suppliers
to invest in the innovation and development of turbocharger technologies.
Initially, turbochargers were majorly
used on diesel engines but recent
advances show a path for success even
in gasoline engines.

bUSINESS TRENDS
AND DEVELOPMENT

In our discussions with the


industry, the following trends in turbocharger development and its applicaautotechreview

M ar ch 2 015

Vo lum e 4 | I s su e 3

tions are visible:


:: Continuous performance improvements, especially with respect to fuel
consumption;
:: Increasing its durability;
:: Lowering emissions; and
:: Overall cost reduction.
In response to these requirements, companies basically want to bring innovative
products that will work for a greater range
of operations, while still keeping an eye
on reducing the warranty cost.

TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES

Every business driver transforms into a


technological challenge for designers.
These technological barriers can be categorised into different physics, such as
inertia, aerodynamics, thermal and vibration. Compressor wheel, turbine wheel,
scroll or housing, seal and bearing are the
major components of a turbocharger that
a designer needs to consider during various design phases.
Within this, the key technological challenges include:
:: Turbo lag directly related to transient
response of the component. Different
turbine control mechanisms are being
developed to address this issue;
:: Thermal management control for turbine and bearing;
:: Aftertreatment optimisation for better
emission control; and
:: Rotor-dynamics stabilities.
The advent of computers has enabled
engineers and scientists to understand
very complex large machine problems
easily and scientifically at lesser cost and
faster speed. Turbocharger designers too
were not left behind in using this comput-

static pressure rise


through the compressor
stage as well as the level
of mesh and flow detail
provided by simulation
PHOTO: Cummins turbo technologies

47

t e C h n o l o g y turBo CHArGErs

ing or numerical technique in innovating


turbocharging technologies that carried a
new height in improving machine performance and its applications.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) are
two computational technique tools that
provide a cost effective alternative to
physical model testing in a laboratory or
real time test on the field.

ROLE OF COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS IN


ADDRESSING TECHNICAL PRObLEMS

Much attention is now being given to


flow path design and heat transfer using
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for
flow efficiency improvements. Complex
blade curvatures coupled with rotation
causes strong secondary flows near
clearance. Proper understanding of these
complicated phenomena can thus lead
to performance improvement of the
machine. The effect of tip clearance can
be studied between rotating and stationary components.
CFD now is being used in compressor
and turbine wheels for understanding primary and secondary complex flow structures around impellor blades. Hot gases
around turbine blade and housing can
cause thermal stress that can be studied
using conjugate heat transfer (CHT) technique of CFD. CFD can be also used to
understand lubrication procedure
between the bearing and shaft. Cooling
mechanism for better thermal durability

Multiphysics requirement

48

especially near the bearing is an important factor during bearing design and can
be studied through CFD.

SOLUTIONS THROUGH FINITE


ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Finite Element Analysis technique can be


used following flow field CFD analysis for
the turbine impeller, to perform thermal
and structural stress and strain calculations to understand the component
behaviour under various pressure and
temperature loads. Excessive temperature
along with large pressure fluctuation can
also lead to various fatigue failures. The
turbocharger wheels are loaded with
cyclic gas pressure, which can cause high
cycle fatigue (HCF). Since its rotating at
high speeds, centrifugal forces can cause
low cycle fatigue (LCF). On the turbine
side, as gases are hot, it may also suffer
from thermal fatigue (TMF).
Since all these components have a
finite life, its important for an engineer to
predict exact or at least conservative life
for the component to avoid any failure on
the field. In the recent past, a dedicated
tool based on the FEA method is available
to study various fatigue phenomena.
Model and harmonic analysis of a component allows a user to see if the component frequency is matching with its natural frequencies to avoid resonance phenomena. This helps in ensuring a safe
operating range of the turbocharger during various dynamic loading conditions.
Temperature on
the turbine side
goes well above
800 C and material selection for
turbine blade and
housing is a difficult choice to
make to withstand this high
temperature, without any fracture or failure. Vibration plays a
very important role in its
durability and also leads to
vibratory noise,
called vibroacoustics in technical terms.
Sound in any form should be avoided;

one, because of human discomfort and


secondly, because of emission regulations.
CFD is being used in understanding noise
source because of the gases, while FEA
helps in predicting noise due to vibrations. Usually, all blades on a wheel
should be exactly similar in nature to be
efficient. Although manufacturers keep
assurance for keeping the blade properties
similar, blades can still be mistuned
because of imperfections in the manufacturing process. These small mistuning
causes localised stresses and strains that
can impact its durability. And that is very
difficult to predict physically.

CONCLUSION

The availability of additional computing


power can motivate designers to simulate
real world physics and phenomena with
fewer assumptions. This gives rise to a
trend towards using different types of
physics and components to predict the
system behaviour more realistically. For
example, CFD alone was giving information about how the flow path curvature
contributes to pressure change. Designers
can then take this pressure change over a
period to see the responses of the blade
vibration, also called forced response
analysis. Results of this gives the confidence to the designer that blade will sustain the vibration even with transient
aerodynamic loads. Selection of these
numerical tools thus becomes complex
by seeing the number of codes available
in the market.
Its necessary to select a tool that can
accommodate complete real world, different physics in an integrated manner with
an easy graphical interface process. Turbocharging is becoming synonymous for
more power with less fuel and emission;
and physics-based numerical tools like
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) are playing
a constructive role to achieve market and
customer demands.

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INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY


[A Division of NATRiP Implementation Society (NATIS), Govt. of India]

Plot No. 26, Sector 3, IMT Manesar, Gurgaon-122050, Haryana, India.


Phone: +91 9810777619, 9911725801, Fax: +91-124-2290005

F L I r C A s E s t u DY

SOFTWARE THAT WRITES ITSELF: EIGEN INNOVATIONS USES FLIR


INFRARED CAMERAS TO SIMPLIFY AUTOMATION SOLUTIONS

Setting up a machine vision


system and making all the different parts work smoothly can
be hard work. You need to integrate hardware and software
and often multiple cameras will
be involved. Eigen Innovations,
a specialist in real time monitoring solutions for many industries, has developed a smart
hardware module that makes
this integration process much
easier. And when Eigen installs
this module for its customers,
the company likes to work exclusively with FLIR cameras.

Eigen Innovations tries to make factories


smarter, by offering solutions that can capture real time data from the factory floor,
apply advanced analytics to it, and automatically improve operating processes.
This boosts factory productivity and
ensures consistent quality, all while reducing operating costs. Scott Everett is the
CTO and co-founder of Eigen Innovations.
He started the company in 2012 as a university spin-off.
We started with building software
control solutions for manufacturing systems in key markets such as injection
moulding, where a variety of sensors are
used. Looking at the temperature profile of
a part coming out of the machine is a good
quality check. One of the issues of doing a
quality measurement is that your product
has to cool down first, which can take a
while. With a thermal camera, being a noncontact sensor, you dont have to wait
anymore. You can monitor quality in real
time. We discovered thermal imaging from
FLIR at a trade show and we quickly realised that a thermal camera is so much
more than a camera: its an intelligent
feedback sensor for real time processes.

COST-EFFECTIVE INTEGRATION
Building a monitoring and alarming system

50

for fixed mounted automation applications


can be a tough and expensive process.
Since every application is different, custom software solutions are often needed
in addition to the sensor, communications
and computing hardware. Eigens Smart
Module (ESM) eliminates this costly step
in the process.
If we wanted to offer our customers a
cost-effective monitoring system, it was
clear that we needed to find a way to make
the integration of the cameras, hardware
and software much easier. Thats why we
developed our Eigen Smart Module, says
Scott Everett. In addition, using FLIR cameras has made our job easier as well. Sales
cycles for industrial solutions like ours tend
to be very long, but when we can present a
thermal image and show our customer
what it says about a production process, it
can get the ball rolling for us.

EIGEN SMART MODULE


The Eigen Smart Module is a robust GigE
Vision thermal camera module with monitoring and alarming capabilities for fixed
mounted automation applications. The
module allows for easy configuration of
temperature thresholds and enables PLC
communications. The Smart Module has
been designed to enable rapid deployment
www.autotechreview.com

ADvertorIAl

of fixed mounted thermal cameras for monitoring and alarming applications, eliminating the need for custom integration. The
module communicates with GigE Vision
thermal cameras and performs temperature
based calculations on designated
regions-of-interest.
The Eigen Smart Module is also a selflearning system. It can be used as a standalone solution, but as part of a larger architecture and for more complex processing
the module collects training data from the
thermal camera, trains the data in the
cloud, and pushes it back into the module.
In effect, the software writes itself. The
module can be used for a variety of automation applications, including parts manufacturing, pulp and paper, food processing,
fire prevention and condition monitoring.
And of course, Eigen Innovations is always
on the lookout for new applications.

BUILT AROUND FLIR


The first release of Eigens Smart Module
is completely geared towards GigE Vision
standards and FLIRs A-Series cameras.
Scott Everett: It doesnt take much
research to see the expertise which FLIR
has built up. If you look at the companys
portfolio and history, it made the most
sense to choose FLIR cameras. Apart from
that, we have developed a great relationship with FLIR and the company has
opened doors for us in the automation market. So it really has been a mutually beneficial relationship.
The great thing about thermal imaging
cameras is that you can see the complete
temperature distribution of an object, not
just one temperature point as thermocouples are showing you. This results in a huge
amount of data, complemented with other
sensor information like pressure, speed or
moisture data. Our module combines the
information of all of these sensors and tries
to make sense of it.

rear window defogger. In the assembly


line, the defogger is turned on and a FLIR
A-Series thermal imaging camera is used to
check whether the heater bands are working fine.
Normally in an automation setup, the
parts that need to be controlled have a
fixed position. In this case however, you
need to wait until the car comes into view.
Thats why the algorithms integrated in our
module need to determine the position of
the car first.
Another example is outdoor monitoring
of sulphur piles. In order to prevent selfcombustion of sulphur, FLIR cameras are
used to look for hot spots indicating a looming fire. Eigens Smart Module is specifically useful here for improving the detection performance and to reduce the number
of false positives, e.g. when heat is
detected in case of birds flying by. The
Eigen Smart Module can train the data to
see whether the camera is looking at a bird,
a loader truck, or an actual fire.

FLIR A-SERIES: POWERFUL


AND COST-EFFECTIVE
Having installed multiple Smart Modules
already, Scott Everett is very happy with its
choice for FLIR, more specifically with
FLIRs A-Series cameras. We are especially fond of the FLIR A65 and its beautiful
high-resolution images. It is impressive
how something so powerful can be built so
small.
With the current price level of the FLIR
A35 and FLIR A65 for example, you can
now easily include three to four cameras in
an installation. Even though it is a costeffective solution, the FLIR A-Series camera can replace a conventional line scanner
application. The difference is that a FLIR
camera is not only scanning one line, it is
presenting a complete image.

The EIGEN module and FLIR thermal


cameras can be used for a variety of automation applications, including parts manufacturing, pulp and paper, food processing,
fire prevention and condition monitoring.
Left: monitoring cheese quality, right:
detecting spontaneous combustion in
waste bunkers The A-Series cameras use
the GigE Vision standard, which allows for
fast image transfer using low cost standard
cables even over long distances. With GigE
Vision, hardware and software from different vendors can interoperate seamlessly
over GigE connections.
The A-Series is also very robust and can
be used for monitoring applications in harsh
environments.

READY FOR THE INTERNET OF


THINGS
In our line of work, there is much talk
about the industrial internet, or the Internet
of Things, where complex machinery is
connected with networked sensors and
software, says Scott Everett. Of course,
when you want to use all of this sensor
data to its full potential, you need to have
qualitative sensors that deliver qualitative
data in the first place. In that respect, I
believe that FLIR and Eigen Innovations are
facing a very exciting and promising
future.

For more information about thermal


imaging cameras or about this application, please visit: www.flir.com/
automation
The images displayed may not be representative of the actual resolution of
the camera shown. Images for illustrative purposes only.

EXAMPLES: REAR WINDOW DEFOGGER, PILE MONITORING


Eigen Innovations has successfully
deployed its smart module for an automotive customer. More specifically, the module and FLIR cameras are set up on a car
assembly line to detect problems with the
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t e C h n o l o g y V W JE t tA

VOLKSWAGEN JETTA
DECRYPTING THE MILD FACELIFT
Following the freshened Polo and Vento, Volkswagen recently gave the Jetta a pre-end-of-lifecycle facelift. the
mild facelift is aimed at keeping the car relevant against the competition, primarily the skoda octavia. Volkswagen recently invited us to sample the new Jetta around Mahabaleshwar. our story finds out if the facelift has given the Jetta any meaningful progression over its predecessor.

52

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DESIGN CHANGES

Volkswagen, along with the numerous


car brands it owns, seems to have an
inclination towards clean, sophisticated
and subtle design, barring the exception
of Lamborghini, which is an extreme
opposite. As has been the case with the
Polo and Vento updates, the changes on
the Jetta arent easy to make out from a
distance but there are fine hints of a
better looking car.
Upfront, the headlamps now have 15
LED daytime running lights arranged in a
hook sort of design, which surrounds
xenon units. This most attractive bit of
the front though is available only as an
option. The grille too has been redesigned
along with the bumper and fog lamps.
At the rear too the changes are mild
and the sharper tail-lamps are surrounded
by a new bootlid. The bumper too is new
and imparts the vehicle with a little wider
look. All these changes on the exterior
might not give the Jetta a new identity but
they surely help in enhancing its appeal.
In a nutshell, the new Jetta looks more
like the Passat and more premium as well.
Inside the car, the changes are similar
to that of the Polo and Vento and the most
visible change is the flat-bottomed steering wheels inclusion. While this is the
same multi-function unit seen on the
Polo, the unit in Jetta has shift pedals,
adding to driver convenience or fun,
depending on an individuals preference.
The centre console now features a
piano-black finish, while the new AC
vents are in chrome. The changes overall
uplift the character of the cabin and give

it a spark of elegance. The seats and space


dimensions remain the same along with
the wheelbase and that is fine because
space in the Jetta was never a concern.
Adding to its safety quotient is a fatigue
detection system, which monitors various
parameters of the vehicle and driver to
ascertain if the driver is tired and needs
some rest. If so, the system gives out a
visual warning to the driver to pull-over.
What impressed us most about the
cabin was the applaud-worthy NVH levels, which is comparable to the more
premium cars from Volkswagens German competitors.

POWERTRAIN

The engines in the new Jetta are


unchanged and power output for both
diesel and petrol units remain the same.
One also needs to keep in mind that the
updated Jetta, although in the same segment of the group-owned Skoda Octavia,
isnt underpinned on the MQB platform.
This car instead uses the previous-generation Golfs PQ35 platform as the new Golf
too has moved onto the MQB. This means
the car doesnt get the MQB engines seen
on the Octavia.
The new Jetta will be available in petrol and diesel variants with a 1.4 l TSI
engine producing about 120 hp and a 2 l
TDI unit producing 140 hp. The diesel
version can be bought with a six-speed
manual transmission or a six-speed DSG
automatic unit. We were able to drive
only the manual transmission equipped
petrol and diesel variants but given our

Both the petrol and diesel engines remain unchanged in the facelift model

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53

t e C h n o l o g y V W JE t tA

subtle and progressive changes inside the cabin and outside it enhance the premium feel, but only on a closer look

past experiences with the DSG and the


six-speed unit theres no reason to doubt
its performance.
The petrol motor is refined and offers
decent acceleration and good drivability.
The gearbox is smooth and shifts offer
good feedback as well. The diesel motor
too is refined and a healthy torque of 320
Nm between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm offers
an effortless driving experience.

DYNAMICS

Like the existing Volkswagen India cars,


the Jetta too turned out to be a sure-

footed performer on all kinds of roads.


The suspension does a good job of
keeping the cabin free of most minor
undulations and only the larger ones
make it through, but in a controlled
manner. The suspension, being on the
softer side, does lead to some body-roll
around corners but the chassis and
grip from the tyres keep things in control and offer good fun. The steering is
impressively direct and offers decent
amount of feedback, making the new
Jetta a good machine for the weekend
getaways involving spirited driving.
The large boot only adds further to
this benefit.

ROUND-UP

The new Jetta isnt a departure from


the old one, but instead builds on its
strengths. Also, the Jetta doesnt feature
the famed MQB underpinnings as does
the new Octavia. While the next-generation Jetta will be based on the MQB platform, these changes do a decent job of
enhancing the product appeal. With
loads of space, elegant styling and
impressive build-quality the updated
Jetta presents itself as a nice alternative
in its segment. Priced between ` 13.87
lakh and ` 19.77 lakh, ex-showroom,
Mumbai, the Jetta offers good kit and a
built-to-last feel. It continues to be a
good car to drive and be driven around
and while it might not set the sales
charts on fire, it could help Volkswagen
maintain a consistent roll-out for the
next few months.

TEXT & PHOTO: Arpit Mahendra

tail lamps similar to that of the Audi A4 do well to enhance the upmarket look of the rear

54

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Book your

booth now!
International Exhibition on Technologies for
Automotive Manufacturing

7 9 July 2015
Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai, India
www.aes-show.com

Who Should Exhibit?


Providers of equipment, systems, machineries, tools and software
used in the car and car-part factory should exhibit at the show.
Suppliers of production, Assembly line equipment, Manufacturing
automation solutions, IT solutions, Testing & measurement
solutions, Adhesives & sealants, Coding & marking, Casting &
forging, Fasteners, Compressed air solutions etc. form the exhibit
profile of the Automotive Engineering Show.
Bookings open
For more information, please contact:
sameer.khedkar@india.messefrankfurt.com
+91 22 6757 5900 (Ext.: 935)

S H O P F L O O R ACE DESIGNERS

ACE DESIGNERS AIMING GLOBAL


EXCELLENCE IN MACHINE MAKING
The machine tool industry has a supportive influence on the automotive industry of any country, since the largest users of machine tools are automotive component manufacturers. Ace Designers Ltd, the largest manufacturer of CNC turning machines in India, is the flagship company of the Ace Micromatic Group, accounting for
nearly 40 % of the total groups business. In conversation with Shrinivas G Shirgurkar, Managing Director, Ace
Designers Ltd, we take a look at the manufacturing process of machines at the facility.

56

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INTRODUCTION

Ace Designers Ltd manufactures machines


that have a turning diameter ranging
between 200 mm and 1,200 mm, and in
price, ranging from ` 10 lakh to ` 1 cr. The
company has over 50 product designs,
which also keep increasing due to the
customised requirements of clients. The
manufacturing set-up is spread over two
facilities in Peenya Industrial Estate in
Bangalore, with a total area of about 12
acre. Both units combined have an annual
production capacity of 3,000 CNC turning
machines, which the company plans to
increase to 5,000 units in the next yearand-half, Shirgurkar said.
The plant we visited is Ace Designers oldest facility, which houses the
component manufacturing division,
assembly area, as well as the innovation
centre that carries out research and
development (R&D) work. The company
is also setting up a new manufacturing
facility about 50 km from Bangalore,
where the groups foundry is located.
This new plant is expected to begin production by the end of 2016. Ace Designers currently has a total headcount of
about 700, with about 400 of them
being blue-collared employees.
The machines manufactured by Ace
Designers have an average of about 2,000
parts, and all critical components are
either manufactured in-house, or are
supplied by other group companies of
the Ace Micromatic Group. Some of the
components imported by the company or
that are bought from outside parties

The Spindle Room assembles and validates every


single spindle that goes into the machines

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Mar ch 2 0 1 5

include the CNC systems, bearings, ball


screws and hydraulics. While these outsourced components form only about
five per cent of the machines in terms of
parts, the CNC systems themselves form
between 25-30 % of the value of the
machines manufactured.

R&D CAPABILITY

Ace Designers innovation centre carries


out development work exclusively for the
company. Recognised by the Government
of India, the innovation centre has over
40 engineers, who take up various activities with regards to developing CNC turning machines, as well as customising
machines to customers requirements.
The main competence of this centre
is in product design and development,
as well as in research and development
that looks into validation, Shirgurkar
noted. The centre has also developed its
own CNC systems, in order to make a
higher value of the machine indigenous.
The companys own CNC systems have
been in the market since the last couple
of years, but are used mostly by the
companys close customers on a sort of
trial basis.

COMPONENT MANUFACTURING
DIVISION

The main base of any machine, called


bed, is cast at the foundry of the Ace
Micromatic Group, and is shipped to the

facility. All the sheet metal to form the


outer shell of the machine are bent,
welded and painted at the component
manufacturing division. The component
manufacturing division of Ace Designers
works on two shifts. While the bending
and painting is done by hand, the welding
is done by robots for a more even finish.
The company does not make use of automation or robotics to a large extent,
mainly due to the nature of customised
products that it manufactures.
The machines come with axes, which
uses guide ways to help move tools
within the machine, towards the components that needs to be machined. Each
axis has a motor to help perform its
movement. Components in turning
machines are provided with angular
motion by spindles, which are also made
in-house. The spindles come in cast form
to the plant, where they are put through a

The bed of the machines are cast at the groups own foundry

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57

S H O P F L O O R ACE DESIGNERS

Ace Designers makes custom-designed machines for customers, with the use of robotics to a minimal and more manual production and assembly

process of grinding to provide the finishing that is required for the machine. The
spindle design is something that Ace
Designers has a clear strength over competitors, said Shirgurkar.

ASSEMBLY OF MACHINES

Ace Designers currently undertakes the


assembly of machines at both locations in
Peenya, with the team working on a single shift. Both traditional, as well as a
newer method called Flow Line Assembly
is undertaken by the company. The traditional method of assembly is where all
the components are assembled on to the
bed at a fixed location on the shopfloor,
with the completely-assembled machine
finally being moved for dispatch.
The Flow Line Assembly method
works more on the lines of an assembly
line that is seen in the automotive sector.
The machine moves on a conveyor system
across stations that have designated

assembly duties, which include assembly


of parts and components, as well as the
testing and validation of the machines.
The Flow Line Assembly system is an aim
towards the companys vision of becoming a large-scale manufacturer of CNC
turning machines, noted Shirgurkar.
The bed of the machine, which is its
base, is brought on to the assembly line,
with the guide ways being the first part
that is assembled. After this, the other
2,000-odd components are added on to
the bed and the guide ways, with the control systems being one of the last components to be assembled. The company
mainly uses control systems imported
from external suppliers, while it also
deploys certain machines with its indigenously-developed control systems.
The spindles are then assembled as
sub-assemblies on to the machines. The
facility houses a dust-free room to assemble spindles, known as the spindle room,
where operators use a jig to assemble the
bearings on the spindle. The spindles,

once assembled are also put through a set


of tests to validate them against various
parameters. These include thermal and
other performance checks of the spindles.
The motors, sheet metal, wiring and
all other parts and components are assembled, and once completed, the machine is
turned on and checked to see if it performs properly. Once the machine has
been signed off against all the parameters,
it is ready for dispatch. The company said
the average time taken from the date of
receiving purchase order for a machine
from the customer to the time of its dispatch is about 30 days.

CONCLUSION

Ace Designers vision is to be among the


top 10 global CNC turning machine manufacturing companies by 2020-22. This,
Shirgurkar said, can be achieved by setting up an eco-system for large-scale production of machines. The new manufacturing facility is also a step in this direction. This new facility is being set-up by
leveraging IT into production, applying
manufacturing strategies and employing
global best practices for manufacturing,
all towards achieving its vision.
Additionally, its exports currently stand
at about 10 % of its total capacity, which
it looks to grow to 25 % in the next five
years. This would also enable the company to enter newer and varied markets,
and expand its footprint globally.

TExT: Naveen Arul


PHOTO: Naveen Arul & Ace Designers

The Flow Line Assembly method has been adopted from the automotive industry for more streamlined production

58

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N E W V E H I C L E HYUNDAI 4S VERNA

HYUNDAI 4S VERNA
OLD WINE, SERVED FRESH
For four years since its introduction in the Indian market, the third-generation Verna has been Hyundai Motor
Indias mainstay in the sedan segment, leading the C segment in terms of sales for over a couple of years. Built
on Hyundai's fluidic design philosophy, the Verna set new benchmarks in the segment, especially in terms of
design, build quality, safety and engine performance. The South Korean carmaker has now launched a facelift
version of the popular sedan, called the 4S Verna, at a starting price of ` 7.74 lakh, ex-showroom, Delhi. We
were recently invited to drive the vehicle around the picturesque city of Udaipur. In this review, we find out what
the 4S delivers, and if they are good enough to pale competition.

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INTRODUCTION

After a run at the top of the mid-sized


sedan segment for two years, Hyundai
Verna ran into the refreshed Honda City,
which was launched with a new diesel
powertrain, and also the Maruti Suzuki
Ciaz. Soon, the new products in the market outnumbered the Verna. With customers demanding more from the company,
Hyundai decided to bring in a mid-life
facelift of the Verna in the form of the 4S.
Readers would recall the Verna Transform, which Hyundai had introduced
for a brief period before the third-generation variant of the Verna was launched.
The fourth-gen Verna is still some time
away, and the company would hope to
keep the excitement intact with the
refreshed version.
So, what essentially is 4S? The four S
stand for style, safety, speed and sophistication. Let us analyse each of these to
understand the new Verna better.

STYLE

One look at the 4S Verna, and one can


spot the most visible change in the face.
The refreshed look is thanks to a new
dual-slat, wing-shaped chrome grille,
larger projector headlamps, bigger air
dams and a redesigned bumper with fog
lamps that are shaped as boomerangs.
The rear profile of the car remains largely
similar to the outgoing model, but for
LEDs on the tail lamps and redesigned
reflectors on the rear bumper. The

exhausts too have been concealed in the


4S Verna. From the side, the car looks
identical to the outgoing model. The only
visible changes include a minor change in
the fenders and wheels that have diamond-cut alloys.

SOPHISTICATION

The interiors of the car have also


remained largely unchanged. The dashboard design has been carried forward
from the previous model, and the infotainment system, steering wheel, and controls are identical. The thigh support on
the seats has been enhanced, and was
evident on our drive towards Mount Abu.
The integrated 2 din Bluetooth audio system now comes with 1 GB internal memory. A cooling duct has also been added
to the glove box, making it a unique offering in this segment. The instrument cluster is easy to read and practical, with the
onboard computer displaying data like
average fuel economy, external temperature, distance to empty, et cetera.
The material used in the interiors is of
good quality, and company officials
claimed they have been upgraded from
the past. One interesting addition is the
Ergo Lever, clamped on to the side of the
passenger seat on the front. This lever can
be used by the passenger in the rear seat
to move the front seat forward to create
better knee room at the rear. Overall, the
4S Verna interior gives you a soothing and
comfortable feel with all-around practicality built into the cabin.

The petrol and diesel engines offer segment leading powers along with good fuel economy

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N E W V E H I C L E HYUNDAI 4S VERNA

SAFETY

Hyundai has always offered segment-leading safety features on its products. The body
stricture is made of high-tensile steel, with
multiple reinforcements. ABS is standard
across the range, and the top variants get
front, side and curtain airbags, six in total.
An important addition to the Verna safety
list is the impact sensing auto door unlock,
which could be a boon in the event of collisions. Auto headlamps, rain sensing wipers,
electro chromic mirrors with camera display
and rear parking camera and sensors are
additional features.
The 4S Verna has received a 5-star rating from N-CAP in different parts of the
globe, said the company, and also added
that the US Government Institute for
Highway Safety has rated it good.

Although not major, the changes inside the cabin uplift the perceivable quality

SPEED

On the powertrain side, the company has


engineered both the petrol and diesel
engines to offer segment leading power.
The 4S Verna will be available in two petrol engines and two diesel engines; both
engines with 1.4 l and 1.6 l options. On
the preview drive, we could lay our hands
only on the 1.6 l Gamma petrol variant,
which delivers a peak torque of 155 Nm
and a peak power of about 121 hp. The
1.4 l Gamma engine, meanwhile, has a
torque rating of 135 Nm.
The key highlight in the petrol engine

The new Ergo lever adds to the cabin's good utility; the trim levels across the vehicle is of top quality

is the electronic throttle control unit that


electronically controls the amount of air
intake and engine RPM to accurately
deliver optimum efficiency and performance. This results in better fuel efficiency and improved power, apart from
cutting down emissions. The Dual-VTVT

While the suspension has been tweaked, high speed behaviour still leaves some scope for improvement

62

(variable timing valve train) unit, on the


other hand, controls the opening and closing timing of intake and exhaust valves
based on the engine driving conditions.
For the customer, this results in good low
speed torque and high power in addition
to better fuel economy and emissions.
As was clearly evident on our drive,
the 1.6 l petrol unit is smooth and refined.
However, the engine doesnt feel as strong
as the power figures suggest. The power
delivery, especially in city conditions, is
non-linear. On the highway though, the
engine performs beautifully and once
power comes in at about 1,800 rpm, the
drive is quite pleasurable.
The diesel engines on offer in the new
4S Verna include the 1.4 l U2 and 1.6 l U2
VGT units, delivering about 89 hp (90 ps)
and 126 hp (128 ps) respectively. These
have been carried forward from the earlier
variant, but with considerable tweaks.
The torque output on the 1.6 l unit, for
instance, is now up to an impressive 260
Nm, which as the company pointed out is
best-in-class. The 1.4 l unit delivers peak
torque of 220 Nm.
The diesel units now feature pistons
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with nano diamond coating for lower friction, which essentially leads to better
mileage, lower NVH and improved emissions. To further the efficiency envelope,
Hyundai engineers have also added a
Swirl Control Valve on the engine, which
facilitates a swirling motion of air in the
intake manifold that leads to better combustion. In addition, by adjusting the
turbo-charging effect as per driving
requirements, the variable geometry turbocharger is claimed to offer improved
engine response and performance at low
speeds. We will soon get you a detailed
review of the diesel engines on the new
4S Verna.
The gearbox options on the 4S Verna
remain the same as before. The 1.4 l petrol engine comes with a five-speed manual transmission, while the 1.6 l petrol
variant comes with an option of a fourspeed automatic transmission in addition
to the five-speed manual. The 1.4 l diesel
has a six-speed manual, while the 1.6 l
diesel comes with a six-speed manual or
four-speed automatic transmission. ARAIcertified mileage figures are rated at 17.43
km/l for the 1.4 l petrol unit, and 17.01
km/l for the 1.6 l MT and 15.74 km/l for
the 1.6 l AT. For the diesel variants, mile-

age for the 1.4 l engine is certified at 24.8


km/l (MT) and that for the 1.6 l units at
23.9 km/l (MT) and 19.08 km/l (AT).
The steering meanwhile is slightly
heavier compared to the older variant,
and thus gives you better confidence,
especially in corners and in high speeds.
The Verna was always criticised for having a vague steering and light suspension
set-up. Although Hyundai engineers seem
to have put in a lot of good work into
effect, one may still question the overall
steering feedback and vehicle stability in
high speeds.
The suspension too has been tweaked
to offer better ride quality and performance. The rear suspension in particular
has new coil springs and a low velocity
control valve on the dampers to ensure
appropriate damping force. New bump
stops too have been added to counter the
thud on full compression.

features on the safety and convenience


parameters. The most important
improvement that we found was on the
ride and handling of the vehicle, which
is much better than what the earlier variant offered. It has its fair share of loyal
followers, and the new 4S variant
should only push the acceptability envelope further across the customer base.

TExT: Deepangshu Dev Sarmah


PHOTO: Bharat Bhushan Upadhyay

ROUND-UP

With the new Vern 4S, Hyundai has


been able to hold on to its core
strengths of offering a refined performance, refreshed looks and a long list of

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October 2014 | Volume 3 | Issue 10

Now, Also
AvAilAble oN
Its on

14

IntervIew
Ravindra Pisharody,
Executive Director, CV Business Unit,
Tata Motors

18

teCHnOLOGY FOreSIGHt
Trends In Lightweighting of BEVs:
A Review of Strategies Part II

60

new veHICLe
Maruti Suzuki Ciaz Setting The
Sedan Gameplan on Track

EACH

pIStOnS & rInGS


driving efficiency in engines

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Mar ch 2 0 1 5

Volu m e 4 | Issu e 3

63

DECODING TECHNOLOGY

HVAC: BLOWING HOT & COLD


Suspension systems are the interface
between vehicle body and chassis, and
the road through the wheels. They define
the vehicle character through ride comfort, vehicle safety, ride and handling, and
ruggedness of vehicle. The system provides relative motion between the chassis
and wheels as the vehicle moves along
the terrain. Suspension systems mainly
affect handling and braking for real time
safety and help deliver a pleasing driving
experience. They also have to ensure
occupants comfort and isolate them from
road noise. Suspension systems ensure
that the wheels are in contact with the
road surface.
During vehicle design and development, suspension tuning is important and
forms a critical part of vehicle performance, and driving experience. A holistically designed system will consider performance characteristics, chassis, centre
of gravity, front and back weight distribution, load carrying capacity, life of vehicle,
tyres, ride comfort and recyclability. This
has to be integrated in the initial design
and specification process, like any other
vehicle systems.
The anti-roll capability of a vehicle is
dependent on suspension design and
tuning. Vehicle safety during high
speeds, its ability to under-steer or oversteer, its stability while braking is
dependent on suspension system and the
appropriate integrated tuning. Typical
parameters in suspension tuning are
camber angle, caster angle, centre of
gravity and roll centre, damping bump
and rebound, ride height, toe in/ toe out,
and the weight distribution while static/
corner weights.

popular ones have served the test of time.


The current range of shock absorbers and
springs are mostly passive systems.
Independent suspensions are
deployed in vehicles to ensure that
loads are not transferred to the opposite wheel on the same axle during
road irregularities. It allows wheel camber to be adjusted, or designed into the
suspension geometry. McPherson struts
are used in several front-wheel drive
vehicles. On rear-wheel drive vehicles,
the suspension allows for the external
drive shafts.
The active systems use electrical
dampers, rheological fluids or nano-particles in conventional fluids. The active
suspension systems have electronics and
sensors that provide real time inputs
based on road conditions and the vehicle
load. Damping is controlled through sensors sending signals via closed loop feedback. Some vehicles have a memory
backup that recognises the terrain and
adjusts for soft or hard ride. The electrically activated dampers are low power
consumption devices to ensure power
management optimisation.
Adaptive air suspension offers many
advantages the vehicle suspension
height remains constant irrespective of
the load being carried. The adjustable
dampening characteristics and ride height

DR ARUN JAURA
Board of Directors,
SAE International

is standardised by the OEM in active suspensions, for minimal adjustment by customers. Some of the adaptive suspensions
are adjustable and have a wide programmable range for the vehicle owner.
With an emphasis on weight reduction
and fuel economy improvement, lightweight components and springs are developed with higher structural rigidity and
robust designs. Though aluminium has
been used for lightweighting, composites
are being used in some applications.
These are mainly used in race cars today
but mass market commercialisation is
under development.
Suspension systems define the character of a vehicle. For mass market
applications, safety and high speed handling are critical. A premier brand customer demands many other features
during high speed driving from a vehicle which only an integrated suspension
can deliver.

TYPES OF SUSPENSIONS

Different suspension systems are used


depending on usability of vehicles and
target segments. Leaf springs and spring
suspensions have been around for long,
and earlier designs were for low speed
applications. Torque tubes were used in
the Model T. With the advent of automobiles and higher speeds, came the innovative evolution of suspension systems. The

64

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