11 tayangan

Diunggah oleh Bram

Electric symbol and notes

- 1- 118 TOP Current Electricity - Electrical Engineering Multiple Choice Questions and Answers _ MCQs Preparation for Engineering Competitive Exams
- Electricity
- 1.pdf
- circuits.ppt
- Electrical Engineering Objective Type
- Jeep 112
- Basic electrical engineering Q-Paper
- Unit 9 Packet-3
- BEEE 2012 Paper
- (2) Electrical Engineering World - Posts
- Calculating the Equivalent Thevenin Source Voltage and Series Resistance is Actually Quite Easy
- Current Electricity Mcqs
- 2-0-electricity(1)
- 10 Science Exemplar Chapter 12
- EE 1998 Unsolved
- Carta Gantt Science T3 2016
- ecen lab 9 report
- NTSE Stage-I-Rajasthan (2013,2014,2015,2016) Paper -
- Lc Filter for Dc Motor Hum Removal
- Voltage Divider (PRAKASH)

Anda di halaman 1dari 21

Symbol I

Electric current is the flow of electric charge.

An electric current is a flow of electrons from one

point to another. For an electric current to flow there

are two requirements

(i) A source of electrons e.g. electric cell which is a

source of electrons and also electrical energy which

causes the electrons to flow

(ii) Current will only flow in an electric circuit only if

there is a complete circuit.

S.I. unit of current

: Ampere Amp A

material then that material has what we call resistance.

Resistance is defined as that which opposes the flow of

electric current.

S.I. unit of electric resistance

: Ohms

cell to the positive side.

flowing from the +ve to ve

+

e

I

Resistance R

A single cell or other power source is represented by a

long and a short parallel line. A collection of cells or

battery is represented by a collection of long and short

parallel lines. In both cases, the long line is

representative of the positive terminal of the energy

source and the short line represents the negative

terminal.

line

R

Resistance (Ohms)

maintained in two infinitely long conductors of

negligible cross-section one metre apart in a vacuum

would produce between the conductors a force of 2 x

10-7 Newtons per metre.

Coulomb : Is defined as the quantity of charge which

passes when a steady current of one ampere flows for

one second.

It can be shown that

CHARGE (Q) = CURRENT (I) X TIME (t)

Q It

Energy VIt Joules

Power

Energy VIt

VI (Watts )

time

t

Examples.

1. Calculate the amount of energy supplied by a 5 kW

heater in a time of 15 minutes.

water initially of 20o C.

3. If the p.d. across an electrical heater is 20 V and its

electrical power is 1 k W calculate the current flowing.

4. If the power rating of a heater is 500 W and the

current flowing through it is 15 A calculate the p.d.

across it.

OHMS LAW.

The current flowing through a conductor is directly

proportional to the potential difference across its ends

V at constant temperature

conductor R

V IR

resistor R from A to B. The value of the current

flowing in and out of the resistance is I.

However since work is done is moving the current

through the resistor the potential at A and B are

different from one another.

A

I

B

R

potential.

In this case

V R I .R p.d . across the resistor R

VR V AB V A V B and since V A V B

V AB is a positive value

States that the sum total of the current flowing into a

junction in an electric circuit is equal to the sum total

of the current flowing out of the junction.

I1

I2

I3

In the above circuit

I1 = I2 + I3

V1

V2

V3

individual voltage values VT = V1 + V2 + V3

This is also true of all potential differences in series

i.e. for electric cells as above and also for potential

differences across electrical components (resistors).

Voltage and Current for components in Series

Voltages add up for components connected in series.

Currents are the same through all components

connected in series.

Cells in Parallel

V1

V2

V3

(Voltages in parallel)

VT = V1 = V2 = V3

Again true for both electric cells and also for potential

difference values across electrical components

POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES IN PARALLEL

ARE EQUAL

Voltage and Current for components in Parallel

Voltages are the same across all components

connected in parallel.

Currents add up for components connected in

parallel

RESISTORS IN SERIES

3 Resistors in series across a voltage source VT

current to travel, the current through each of the

resistors is the same. I I I I

1

add up to the total voltage supplied by the

battery: V V V V

T

VT I1 R1 I 2 R2 I 3 R3

VT IR1 IR2 IR3

VT I R1 R2 R3

complete circuit

VT IRequivalent I R1 R2 R3

for 3 resistors connected in series is

Requivalent R1 R2 R3

connected in series is the sum of their resistances.

That is for n resistors in series the equivalent

resistance is

n

Requivalent Ri

i 1

RESISTORS IN PARALLEL

Resistors can be connected such that they branch

out from a single point (known as a node), and

join up again somewhere else in the circuit. If we

label the point at the + side of the battery A and

the point at the side of the battery B and

battery the circuit is

A

B

Note that the node does not have to physically be

a single point; as long as the current has several

alternate paths to follow, then that part of the

circuit is considered to be parallel.

At A the potential must be the same for each

resistor. Similarly, at B the potential must also be

the same for each resistor. So, between points A

and B, the potential difference is the same.

That is, each of the three resistors in the parallel

circuit must have the same voltage.

V VT V1 V2 V3

So, the sum of the currents through the three

(where the currents from the branch reunite).

I I1 I 2 I 3

are equal the equation is equivalent to:

V

Requivalent

V1 V2 V3 V

V

V

R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3

out, and we are left with

1

Requivalent

1

1

1

R1 R2 R3

or

1

Requivalent

i 1

1

Ri

connected in parallel.

One problem with this equation is that the

solution give the inverse value of Requivalent and so

you must remember to re-invert the value to

determine Requivalent

However If the number of resistors in parallel is

2 the equation becomes

1

Requivalent

1

Requivalent

1

1

R1 R2

R2 R1

R1 R2

inverting gives

R .R

Requivalent 1 2

R1 R2

Therefore for TWO resistors in parallel

Requivalent

sum of the two resistor values

have to remember to reinvert but the equation can

only be used for TWO resistors in parallel.

Procedure for solving Electric Circuits.

1. Find the equivalent resistance for any parallel

combinations in the circuit, and replace the

combination with its equivalent. The circuit is now a

series circuit.

2. Redraw the SERIES circuit.

3. Find the total resistance of the series circuit.

4. Redraw the circuit.

5. Use Ohms Law to calculate the total or circuit

V

I

current

R

T

is in series with the battery using Ohms Law

V IR

with the battery can be calculated.

flows through the equivalent resistance of any of

the parallel combinations. So we can use Ohms

Law in the same way as section 6 to calculate the

p.d. across the equivalent resistance.

Veq I eq Req I T Req

equal to the p.d. across each component

(resistance) in a parallel combination.

8. Then use knowing the voltage use Ohms Law

In

Veq

Rn

resistor Rn in the parallel combination.

component (resistance) use the equation.

Power VI

For each of the circuits shown below calculate

(i) total circuit current

(ii) current through each resistor

(iii) p.d. across each resistor.

Circuit 1.

V1

12V

R2

200ohm

R1

R4

100ohm

R3

400ohm

200ohm

R3 = 50 , E = 10 V

E

R2

R1

R3

Circuit 3

the switch (s) in the circuit is (a) open and (b) closed

20 V

20 ohms

S

30 ohms A

20 ohms

current through, the potential difference across and the

power of each of the components (resistors) in the

circuit.

VT

R2

R1

R4

R3

Given that VT = 15 V R1 = 400 R2 = 250

R3 = 500 ohms and R4 = 150

Question 4.

In an electric circuit two parallel combinations of

(a) a 400 resistor in parallel with a 600 resistor

and (b) Two 100 resistors in parallel are in series

with a 600 resistor across a 12 V supply.

Draw the circuit diagram and solve the circuit.

Real batteries are constructed from materials which

possess non-zero resistivities. It follows that real

batteries are not just pure voltage sources. They also

possess internal resistances. A pure voltage source is

usually referred to as an emf (which stands for

electromotive force).

Electric cells contain an internal resistance and the cell

loose some of its e.m.f. when it drives current through

this internal resistance. It is more accurate to

represent an electric cell as follows

r = internal resistance of the cell

a current I flows

I

emf

E

total resistance R r

E I R r

E IR Ir

E V Ir

V E Ir

voltage the potential difference

I r is the potential (voltage) lost inside the electric cell

E = emf of the battery

Example 1. An electric cell supplies a current of 0.6 A

when a 200 ohm resistance is connected in series with

it. The same cell supplies 0.2 A thro a 700 ohm

resistance. Calculate the internal resistance and the

e.m.f. of the cell.

ohm resistors when they are connected in parallel and

(b) a current of 0.4 A when they are in series.

Calculate the e.m.f. internal resistance of the cell and

the p.d. of the battery for (a) and (b)

Question 3.

Solve the following circuit. i.e. find the current

through, the potential difference across and the power

of each of the components ( resistors ) in the circuit.

10 V 0.2

20

current through, the potential difference across and the

power of each of the components ( resistors ) in the

circuit.

ET

R2

R1

R4

R3

Given E =15V , internal resistance r = 5

R1 = 4 kR2 = 5 k

R3 = 5 k and R4 = 1 k

- 1- 118 TOP Current Electricity - Electrical Engineering Multiple Choice Questions and Answers _ MCQs Preparation for Engineering Competitive ExamsDiunggah olehHussam Gujjar
- ElectricityDiunggah olehanu.pavansuresh30
- 1.pdfDiunggah olehSIVAKAMI
- circuits.pptDiunggah olehPankaj Mishra
- Electrical Engineering Objective TypeDiunggah olehmaruf048
- Jeep 112Diunggah olehIshan Lakhwani
- Basic electrical engineering Q-PaperDiunggah olehAbinash Singh
- Unit 9 Packet-3Diunggah olehjeev
- BEEE 2012 PaperDiunggah olehAmeya1823
- (2) Electrical Engineering World - PostsDiunggah olehMunzurulKader
- Calculating the Equivalent Thevenin Source Voltage and Series Resistance is Actually Quite EasyDiunggah olehEduardo Hopner Pereira
- Current Electricity McqsDiunggah olehaniket
- 2-0-electricity(1)Diunggah olehShereen Lina
- 10 Science Exemplar Chapter 12Diunggah olehsanyam
- EE 1998 UnsolvedDiunggah olehkavya
- Carta Gantt Science T3 2016Diunggah olehkriiz
- ecen lab 9 reportDiunggah olehapi-241454978
- NTSE Stage-I-Rajasthan (2013,2014,2015,2016) Paper -Diunggah olehNilesh Gupta
- Lc Filter for Dc Motor Hum RemovalDiunggah olehbill_gator20059105
- Voltage Divider (PRAKASH)Diunggah olehPrakash
- Byron Gottfried-Spreadsheet Tools for Engineers Using Excel ® 2007-McGraw-Hill Education (2009)Diunggah olehLuigi Landino
- 18 - Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating CurrentsDiunggah olehcpverma2811
- Capacitor & InductorDiunggah olehKamarul Syaril Azzahari
- DemoDiunggah olehShring Highb
- Bullnose LED Bike Light and Dynamo USB ChargerDiunggah olehAltruda Samuele
- Network TheoremsDiunggah olehParamesh Waran
- LED Spotlight TutorialDiunggah olehsammysmithazt
- Manual LCADiunggah olehAftab Ahmad
- Acckt Single PhaseDiunggah olehken peligrino
- Electronic Concepts Audio Version , Edition 1Diunggah olehVinay Kamat

- An Introduction to the Philosophy of GoraknathDiunggah olehBram
- An Introduction to the Philosophy of GoraknathDiunggah olehBram
- Cable Size Voltage Drop CalculationDiunggah olehA.K.A. Haji
- 42 Calculate Bus Bar Size for Panel 1.1.15Diunggah olehvjvijay88
- Design Guideline for BuildingDiunggah olehBram
- Design Guideline for BuildingDiunggah olehBram
- 43 Calculate Cable Tray Size 1.1.15Diunggah olehBram
- Tral Earthing Transformer Size Calculation1.1.15Diunggah olehBram
- Customer SatisfactionDiunggah olehkarthikeyan
- A Handbook of Writing for Engineers 110 116Diunggah olehBram
- Load Flow SpreadsheetDiunggah olehBram
- Pmo Lessonslearnedreport v1 00Diunggah olehBram
- Calculate Size of Conduit 1.1.15Diunggah olehengrsaqibhusain
- Moist Air Properties (1)Diunggah olehFernando Quispe
- PPF CalculatorDiunggah olehBram
- Varanasi Tours GuideDiunggah olehBram
- 20 Examination StrategiesDiunggah olehLim Leong
- Integral Yoga Sadhana for a Balanced PersonalityDiunggah olehBram
- An Introduction to the Philosophy of GoraknathDiunggah olehBram
- Building Lighting Protection CalculationDiunggah olehArjun Nair
- Badri_Kedar Yatra DetailsDiunggah olehBram
- Badri_Kedar Yatra DetailsDiunggah olehBram
- The Economics of the Stock MarketDiunggah olehBram
- Wire Tinning ProcedureDiunggah olehBram
- Mantra LinksDiunggah olehBram
- Mantra LinksDiunggah olehBram
- Project Management BookDiunggah olehBram
- Residential Load CalculationsDiunggah olehBram
- Tas an OverviewDiunggah olehBram
- Personal Finance.xlsDiunggah olehBram

- HP 436A Power Meter TS3793UDiunggah olehz3r0r35
- Alternative FrameworksDiunggah oleheastlyfe
- LCR-800 Series User ManualDiunggah olehsimplyvish
- tcsDiunggah olehjan9187
- 1990746D-IFA300Diunggah olehAnds Proença
- Copia de 7226BDiunggah olehespartaco
- EE3400 F14 Course InfoDiunggah olehbinaryone1
- 9A04501 Analog Communications15Diunggah olehsubbu
- syllabus distribution systemDiunggah olehAmruta Motka
- 033_046Diunggah olehKrish Gokul
- Molded Case Circuit Breakers - Application and SelectionDiunggah olehManuel L Lombardero
- Westinghouse Lighting RMA Package Series Roadway Spec Sheet 6-79Diunggah olehAlan Masters
- 07515213Diunggah olehjack_clift
- Network Communications Modules NCM-WDiunggah olehRonald Urizar
- A Digital Design Flow for Secure Integrated CircuitsDiunggah olehDebabrata Sikdar
- abbacsDiunggah olehterserahgue
- Relay Functionality ReviewDiunggah olehGilberto Jarvio
- D10 Technical Specification WELDING (1)Diunggah olehJennifer Owens
- Ar 8200 Mk 3 BrochureDiunggah olehgus289
- IJEE 15 v1n6 Dynamic Stability Analysis of Microgrid 2010Diunggah olehJitender Kaushal
- hw3Diunggah olehBrimwoodboy
- Shiva ES ExperimentsDiunggah olehachuu1987
- e m Apparatus Manual SE 9638Diunggah olehGina Mijangos
- S201S06VDiunggah olehIlle Antoniu Nicolae
- Scan Profile for EmailDiunggah olehZaheer Ahamed
- Lg Inverter Low Ambient ProcedureDiunggah olehJeremiasPereira
- Alternator RegulationDiunggah olehPradeep Kumar S S
- Amplifier Installation GuideDiunggah olehjcglamas55
- Bahasa Inggris Multimeter Analog PresentasiDiunggah olehFirda Firda Ooaalaa
- 2N5555.pdfDiunggah olehDaniel