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THERMAL Definition of Heat: EXPANSION Heat is a form of energy which is transfer

red between a system and its surroundi ng as a result of temperature difference
only. due to increase in temperature. F or temperature change At change in lengt
h Al = l0a At Area AA= A^At volume AV = V yAt 0 Thermal Expansion : Expansion 1.
Type of thermal expansion Coefficient of expansion (i) Linear (ii) Superficial
(iii) Volume (a) (b) 2. . a = At>0 / 1 A/t Lim A T 0 P = Lim 1 AA AtA0 At y = At>o
v1 AV Lim At 0 For isotropic solids otj = a = a = olids p = otj + a and y = a, +
a + pansion in X , Y and Z directions. rature volume increases so density 2 3 2
2 3 2 3 0 3 a (let) so P =2a and y = 3a For anisotropic s a Here , a and a are
coefficient of linear ex Variation in density : With increase of tempe decreases
and vice-versa. H d =(1 + yAt)
Note For solids values of y are generally small so we can write d = d (1-yAt) (u
sing bimomial expansion) (0 (ii) y for liquids are in order of 10~ For water de
n sity increases from 0 to 4C so y is -ve (0 to 4 C) and for 4 C to higher temperat
ur e y is +ve. At 4 C density is maximum. 3. Thermal Stress: Arod of length 1 is
cla mped between two fixed walls with distance 1 . If temperature is changed by
amou nt At then F stress A (area assumed to be constant) 0 0 : so, or A/ strain
= I F/A F/ Y = A/// AAI F =YAa A t 0 0 F AaAt (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & H
eat Transfer [3]

4. If a is not constant (i) (a varies with distance) Let a = ax+b Total expansio
n = Jexpansion of length dx i = |(ax + b)dxAt " x 1 (ii) ( a varies with tempear
ture) Let a = f (T) T2 0 dx A/ _ j"a/ dT T i Caution: If a is in C then put Tj an
d T in C. similarly if a is i n K then put Tj and T in K. 2 2 CAL ORIMETR Quantit
y of heat transfered and specific heat Y The amount ofheat needed to incerase th
e temperature of 1 gmofwaterfrom 14.5Cto 1 5.5CatSTP is 1 calorie dQ = mcdT Q = m
[ C dT (be careful about unit of temperatu re, use units according to the given
units of C) T i Heat transfer in phase change 'h Q = rnL L = latent heat of subs
tance in cal/ gm/ C or in Kcal/ kg/ C L = 80 cal/ gm for ic e ice L steam = 5 4 0
C a l / g m (A) (i) (ii) Note: 1.

vibration and collision of medium particles. Steady State : In this state heat a
bsorption stops and temperature gradient throughout the rod dT becomes constant
i.e. = constant. dx Before steady state : Temp of rod at any point changes If s
p ecific heat of any substance is zero, it can be considered always in steady st
at e. Let the two ends of rod of length 1 is maintained at temp Tj and T ( Tj >
T ) dQ i ~ 2 I Thermal current D 1 = K-XH L T 2 2 T T 1 Conduction : Due to HEAT
TRANSFER Ohm's law for Thermal Conduction in Steady State : / Where thermal resi
stance R = K A Th 1 1 2. Differential form of Ohm's Law T-dT dQ dT =KA dT dx dT =
temperature gradient dx dx (!lBansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

(B) (Q 1. Heat transfer due to movement ofmedium particles. Radiation: Every bod
y radiates electromagnetic radiation of all possible wavelength at all temp>0 K.
Stefan's Law: Rate of heat emitted by a body at temp T K from per unit area E =
GT J/sec/ m d = P = oAT watt Q Radiation power dl If a body is placed in a surr
ounding of temperature T dQ Convection: 4 2 4 s valid only for black body heat f
rom general body Emissmty or emmisive power e = ~ Iftemp ofbody falls by dT in t
ime dt dT _ _ j4x (dT/dt=rate of cooling) dt ~ m S h e a t f r o m s ^ =cA(T -T
) 4 s 4 Newton's law of cooling Iftemp difference ofbody with surrounding is sma
ll i.e. T = T eA then, dT 4mS -a T ( T - T ) dt dT a ( T - T ) so dt rr3/ 2 s Av
erage form of Newtons law of cooling If a body cools from T j to T in time 51 T
- T _ K T, +T, -T (used generally in objective questions) 5t mS s 2 dt 4. mS (fo
r better results use this generally in subjective) At every temperature (>0K) a
body radiates energy radiations ofall wavelengths. According to Wein's displacem
ent law if the wavelength corresponding to maximum energy is X then X T = b wher
e b = is a constant (Wein's constant) T=temperature of body m m Wein's black bod
y radiation T3>T2>T, ess (!l Bansal Classes

Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

EXERCISE -1 Q. 1 An aluminium container of mass 100 gm contains 200 gm of ice at

- 20C. Heat is added to the system at the rate of 100 cal/s. Find the temperatur
e of the sys tem after 4 minutes (specific heat of ice = 0.5 and L = 80 cal/gm,
specific heat of A1 = 0.2 cal/gm/C) Q. 2 A U-tubefilledwith a liquid ofvolumetric
coefficient of 10 /C lies in a vertical plane. The height of liquid column in th
e left vertic al limb is 100 cm. The liquid in the left vertical limb is maintai
ned at a tempe rature = 0C while the liquid in the right limb is maintained at a
temperature = 1 00C. Find the difference in levels in the two limbs. _5 Q.3 A thi
n walled metal tank of surface area 5m is filled with water tank and contai ns a
n immersion heater dissipating 1 kW. The tank is covered with 4 cm thick lay er
of insulation whose thermal conductivity is 0.2 W/m/K. The outer face of the ins
ulation is 25C. Find the temperature of the tank in the steady state 2 Q.4 A glas
sflaskcontains some mercury at room temperature. It is found that at diffe rent
temperatures the volume of air inside the flask remains the same. If the vo lume
of mercury in the flask is 300 cm , thenfindvolume of the flask (given that coe
fficient of volume expansion of mercury and coefficient oflinear expansion o f g
lass are 1.8 x 10^(C) and9x 10~ (C) respectively) 3 _1 6 _1 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 A clock pe
ndulum made of invar has a period of 0.5 sec at 20C. If the clock is us ed in a c
limate where average temperature is 30C, aporoximately. How much fast or slow wil
l the clock run in 10 sec. (a =lxlO /C) 6 ilwar -6 A pan filled with hot food coo
ls from 50.1 C to 49.9 C in 5 sec. How long will it take to cool from 40.1 C to 39.
9C if room temperature is 30C? A composite rod made of three rods of equal length
and cross-section as shown in the fig. The thermal conductivities of the materia
ls of the rods are K/2, 5K and K respectively. The end A and end B are at consta
nt temperatures. All heat entering the face A goes out of the end B there being
no loss of heat from the sides of the bar. Find th e effective thermal conductiv
ity of the bar A I Q.8 Q.9 K/2 I 11 5K 2 6 1 K

1 B An iron bar (Young's modulus = 10 N/m , a = 10" /C) 1 m long and 10~ m in are
a is heated from 0C to 100C without being allowed to bend or expand. Find the comp
ress ive force developed inside the bar. 3 2 A solid copper cube and sphere, bot
h of same mass & emissivity are heated to sam e initial temperature and kept und
er identical conditions. What is the ratio of their initial rate of fall of temp
erature? Q. 10 A cylindrical rod with one end in a stream chamber and other end
in ice ca use melting of 0.1 gm of ice/sec. If the rod is replaced with another
rod of hal f the length and double the radius of first and thermal conductivity
of second r od is 1/4 that of first, find the rate of ice melting in gm/sec (!l
Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

Q.ll Three aluminium rods of equal length form an equilateral triangle ABC. Taki
ng O (mid point of rod BC) as the origin. Find the increase in Y-coordinate per
unit change in temperature ofthe centre ofmass of the system. Assume the length
of the each rod is 2m, and a = 4 v3 x10" /C d 6 Q.12 Three conducting rods of sa
me material and cross-section are shown in figur e. Temperature of A, D and C ar
e maintained at 20C, 90C and 0C. Find the ratio of l ength BD and BC if there is no
heat flow in AB 20C 90'C 0C Q. 13 If two rods of layer L and 2 L having coefficie
nts of linear expansion a a nd 2a respectively are connected so that total lengt
h becomes 3 L, determine the average coefficient of linear expansion of the comp
osite rod. Q.14 A volume of 120 ml of drink (half alcohol + half water by mass)
originally at a temperature of 25C is cooled by adding 20 gm ice at 0C. If all the
ice melts, find the final t emperature of the drink, (density of drink = 0.833
gm/cc, specific heat of alcoh ol = 0.6 cal/gm/C) Q.15 A solid receives heat by ra
diation over its surface at th e rate of 4 kW. The heat convection rate from the
surface of solid to the surrou nding is 5.2 kW, and heat is generated at a rate
of 1.7 kW over the volume of th e solid. The rate of change of the average temp
erature of the solid is 0.5 Cs . Find the heat capacity of the solid. o -1 Q.16
The figure shows the face and interface temperature of a composite slab con tain
ing offour layers oftwo materials having identical thickness. Under steady s tat
e condition, find the value of temperature 6. 20C 10C E -5C -10C 2k 2k k = thermal c
onductivity Q.17 Two identical calorimeter A and B contain equal quantity of wat
er at 20C. A 5 gm piece of metal X of specific heat 0.2 cal g (C) is dropped into
A and a 5 gm piece of metal Y into B. The equilibrium temperature in A is 22C and
in B 23C. Th e initial temperature of both the metals is 40C. Find the specific h
eat of metal Y in cal g" (C)~ 4 _1 1 l Q.18 Two spheres of same radius R have the
ir densities in the ration 8 . 1 and t he ratio of their specific heats are 1 :
4. If by radiation their rates of fall of temperature are same, thenfindthe rati
o of their rates of losing heat. Q.19 I n the square frame of side I of metallic
rods, the corners A and C are maintaine d at Tj and T respectively. The rate of
heat flow from A to Cisa. IfA and D are instead maintained Tj & T respectivleyf
ind,findthe total rate ofheat flow. 2 2 Q.20 A hot liquid contained in a contain
er of negligible heat capacity loses tem perature at rate 3 K/min, just before i
t begins to solidify. The temperature rem ains constant for 30 min, Find the rat
io of specific heat capacity of liquid to

specific latent heat of fusion is in Kr (given that rate of losing heat is const
ant). 1 (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

Q. 21 A thermostatted chamber at small height h above earth's surface maintained

at 30C has a clock fitted in it with an uncompensated pendulum. The clock design
er correctly designs it for height h, but for temperature of 20C. Ifthis chamber
is taken to earth's surface, the clock in it would click correct time. Find the
coefficient oflinear expansion ofmaterial of pendulum, (earth's radius is R) Q.
2 2 The coefficient of volume expansion of mercury is 20 times the coefficient o
f linear expansion of glass. Find the volume of mercury that must be poured into
a glass vessel ofvolume V so that the volume above mercury may remain constant
at all temperature. Q. 23 Two 50 gm ice cubes are dropped into 250 gm ofwater io
n a glass. Ifthe water was initially at a temperature of 25C and the temperature
of ice -15C. Find the final temperature of water, (specific heat ofice = 0.5 cal/
gm /C and L = 80 cal/gm) Q.24 Water is heated from 10C to 90C in a residential hot
wat er heater at a rate of 70 litre per minute. Natural gas with a density of 1.
2 kg /m is used in the heater, which has a transfer efficiency of 32%. Find the
gas c onsumption rate in cubic meters per hour, (heat combustion for natural gas
is 84 00 kcal/kg) 3 Q.25 A metal rod A of 25cm lengths expands by 0.050cm. When
its temperature is r aised from 0C to 100C. Another rod B of a different metal of
length 40cm expands b y 0.040 cm for the same rise in temperature. A third rod
C of 50cm length is mad e up of pieces of rods A and B placed end to end expands
by 0.03 cm on heating f rom 0C to 50C. Find the lengths of each portion of the co
mposite rod. Q.26 A subst ance is in the solid form at 0C. The amount of heat add
ed to this substance and i ts temperature are plotted in the following graph. If
the relative specific heat capacity of the solid substance is 0.5, find from th
e graph (i) the mass of the substance; (ii) the specific latent heat of the melt
ing process, and (iii) the specific heat of the substance in the liquid state. Q
. 27 One end of copper rod ofuniform cross-section and of length 1.5 meters is i
n contact with melting ice and the other end with boiling water. At what point a
long its length should a te mperature of200C be maintained, so that in steady sta
te, the mass ofice melting i s equal to that of steam produced in the same inter
val oftime? Assume that the w hole system is insulatedfromthe surroundings. Q.28
Two solids spheres are heated to the same temperature and allowed to cool under
identical conditions. Compare : (i) initial rates of fall of temperature, and (
ii) initial rates of loss of he at. Assume that all the surfaces have the same e
missivity and ratios of their ra dii of, specific heats and densities are respec
tively 1 : a, 1 : p, 1 : y. Q.29 A vessel containing 100 gm water at 0C is suspen
ded in the middle of a room. In 1 5 minutes the temperature of the water rises b
y 2C. When an equal amount of ice i s placed in the vessel, it melts in 10 hours.
Calculate the specific heat offusi on ofice. Q. 3 0 The maximum in the energy d
istribution spectrum of the sun is a t 4753 A and its temperature is 6050K. What
will be the temperature of the star whose energy distribution shows a maximum a
t 9506 A. (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

EXERCISE-II Q. 1 A copper calorimeter of mass 100 gm contains 200 gm of a mixtur

e of ice and water. Steam at 100C under normal pressure is passed into the calori
meter and th e temperature of the mixture is allowed to rise to 50C. If the mass
of the calori meter and its contents is now 330 gm, what was the ratio of ice an
d water in the beginning? Neglect heat losses. Given : Specific heat capacity of
copper = 0.42 x 10 J kg K" , Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 x 10 J kg^Kr
, Specific he at of fusion of ice = 3.36 x 10 J kg Latent heat of condensation
of steam = 22.5 x 1Q Jkg" 3 _1 x 3 1 5 -1 5 1 Q.2 base and two thin rods each of
length l and coefficient of linear expansion a fo r the two pieces, ifthe dista
nce between the apex and the midpoint ofthe base re main unchanged as the temper
atures /, varied show that 7 2 2 l A n isoscetes triangte is form ed w ith a rod
of length l and coefficient of linea r expansion OTJ for the x 2 Q.3 A solid su
bstance of mass 10 gm at - 10C was heated to - 2C (still in the solid st ate). The
heat required was 64 calories. Another 880 calories was required to ra ise the
temperature ofthe substance (now in the liquid state) to 1C, while 900 ca lories
was required to raise the temperature from -2C to 3C. Calculate the specifi c heat
capacities of the substances in the solid and liquid state in calories pe r kil
ogram per kelvin. Show that the latent heat of fusion L is related to the m elti
ng point temperature t by L = 85400 + 200 t . m m Q.4 (a) (b) Q. 5 Q.6 Q. 7 A st
eel drill making 180 rpm is used to drill a hole in a block of steel. The ma ss
of the steel block and the drill is 180 gm. If the entire mechanical work is use
d up in producing heat and the rate of raise in temperature of the block and the
drill is 0.5 C/s. Find the rate of working of the drill in watts, and the tor qu
e required to drive the drill. Specific heat of steel = 0.1 and J = 4.2 J/cal. U
se ;P = i o A brass rod of mass m = 4.25 kg and a cross sectional area 5 cm in c
reases its length by 0.3 mm upon heatingfrom0C. What amount ofheat is spent for h
eating the rod? The coefficient of linear expansic 1 for brass is 2xl0 /K, its s
pecific heat is 0.39 kJ/kg.K and the density of brass is 8.5 x 10 kg/m . A subm
arine made of steel weighing 10 g has to take 10 g of water in order to submerge
when the temperature of the sea is 10C. How much less water it will have to take
in when the sea is at 15C? (Coefficient of cubic expansion of sea water = 2 x 10
"VC, coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 1.2 x 10- /C) A flow calorimeter
i s used to measure the specific heat of a liquid. Heat is added at a known rate
t o a stream of the liquid as it passes through the calorimeter at a known rate
. T hen a measurement of the resulting temperature difference between the inflow
and the outflow points of the liquid stream enables us to compute the specific
heat of the liquid. A liquid of density 0.2 g/cm flows through a calorimeter at
the rate of 10 cm /s. Heat is added by means of a 250-W electric heating coil, a
nd a temperature difference of 25 C is established in steady-state conditions bet

the inflow and the outflow points. Find the specific heat of the liquid. 2 -5 3
3 9 8 5 3 3 (!lBansalClasses Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

Q.8 Toluene liquid of volume 300 cm at 0C is contained in a beaker an another qua

ntit y of toluene of volume 110 cm at 100C is in another beaker. (The combined vo
lume is 410 cm ). Determine the total volume of the mixture ofthe toluene liquid
s whe n they are mixed together. Given the coefficient of volume expansion y = 0
.001/C and all forms of heat losses can be ignored. Also find the final temperat
ure of the mixture. Q. 9 Ice at -20C isfilledupto height h = 10 cm in a uniform c
ylindr ical vessel. Water at temperature 9C is filled in another identical vessel
upto t he same height h= 10 cm. Now, water from second vessel is poured into fi
rst vess el and it is found that level of upper surface falls through Ah = 0. 5
cm when t hermal equilibrium is reached. Neglecting thermal capacity of vessels,
change in density of water due to change in temperature and loss of heat due to
radiation , calculate initial temperature 0 of water. Given, Density of water,
p = 1 gm cm Density of ice, p. =0.9gm/cm Specific heat of water, s = 1 cal/gm C S
pecific hea t of ice, s = 0.5 cal/gmC Specific latent heat of ice, L = 80 cal/gm
Q. 10 A comp osite body consists of two rectangular plates of the same dimension
s but differe nt thermal conductivities K and Kg. This body is used to transfer
heat between t wo objects maintained at different temperatures. The composite bo
dy can be place d such that flow of heat takes place either parallel to the inte
rface or perpend icular to it. Calculate the effective thermal conductivities K.
and Kj Of the co mposite body for the parallel and perpendicular orientations.
Which orientation will have more thermal conductivity? 3 3 3 w -3 3 w ; A Q. 11
Two identical thermally insulated vessels, each containing n mole of an id eal m
onatomic gas, are interconnected by a rod of length I and cross-sectional a rea
A. Material of the rod has thermal conductivity K and its lateral surface is the
rmally insulated. If, at initial moment (t = 0), temperature of gas in two v ess
els is T, and T (< T ), neglecting thermal capacity of the rod, calculate dif fe
rence between temperature of gas in two vessels as a function of time. 2 } Q. 12
A highly conducting solid cylinder of radius a and length I is surrounded by a
co-axial layer of a material having thermal conductivity K and negligible h eat
capacity. Temperature of surrounding space (out side the layer) is T , which is
higher than temperature of the cylinder. If heat capacity per unit volume of cyl
inder material is s and outer radius of the layer is b, calculate time requi red
to increase temperature of the cylinder from T to T Assume end faces to be t he
rmally insulated. 0 t r Q. 13 A vertical brick duct(tube) is filled with cast ir
on. The lower end of the duct is maintained at a temperature T, which is greater
than the melting point T of cast iron and the upper end at a temperature T whic
h is less than the tempe rature ofthe melting point of cast iron. It is given th
at the conductivity of li quid cast iron is equal to k times the conductivity of
solid cast iron. Determin e the fraction ofthe duct filled with molten metal. Q
.14 Water is filled in a no n-conducting cylindrical vessel of uniform cross-sec
tional area. Height of water column is h and temperature is 0C. Ifthe vessel is e
xposed to an atmosphere havi ng constant temperature of- 0C (< 0C) at t = 0, calcu
late total height h ofthe col umn at time t .Assume thermal conductivity ofice t
o be equal to K.Density ofwate r is p and that of ice is p.. Latent heat offusio
n ofice isL. m 2 0 ffi (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

Q.15 A lagged stick of cross section area 1 cm and length 1 m is initially at a

temperature of 0C. It is then kept between 2 reservoirs of tempeature 100C and 0C.
Specific heat capacity is 10 J/kgC and linear mass density is 2 kg/m. Find 100C oc
(a) temperature gradient along the rod in steady state. (b) total heat absorbed
by the rod to reach steady state. Q.16 A cylindrical block of length 0.4 m an ar
ea of cross-section 0.04m is placed coaxially on a thin metal disc ofmass 0.4 k
g and ofthe same cross-section. The upper face of the cylinder is maintained at
a constant temperature of 400K and the initial temperature of the disc is 300K.
I f the thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder is 10 watt/m-K and
th e specific heat of the material of the disc in 600 J/kg-K, how long will it t
ake for the temperature of the disc to increase to 350K? Assume, for purposes of
ca lculation, the thermal conductivity of the disc to be very high and the syst
em t o be thermally insulated except for the upper face of the cylinder. 2 2 Q.1
7 A copper calorimeter of negligible thermal capacity isfilledwith a liquid. The
mass of the liquid equals 250 gm. A heating element of negligible thermal ca pa
city is immersed in the liquid. It is found that the temperature of the calori m
eter and its contents risesfrom25C to 30C in 5 minutes when a or rent of 20.5 amp
ere is passed through it at potential difference of 5 volts. The liquid is throw
n off and the heater is again switched on. It is now found that the temperature
ofthe calorimeter alone is constantly maintained at 32C when the current through
the heater is 7A at the potential difference 6 volts. Calculate the specific he
a t capacity ofthe liquid. The temperature ofthe surroundings is 25C. Q.18 A soli
d copper sphere cools at the rate of 2.8C per minute, when its temperature is 127C
. Find the rate at which another solid copper sphere oftwice the radius lose its
t emperature at 327C, ifin both the cases, the room temperature is maintained at
27C . Q.19 A calorimeter contains 100 cm of a liquid of density 0.88 g/cm in whi
ch a re immersed a thermometer and a small heating coil. The effective water equ
ivale nt of calorimeter, thermometer and heater may be taken to be 13 gm. Curren
t of 2 A is passed through the coil. The potential difference across the coil is
6.3 V and the ultimate steady state temperature is 55C. The current is increased
so th at the temperature rises slightly above 55C, and then it is switched off.
The cal orimeter and the content are found to cool at the rate of 3.6C/min. (a) F
ind the specific heat of the liquid. (b) The room temperature during the experim
ent was 10C. If the room temperature rises to 26C, find the current required to ke
ep the l iquid at 55C. You may assume that Newton's law is obeyed and the resista
nce of th e heater remains constant. 3 3 Q.20 End A of a rod AB of length L = 0.
5 m and of uniform cross-sectional area i s maintained at some constant temperat
ure. The heat conductivity of the rod is k = 17 J/s-rnK. The other end B of this
rod is radiating energy into vacuum and th e wavelength with maximum energy dens
ity emitted from this end is XQ = 75000 A. If the emissivity of the end B is e =
1, determine the temperature of the end A. Assuming that except the ends, the r
od is thermally insulated. Q.21 A wire of l ength 1.0 m and radius 10" m is carr
ying a heavy current and is assumed to radia te as a blackbody. At equilibrium t
emperature of wire is 900 K while that of the surroundings is 300 K. The resisti
vity of the material of the wire at 300 K is n x 10" O-m and its temperature coe
fficient of resistance is 7.8 x 10' /C. Find t he current in the wire, [a = 5.68
x 10" w/m K ]. 3 2 8 3 8 2 4 (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

Q.22 The temperature distribution of solar radiation is more or less same as tha
t of a black body whose maximum emission corresponds to the wavelength 0.483 ja
m . Find the rate of change of mass due to radiation. [Radius of Sun = 7.0 x 10
m] 8 Q.23 A black plane surface at a constant high temperature T , is parallel t
o ano ther black plane surface at constant lower temperature T . Between the pla
tes is vacuum. In order to reduce the heatflowdue to radiation, a heat shield co
nsisti ng oftwo thin black plates, thermally isolated from each other, it placed
betwee n the warm and the cold surfaces and parallel to these. After some time
stationa ry conditions are obtained. By what factor r) is the stationary heatflo
wreduced due to the presence of the heat shield? Neglect end effects due to thef
initesize of the surfaces. h ; Q.24 The shell of a space station is a blackened
sphere in which a temperature T = 500K is maintained due to operation of applian
ces of the station. Find the te mperature of the shell if the station is envelop
ed by a thin spherical black scr een of nearly the same radius as the radius of
the shell. Blackened envelop Q.25 A liquid takes 5 minutes to coolfrom80C to 50C.
How much time will it take to coolfrom60C to 30C ? The temperature of surrounding
is 20C. Use exact method. Q .2 6 Find the temperature of equilibrium of a perfect
ly black disc exposed normally to the Sun's ray on the surface of Earth. Imagine
that it has a nonconducting b acking so that it can radiate only to hemisphere
of space. Assume temperature of surface of Sun = 6200 K, radius of sun = 6.9 * 1
0 m, distance between the Sun a nd the Earth = 1.5 x lo m. Stefan's constant = 5
.7 x i0~ W/m .K . What will be t he temperature ifboth sides of the disc are rad
iate? s 11 s 2 4 (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

Q. 1 Q.2 The temperature of 100 gm of water is to be raised from 24 C to 90 C by a

dding ste am to it. Calculate the mass of the steam required for this purpose. [
JEE '96] T wo metal cubes A & B of same size are arranged as shown in figure. Th
e extreme e nds of the combination are maintained at the indicated temperatures.
The arrange ment is thermally insulated. The coefficients of thermal conductivi
ty of A & B a re 300 W/mC and 200 W/mC respectively. After steady state is reached
the temperatu re T of the interface will be . [JEE' 96] 2 EXERCISE - III o A B
Q.3 A double pane window used for insulating a room thermally from outside consi
sts of two glass sheets each of area 1 m and thickness 0.01 m separated by a 0.0
5m t hick stagnant air space. In the steady state, the room glass interface and
the g lass outdoor interface are at constant temperatures of 27C and 0C respective
ly. Ca lculate the rate of heat flow through the window pane. Also find the temp
erature s of other interfaces. Given thermal conductivities of glass and air as
0.8 and 0.08 W nr'K- respectively. [JEE'97] 1 Q. 4 The apparatus shown in the fi
gure consists of four glass columns connected by ho rizontal sections. The heigh
t of two central columns B & C are 49 cm each. The t wo outer columns A & D are
open to the atmosphere. A & C are maintained at a tem perature of 95 C while the
columns B & D are maintained at 5 C. The height of the liquid in A & D measured f
rom the base line are 52.8 cm & 51 cm respectively. De termine the coefficient o
fthermal expansion ofthe liquid, [JEE '97] A 95 C 95 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 A spherical black
body with a radius of 12 cm radiates 450 W power at 500 K . If the radius were
halved and the temperature doubled, the power radiated in watt would be : (A) 22
5 (B) 450 (C) 900 (D) 1800 Earth receives 1400 W/m of solar pow er . If all the
solar energy falling on a lens of area 0.2 m is focussed on to a block of ice of
mass 280 grams, the time taken to melt the ice will be minutes. (Latent heat of
fusion of ice = 3.3 x 10 J/kg) [JEE '97] 2 2 5 A solid body X of heat capacity
C is kept in an atmosphere whose temperature is T = 300K. At time t = 0, the tem
perature of X is T = 400K. It cools according to Newton's law of cooling. At tim
e tj its temperature is found to be 3 5 OK. At t his time t the body X is connec
ted to a larger body Y at atmospheric temperature T , through a conducting rod o
f length L, cross-sectional area A and thermal co

nductivity K. The heat capacity of Y is so large that any variation in its tempe
rature may be neglected. The cross-sectional area A of the connecting rod is sm
a ll compared to the surface area of X. Find the temperature of X at time t = 3t
[ JEE' 98] A 0 p A r Q.8 A black body is at a temperature of2880 K. The energy
ofradiation emitted by thi s obj ect with wavelength between 499 nm and 500 nm i
s U between 999 nm and 1000 nm is U and between 1499 nm and 1500nmisU . TheWienc
onstantb = 2.88 x 10 nmK. T hen [JEE' 98] (A) Uj = 0 (B)U = 0 (C) Uj > U (D)U >U
p 2 3 6 3 2 2 1 (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

Q.9 A bimetallic strip is formed out oftwo identical strips one ofcopper and the
oth er ofbrass. The coefficient of linear expansion ofthe two metals are a and
ctg. On heating, the temperature ofthe strip goes up by AT and the strip bends t
o for m an arc of radius of curvature R. Then R is: (A) proportional at AT (B) i
nverse ly proportional to AT [JEE' 99] (C) proportional to lOg - a | (D) inverse
ly prop ortional to |a - a | c c B c Q.10 A block of ice at - 10C is slowiy heate
d and converted to steam at 100C. Whic h of the following curves represents the p
henomenon qualitatively? [JEE (Scr) 20 00] (A) Heat supplied (B) Heat supplied \
(C) Heat supplied (D) Heat supplied Q. 11 The plots of intensity versus wavelen
gth for three black bodies at tempera ture T, , T and T, respectively are as sho
wn. Thentemperatures are such that [JE E (Scr) 2000] (A)T >T >T (B) T j > T > T
(C) T > T > T (C) T. > T > T 2 1 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 t Q.12 Three rods made of the s
ame material and having the same cross-section have been joined as shown in the
figure. Each rod is of the same length. The left and rig ht ends are kept at 0C a
nd 90C respectively. The temperature of the junction of th e three rods will be [
JEE(Scr)2001 ] oc(A) 45C (B) 60C (C) 30C (D)20C ,S0C "90C Q. 13 An ideal black body at
room temperature is thrown into a furnace. It is ob served that (A) initially it
is the darkest body and at later times the brightes t. (B) it the darkest body
at all times (C) it cannot be distinguished at all ti mes. (D) initially it is t
he darkest body and at later times it cannot be distin guished. [JEE(Scr)2002] Q
. 14 An ice cube of mass 0.1 kg at 0C is placed in an is olated container which i
s at 227C. The specific heat S of the container varies wi th temperature T accord
ing the empirical relations = A + BT, where A= 100 cal/kg -K and B = 2 x 10~ cal
/kg-K . If the final temperature of the container is 27C, d etermine the mass of
the container. (Latent heat of fusion for water = 8 x \ o c al/kg. Specific heat
of water = 103 cal/kg-K) [JEE' 2001] 2 2 4 Q.15 Two rods one of aluminium of le
ngth /, having coefficient of linear expansi on a , and other steel of length l
having coefficient of linear expansion a are joined end to end. The expansion in
both the a 2 s

[JEE (Scr) 2003] rods is same on variation of temperature. Then the value of , h
is . n +/2 ac a0 (D) None of these (A) a + a (B) a s (C) Otc r a s a - a (!l Ba
nsal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

Q.16 2 kg ice at - 20C is mixed with 5 kg water at 20C. Thenfinalamount ofwater in

the mixture would be; Given specific heat of ice = 0.5cal/gC, specific heat ofwa
ter = 1 cal/gC, Latent heat of fusion of ice = 80 cal/g. [JEE (Scr) 2003] (A) 6
k g (B) 5 kg (C) 4 kg (D) 2 kg Q.17 If emissivity of bodies X and Y are e and e
an d absorptive power are A and Ay then [JEF (Scr) 2003] (A) e > e ; Ay > A (B)
e < e ; A < A (C)e >e ;A <A (D) e = e ; Ay = A Q.18 Hot oil is circulated throug
h a n insulated container with a wooden lid at the top whose conductivity K = 0.
149 J/(m-C-sec), thickness t = 5 mm, emissivity = 0.6. Temperature of the top of
the lid in steady state is at T =27C T, = 127. If the ambient temperature T = 27C.
Calc ulate -= Hot oil (a) rate ofheat loss per unit area due to radiationfromthe
lid. 17 _ [JEE 2003] temperature ofthe oil. (Given a = 10 ) (b) x y x y x x y x
y x y x y x y x x V.a a x 8 Q.19 Three discs A, B, and C having radii 2 m, 4 m a
nd 6 m respectively are coat ed with carbon black on their outer surfaces. The w
avelengths corresponding to m aximum intensity are 300 nm, 400 nm and 500 nm res
pectively. The power radiated by them are QA, QB and QC respectively, (a) Q is m
aximum (B) QB is maximum [JEE' 2004 (Scr.)] (C) QC is maximum (D) QA = QB = QC Q
.20 Two identical conducting r ods are first connected independently to two vess
els, one containing water at 10 0C and the other containing ice at 0 C. In the sec
ond case, the rods are joined en d to end and connected to the same vessels. Let
qj and q g/s be the rate of melt ing of ice in the two cases respectively. The
ratio q /q is (A) 1/2 (B) 2/1 (C) 4/1 (D) 1/4 [JEE'2004 (Scr.)] Q.21 Liquid oxyg
en at 50 K is heated to 300 K at c onstant pressure of 1 atm. The rate of heatin
g is constant. Which of the followi ng graphs represents the variation of temper
ature with time? a 2 9 T Temp.f Temp.f , Temp.f Temp. (A) [JEE' 2004 (Scr.)] Q.2
2 A cube of coefficient of linear expansion a is floating in a bath containing a
liquid of coefficient of volume expansion yt When the tem perature is raised by
AT, the depth upto which the cube is submerged in the liqu id remains the same.
Find the relation between a and y showing all the steps. [J EE 2004] Q.23 One e
nd of a rod of length L and cross-sectional area A is kept in a furnace of tempe
rature T The other end of the rod is kept at a temperature T . The thermal condu
ctivity ofthe material of the rod is K and emissivity ofthe r od is e. It is giv
en that T = T + AT where AT Insulated T , T being the temperat ure ofthe surroun
dings. IfAT oc (Tj - T ), Furance T Rod * L * find the proporti onality constant
. Consider that heat is lost only by radiation Insulated at the end where the te
mperature ofthe rod is T . [JEE 2004] s s b r 2 2 s s s s f

Time (B) Time (C) Time (D) Time 2 (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer

Q. 24 Three graphs marked as 1,2,3 representing the variation of maximum emissiv

e power and wavelength of radiation of the sun, a welding arc and a tungsten fi
l ament. Which ofthe following combination is correct (A) 1-bulb, 2 > welding arc
, 3 > sun (B) 2-bulb, 3 welding arc, 1 - sun (C) 3-bulb, 1 welding arc, 2 sun (D)
1 -> welding arc, 3 sun [JEE' 2005 (Scr)] Q. 25 In which of the following phe n
omenon heat convection does not take place (A) land and sea breeze (B) boiling o
fwater (C) heating ofglass surface due to filament ofthe bulb (D) air around th
e furance [JEE' 2005 (Scr)] Q.26 2 litre water at 27C is heated by a 1 kW heater
in an open container. On an average heat is lost to surroundings at the rate 160
J/s. The time required for the temperature to reach 77C is (A) 8 min 20 sec (B)1
0min (C)7min (D)14min [JEE' 2005 (Scr)] Q.27 A spherical body of area A and emis
sivity e = 0.6 is kept insid e a black body. What is the rate at which energy is
radiated per second at tempe rature T (A) 0.6 a AT (B)0.4aAT (C)0.8cAT (D)l.OaA
T [JEE 2005 (Scr)] Q. 28 1 cal orie is the heat required to increased the temper
ature of 1 gm ofwater by 1 C fro m (A) 13.5Cto 14.5C at 76 mm of Hg (B) 14.5Cto 15.5C
at760mmofHg (C) 0C to 1C at 760 mm of Hg (D) 3C to 4C to 760 mm of Hg [JEE* 2005 (Sc
r)] 4 4 4 4 (!l Bansal Classes Calorimetry & Heat Transfer [3]

ANSWER KEY Q.i Q.5 Q.9 Q.12 Q.16 Q.20 Q.24 Q.27 Q.I Q.4 Q.7 25.5C 5 sec slow /6M/
3 .71. 7/2 5C 1/90 104.2 10.34 cm Q.2 Q.6 0.1 cm 10 sec EXERCISE -1 Q.3 Q.7 65C 1
5K/16 Q.ll Q.14 Q.18 Q.22 Q.4 Q.8 2000 cm 10, 000 N 3 Q.10 0.2 Q.13 5 a/3 Q.17 2
7/85 Q.21 h/5R Q.25 10cm, Q.28 ctPy: 4 x 10 m/C 4C Q.15 1000 J (C )2:1 Q.19 (4/3) 3
Y/20 Q.23 0 C -6 0 1 :a 2 Q.29 80 k cal/kg 1 1 1 -1 Q.30 3025 K Q.3 800 cal kg" K
, 1000 cal kg" K 1 : 1.26 (a) 37.8 J/s (Watts), (b) 2.005 N-m Q.5 25 kJ 5000 J/C
kg Q.8 decrease by 0.75 cm ,25C . K +K 2K K Q.10 K > Kj_, K| = K 1 B 3 T A R V A
B ; x EXERCISE-II Q.6 Q.9 Q.ll t m m m 9.02 x 10 gm 45C 5 \n i (T, ~T )e "3 R J 2
2 ( 4KAt N | Q.12 a s. ^log 2 (-) l0geV. 0 ~ 2 J T T Q 1 3 k(T - T ) I k(T -T )
+ (T -T ) 1 Q.14 h + 0

Q.17 21000 Jkg^Kr Q.20 T = 423 K a 1 - JBL V / \ 1 \ Pi f L 12k;6t Q.15 (a) 100 C
/m, (b) 1000 J Q.18 9.72C/min Q.21 36A 0 x Q.16 166.3 sec 9 1 Q.19 (a)0.42 cal/gmC
, (b) 1.6A Q.23 r| = 3 Q.25 10 minutes Q.I Q.4 Q.7 12 gm e Q.22 ~dt = 5.06 x 10
kg/s Q.24 T" = 500 = 600 K Q.26 T = 420 K, T = 353.6 K Q.2 60 C EXERCISE-III Q.3
Q.6 0 41.53 Watt; 26.48 C;0.55C 5.5 min Q.14 0.5 kg Q.19 B Q.24 A 2 x 10^ C Q.5 D
log 2 ; T = 300 + 50 exp. k= Q.9 B, D Q.10 Q.16 A Q.17 Q.21 C Q. 26 A Q.22 Q.27
Q.8 D Q.15 A Q.20 D Q.25 C (!l Bansal Classes [LC tj A Q.ll B Q.12 B Q.13 D A Q.
18 (a) 595 watt/m , ( b ) T * 4 2 0 K K y,= 2a s Q.23 4eaLTf+K A Q.28 B 2 0 Calo
rimetry & Heat Transfer [3]



ICAL CONDUCTOR : C = 47C G R in air This sphere is at infinite distance from all
the conductors. The Capacitance C = 4T E R exists between the surface of the sp
here & earth . 7 Q It consists of tw o concentric spherical shells as shown infi
gure.Here capacitance of region betwe en the two shells is C and that outside th
e shell is C . We have 471 e ab C = an d C = 471 e b b-a Depending on connection
, it may have different combinations of C, and -C . t 2 n 2 Q 2 SPHERICAL CAPACI
TOR : 3. PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR : If two parallel plates each of area A & sepa
rated by a distance d are charged wi th equal & opposite charge Q, then the syst
em is called a parallel plate capacit or & its capacitance is given by, ^ S)6 A
C = ; .in a medium C= with air as medi um r (i) UNIFORM DI-ELECTRIC M E D I U M
: This result is only valid when the electricfieldbetween plates of capacitor is
c onstant, (ii) M E D I U M PARTLY A I R : C = U d-lt-i r So A When a di-electr
ic slab of thickness t & relative permittivity e is l l l l intr oduced between
the plates of an air capacitor, then the distance between P3 the plates is effec
tively reduced by irrespective ofthe position of BSSSSii V ^rJ the di-electric sl
ab . (iii) COMPOSITE M E D I U M : c= GA I I -rl r2 0 r3

4. CYLINDRICAL CAPACITOR : It consist oftwo co-axial cylinders ofradii a& b, the

outer conductor is earthed . The di-electric constant ofthe mediumfilledin the
space between the cylinder i s Farad e . The capacitance per unit length is C =
2ne-ne m in r y r (fe^Bansal Classes CAPACITANCE 121

CONCEPT o r VARIATION OF PARAMETERS: 6. e kA , ifeither ofk, A or d varies in th

e region between As capacitance ofa para llel plate capacitor isC = the plates,
we choose a small dc in between the plate s and for total capacitance of system.
dx -, If all dC's are in parallel C = } d C If all dC's are in series 1 e k(x)A
(x) 0 T J 0 COMBINATION (i) OF CAPACITORS SERIES : : In this arrangement all the
capacitors when uncharged get the same charge Q but the potential difference ac
ross each will differ (if the capacitance are unequal ). 1 +1 1 1 + + + 1 (ii) CA
PACITORS I N rIMHh v, v, v, Q Q Q C| C2 C3 C 3 When one plate of each capacitor
is connected to the positive terminal of the ba ttery & the other plate of each
capacitor is connected to the negative terminals of the battery, then the capaci
tors are said to be in parallel connection. The capacitors have the same potenti
al difference, V but the charge on each one is d ifferent (if the capacitors are
unequal). eq. C CAPACITORS I N PARALLEL : I + C 2 + C 3 + +c

s 1 jC3,y 1 Q + v % 1Cj.V c,,v % ENERGY Capacitance C, charge Q & potential diff

erence V; then energy stored is 1 U = -1 CV = QV = 1 Q . This energy is stored i
n the electrostatic field set up in the di-electric - medium between the conduct
ing plates of the capacitor . 2 2 STORED IN A CHARGED CAPACITOR : HEAT PRODUCED
IN SWITCHING IN CAPACITIVE CIRCUIT Due to charge flow always some amount of heat
is produced when a switch is close d in a circuit which can be obtained by ener
gy conservation as Heat = Work done by battery - Energy absorbed by capacitor. 9
. 10 When two charged conductors of capacitance C & C at potential V & V respect
ively are connected by a conducting wire, the charge flows from higher potential
cond uctor to lower potential conductor, until the potential of the two condens
ers be comes equal. The common potential (V) after sharing of charges; C,V C V q
+ V =n etnet charge _ C,j + q capacitance C C+C charges after sharing qj = C,'V
& q = C V. In this process energy is lost in the connecting wire C C (V,-V ) as
heat. T his loss of energy is U - U = ^ r ^ g s 2 } 2 2 1+ 2 2 SHARING O F CHAR
GES : 2 2 t 2 2 2 2 2 initial eal

<Bansal Classes (i) The energy of a charged conductor resides outside the conduct
or in its EF, w here as in a condenser it is stored within the condenser in its
EF. (ii) The ene rgy of an uncharged condenser = 0 . (iii) The capacitance of a
capacitor depends only on its size & geometry & the di-electric between the cond
ucting surface .( i.e. independent ofthe conductor, like, whether it is copper,
silver, gold etc) REMEMBER : CAPACITANCE

Q.i A solid conducting sphere ofradius 10 cm is enclosed by a thin metallic shel

l of radius 20 cm. A charge Q.2 EXERCISE # I Q.3 Q.4 q = 20pC is given to the i
nner sphere. Find the heat generated in the process, t he inner sphere is connec
ted to the shell by a conducting wire The capacitor eac h having capacitance C =
2pF are connected with a .CO, battery of emf 30 V as sh own infigure.When the s
witch S is closed. Find (a) the amount of chargeflownthro ugh the battery (b) th
e heat generated in the circuit (c) the energy supplied by the battery '30V (d)
the amount of chargeflownthrough the switch S The plates o f a parallel plate ca
pacitor are given charges +4Q and -2Q. The capacitor is the n connected across a
n uncharged capacitor of same capacitance asfirstone (= C). Find thefinalpotenti
al difference between the plates of thefirstcapacitor. +i, I n the given network
if potential difference between p and q is 2V and C = 3C The nfindthe potential
difference between a&b. 2 r H M q C, C. c Q.5 Find the equivalent capacitance o
f the circuit between point A and B. c 2C 11 11 - C 11 11 2C 4C 11 11 :: C 11 11
4C : 8C 111 ! r 11 II 8C c \ \ \ \ \ Infinite / section/ yQ.6 The two identical
parallel plates are given charges as shown infigure.Ifthe plate area of either
face of each plate is A and separation between plates is d, thenfindthe amount o
fheat liberate after closing the switch. Q. 7 Find heat pro duced in the circuit
shown infigureon closing the switch S. +3q +q Q.8 In the following circuit, the
resultant capacitance between A and B is 1 pF. Find the value of C. Three capac
itors of 2pF, 3pF and 5|iF are independently ch arged with batteries of emf's 5V
, 20V and 10V respectively. After disconnectingf romthe voltage sources. These c
apacitors are connected as shown infigurewith the ir positive polarity plates ar
e connected to A and negative polarity is earthed. Now a battery of 20V and an u
ncharged capacitor of4jaF capacitance are connecte d to the junction A as shown
with a switch S. When switch is closed,find: (a) th e potential of the junction
A. (b) final charges on all four capacitors. Q.9 T

T^ 2 f ^Slr 2\xV 5NF \ I I I ' 20V^ 4|I. jF 4r (fe^Bansal Classes CAPACITANCE 121

Q.10 Find the charge on the capacitor C = 1 pF in the circuit shown in the figur
e. Iph IjxIK C-luF l(iF IpF pF :pnF yUlF::IMF : Q.ll Find the capacitance ofthe
system shown in figure. Q.12 Thefigureshows a circuit consisting offour capacit
o rs. Find the effective capacitance between X and Y. Q. 13 Five identical capac
it or plates, each of area A, are arranged such that adjacent plates are at a di
sta nce'd* apart, the plates are connected to a source of emf V as shown infigur
e.Th e charge on plate 1 is and that on plate 4 is . Q.14 In the circuit shown i
n the figure,intially SW is open. When the switch is closed, the charge passing
throug h the switch in the direction to Q.15 In the circuit shown infigure,findt
he amou nt ofheat generated when switch s is closed. Q.16 Two parallel plate cap
acitors ofcapacitance C and 2C are connected in parallel then following steps ar
e perfor med. (i) Abattery of voltage V is connected across points A and B. (ii)
A dielec tric slab of relative permittivity k is slowly inserted in capacitor C
. (iii) Ba ttery is disconnected. (iv) Dielectric slab is slowly removed from ca
pacitor. Fi nd the heat produced in (i) and work done by external agent in step
(ii) & (iv). Q.17 The plates of a parallel plate capacitor are separated by a di
stance d = 1 cm. Two parallel sided dielectric slabs ofthickness 0.7 cm and 0.3
cmfillthe sp ace between the plates. Ifthe dielectric constants ofthe two slabs
are 3 and 5 r espectively and a potential difference of440V is applied across th
e plates. Find : (i) the electricfieldintensities in each ofthe slab s. (ii) the
ratio of elect ric energies stored in thefirstto that in the second dielectric
slab. Q.18 A 10 pF and 20 pF capacitor are connected to a 10 V cell in parallel
for some time af ter which the capacitors are disconnectedfromthe cell and recon
nected at t = 0 w ith each other, in series, through wires offinite resistance.
The +ve plate of t hefirstcapacitor is connected to the -ve plate ofthe second c
apacitor. Draw the graph which best describes the charge on the +ve plate ofthe
20 pF capacitor wit h increasing time. List of recommended questions from LE. Ir
odov. 3.101, 3.102, 3.103, 3.113, 3.117, 3.121, 3.122, 3.123,3.124, 3.132,3.133,
3.141,3.142, 3.177, 3.184, 3.188. 3.199. 3.200,3.201. 3.203, 3.204. 3.205 121 A
E60 V SW 7 k= 1 k=2 k=3 k=4 V- + 2 nF1 3 X 60 V I J (fe^Bansal Classes CAPACITAN

EXERCISE # II Q. 1 (a) For the given circuit. Find the potential difference acro
ss all the cap acitors, (b) How should 5 capacitors, each of capacities, lpF be
connected so as to produce a total capacitance of 3/7 pF. Q.2 6oF, Ih-H^f I 8(xF
h ' 9|iF +. 25V The gap between the plates of a plane capacitor isfilledwith an
isotropic insula tor whose di-electric constant varies in the direction perpendi
cular to the plat es according to the law K = K j 1 + sin 71 X L d where d is th
e separation, betw een the plates & K is a constant. The area of the plates is S
. Determine the cap acitance of the capacitor. t Q.3 (i) (ii) Q.4 (j) (ii) (iii)
Q.5 Five identical conducting plates 1,2,3,4 & 5 arefixedparallel to and equdis
tantf romeach other (seefigure).Plates 2 & 5 are connected by a conductor while
1 & 3 are joined by another conductor. The junction of 1 & 3 and the plate 4 are
conne cted to a source of constant e.m.f. V . Find; the effective capacity of t
he syst em between the terminals ofthe source. the charges on plates 3 & 5. Give
n d = di stance between any 2 successive plates & A= area of either face of each
plate . 5 0 Apotential difference of300 Vis applied between the plates of a pla
ne capacitor spaced 1 cm apart. A plane parallel glass plate with a thickness of
0.5 cm and a plane parallel paraffin plate with a thickness of 0.5 cm are place
d in the spac e between the capacitor platesfind: Intensity of electricfieldin e
ach layer. The drop ofpotential in each layer. The surface charge density of the
charge on cap acitor the plates. Given that: k = 6, k =2 glass paraffin A charg
e 200pC is imparted to each of the two identical parallel plate capacitor s conn
ected in parallel. At t =0, the plates of both the capacitors are 0.1 m ap art.
The plates of first capacitor move towards each other with relative velocit y 0.
001 m/s and plates of second capacitor move apart with the same velocity. Fi nd
the current in the circuit at the moment. A parallel plate capacitor has plat es
with area A & separation d . A battery charges the plates to a potential diff e
rence ofV . The battery is then disconnected & a di-electric slab of constant K
& thickness d is introduced. Calculate the positive work done by the system (cap
acitor + slab) on the man who introduces the slab. 0 Q.6 Q.7 A capacitor of cap
acitance C is charged to a potential V and then isolated. A sm all capacitor C i
s then chargedfromC , discharged & charged again, the process b eing repeated n
times. The potential ofthe large capacitor has now fallen to V. Find the capacit
ance of the small capacitor. If V = 100 volt, V=35volt, find the value ofn for C
= 0.2 pF & C = 0.01075 pF . Is it possible to remove charge on

C this way? 0 0 0 0 0 0 Q. 8 When the switch S in thefigureis thrown to the left

, the plates of capacitors C, acquire a potential difference V. Initially the ca
pacitors C C are uncharged. T hw switchis now thrown to the right. What are thef
inalcharges q q & q on the cor responding capacitors. 2 3 p 2 3 .V TLPI Ic T (fe
^Bansal Classes CAPACITANCE 121

Q.9 (1) (ii) (lii) A parallel plate capacitor with air as a dielectric is arrang
ed horizontally. Th e lower plate isfixedand the other connected with a vertical
spring. The area of each plate is A. In the steady position, the distance betwe
en the plates is d . When the capacitor is connected with an electric source wit
h the voltage V, a n ew equilibrium appears, with the distance between the plate
s as d Mass of the up per plates is m. Find the spring constant K. What is the m
aximum voltage for a g iven K in which an equilibrium is possible ? What is the
angularfrequencyofthe o scillating system around the equilibrium value dj. (take
amplitude of oscillatio n d ) 0 r { Q.10 An insolated conductor initiallyfreefr
omcharge is charged by repeated conta cts with a plate which after each contact
has a charge Q due to some mechanism. If q is the charge on the conductor after
the first Qq operation, prove that the maximum charge which can be given to the
conductor in this way is ~ Q.ll A parallel plate capacitor is filled by a di-ele
ctric whose relative permit tivity varies with the applied voltage according to
the law = aV, where a = 1 pe r volt. The same (but containing no di-electric) ca
pacitor charged to a voltage V = 156 volt is connected in parallel to thefirst"n
on-linear" uncharged capacito r. Determine thefinalvoltage V across the capacito
rs. f Q.12 A capacitor consists oftwo air spaced concentric cylinders. The outer
ofrad ius b isfixed,and the inner is of radius a If breakdown ofair occurs atfi
eldstre ngths greater than E^, show that the inner cylinder should have (i) radi
us a = b /e ifthe potential of the inner cylinder is to be maximum (ii) radius a
= b/Ve i f the energy per unit length of the system is to be maximum. ,.JT 5V-r
46F =n 5V :d=6nf Q. 13 Find the charge flown through the switchfromAto B when it
is closed. Q.14 Figure shows three concentric conducting spherical shells with
inner and outer s hells earthed and the middle shell is given a charge q. Find t
he electrostatic e nergy of the system stored in the region I and II. 6mF Jr~ Q.
15 The capacitors shown infigurehas been charged to a potential difference of V
volts, so that it carries a charge CV with both the switches Sj and S remainin g
open. Switch Sj is closed at t=0. At t=R,C switch Sj is opened and S is closed
. Find the charge on the capacitor at t=2RjC + R^C. 2 2 s, Hi s, Q.16 In the fig
ure shown initially switch is open for a long time. Now the switc

h is closed at t = 0. Find the charge on the rightmost capacitor as "yv a functi

on oftime given that it was intially unchanged. (fe^Bansal Classes CAPACITANCE

Q.17 In the given circuit, the switch is closed in the position 1 at t = 0 and t
hen moved , I V to 2 after 250 p,s. Derive an expression for current as a funct
i on oftime for J^ov [ t > 0. Also plot the variation of current with time. I X4
0V VL Q.18 Find the charge which flowsfrompoint Ato B, when switch is closed. 5(
IF 5NF 5^F 5(.IF 5(IF 2 :500FJ :0.5 NF EXERCISE # III 2 2 120V Q. 1 Two parallel
plate capacitors A&B have the same separation d=8.85 x lO^m be tween the plates
. The plate areas of A & B are 0.04 m & 0.02 m A B respectively. A slab of di-el
ectric constant (relative permittivity) K=9 has dimensions such that it can exac
dy 10V fill the space between the plates ofcapacitor B. (i) the di-electric slab
is placed inside A as shown in thefigure(i) Ais then charged to a potential dif
ference of 110 volt. Calculate the capacitance ofA and the energ y stored in it.
(ii) the battery is disconnected & then the di-electric slab is removedfromA. F
ind the work done by the external agency in removing the slabfrom A. (iii) the s
ame di-electric slab is now placed inside B,fillingit completely. The two capaci
tors A& B are then connected as shown in figure (iii). Calculate t he energy sto
red in the system. [ JEE '93,7] Q.2 Two square metallic plates of 1 m side are k
ept 0.01 m apart, like a parallel plate capacitor, in air in such a way that one
oftheir edges is perpendicular, to an oil surface in a tankfilledw ith an insul
ating oil. The plates are connected to a battery of e.m.f. 500 volt. The plates
are then lowered vertically into the oil at a speed of 0.001 m/s. Ca lculate the
current drawn from the battery during the process, [di-electric cons tant of oi
l = 11, e = 8.85 x 10" C /N m ] [ JEE '94, 6 ] Q.3 A parallel plate ca pacitor C
is connected to a battery & is charged to a potential difference V. An other ca
pacitor of capacitance 2C is similarly charged to a potential difference 2V volt
. The charging batteiy is now disconnected & the capacitors are connecte d in pa
rallel to each other in such a way that the positive terminal of one is c onnect
ed to the negative terminal of other. Thefinalenergy ofthe configuration i s: 25
(B) - CV (D) - CV [JEE'95, 1 ] (A) zero (C) CV 0 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q.4 The capacit
ance of a parallel plate capacitor with plate area 'A' & separation d is C. The
space between the plates isfilledwith two wedges of di-electric const ant Kj & K
respectively. Find the capacitance ofthe resulting capacitor. [JEE'96 , 2] 2 Q.
5 (fe^Bansal Classes Two capacitors A and B with capacities 3 pF and 2 pF are ch
arged to a potential difference of 100 V and 180 V respectively. The plates of t
he capacitors are con nected as shown in figure with one wire from each 2nF capa
citorfree.The upper pl

ate of a is positive and that of B is negative, an 1-. uncharged 2 pF capacitor

C with lead wires falls on thefreeends to complete IOOV B 180V the circuit. Calc
ulate: thefinalcharges on the three capacitors The amount of electrostatic ener
g y stored in the system before and after the completion ofthe circuit. [JEE'97
(c ancelled)] CAPACITANCE 121

Q.6 An electron enters the region between the plates of a parallel plate capacit
or a t a point equidistant from eitherplate. The capacitor plates are 2* 10 mapa
rt& 1 0 m long. A potential difference of300 volt is kept across the plates. Ass
uming that the initial velocity of the electron is parallel to the capacitor pla
tes, c alculate the largest value ofthe velocity ofthe electron so that they do
notflyo ut ofthe capacitor at the other end. [ JEE '97, 5 ] _2 -1 Q. 7 For the c
ircuit shown, which ofthe following statements is true ? (A) with S, cl osed, Vj
= 15 V, V = 20 V (B) with S closed, Vj = V = 25 V (C) with & S closed, Vj = V =
0 (D) with Sj & S closed, V = 30 V, V = 20 V 2 3 2 2 2 2 l 2 V, =30V [JEE'99, 2
] Q.8 Calculate the capacitance of a parallel plate condenser, with plate area A
and d istance between plates d, whenfilledwith a medium whose permittivity vari
es as; 0<x< | e (x)= e + P x [REE2000, 6] 4 < x < d. S(X)=G + P (d-x) 0 0 Q. 9 T
wo identical capacitors, have the same capacitance C. One of them is charged to
potential V and the other to V . The negative ends ofthe capacitors are connect
ed together. When the positive ends are also connected, the decrease in energy o
f the combined system is [ JEE 2002 (Scr), 3 ] t 2 (A) Mvf-vl) (B)Mv,2+v22) (qI
c^-vJ 0 0 (D^cfa+vJ 1m s/ + c^ " v T Q.10 In the given circuit, the switch S is cl
osed at time t = 0. The charge Q on the capacitor at any instant t is given by Q
(t) = Q (l-e" *). Find the value o f Q and a in terms of given parameters shown
in the circuit. [JEE 2005] 0 Q.ll Given: Rj = ID , R2 = 2Q, Cx = 2pF, C = 4pF T
he time constants (in pS) for the circuits I, n, HI are respectively .C, !!i R,: K
"C2 hi r . - T T-r. k v ,vV ' h- 2 (A) 18, 8/9, 4 (C) 4, 8/9, 18 (II.)

(B) 18, 4, 8/9 (D) 8/9, 18,4 (in) [JEE 2006] (fe^Bansal Classes CAPACITANCE 121

ANSWER KEY EXERCISE # I Q.l Q.3 Q.7 Q.9 9J 3Q/2C 0 100 Q.2 Q.4 Q.8 (a) 20 pC, (b
) 0.3 mJ, (c) 0.6 mJ. (d) 60 [iC 30 V 32 -MF Q.5 C Q-6 1 qd iZT 2 (a) volts; (b)
28.56 |iC, 42.84 pC, 71.4 jnC, 22.88 pC Q.10 10 pC 2A e V 25 eA Q. 13 A G V Q.14
60 (ic,AtoB Q.ll 24 d Q.12 ^ F 0 0 Q.15 150 mJ 4 Q.16 (i) | C V ; (ii) - ~ CV2(
K- 1); ^ (K + 2) (K - l ^ V ; 2 2 q(nC), Q. 17 (i) 5 X 10 V/m, 3 x 10 V/m; (ii)
3 5/9 4 Q.18 200 EXERCISE # II HHI Q.l (a) 12 V, 9 V, 3 V, 13 V, 16 V, (b) GSTIK
, m T TT ,Q5 = t 7 2 Q.2 C = 2d Q.5 2[iA 5 fe A^ Q.3 (i) 3 v " y ;(ii)Q3=T 0 4 4
IAV ,AV Q.4 (i) 1.5 x 10 V/m, 4.5 x 10 V/m, (ii) 75 V, 225 V, (iii) 8 x 10" C/m
Q.6 W = \ C V 0 0 2 q.8 q i -

Ci2V(C2+C3) CiC +C
.7 C = C 1 f\v T n
2 \3/2 Kdf-e AV 0
e q, = ~ ; Uu O CV


+Cj c 2 2 3 2 0 0 3 c c +c c +c c 1 2 2 3 3 K CCCV 1 2 3 1Q
V o \ -1 = 0.01078 |iF,n = 20 1 / n SpAV 2d (d -d!)'v As ^3
1/2 MDJ Q.ll 12 volt r 2 Q.13 69 mC Q.14 U, 3kg, lOr 2 wher
2K(q + ) / 3 5 r Q.15 q = CE 1 + qi

v e y Q.16 q CV 1-e~t/RC 2 (fe^Bansal Classes CAPACITANCE 121

I(ajnp) Q.17 For t < 250 ps, I = 0.04 e^ amp ; For t

t-250)xi (r 00t e 0.04 0.015 -o.n 6 a m p ; t(xIO^s)
I Q.l Q.2 Q.5 (i) 0.2 x 10" 9 8 F, 1.2 x lO" J ; (ii)
10" 5 5 5 J 4.425 x 10~ Ampere QA = 90 Q.3 B q.4 F C
J pC, Q B = 150 pC, Q C = 210

> 250 ps, I = - 0.1 i -4000(

Q.18 400 ^ - P EXERCISE # II
4.84 x 10" J ; (iii) 1.1 x
K ^ /n K, (Ka-KO K, = 18 M

pC, UJ = 4 7 . 4 MJ, U D Q= 0 CVR, Q ' 6 2^9A V48 C & Q.7 Q.10 Q.8 Ri+R2 ^ 2 e0
2 s0 Q.9 R1+R2 anda= Q.ll

XII (ALL) quesjjommm. <M

QUESTION FOR SHORT ANSWER Q.l The electric strength of air is about 30,000 V/cm.
By this we mean that when the electricfieldintensity Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 exceeds this v
alue, a spark will jump through the air. We say that "electric bre akdown" has o
ccurred. Using this value, estimate the potential difference betwee n two object
s where a spark jumps. Atypical situation might be the spark that ju mps between
your body and a metal door handle after you have walked on a deep ca rpet or sl
id across a plastic car seat in very dry weather. Ifyou grasp the two wires lead
ingfromthe two plates of a charged capacitor, you may feel a shock. Th e effect
is much greater for a 2-pF capacitor than for a 0.02p,F capacitor, even though b
oth are are charged to the same potential difference. Why? <T(+) a(-) T hree inf
inite nonconducting sheets, with uniform surface charge densities a, 2a and 3ct
are arranged to be parallel like the two sheets in Fig. What is their or der,fro
mleft to right, if the electricfieldE produced by the arrangement has mag nitude
E = 0 in one region and E = 2a/e in another region? As shown in the figur e plo
ts of charge versus potential difference for three parallel plate capacitor s, w
hich have the plate areas and separations given in the table. Which of the p lot
s goes with which ofthe capacitors? 0 Capacitor 1 2 3 Q.5 Area Separation A d 2A
d A 2d t 2 1 t Q.6 Initially, a single capacitance C is wired to a battery. The
n capacitance C is a dded in parallel. Are (a) the potential difference across C
and (b) the charge q j on C now more than, less than, or the same as previously
? (c) Is the equivalen t capacitance C of Cj and C more than, less than, or equa
l to Cj? (d) Is the tot al charge stored on C^ and C , together more than, less
than, or equal to the ch arge stored previously on Cj? As shown in thefigurethre
e circuits, each consisti ng of a switch and two capacitors, initially charged a
s 6q_ indicated. After the switches have been closed, in which 6q_ _ Jq 6q__ C 3
C 2C 2C circuit (ifany) wi ll the charge on the left-hand capacitor 2 C (a) incr
ease, (b) decrease and (c) remain the same? 12 2 == := (fe Bansal Classes Cap-mo
nster maze. Inthe Figure all the capacitors have a capacitance -- I I h fT of 6.0
pF, and all the b atteries have an emf of 10V What is the charge | J_ J ^ on ca
pacitor C? (Ifyou canfindthe proper loop through this maze, you T ~ , 4 , 4 4 T
, , = I can answer the question with a few seconds of mental calculation.) -r I
c 1 H H Q8 An oilfilledcapacitor has been designed to have a capacitance C and t
o operate safely at or below a certain maximum potential difference V with out a
rcing over. However, the designer did not do a good job and the capacitor o ccas
ionally arcs over. What can be done to redesign the capacitor, keeping C and V u
nchanged and using the same dielectric? Q.9 One of the plates of a capacitor con
nected to battery is earthed. Will the potential diffrence between the plate s c
hange if the earthing wire is removed?

m m Q.7 Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT. Take approx. 2 minutes for answering each question.
Cond. Diele. Q. 1 The distance between plates of a parallel plate capacitor is 5
d. sitively charged plate is at x=0 and negatively charged plate is at 1 o slabs
one of conductor and other of a dielectric of equal thickness rted between the
plates as shown in figure. Potential versus distance look like: v A) Q.2 w v (B)
(C) x=0 x=d x=2d x=3d x=4d x=5d VI (D) A parallel plate capacitor has two layer
s of dielectric as shown in figure. This capacitor is connected across a battery
. The graph which shows the variation of electricfield(E) and distance (x)fromle
ft plate. y y y (A) k=2 k=4 (d,0) (3d,0) (D) (d,0) (3d,0) " 1 (B) (d,0) (3d,0) "
(C) (d,0) (3d,0)~ (d,0) (3d,0) Q.3 The distance between the plates of a charged
parallel plate capacitor is 5 cm an d electricfieldinside the plates is 200 Vcn
r . An uncharged metal bar of width 2 cm is fully immersed into the capacitor. T
he length of the metal bar is same as that of plate of capacitor. The voltage ac
ross capacitor after the immersion of the bar is (A) zero (B)400V (C)600V (D)100
V Three large plates are arranged as s hown. How much charge will flow through t
he key k if it is closed? 5Q 4Q 3Q (D) none (A) (C) ( B ) F 2Q Q.4 2d L Q.5 1 E
Five conducting parallel plates having area Aand separation between them d, are
Let the po * x=5d. Tw d are inse graph will

placed as shown in the figure. Plate number 2 and 4 are connected wire and betwe
en point A and B, a cell of emfE is connected. The charge flown through the cel
l is u 3 e AE 2 s AE 4s AE e AE (A) (C) (D) (B) 4 d 3 d 2d 0 0 0 0 5 Q.6 -> If c
harge on left plane of the 5 pF capacitor in the circuit segment shown in th e f
igure is -20pC, the charge on the right plate of 3 pF capacitor is (A) +8.57 pC
(B) -8.57 pC (C)+11.42pC (D)-11.42pC Five identical capacitor plates are arra ng
ed such that they make capacitors each of Q.7 2 pF. The plates are connected t o
a source of emf 10 V. The charge on plate C is (B) + 40 pC (C) + 60 pC (D) + 8
0pC u (A) + 20 pC |3nF UjiF w |ffH 2(iF (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Capa
citance [13]

Q.8 A capacitor of capacitance C is charged to a potential difference V from a c

ell and then disconnected L + from it. Acharge +Q is now given to its positive
plate. The potential difference across the capacitor is now (C)v Q f (D) V - ^ ,
if V < CV (B) V + (A) V of cap acity 5 pf is (A) 60 pC (C) 30 pC M^lfP^lf. 100
V Q.9 In the circuit shown infigurecharge stored in the capacitor (B) 20 pC (D)
zero 2 3 Q.10 A conducting body 1 has some initial charge Q, and its capacitance
is C. Th ere are two other conducting bodies, 2 and 3, having capacitances : C
= 2C and C - Q . Bodies 2 and 3 are initially uncharged. O "Body 2 is touched wit
h body 1. Then, body 2 is removed from body 1 and touched with body 3, and then
removed." This process is repeated N times. Then, the charge on body 1 at the en
d must be (A) Q / 3 (B) Q / 3 (C)Q/N (D) None N N _ 1 3 Q.ll Condenser A has a c
apacity of 15 pF when it isfilledwith a medium of dielec tric constant 15. Anoth
er condenser B has a capacity 1 pF with air between the p lates. Both are charge
d separately by a battery C of 100V. After charging, both are connected in paral
lel without the battery and the dielectric material being removed. The common po
tential now is (A) 4 0 0 V (B) 800V (C) 1200V (D) 1600V Q.12 In the adjoiningfig
ure,capacitor (1) and (2) have a capacitance C' each. Wh en the dielectric of di
electric consatnt K is inserted between the plates of one ofthe capacitor, the t
otal charge flowing through battery is ,c KCE KCE h from B to C from C to B (B)
K + l t (A) K + l (K-l)CE (K-l)CE (C) ^ FROM B to C (D) f rom C to B A + 2 ( K +
1) -WUr Q. 13 Two identical capacitors 1 and 2 are connected in series toabatte
ryas shown in 1 figure. Capacitor 2 contains a dielectric slab of dielectric con
stan t k as shown. Q and Q are the charges stored in the capacitors. Now the die
lectr ic slab is removed and the corresponding charges are Q' j and Q' . Then H^
Q^_k +1 k q; = k+i 2 (A) (B) Q _ k + l ( C ) Q ~ 2k (D) 01 2 Qi k Qi t 2 2 2 Q.
14 The area ofthe plates of a parallel plate capacitor is A and the gap betwe e
n them is d. The gap is filled with a non-homogeneous dielectric whose dielectr
ic constant varies with the distance 'y'fromone plate as : K = ^sec(7ty/2d), whe
re X is a dimensionless constant. The capacitance ofthis capacitor is (A) 7ie ^
A/2d (B)7rs XA/d (C) 27te k A/d (D)none 0 0 0 Q.15 A capacitor stores 60pC char
ge when connected across a battery. When the ga p between the plates is filled w
ith a dielectric, a charge of 120pC flows throug h the battery. The dielectric c
onstant of the material inserted is: i (A) 1 (B) 2 . (C) 3 (D) none (fe Bansal C

Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

Q.16 In the above question, if the initial capacitance ofthe capacitor was 2pF,
the amount of heat produced when the dielectric is inserted. (A) 3600pJ (B) 2700
pJ (C) 1800pJ (D)none Q.17 A capacitor of capacitance C is initially charged to
a potential difference of V volt. Now it is connected j to a battery of 2V with
o pposite polarity. The ratio of heat generated to the final energy stored in th
e capacitor will be (A) 1.75 (B) 2.25 (C) 2.5 (D) 1/2 AQ.18 Three plates A B and
C each of area 0.1 m are separated by 0.885 Bmmfromea ch other as shown in the
figure. A10 V battery is used to Ccharge the system. Th e energy stored in the s
ystem is (A)lpJ (B) 10 pj (C) 10' pJ (D) 10" pJ 2 _1 2 3 hH 10V Q.19 A parallel
plate capacitor of capacitance C is connected to a battery and i s charged to a
potential difference V. Another capacitor of capacitance 2C is si milarly charge
d to a potential difference 2V. The charging battery is now discon nected and th
e capacitors are connect in parallel to each other in such a way th at the posit
ive terminal of one is connected to the negative terminal of the oth er. Thefina
lenergy I ofthe configuration is 2 5 (A)zero (D)-CV ( B ) - CV (C)yCV 2 2 2 Q.20
A 2 pF capacitor is charged to a potential = 10V. Another 4 pF capacitor is cha
rged to a potential = 20V. The two capacitors are then connected in a single loo
p, with the positive plate of one ; connected with negative plate of the oth er.
What heat is evolvecl in the circuit? (A) 300 pj (B) 600 pJ (C) 900 pj (D)45 0p
J Q.21 The plates S and T of an uncharged parallel plate capacitor are connect e
d across a battery. The battery is then disconnected and the charged plates are
now connected in a system as shown in thefigure.The system shown is in equilibr
ium. All the strings are insulating and massless. The magnitude of charge on one
ofthe capacitor plates is: [Area ofplates=A] -^svtvw 4mgA (A) pmgA (B) 77777777
7777777777ininiii (C)VmgA (D) 2mgA e m 0 Q.22 In the circuit shown, the energy
stored in 1 pF capacitor is (A) 40 pJ (B) 64 pJ (D)none (C) 32 pJ 3nF I^ HF Q.23
Four metallic plates arearranged as shown in thefigure.Ifthe distance betwe en
each plate then capacitance of the given system between points A and B is (Gi ve
n d A) 2s A I - , _ S pA sA / , I (A) d (B) 3s A 4s o A (C) d (D) n 0n 1 0 (fe B
ansal Classes Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

Q.24 What is the equivalent capacitance of the system of capacitors between A &
B W~6c .A 2. B Q.25 From a supply ofidentical capacitors rated 8 pF, 250 V, the
minimum numbe r of capacitors required to form a composite 16 pF, 1000 Vis : (A)
2 (B) 4 (C) 1 6 (D) 32 cP (B) 1.6 C (C)C (D) None . Q.26 The minimum number ofca
pacitors each of3 pF required to make a circuit with an equivalent capacitance 2
.25 pF is (A) 3 (B)4 (C)5 (D)6 0 Q.29 A capacitor of capacitance 1 pF withstands
the maximum voltage 6 kV while a capacitor of 2 pF withstands the maximum volta
ge 4 kV. What maximum voltage wil l the system of these two capacitor withstands
if they are connected in series? (A) lOkV (B)12kV (C) 8 kV (D)9kV Q.30 Four ide
ntical plates 1,2,3 and 4 are plac ed parallel to each other at equal distance a
s shown in the figure. Plates 1 and 4 are joined together and the space between
2 and 3 is filled with a dielectric of dielectric constant k = 2. The capacitanc
e of the system between 1 and 3 & 2 and 4 are Cj and C2 C, respectively. The rat
io is : C-2 3 (B)l (A)-: (D) 5 ( C ) Q.27 The capacitance (C) for an isolated co
nducting sphere of radius (a) is give n by 47ts a. Ifthe sphere is enclosed with
an earthed concentric sphere. The rat io ofthe radii of the spheres being n the
n the (n-1) Icapacitance of such a sphe re will be increased by a factor n (n-1)
(A)n (D) a. n (B) (n-1) (C) n -' Q.28 T wo capacitor having capacitances 8 pF a
nd 16 pF have breaking voltages 20 V and 80 V. They are combined in series. The
maximum charge they can store individuall y in the combination is (A) 160 pC (B)
200 p,C (C) 1280 p,C (D) none ofthese y Q.31 # In the circuit shown infigure,th
e ratio ofcharges on 5pF and 4pF capacitor is: ( A) 4/5 (B)3/5 (C) 3/8 (D) 1/2 3
jiF JL 5(iF 4nF 6V

Q.32 In the circuit shown, a potential difference of 60V is applied across AB. T
he potential difference between the point M and N is (A) 10 V (B) 15V (C) 20 V
( D) 30 V 60V B I Li r - Cr ^ h r 2d H (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Capac
itance [13]

v 15 (B) y p F (D)none Q, 3 4 A capacitor ofcapacitance 1 pF with stands the max

im um voltages 6 KV while a capacitor of capacitance 2.0 pF with stands the maxi
mum voltage = 4KV. if the two capacitors are connected in series, then the ~t. t
wo capacitors combined can take up a maximum voltage of V (A) 2.4 KV (B) 5 KV (C
) 9 KV (D) 10 KV t Q. 3 3 Find the equivalent capacitance across A& B (A) y pf (
C) 15 pF 28 23NF 7(iF 'h 1 IpF B !3pF A 12pF LIK 1 1 UiF lOtlF Q. 3 5 The diagram sho
ws four capacitors with capacitances and break down voltag es as mentioned. What
should be the maximum value of the external emf source suc h that no capacitor
breaks down?[Hint: First of allfindout the break down voltag es of each branch.
After that compare them. ] (A)2.5kV (B)10/3kV (C)3kV (D) 1 kV 3C;lkV H 2C;2kV H 7
C;lkV 3C;2kV Q.36 Three capacitors 2 pF, 3 pF and 5 pF can withstand voltages to
3V, 2V and I V respectively. Their series combination can withstand a maximum v
oltage equal t o (A) 5 Volts (B) (31/6) Volts (C) (26/5) Volts (D)None Q.37 Find
equivalent cap acitance across AB (all capacitances in pF) (A) 20p F y (B) 9pF
(C) 48 pF (D) No ne B Q. 3 8 Three long concentric conducting cylindrical shells
have radii R, 2R and 2^2 R. Inner and outer shells are connected to each other.
The capacitance acros s middle and inner shells per unit length is: (D) None (C
) 2/n2 /2 n Q.39 A char ged capacitor is allowed to discharge through a resistan
ce 2Q by closing the swi tch S at the instant t = 0. At time t = In 2 ps, the re
ading of the ammeter fall s halfof its initial value. The resistance ofthe ammet
er equal to (A) 0 (B)2Q (C )o (D) 2MQ Q. 40 A capacitor C = 100 pF is connected t
o three resistor each of re sistance 1 kf2 and a battery of emf 9V. The switch S
has been closed for long ti me so as to charge the capacitor. When switch S is
opened, the capacitor dischar ges with time constant (A) 33 ms (B) 5 ms (C) 3.3
ms (D) 50 ms (A) (B) In 2 a I 6^0 0.5 |JF Hh IkSl ikn rH^n Q. 41 A capacitor C =
100 pF is connected to three resistors each of resist ance 1 kW and AW ikn A ba
ttery of emf 9V. The switch S has been closed for long time so as to charge the
pvWv ikn ^ t { capacitor. When switch S is opened, the c apacitor discharges with
time constant. LAWvH S ^ O \ \ (A) 33 ms (B) 5 ms (C) 3 .3 ms (D) 50 ms ikn

t * ' r/r (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

Q. 42 In the transient shown the time constant of the circuit is: V (A)~RC (B)-R
C (D)|RC 2 2 2 Q.43 In the circuit shown in figure C,=2C . Switch S is closed at
time t=0. Let ij and i be the currents flowing through Cj and C at any time t,
then the ratio i ^ (A) is constant (B) increases with increase in time t (C) dec
reases with inc rease in time t (D)firstincreases then decreases Q.44 Find heat
produced in the capacitors on closing the switch S 20V 0.0002 (B) 0.0005 J (A) 0
.00075J (D) zero L \ (C) If c I I I I c VWWv R Q.45 In the circuit shown, when th
e key k is pressed at time t = 0, which of the following statements about curren
t I in the resistor AB is true K r| I ^IOOOSI IT ^V V (A) I = 2mA at all t 2V .100
0Q (B) I oscillates between 1 mA and 2mA (C) 1 = 1 mA at all t i (D) At t = 0,1
= 2mA and with time it goes to 1 mA Q.46 In the R-C circuit shown in thefigureth
e total energy of 3.6 *10~ J is dissipated in t he 10 Q resistor when the switch
S is closed. The initial charge on the capacito r is 60 ' !0Q (A) 60 pC (B) 120
pC (C) 60 ^ pC (D) ^ pC 3 c C = 0.5(JF Q. 47 A charged capacitor is allowed to
discharge through a resistor by closing the key at the instant t =0. At the inst
ant t = (In 4) ps, the readin g ofthe.ammeter yijc falls halfthe initial value.
The resistance of the ammeter is equal to (A) 1 MO (B) ID (C)2H (D) 2MQ Hg)- - W
2W Q Q.48 In the circuit shown, the cell is ideal, with emf= 15 V. Each resistan
ce is of 3Q. The potential difference across the capacitor is (A) zero (B)9V <y
(C) 1 2 V (D) 15 V 10nF 4|iF 6uF +i In the circuit shown infigure,four capacitor
s are connected to a battery. Q.49 T he equivalent capacitance ofthe circuit is
(A) 25 pF (B) 6 pF (C) 8.4 pF Question No. 49 to 52 (4 questions) 5HFV (D)none T
OY (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

Q. 5 0 The charge on the 5 pF capacitor is > (A) 60 pC (B) 24 pC (C) 12 pC (D)20

pC (D)none (D)4pF Q. 51 The potential difference aero ss the 6 pF capacitor is (
A) 6V (B)4V (C)5V Q. 5 2 The maximum energy is stored in the capacitor of - (A)1
0pF (B) 6 uF (C) 5 pF 5 Q, 5 3 A parallel plate capacitor has an electricfieldof
10 V/m between the plat es. Ifthe charge on the capacitor plate is 1 pC, then t
he force on each capacito r plate is (A)O.lNt (B) 0.05Nt (C) 0.02Nt (D)0.01Nt Q.
54 A capacitor is connect ed to a battery. The force of attraction between the
plates when the separation between them is halved (A) remains the same (B) becom
es eight times (C) becomes four times (D) becomes two times ONE OR MORE THAN ONE
OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Take approx. 3 minutes for answering each question. Q. 1
A parallel plate capacitor A isfilledwith a dielectric whose dielectric con stan
t varies with applied voltage as K=V. An identical capacitor B of capacitanc e C
with air as dielectric is connected to voltage source V = 3 0V and then conn ec
ted to thefirstcapacitor after disconnecting the voltage source. The charge an d
voltage on capacitor. (A) A are 25C and 25 V (B) A are 25C and 5 V (C) B are 5
c and 5V (D) B are 5C and 25 V 0 0 0 0 0 0 Q.2 Q.3 Two capacitors of 2 pF and 3
pF are charged to 150 volt and I.5HF 120 volt respe ctively. The plates of capac
itor are connected as '' shown in thefigure.A discha rged capacitor ofcapacity 1
.5 pF falls to the free ends ofthe wire. Then 150V 2n F 3|^F 120V (A) charge on
the 1.5 pF capacitors is 180 pC \ ^J (B) charge on the 2pF capacitor is 120 pC (
C) chargeflowsthrough Afromrightto left. (D) chargeflo wsthrough Afrom left to r
ight. In the circuit shown, each capacitor has a capaci tance C. Theemfofthecell
isE. Ifthe switch S is closed 0 A (C) the amount of chargeflowingthrough the cel
l will be CE. (D) the amount of ch argeflowingthrough the cell will be 4/3 CE. Q
.4 In the circuit shown initially C ,, C are uncharged. After closing the switch
(A) The charge on C is greater that onC (B) The charge on Cj and C are the same
(C) The potential drops across C, a nd C are the same (D) The potential drops a
cross C is greater than that across C , 2 2 1 2 2 2 . a T I SLIP JC=8 11 12V =J= c,=
4nF 6V (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

Q.5 A parallel plate air-core capacitor is connected across a source of constant

pot ential difference. When a dielectric plate is introduced between the two pl
ates then: (A) some charge from the capacitor willflowback into the source. (B)
some extra charge from the source willflowback into the capacitor. (C) the elect
ricfi eldintensity between the two plate does not change. (D) the electricfieldi
ntensi ty between the two plates will decrease. A parallel plate capacitor has a
parall el sheet of copper inserted between and parallel to the two plates, with
out touc hing the plates. The capacity ofthe capacitor after the introduction of
the coppe r sheet is: (A) minimum when the copper sheet touches one of the plate
s. (B) max imum when the copper sheet touches one of the plates. (C) invariant f
or all posi tions of the sheet between the plates. (D) greater than that before
introducing the sheet. In the circuit shown in the figure, the switch S is initi
ally open an d the . 2Q rwij capacitor is initially uncharged. Ij, \ and I repres
ent the curre nt in the 812*6VTT resistance 2Q, 4fl and 8Q respectively. (A) Jus
t after the sw itch S is closed, Ij = 3 A I2 ^ A and I = 0 (B) Just after the sw
itch S is close d, I, = 3 A, I = 0 and I = 0 (C) long time after the switch S is
closed, Ij = 0. 6 A, I = 0 and I = 0 (D) long after the switch S is closed, =I
= I = 0.6 A. 3 = 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Q.6 Q.7 rjz 2|xF >412 Q.8 The circuit shown in th
efigureconsists of a battery of emf s = 10 V; a capacitor of capacitance C = 1.0
pF and three resistor ofvalues R, = 2Q, 1^ = 2 0 and R = i n . Initially the ca
pacitor is completely uncharged and the switch S is "E R. o pen. The switch S is c
losed at t = 0. (A) The current through resistor R at the moment the switch clos
ed is zero. (B) The current through resistor R a long time after the switch clos
ed is 5 A. (C) The ratio of current through Rj and I^ is a lways constant. (D) T
he maximum charge on the capacitor during the operation is 5pC. 3 3 3 Q.9 Q.10 A
capacitor of capacity C is charged to a steady potential difference V and conne
cted in series with an open key and a pure resistor 'R'. At time t = 0 , the key
is closed. If I = current at time t, a plot of log I against't' is as shown in
(1) in the graph. Later one of the parameters i. e. V, R or C is change d keepin
g the other two constant, and the graph (2) is recorded. Then (A) C is r educed
(B) C is increased (C) R is reduced (D) R is increased (fe Bansal Classes Questi
on Bank on Capacitance [13]

The charge across the capacitor in two different RC circuits 1 and 2 are plotted
as shown in figure. Q.ll Choose the correct statement(s) related to the two cir
cuits. (A) Both the capacitors are charged to the same charge. (B) The emf s of
cells in both the circuit are equal. (C) The emf s of the cells may be differen
t . (D) The emf E is more than E Q.12 Identify the correct statement(s) related
to the R,, R^ Cj and C of the two RC circuits. (A)R >R ifE,=E (B)C <C ifE =E t 2
1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Question No. 11 to 12 (2 questions) < ^ 2 1 Q.13 Aparallel plate c
apacitor is charged by connecting it to a battery. The battery is disconnected a
nd the plates of the capacitor are pulled apart to make the separation between t
he plates twice. Again the capacitor is connected to the battery (with same pola
rity) then (A) Chargefromthe batteryflowsinto the capacitor after reconnection (
B) Chargefromcapacitorflowsinto the battery after reconnection. (C) The potentia
l difference between the plates increases when the plates are pulled apart. (D)
After reconnection ofbattery potential difference between the plate will immedia
tely becomes half of the initial potential differe nce. (Just after disconnectin
g the battery) Q. 14 The plates of a parallel plate capacitor with no dielectric
are connected to a voltage source. Now a dielectri c of dielectric constant K i
s inserted tofillthe whole space between the plates with voltage source remainin
g connected to the capacitor. (A) the energy stored in the capacitor will become
K-times (B) the electricfieldinside the capacitor w ill decrease to K-times (C)
the force of attraction between the plates will incr ease to K -times (D) the c
harge on the capacitor will increase to K-times 1 C 2 (C) RjCJ > R.C, (D) f Q. 1
5 Four capacitors and a batteiy are connected as shown. The potential drop a cro
ss the 7 pF capacitor is 6 V. Then the : J (A) potential difference across th e
3 pF capacitor is 10 V (B) charge on the 3 pF capacitor is 42 pC (C) e.m.f. of t
he battery is 3 0 V (D) potential difference across the 12 pF capacitor is 10 V.
A H 3.9(.IF Jn 7F "puF 2 Q. 16 A circuit shown in the figure consists of a batt
ery of emf 10 V and two ca pacitance C, and C of capacitances 1.0 pF and 2.0 pF
respectively. The potential difference V - V is 5 V (A) charge on capacitor Cj i
s equal to charge on capaci tor C Ao| || | | | o B (B) Voltage across capacitor Cj
is 5V. c' e q, (C) Voltage across capacitor C is 10 V (D) Energy stored in capa
citor C. is two times the en ergy stored in capacitor C . B 2 2 2 Q.17 A capacit
or C is charged to a potential difference V and batteiy is disconn ected. Now if
the capacitor plates are brought close slowly by some di stance: ( A) some +ve
work is done by external agent (B) energy of capacitor will decrease (C) energy
of capacitor will increase (D) none of the above (fe Bansal Classes Question Ban
k on Capacitance [13]

Q.18 The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is C when the region between
the plate has air. This region is nowfilledwith a dielectric slab of dielectric
constant k. The capacitor is connected to a cell of emf E, and the slab is taken
out (A) charge CE(k - 1 ) flows through the cell (B) energy E C(k - 1) is absor
bed by the cell. (C) the energy stored in the capacitor is reduced by E C(k - 1
) (D) the external agent has to do ^E C(k -1) amount ofwork to take the slab ou
t . 2 2 2 Q.19 Two capacitors of capacitances 1 pF and 3 pF are charged to the s
ame voltag es 5 V. They are connected in parallel with oppositely charged plates
connected together. Then: (A) Final common voltage will be 5 V (B) Final common
voltage wi ll be 2.5 V (C) Heat produced in the circuit will be zero. (D) Heat
produced in the circuit will be 37.5 pJ Q. 20 The two plates X and Y of a parall
el plate cap acitor of capacitance C are given a charge of amount Q each. X is n
ow joined to the positive terminal and Yto the negative terminal of a cell of em
fE = Q/C. (A) Charge of amount Q willflowfromthe negative terminal to the positi
ve terminal o fthe cell inside it (B) The total charge on the plate X will be 2Q
. (C) The tota l charge on the plate Y will be zero. (D) The cell will supply CE
amount of ener gy. 2 Q.21 A dielectric slab is inserted between the plates of a
n isolated charged cap acitor. Which of the following quantities will remain the
same? (A) the electric fieldin the capacitor (B) the charge on the capacitor (C
) the potential differen ce between the plates (D) the stored energy in the capa
citor. Q.22 The separatio n between the plates of a isolated charged parallel pl
ate capacitor is increased . Which of the following quantities will change? (A)
charge on the capacitor (B) potential difference across the capacitor (C) energy
of the capacitor (D) energ y density between the plates. Q.23 Each plate ofa pa
rallel plate capacitor has a charge q on it. The capacitor is now connected to a
battery. Now, (A) the facin g surfaces of the capacitor have equal and opposite
charges. (B) the two plates of the capacitor have equal and opposite charges. (
C) the battery supplies equal and opposite charges to the two plates. (D) the ou
ter surfaces ofthe plates hav e equal charges. Q. 24 Following operations can be
performed on a capacitor: X connect the capacitor to a battery of emf E. Y - di
sconnect the battery Z - rec onnect the battery with polarity reversed. W - inse
rt a dielectric slab in the c apacitor (A) In XYZ (perform X, then Y, then Z) th
e stored electric energy remai ns unchanged and no thermal energy is developed.
(B) The charge appearing on the capacitor is greater after the action XWY than a
fter the action XYW. (C) The el ectric energy stored in the capacitor is greater
after the action WXY than after the action XYW. (D) The electricfieldin the cap
acitor after the action XW is th e same as that after WX. Q.25 A parallel plate
capacitor is charged and then dis connectedfromthe source of potential differenc
e. Ifthe plates of the condenser a re then moved farther apart by the use of ins
ulated handle, which one of the fol lowing is true? (A) the charge on the capaci
tor increases (B) the charge on the capacitor decreases (C) the capacitance of t
he capacitor increases (D) the poten tial difference across the plate increases
(fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

Q.26 Aparallel plate capacitor is charged and then disconnected from the source
steady E.M.F. The plates are then drawn apart farther. Again it is connected to
the same source. Then: (A) the potential difference across the plate increases,
while the plates are being drawn apart. (B) the charge from the capacitorflowsin
to the source, when the capacitor is reconnected. (C) more charge is drawn to t
h e capacitor from the source, during the reconnection. (D) the electric intensi
ty between the plates remains constant during the drawing apart of plates. Q.27
Wh en a parallel plates capacitor is connected to a source of constant potential
di fference, (A) all the charge drawnfromthe source is stored in the capacitor.
(B) all the energy drawnfromthe source is stored in the capacitor. (C) the pote
ntia l difference across the capacitor grows very rapidly initially and this rat
e dec reases to zero eventually. (D) the capacity of the capacitor increases wit
h the increase of the charge in the capacitor. Q.28 When two identical capacitor
s are charged individually to different potentials and connected parallel to eac
h othe r, after disconnecting themfromthe source: (A) net charge on connected pl
ates is less than the sum of initial individual charges. (B) net charge on conne
cted pl ates equals the sum of initial charges. (C) the net potential difference
across them is differentfromthe sum ofthe individual initial potential differen
ces. (D) the net energy stored in the two capacitors is less than the sum ofthe
initial individual energies. Q. 29 Aparallel plate capacitor of plate area A and
plate s eperation d is charged to potential difference V and then the battery i
s disconn ected. A slab of dielectric constant K is then inserted between the pl
ates ofthe capacitor so as tofillthe space between the plates. If Q, E and W den
ote respec tively, the magnitude of charge on each plate, the electricfieldbetwe
en the plat es (after the slab is inserted) and the work done on the system, in
question, in the process of inserting the slab, then e AV s KAV V AV 1 - 1 K Q.
3 0 A parall el plate capacitor is connected to a battery. The quantities charge
, voltage, el ectricfieldand energy associated with the capacitor are given by Q
, V , E and U respectively. A dielectric slab is introduced between plates of c
apacitor but b attery is still in connection. The corresponding quantities now g
iven by Q, V, E and U related to previous ones are (A)Q>Q (B) V > V (C) E > E (D
)U<U Q.31 A par allel-plate capacitor is connected to a cell. Its positive plate
A and its negat ive plate B have charges +Q and -Q respectively. A third plate
C, identical to A and B, with charge +Q, is now introduced midway between A and
B, parallel to th em. Which of the following are correct? 3Q (A) The charge on t
he inner face of B is now (B) There is no change in the potential difference betw
een A and B. (C) T he potential difference between A and C is one-third of the p
otential difference betweenB and C. (D) The charge on the inner face ofA is now
Q/ 2. Q.32 Two capa citors Cj = 4 pF and C = 2pF are charged to same potential V
= 500 Volt, but wit h opposite polarity as shown in thefigure.The switches S an
d S are closed. (A) T he potential difference across the two capacitors are same
and is given by 500/3 V (B) The potential difference across the two capacitors
are same and is given by 1000/3 V (C) The ratio offinalenergy to initial energy
of the system is 1/9. (D) The ratio offinalenergy to initial energy ofthe system
is 4/9. 0 0 2 0 Q 0 0 0 0 q 0 2 t 2 (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Capacit
ance [13]

Q. 33 A parallel plate capacitor is charged to a certain potential and the charg

ing battery is then disconnected. Now, if the plates of the capacitor are moved
apart then: (A) The stored energy of the capacitor increases (B) Charge on the
c apacitor increases (C) Voltage ofthe capacitor decreases (D) The capacitance i
nc reases Q. 34 If a battery of voltage V is connected across terminals I of the
bl ock box shown infigure,an ideal voltmeter connected to terminals II gives a
read ing of V/2, while ifthe battery is connected to terminals II, a voltmeter a
cross terrninals I reads V. The black box may contain (A) i O-J I ! l OIvwvR iR -o
1 1 11 (B) (D)1. 2 1 Tc (C) Oivwvl R ' R OIvwvER -o -o 11 i ii 1 j) J1 ! 11 T Q.35 T
wo capacitors of equal capacitance (Cj = C ) are shown in the figure. Init ially
, while the switch S is open, one ofthe capacitors is uncharged and the oth er c
arries charge Q . The energy stored in the charged capacitor is U . Sometime s a
fter the switch is closed, the capacitors Cj and C carry charges Qj and Q , r es
pectively; the voltages across the capacitors are V and V ; and the energies s t
ored in the capacitors are Uj and U . Which of the following statements is INCO
RRECT ? 0 0 2 2 { 2 2 4 C = o (A) Q0 = - (Qj + Q2) (C)Vj=V (E)U = U j + U 2 0 2
(B) Qj = Q2 (D)Uj = U 2

Thefigureshows a diagonal symmetric arrangement of capacitors and a battery Q. 3

6 Identify the correct statements. (A) Both the 4pF capacitors carry equal char
ges in opposite sense. (B) Both the 4pF capacitors carry equal charges in same
s ense. (C)V -V >0 (D)V -V >0 B D B d Question No. 3 6 to 39 (4 questions) fi 2\
xF h 2 (F 4i i |F E=20V T 2(xF Q. 3 7 If the potential of C is zero, then (A) V
= + 20V ( C ) 2 ( V - V ) + 2 ( V - V ) = 4V A A d B d B B D ( B ) 4 ( V - V ) +
2 ( V - V ) = 2V (D)V = V + V A B D B A B D B Q. 3 8 The potential of the point
B and D are (A) V = 8 V (B) V = 12V (C) V = 8 V D (D)V =12V d (fe Bansal Classe
s Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

Q.39 The value of charge q q and q as shown in the figure are (A) qj = 32 pC ; q
= 24 pC ; q = - 8 pC (B) q = 48 pC ; q = 16 pC ; q = + 8 pC (C) qj = 32 pC ; q
= 24 pC ; q = + 8 pC (D) q = 3 pC ; q = 4 pC ; q = + 2 pC 1; 2 3 2 3 { 2 3 2 3 (
2 3 qi 1 2 - P B i-l ^ H q 2 D qi Q.40 If Q is the charge on the plates of a cap
acitor of capacitance C, V the pot ential difference between the plates, A the a
rea of each plate and d the distanc e between the plates, the force of attractio
n between the plates is (A) v 7 2V o 8 A E=20V (B) r CV2 A <oj CV2 v o J A s 7IE
0d' -J. (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Capacitance [13]

l9ll djuvjpvdvj uo yjuvg uoijS3ri() S3SSVJ3 jvsuvg^ ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT Q
.l Q.7 Q.13 Q.19 Q.25 Q.31 Q.37 Q.43 Q.49 Q.l Q.5 Q.9 Q.13 Q.17 Q.21 Q.25 Q.29 Q
.33 Q.37 B B C B D C B B B Q.2 Q.8 Q.14 Q.20 Q.26 Q.32 Q.38 Q.44 Q.50 A C A B B
D B D D Q.2 Q.6 Q.10 Q.14 Q.18 Q.22 Q.26 Q.30 Q.34 Q.38 Q.3 Q.9 Q.15 Q.21 Q.27 Q
.33 Q.39 Q.45 Q.51 AB,C C,D B A,C,D AB,D B,C AB,D A D B, C C D C A A B A D h Q.4
Q.10 Q.16 Q.22 Q.28 Q.34 Q.40 Q.46 Q.52 Q.3 Q.7 Q.ll Q.15 Q.19 Q.23 Q.27 Q.3 1
Q.35 Q.39 A A C C A C D B B AD B A,C B,C,D B,D AC,D A,C E Q.5 Q.ll 0.17 Q.23 Q.2
9 Q.35 Q.41 Q.47 Q.53 B B B B D A D C B Q.4 Q.8 Q.12 Q.16 Q.20 Q.24 Q.28 Q.32 Q.
36 Q.40 Q.6 Q.12 Q.18 Q.24 Q.30 Q.36 Q.42 Q.48 Q.54 A D B B B B C C C ONE OR MOR

This Question Bank will be discussed after the Rakshabandhan vacation. Time Limi
t: 2 Sitting Each of 60 Minutes duration approx.

your concepts stronger. Requires slight mind scratching. Requires recollection
of various concepts. Requires calculation skill. Easy life. SITTINGI @ (EASYLIFE)
@ When an electronic transition occurs in an atom from higher energy state to a
lo wer energy state with energy difference equal to AE electron volts, the wave
leng th of the radiation emitted is approximately equal to 10 12397xlO~ . ^ 1239
7 xlO " 12397x10 cm (B) A (Q m (D) 12397x10 cm (A) AE AE AE Q.2 In each ofthe fo
llowin g questions two statements are given as Assertion A and Reason R. Examine
the st atements carefully and answer the questions according to the instruction
s given below: (A) if both A and R are correct and R is the correct reason ofA.
(B) if b oth A and R are correct and R is not the correct reason of A. (C) if A
is correc t and R is wrong. (D) if A is wrong and R is correct. JE) if both A an
d R are wr ong. (a) Assertion A. The gases which are isosteres diffuse at the sa
me rate und er similar conditions. Reason R. Diffusion and effusion do not follo
w the same l aw. (b) Assertion A. The value of van der Waal constant b is higher
for N than f or NH . Reason R. NH molecules are associated withH-bonds. Asserti
on A. K.E. of all the gases approach zero as their temperature approach zero kel
vin. (c) Reaso n R Molecular motion ceases at absolute zero. Assertion A. Helium
shows only pos itive deviationfromideal behaviour. (d) Reason R Helium is chemi
cally inert nobl e gas. Q.L -10 10 10 2 3 3 ^Bansal Classes RAkslia Bandhan Holi
days Assignment [3]

Q.3 V vs T curves at differnt pressure P j and P for an ideal gas are shown belo
w. V Which one ofthe following is correct? (A) Pj > P (B) P < P 2 2 t 2 (C)Pj=P
Q.4 Q.5 2 (D) 1 1 ]_ 2 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 The units of compressibility factor are (
A) atm L~ (B)atnr (C)L(D)unitless Which of the following statements is most appr
opriate for a real gas. (A) Force of at traction between the molecules exists at
low pressure only. (B) Force of attract ion between the molecules exists at hig
h pressure only. (C) Force of attraction between the molecules affect gaseous pr
operty at high temperature. (D) Force of attraction between the molecules affect
gaseous property at low pressure. Which among the following has rate of effusio
n less than the moist air? (A) He (B) Dry air (C)NH (D) Heavy hydrogen The behav
iour ofreal gas is generally depicted by plotting which ofthe following paramete
r vs pressure (A) critical volume (B)dens ity (C)T /T (D)V /V The 'atom utilizat
ion' is obtained by dividing molar mass of the desired product by the sum ofthe
molar masses of all substances produced acc ording to the reaction equations. Th
e "E factor" is the amount (in kg) of by pro duct per kg of products. Calculate
"atom utilization" and "E factor". Identify X , the desired product. (NH ) S 0 +
MnS0 + 21^0 > (NH ) S0 + X + 2H2S0 D~ & Calcu late molality of a solution conta
ining 72 gm Buckminster Fullerene (C ) in one k g water. l 3 ldd real real ideal
4 2 2 8 4 4 2 4 4 60 3(s) 3 3 Q. 10 The density of CaC0 is 2.71 g/cm . What is
molarity of solid CaC0 . STRENGTHENING CONCEPTS Q.ll If in the hydrogen atom P.E
. at co is chosen to be 13.6eVthenwhatwouldbeP.E . &K.E. of e~ in the first Bohr
orbit. Q.12 The value of (nj +1^) and (n - n ) f or He ion in atomic spectrum a
re 4 and 8 respectively. Identify the series and f ind v of corresponding line i
n emission sp. 2 2 + ^Bansal Classes RAkslia Bandhan Holidays Assignment [3]

itU 0 BRAIN TEASERS <W (0,0) /o,o\ Q. 13 For a polymerisation reaction involving g
aseous reactant and product A ^ nB, 'A'undergoes polymerisation to an extent of'
a' as degree of polymerisation at a temp Tj. From this info calculate the follow
ing in terms ofn and a. (a) P /P ratio where P is the pressure with the given ex
tent o f polymerisation and P is the pressure before polymerisation when tempera
ture wa s T in a constant volume container (b) V /V ratio in a chamber where V i
s volume when polymerisation occurs and V is before polymerisation. Both volume
measured under similar condition ofpressure & temperature. (c) Vapour density of
the mixt ure ifthe molecular weight ofAis M . (d) Compare rate of effusions befo
re polyme risation and after the polymerisation. / T () T 0 0 T 0 T 0 A o o0 y^r
-JU ir 0 o o0 U* QUK^ij f-Uy - ^ 6t .^WL L-^rUMMX = yPf, fD ' RECALLING VARIOUS
CONCEPTS AT ONE PLACE Q.14 Calculate IE of oxygen atom. 8 Q.15 Calculate percen
tage dissociation ofH 0 into H & OH at 298 K of a neutral w ater sample [pH=7] 2
+ Q.16 A compound gave on analysis of 60 g sample 44.8 / ofa gas at STP which t
urn s lime water milky & other gas which increased the wt, of white. CuS0 crysta
l by 36 gm. Deduce the molecular formula of the compound. 4 Q.17 Elemental As, a
poison that kills humans and animal pests may be obtained b y reacting As 0 wit
h carbon to give As and CO. Compute masses ofAs and CO formed if 49.5 gm ofAs 0
reacts completely with 7.20 gm of C. [Given at. wt. As = 75] 'jj> + Co ) 2 3 2 3

CALCULATION SKILL Q.18 Under identical experimental conditions which ofthe follo
wing pairs ofgases will be the most easy to separate by using diffusion process
(A) H and D (B) U F and U F (C) C0 and C H (D) 0 and N Q.19 A solution of palmit
ic acid (M =256) i n benzene contains 5 gm acid per litre. When this solution is
dropped on surface , C H gets evaporated and acid forms aunimolecular layer on
the surface. Ifwe wi sh to cover an area 5000 cm withunimolecularfilm.What volum
e of solution in ml s hould be used? Area covered by one molecule of acid is 0.3
2 nm , 2 2 235 6 238 6 2 3 8 2 2 6 6 2 2 Q.20 105 ml ofpure water at 4 C is satur
ated with NH gas, producing a solution of density 0.9 gm/ml. Ifthis solution con
tains 3 0% ofNH by wt., calculate its vol ume. 3 3 ^Bansal Classes RAkslia Bandh
an Holidays Assignment [3]

SITTING-II @ EASY LIFE @ Q.l (a) (b) Q.2 In each ofthe following questions two s
tatements are given as Assertion A and Re ason R. Examine the statements careful
ly and answer the questions according to t he instructions given below: (A) if b
oth A and R are correct and R is the correc t reason ofA. (B) if both A and R ar
e correct and R is not the correct reason of A. (C) if A is correct and R is wro
ng. (D) ifA is wrong and R is correct. (E) if both A and R are wrong. Assertion
A. a-particles have quite less penetrating po wer. Reason R a-particles are di-p
ositive ions having appreciable mass. Assertio n A. Isotopes of an element can b
e identified with the help of a mass spectrogra ph. Reason R Amass spectrograph
can differentiate between ions having different charge to mass (e/m) ratio. If t
he mean free path is I at one bar pressure then its value at 5 bar pressure, if
temperature is kept constant. (A) 5 / (B) 11 (C) j (D)/. Open end manometer was
connected to gas chanber. The Hg level stood 15 mm higher in the open end as com
pared to the end connected to gas chamber. If th e atmospheric pressure is 101.3
kPa. The gas pressure in k Pa is Q.3 (A) 103.3 (B) 101.3 2 (C) 94.3 (D) 115.3 (
D)N 2 Q.4 Whichofthefollowinggashashighestvalueof'a'? (A) Ne (B)0 (C) Clj Q.5 Th
ree gases of densities A(0.82),B (0.26), C (0.51) are enclosed in a vessel of 4L
capacity. Pick up the correct statement assuming ideal gas behaviour: I. Gas A
will tend to lie at the bottom II. The number of atoms ofvarious gases A B, C ar
e same III. The gases will diffuse to form homogeneous mixture IV The average ki
netic energy of each gas is same (A) I, IV (B) only ID (C) III, IV (D) I, in R a
tio of C and C of a gas 'X' is 1.4. The number of atoms of the gas 'X' present i
n 11.2 litres of it at STPwillbe p u Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 (A) 6.02 x 10 3 23 (B) 1.2 x 10
23 (C) 3.01 x io 23

(D) 2.01 x 10 23 The moles o f 0 required for reacting with 8960 mLg of ammonia
at STP is (A) 5 XNH + y 0 ^ aNO + M^O is 2 2 (B) 2.5 (C)l (D) 0.5 Find the numbe
r of spectral lines in Paschen series emitted by atomic H, when el ectron is exc
ited from ground state to n energy level returns back. th ^Bansal Classes RAksli
a Bandhan Holidays Assignment [3]

0 0 0 0 B R A I N TEASERS W 0< 0 Q. 9 For calculating lattice energy of an ionic

crystal, the variation of potential e nergy was studied following . t n B the re
lation, Uw(r) = a e n A + r r where 'a ', 'e', n, Aand x are constants depending
upon type of crystal and 'r' is the di stance between the ions. Calculate expre
ssion ofB in terms ofgiven constant for a stable crystal lattice given that ions
are at a distance of r . Calculate pote ntial energy ofthe crystal in terms ofr
and other given constants. Plot an appro priate graph ofU (r) v/s r indicating
r in the graph. 2 2 0 0 0 (g) (g) (g) Q.10 For a gaseous reaction; A - > B + 2C
total pressure at various timefromthe start ofreaction is studied. Complete the
following table and calculate degreee of dissociation ofAattime t = 50 min. Give
n that reaction is 40% complete at tim e t =100 min. and 100% complete after a l
ong time. What can be said about averag e of dissociate ofAbetween 0 to 50 min &
between 50 to 100 min. Can you give a p ossible reason for this. lime t = 0 min
t = 50min. t-lOOmin. t = oo 100 mm 150 m m P(Total) 100 mm P A where P and P ar
e the partial pressures ofAand B. A B PB RECALLING VARIOUS CONCEPTS AT ONE PLACE
7 Q.ll A beam of some kind of particle of velocity 2.1 x 10 m/s is scattered by
a gold (z = 79) foil. Find specific charge ofthis particle (charge/mass) if the
di stance of closest approach is 2.5 x 10~ m. 14 Q. 12 Show that for large valu
e ofprincipal Q. no. the frequency of an electron rotating in adjacent energy le
vels of H-atom and the radiant frequency for trans ition between these value all
approach the same value. Q.13 Find molality ofmerc urous ion, ifthe concentrati
on of aqueous solution containing it is 160 ppm. I m CALCULATION SKILL Q.14 Whic
h of the following gaves have meanfreepath longer than oxygen under sim ilar con

I.H2 (A)l,m ii. co 2 (B) II, IV 2 iv. N (C)I,IV -3 2 (D)n,IH Q.15 By what f
actor does water expand when converted into vapour at 100C and 1 at m pressure. T
he density of liquid water at 100Cand 1 atm is 0.96 gem . (A) 815 (B ) 2000 (C) 1
630 (D) 500 ^Bansal Classes RAkslia Bandhan Holidays Assignment [3]

Q.16 The empirical formula of an organic compound containing carbon and hydrogen
is CFLj. The mass of one litre ofthis organic gas is exactly equal to that of o
ne litre ofN . Therefore the molecular formula of the organic gas is (A)C H (B)
C H (C)C H (D)C H 2 2 4 3 6 6 12 4 8 Q.17 In a photoelectric experiment, it was
found that the stopping potential dec reases from 1.85 V to 0.82V as the X of in
cident light is varied from 3 00 nm to 400 nm. Calculate planks constant in eVs.
Q. 18 0.015 mol K Cr 0 oxidises 2.18 gm of a mix of XO and X ^ into X0 " in aci
dic medium. If 0.0187 mol of X 0 are f ormed. Calculate atomic weight of X. 6XO
+ 5Cr 0 - + 24H -> 6X0 ~ + 10Cr + 171^0 3 X ^ 3 + 4Cr 0 " + 26H -> 6X0 - + 8Cr +
13H 0 2 2 7 4 4 2 7 2 + 4 3+ 2 7 2 + 4 3+ 2 Q.19 Near Mount Kailash is the sacr
ed lake, Mansorvar. In the crystal clear wate r of the lake, things at the botto
m of the lake are also clearly visible. On a h ot sunny day, when the temperatur
e at the surface is 27C an algae at the bottom o fthe lake produces a 25 ml bubbl
e ofpure oxygen. As the bubble rises to the top, it gets saturated with the wate
r vapours and has a volume of 100 ml of the surf ace. The pressure at the surfac
e is 720 mm Hg. Ifthe depth ofthe lake is 27.2 m, findthe temperature at the bot
tom of the lake. Vapour pressure of water at 27C is 20 mm Hg. dj^ci = 1 gm/ml, d
= 13.6 g/ml. Hg Q.20 A beam of light Ijas three X, 4144 A, 4972 A and 6216 A wit
h a total intens ity of 3.6 x 10~ Wnr equally distributed amongst the three X. T
he beam falls nor mally on an area 1.0 cm of a clean metallic surface ofwork fun
ction 2.3 eV Assum e that there is no loss oflight by reflection etc. Calculate
the no. of photoele ctrons emitted in 2 sec. 3 2 2 J E E Humour. A Physics teach
er, a Maths teacher and a Chemistry teacher were wa lking on a sea shore. Fascin
ated by sea waves the physics teacher said, "I want to study the wave nature of
sea waves" and went into the sea and never returned back. The maths teacher said
, "I want to measure the volume of sea water" and we nt into the Sea and never r
eturned back. The chemistry teacher concluded "Both p hysics and maths teacher a
re soluble in sea water under condition of 1 atm and 2 98 K. ^Bansal Classes RAk
slia Bandhan Holidays Assignment [3]

ANSWER KEY soxbj^61 VZ, z,l'b SITTING-I e/oos orb pneero 6ib o1ho 9ib %z,-0i x 8'i
srb I r(i-u )+ii z p= i Yn A 1a A3 E J 0 . M' b Z 8 (p) V 8 I'D d ,[X)(l-u)+l] =
0 erb 0 ld a z/b g b xua Z6 6 8 = A ' = %'l = Tu nt) - r /96 E A 0 = 3X 'A3 9'I =
'A9 9'l~ = H lib 9 d ' raro wrzz orb 6b ss'o'ao 8 b a 9b a sb a Kb q (p) vc>) 'a(
q)'a00 rb o rb SITTIN GII 9'862 x n orb V sASgi-oixzrt? z,rb 6 8I"b 6 S/Da01x8> 7
v srb r V H'6 rat>-0l x t l'b > ? X 0 1 '0i7 '0 '0 '09 'SL ' 0 '081' % SZ 0lbJxy
u^v 0 0 T-x D V 9"b <u 'Z/ (.~u) (fr-n) 8'b a z/b y(q) V00 o rb V 'b o Kb Tloi 6l'b
9rb irb 6b sb rb 'Ii ^Bansal Classes RAkslia Bandhan Holidays Assignment [3]

Q. 1 The bob of a simple pendulum of length I is releasedfrompoint P. What is th

e angle made by the net acceleration of the bob with the string at point Q. Q.2
(CIRCULAR MOTION & WORK POWER ENERGY) //////////////// EXERCISE-I Aballofmass 1
kg is released from position A inside a wedge with a hemispherical cut ofradius
0.5 m as shown in the figure. Find the force exerted by the vertic al wall OM o
n wedge, when the ball is in position B. (neglectfrictioneverywhere) . Take(g =
10m/s ) 2 Q.3 A particle P is moving on a circle under the action of only one fo
rce acting alw ays towards fixed point O on the circumference. Find ratio of ere
& 'de^2 dt v d t j 2 Q.4 Q.5 A particle is moving in x direction, under the inf
luence of force F = 7T sin nx. Find the work done by another external agent in s
lowly moving a particlefromx = 0 to x = 0.5 m. A particle moves in a circle of r
adius R with a constant speed v. Then, find the magnitude of average 7R 1 accele
ration during a time interval . umuuu ? y Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 In the figure shown, p
ulley and spring are ideal. Find the potential energy stor ed in the spring (m,
> m ). 2 Ik A spring of mass m is pulled such that a given instant,, velocity of
both of its end is v in the opposite direction. Find the kinetic energy ofthe s
pring. A par ticle of mass 3 kg is rotating in a circle ofradius 1 m such that t
he angle rota ted by its radius is given by 0 = 3 (t + sint). Find the net force
acting on the particle when t = n/2. For a particle rotating in a vertical circ
le with unifor m speed, the maximum and minimum tension in the string are in the
ratio 5 :3. If the radius of vertical circle is 2m, then find the speed of revo
lving body. Q.10 Two strings of length /=0.5 m each are connected to a block of
mass m=2 at one end and their ends are attached to the point A and B 0.5 m apart
on a tical pole which rotates with a constant angular velocity co=7 rad/sec. Fi
nd ratio T, oftension in the upper string (T,) and the lower string (T ). [Use 9
.8 m/s ] 2 2 0.5 Q.ll A force F = -k(x i + y j) [where k is a positive constant]
acts on a partic le moving in the x-y plane. Startingfromorigin, the particle i
s taken to (a, a) and then to (a/V2,o). Find the total work done by the force F
on the particle. <! Bansal Classes Particle Dynamics kg ver the g =


Q.12 A bead of mass m is attached to one end of a spring ofnatural length -J3 R
and spring constant k= (V3 +l)mg . The other end ofthe spring is fixed at point
A R on a smoothfixedverticalringofradius R as shown in thefigure.What is the nor
mal reaction at B just after the bead is released? 3 (60 Q.13 Water is pumped fr
om a depth of 10 m and delivered through a pipe of cross section 10~ m upto a he
ight of 10 m. If it is needed to deliver a volume 0.2 m p er second,findthe powe
r required. [Use g= 10m/s ] Q.14 A mass m rotating freely in a horizontal circle
of radius 1 m on a fiictionless smooth table supports a s tationary mass 2m, at
tached to the other end ofthe string passing through smooth hole O in table, han
ging L vertically. Find the angular velocity ofrotation. 2m 2 2 2 Q.15 Consider
the shown arrangement when a is bob of mass'm' is suspended by mea ns of a strin
g connected to peg P. Ifthe bob is given a horizontal velocity u ha ving magnitu
de /3g7, find the minimum speed of the bob in subsequent motion. N mg Q.16 A bea
d of mass m is tied at one end of a spring of spring constant R R a nd unstretch
ed length and other end tofixedpoint O. The smooth semicircular wire frameisfixe
din vertical plane. Find the normal reaction between bead and wire ju st before
it reaches the lowest point. Q.17 A particle of mass m is hanging with the help
of an elastic string of unstretched length a and force mg constant . T he other
end isfixedto a peg on vertical wall. String is given an additional ext ension o
f a 2a in vertical downward direction by pulling the mass and releasedfr omrest.
Find the maximum height reached by it during its subsequent motion above point
of release. (Neglect interaction with peg if any) Q.18 A particle ofmass 1 kg is
given a horizontal velocity of 4 m/s along a horizontal surface, with wh ich it
has a coefficient offriction(both static and kinetic) of 0.4. e=10m/s The parti
cle strikes afixedideal spring of force constant 6 N/m after travelling a 4 m/s
distance of 0.25 m. Assume acceleration due to gravity is 10 m/s . Find th e fin
al | 1 kg | |i=0.4 0.25m displacement ofthe particlefromits starting point. Q.19
A particle P of mass m is placed inside a hemispherical bowl which rotates abou
t its vertical axis with constant angular velocity co. The particle is just prev
entedfromsliding down when the radius vector OP joining it to the centre of the
bowl O makes an angle of45 with the axis. The radius ofthe bowl is \ 0V2 and the
coefficient offrictionbetween the particle and the bowl is 0.5. Find the val ue
of angular velocity co. Q.20 A point moves along a circle having a radius 20 cm
with a constant tangential acceleration 5 cm/s . How much time is needed afte r
motion begins for the normal acceleration of the point to be equal to tangenti a
l acceleration ? ! 2 2 (SBansal Classes Particle Dynamics [12]

Q.21 A body of mass 2 kg is moving under the influence of a central force whose
potential energy is given by U (r) = 2r Joule. If the body is moving in a circul
ar orbit of 5m,then find its energy. Q.22 A ring rotates about z axis as shown
i n figure. The plane of rotation is xy. At a certain instant the acceleration o
fa particle P (shown in figure) on the ring is (6 i-8 j) m/s . find the angular
ac celeration of thering& the angular velocity at that instant. Radius ofthe rin
g i s 2m. 3 y 2 Q.23 A particle is revolving in a circle of radius lm with an an
gular speed of 1 2 rad/s. At t = 0, it was subjected to a constant angular accel
eration a and its angular speed increased to(480/7i) rpm in 2 sec. Particle then
continues to mov e with attained speed. Calculate (a) angular acceleration of t
he particle, (b) t angential velocity ofthe particle as a function of time. (c)
acceleration of the particle at t = 0.5 second and at t = 3 second (d) angular d
isplacement at t = 3 second. Q.24 The member OA rotates in vertical plane about
a horizontal axis t hrough O with a constant counter clockwise velocity co = 3 r
ad/sec. As it passes the position 9 = 0, a small mass m is placed upon it at a r
adial distance r=0.5 m. If the mass is observed to slip at 0=37, find the coeffic
ient of friction bet ween the mass & the member. Q.25 AparticlePis sliding down
afiictionlesshemisphe rical bowl. It passes the point A at t=0. At this instant
of time, the horizonta l component of its velocity is v. A bead Q ofthe same mas
s as P is ejectedfromA at t=0 along the horizontal string AB, with the speed v.
Friction between the be ad and the string may be neglected. Which bead reaches p
oint B earlier? Q. 1 (a) (b) (c) Q.2 Q.3 A particle is confined to move along th
e +x axis under the acti on ofa force F(x) u that is derivable from the potentia
l U(x) =ax -bx. Find the expression for F(x) When the total energy ofthe particl
e is zero, the particle c an be trapped with in / the inteivalx= otox= x.. For t
his casefindthe values of x,. Determine the maximum kinetic energy that the trap
ped particle has in its mo tion. Express all answers in terms a and b. A particl
e of mass 2kg is subjected to a two dimensional conservative force given by Fx =
-2x+2y, Fy=2x-y . (x,y in m and F in N) If the particle has kinetic energy of (8
/3) J at point (2,3), find the speed of the particle when it reaches (1,2). A sq
uare plate isfirmlyatached to a fiictionless horizontal plane. One end of a taut
cord is attached to point A ofthe plate and the other end is attached to a sphe
re of mass m. In the proces s, the cord gets wrapped around the plate. The spher
e is given an initial veloci ty v on the horizontal plane perpendicular to the c
ord which causes it to make a complete circuit of the plate and return to point
A. Find the velocity ofthe sp here when it hits point A again after moving in a
circuit on the horizontal plan e. Alsofindthe time taken by the spheretocomplete
the circuit. A coin is placed on the horizontal surface of a rotating disc, If
the disc startsfromrest and is given a constant acceleration a = l/V2 rad/s ,fin
dthe number ofrevolution throug h which the disc turns before the coin slips. Th
e distance of coinfromaxis is 1 m initially and the coefficient offrictionp=0.5.
3 2 Q 2 EXER CISE-II Q.4 <! Bansal Classes Particle Dynamics [13]

A small bead of mass m is free to slide on a fixed smooth vertical wire, as indi
cated in the diagram. One end of a light elastic string, of unstretched length
a and force constant 2mg/a is attached to B. The string passes through a smooth
f ixed ring R and the other end of the string is attached to the fixed point A,
AR being horizontal. The point O on the wire is at same horizontal level as R, a
nd AR=RO = a. In the equilibrium position, find OB. (i) The bead B is raised to
a point C of the wire above O, where OC = a, and is released from rest. Find the
s peed ofthe bead as it passes O, and find the greatest depth below O ofthe bea
d i n the subsequent motion. Q.6 A particle of mass 5 kg is free to slide on a s
moot h ring of radius r = 20 cm fixed in a vertical plane. The particle is attac
hed t o one end of a spring whose other end is fixed to the top point O of the r
ing. I nitially the particle is at rest at a point A of the ring such that Z OCA
=60, C b eing the centre ofthe ring. The natural length of the spring is also equ
al to r = 20cm. After the particle is released and slides down the ring the cont
act forc e between the particle & the ring becomes zero when it reaches the lowe
st positi on B. Determine the force constant of the spring. Q.7 A small block of
mass m is projected horizontally from the top of the smooth hemisphere of radiu
s r with s peed u as shown. For values of u > u , it does not slide on the hemis
phere (i.e. leaves the surface at the top itself). O (a) For u = 2u , it lands a
t point P o n ground Find OP. (b) For u = u /3, Find the height from the ground
at which it leaves the hemisphere. (c) Find its net acceleration at the instant
it leaves th e hemisphere. Q.8 The track in Fig is straight in the horizontal se
ction AB and is a semicircle of radius R in the vertical part BCD. A particle of
mass m is gi ven a velocity of /(22gR)/5 to the left along the track. The parti
cle moves up t he vertical section JZL and ultimately loses contact with it. How
far from point B will the mass land. Q.9 A small particle of mass 1 kg slides w
ithout friction from height H=45 cm shown in figure and then loops the vertical
loop of radius R from where a section of angle 6 = 60 has been removed. Find R su
ch that after l osing contact at A and flying through the air, the particle will
reach at the po int B. Also find the normal reaction between particle and path
at A. Q.10 A ring of mass m slides on a smooth vertical rod. A light string is a
ttached to the ri ng and is passing over a smooth peg distant a from the rod, an
d at the other end ofthe string is a mass M (> m). The ring is held on a level w
ith the peg and re leased: Show that it first comes to rest after falling a dist
ance: =0 2mMa M Q 0 0 A M Q.5 Q.ll Ablock ofmass m is held at rest ona smooth ho
rizontal floor. Alight fiictio nless, small pulley isfixedat aheight of 6 mfromt
he floor. Alight inextensible s tring of length 16 m, connected with Apasses ove
r the pulley and another identic al block B is hungfromthe string. Initial heigh
t of B is 5mfromthe floor as 6m s hown in Fig. When the system is releasedfromre
st, B starts to move vertically do wnwards and A slides on the floor towards rig
ht. (i) Ifat an instant string make s an angle 0 with horizontal, calculate rela
tion between velocity u ofA and v of B Calculate v when B strikes the floor. M 2
-m2 l i l t 7 777 <! Bansal Classes Particle Dynamics [13]

Q.12 A small block can move in a straight horizontal linea along AB. Flash light
s from ^ one side projects its shadow on a vertical wall which has horizontal c
r oss section as a circle. Find tangential & normal acceleration of shadow of th
e block on the ^ v=! const./ wall as a function of time ifthe velocity of the bl
oc k is constant (v). <0 Tp View \\u\u o Q.13 In fig two identical springs, each
wi th a relaxed length of 50cm and a spring constant of 500N/m, are connected b
y a short cord of length 1 Ocm. The upper string is attached to the ceiling, a b
ox t hat weighs 100N hangsfromthe lower spring. Two additional cords, each 85cm
long, are also tied to the assembly; they are limp (i.e. slack). (a) If the shor
t cor d is cut, so that the box then hangsfromthe springs and the two longer cor
ds, do es the box move up or down? (b) How far does the box move before coming t
o rest again? Q.14 The small pendulum ofmass m is suspendedfroma trolley that ru
ns on a horizontal rail. The trolley and pendulum are initially at rest with 9 =
0. Ift he trolley is given a constant acceleration a=g determine the maximum an
gle 9 th rough which the pendulum swings. Also find the tension T in the cord in
terms of 9. Q.15 A weightless rod of length I with a small load of mass m at th
e end is hinged at point A as shown in the figure and occupies a strictly vertic
al positi on, touching a body of mass m M. A light j erk sets the system in moti
on. For wh at mass ratio M/m will the rod form an o M angle a = re/6 with the ho
rizontal at the moment of the separationfromthe body? TTwmvmr What will be the v
elocity u o f the body at this moment? Friction should be neglected. Q.16 The bl
ocks are of mass 2 kg shown is in equilibrium. At t = 0 right spring in fig (i)
and right st ring in fig (ii) breaks. Find the ratio of instantaneous accelerati
on of blocks? //////w/. itmuLuq^m) um max 2 kg figure (i) Q.l <! Bansal Classes A
smooth semicircular wire track of radius R isfixedin a vertical plane. One end o
f a massless spring of natural length (3R/4) is attached to the lowest point O o
f the wire track. A small ring of mass m, which can slide on the track, is att a
ched to the other end of the spring. The ring is held stationary at point P suc
h that the spring makes an angle of 60 with the vertical. The spring constant K=m
g/R. Consider the instant when the ring is released and (i) draw the free body
d iagram of the ring. (ii) determine the tangential acceleration of the ring and
t he normal reaction. [JEE 96] Q.2 Two blocks of mass m,=l 0kg and m =5kg conne
cte d to each other by a massless inextensible string of length 0.3m are placed
alon g a diameter of a turn table. The coefficient offrictionbetween the table a
nd m, is 0.5 while there is nofrictionbetween m and the table. The table is rota
ting with an angular velocity of 1 Orad/sec about a vertical axis passing throug
h its centre. The masses are placed along the diameter ofthe table on either sid
e oft he centre O such that m, is at a distance of 0.124mfromO. The masses are o
bserve d to be at rest with respect to an observer on the turn table. (i) Calcul
ate the frictionalforce on m, (ii) What should be the minimum angular speed ofth
e turn t able so that the masses will slipfromthis position. (iii) How should th
e masses be placed with the string remaining taut, so that there is nofrictional
force act ing on the mass m,. [JEE 97] 2 2 EXERCISE-III 2 kg figure (ii) Particl
e Dynamics [13]

Q.3 A small block of mass m slides along a smooth frictional track as shown in t
he f ig. (i) If it starts from rest at P, what is is the resultant force acting
on it at Q? (ii) At what height above the bottom of the loop should the block be
rele ased so that the force it exerts against the track at the top of the loop
equals its weight. [REE 97] . At rest 5R Q.4 Q.5 A force F = - K (y i + xj) wher
e K is a positive constant, acts on a particle mo ving in the x-y plane. Startin
gfromthe origin, the particle is taken along the p ositive x-axis to the point (
a,0) and then parallel to the y-axis to the pint (a ,a). The total work done by
the force F on the particle is [JEE 98] (A) - 2Ka (B ) 2Ka (C) - Ka (D) Ka A sto
ne is tied to a string of length I is whirled in a ve rtical circle with the oth
er end of the string at the centre. At a certain insta nt of time, the stone is
at its lowest position and has a speed u. The magnitude of the change in its vel
ocity at it reaches a position where the string is hori zontal is [JEE98] 2 2 2
2 (A) - 2gl) ( B ) V 2 Jl ( C ) 4(u2 - gl) (D) (u2-gl) I A Q.6 A particle is sus
pended verticallyfroma point O by an inextensible massless Q.7 string of length
L. A vertical line AB is at a distance L/8fromO as shown. The o bject given a ho
rizontal velocity u. At some point, its motion ceases T -L/8 to b e circular and
eventually the object passes through the line AB. At the instant of crossing AB,
its velocity is horizontal. Find u. [JEE'99,10] A long horizonta l rod has a be
ad which can slide along its length, and initially placed at a dis tance L from
one end ofA of the rod. The rod is set in angular motion about A wi th constant
angular acceleration a. If the coefficient offrictionbetween the rod and the bea
d is p and gravity is neglected, then the time after which the bead starts slipp
ing is [JEE'2000] (A)^ (B)^ (C)^= (D) infinitesimal Q.8 A small block is shot in
to each of the four tracks as shown below. Each of the t racks risks to the same
height. The speed with which the block enters the track is the same in all case
s. At the highest point ofthe track, the normal reaction is maximum in [JEE(Scr)
'2001 ] (A) (B) (D)

Q.9 An insect crawls up a hemispherical surface very slowly (see the figure). Th
e co efficient offrictionbetween the insect and the surface is 1/3. Ifthe line j
oini ng the centre of the hemispherical surface to the insect makes an angle a
with t he vertical, the maximum possible value of a is given by [JEE(Scr.)'2001
] (A) c ot a = 3 (B) tan a = 3 (C) sec a = 3 (D) cosec a = 3 A small ball ofmass
2x 10~ Kg having a charge of 1 pc is suspended by a string of length 0. 8m. Ano
ther ide ntical ball having the same charge is kept at the point of suspension.
Determine the minimum horizontal velocity which should be imparted to the lower
ball so t hat it can make complete revolution. [JEE'2001 ] 3 <! Bansal Classes Pa
rticle Dynamics [13]

Q.ll A simple pendulum is oscillating without damping. When the displacement oft
he bob is less that maximum, its acceleration vector a is correctly shown in [J
E E (Scr.)'2002] ///////// ///////// ///////// /mm (A) (C) Q.12 A particle, whic
h is constrained to move along the x-axis, is subjected to a force in the same d
irection which varies with the distance x of the particle x of the particle from
the origin as F(x) = - kx + ax . Here k and a are positive constants. For x > 0
, the functional form of the potential energy U (x) of the particle is [JEE (Scr
.)'2002] 2 U(x) U(x) U(x)f X U(x) X (A) (B) (C) (D) X Q.13 An ideal spring with
spring-constant k is hung from the ceiling and a block of mass M is attached to
its lower end. The mass is released with the spring in itially unstretched. Then
the maximum extension in the spring is [JEE (Scr.)'200 2] (A) 4 Mg/k (B) 2 Mg/k
(C)Mg/k (D)Mg/2k Q.14 A spherical ball of mass m is kep t at the highest point
in the space between two fixed, concentric spheres Aand B (see figure). The smal
ler sphere A has a radius R and the space between the two spheres has a width d.
The ball has a diameter veiy Sphere B slightly less than d. All surfaces are fr
ictionless. The ball is given a gentle push (towards the right in the figure). T
he angle made by the radius vector ofthe ball with Sphere A the upward vertical
is denoted by 9 (shown in the figure). [JEE' 2002] (a) Ex press the total normal
reaction force exerted by the spheres on the ball as a fu nction of angle 9. (b
) Let N and N denote the magnitudes of the normal reaction force on the ball exe
rted by the spheres A and B, respectively. Sketch the varia tions of N and N as
functions of cos0 in the range 0 < 9 < T by T drawing two se parate graphs in yo
ur answer book, taking cos9 on the horizontal axes. Q.15 In a region of only gra
vitational field of mass 'M' a particle is shifted from Ato B via three differen
t paths in the figure. The work done in different paths are W ,, W , W respectiv
ely then [JEE (Scr.)'2003] (A) W, = W = W (B) W, = w > w (C) W j > W~ > w (D) Wi
< W < W Q.16 A particle ofmass m, moving in a circular path of radius R with a
constant V2 V L speed v is located at point (2R, 0) at time t =

0 and a man starts moving with a velocity v, along the +ve y-axisfromorigin at t
ime t=0. (0,0) Calculate the linear momentum ofthe particle w.r.t. the man as a
function oftime. [JEE 2003] Q.17 A particle is placed at the origin and a force
F = kx is acting on it (where k is a positive constant). If U(0)=0, the graph o
f U(x) versus x will be (where U is the potential energy function) a B A B 2 3 2
3 2 3 3 2 3 2 U(x) U(x) U(x) U(x) (A) (B) (C) (D) [JEE' 2004(Scr)] <! Bansal Cla
sses Particle Dynamics [13]

CENTRE OF MASS MOMENTUM & COLLISION The action of force with respect to time is
defined in terms of Impulse, that is, 1= j*Fdt = mv -mv =Ap f i In the absence o
f a net external force, the momentum of a system is conserved. d P ^ =Fe*t = 0 p
= Pj + p + + p = constant 2 N Graphically, impulse is the area under the F-t gra
ph o ~t 1. 2. (i) (ii) (iii) 3. 1. Collision is a kind of interaction between tw
o or more bodies which come in cont act with each other for a very short time in
terval. Types of collision: Elastic and Inelastic Collisions may be either elast
ic or inelastic. Linear momentum is conserved in both cases. A perfectly elastic
collision is defined as one in whic h the total kinetic energy of the system is
conserved. In an inelastic collision , the total kinetic energy of the system c
hanges. In a completely inelastic coll ision, the two bodies couple or stick tog
ehter. Coefficient of Restitution : It is defined as the ratio of the velocity o
f separation to the velocity of approac h of the two colliding bodies. rel. velo
city of separation rel. velocity of appr oach For a perfectly elastic collision,
e = 1 For an inelastic collision, 0 < e < 1 For completely inelastic collision,
e = 0 Note that the velocity of approach and the velocity of separation are alw
ays taken along the normal to the strikin g surface. y CENTRE OF MASS f r. Discr
ete System : The position vector of the ce ntre of mass is m r,+m r + +m r 3 y'H
T HI3 ni4 c m!+m + m where fj, r ,..., r a re the position vectors of masses m
m ,..... m respectively. The components of t he position vector of centre of mas
s are defined as 1 2 2 n n r 2 n \ 2 n p

2 n X c = Zmixi . M ' Y c _ Zm.yi . M ' Z _ Zmizi M 2. Continuous system: The ce

ntre of mass of a continuous body is defined as r = fr dm M In the component for
m c c J Jfx dm ' M v = M Jfydm ' c z c = Jfzdm M <! Bansal Classes Particle Dynamic
s [13]

3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 4. Centre of Mass of Some Common Systems : A sys
tem oftwo point masses. The centre of mass lie closer to the heavier mass. A cir
cular cone h yc 4 A semi-circular r ing 2R y = ; x =0 TI c c c I* m,+m M nii+mj
im 2 A semi-circular disc 4R yc = 3tt ;x = o A hemispherical shell R y c = 7 ;xc
=0 A solid hemisphere 3R 0! X* 0' (iii) (iv) Motion of the centre of mass : Velo
city: The instantaneous velocity of the centr e of mass is defined as mv v X i i
M Acceleration: The acceleration of the centre of mass is defined as Xmia> c = M
Momentum : The total momentum of a system of particles is p = Mv Kinetic Energy
: The kinetic energy of a system ofparticles c onsisits of two parts. K = K + K'
1 2 where K - Mv , kinetic energy due to motio n of c.m. relative to the fixed
origin O, c a c c c c 5. <! Bansal Classes Vand K' = 2_, ^1 i i2> kinetic energy
of the particles relative to the c.m. Note that the term K' may involve translat
ional, rotational or vibrational energies relative to the centre of mass. Newon'
s Laws of a system of particles: The first and second laws of motion for a syste
m of particles are modified as: First law: The centre of mass of an isolated sys
tem is at rest or moves with constant velo city. Second law: The net external fo
rce acting on a system of total of mass M i s related to the acceleration of cen
tre of mass of the system. I S ext M < l m v

cm Particle Dynamics [13]

Q.l A hemisphere ofradius R and ofmass 4m isfreeto slide with its base on a smoo
th h orizontal table. A particle ofmass m is placed on the top ofthe hemisphere.
Find the angular velocity ofthe particle relative to hemisphere at an angular d
ispla cement 0 when velocity of hemisphere has become v. (CENTRE OF MASS MOMENTU
M & COLLISION) EXERCISE-I A man whose mass is m kg jumps vertically into airfrom
a sitting position in whic h his centre of mass is at a height hjfromthe ground.
When his feet are just abo ut to leave the ground his centre of mass is h from
the ground andfinallyrises t o h when he is at the top ofthe jump, (a) What is t
he average upward force exert ed by the ground on him? (b) Find work done by nor
mal reactionfromground. Q.3 In thefigureshown, each tiny ball has mass m, and th
e string has length L. One of the ball is imparted a velocity u, in the position
shown, in which the initial d istance between the balls is l / V3 . The motion
ofball occurs on smooth horizon tal plane. Find the impulse ofthe tension in the
string when it becomes taut. Q. 4 Two trolleys A and B arefreeto move on a leve
lfiictionlesstrack, and are init ially stationary. A man on trolley A throws a b
ag of mass 10 kg with a horizonta l velocity of 4 m/s with respect to himself on
to trolley B of mass 100 kg. The combined mass of trolley A (excluding bag) and
the man is 140 kg. Find the ratio of velocities of trolleys A and B, just after
the bag lands on trolley B. 2 3 Q.2 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 A bob of mass m attached with a
string of length I tied to a point on ceiling is released from a position when
its string is horizontal. At the bottom most poin t of its motion, an identical
mass m gently stuck to it. Find the anglefromthe v ertical to which it rises. Tw
o balls of equal masses are projected upward simult aneously, one from the groun
d with speed 50 m/s and otherfroma 40 m high tower w ith initial speed 30 m/s. F
ind the maximum height attained by their centre of ma ss. 3 blocks of mass 1kg e
ach kept on horizontal smooth ground are connected by 2 taut strings of length/a
s shown. Bis pulled with constant ' L-r-' acceleration a in direction shown. Find
the relative velocity of A & C just before striking. <> A B 0 a Q. 8 Q. 9 Find
the distance of centre of mass from O of a composite solid cone and sol cyl inde
r made of same material. Two blocks ofmass 3 kg and 6 kg respectively are pl ace
d on a smooth horizontal surface. They are connected by a light spring. Initi al
ly the spring is unstretched and the velocity of 2 m/s is imparted to 3 kg blo c
k as shown. Find the maximum 2.0m/s-6OT555W5V 6kg 3kg velocity of 6 kg block du
ring subsequent motion. i h I m h it / um m 11 h i n t n Q.10 Two planks each of
mass m and length L are connected by africtionless,massle ss hinge as shown in t
he figure. Initially the system is at rest on a level fiic tionless surface. The
vertical plank falls anticlockwise and fmaly comes to rest on the top ofthe hor
izontal plank. Find the displacement ofthe hinge till the t wo planks come in co
ntact. <! Bansal Classes Particle Dynamics


Q.ll 2 bodies m, & m of mass 1 and 2 kg respectively are moving along x-axis und
er (' ) the influence of mutual force only. The velocity of their centre of mas
s at a given instant is 2 m/s. The x coordinate of m is plotted against time. Th
e n plot the x coordinate of m against time. (Both are initially located at orig
in ) 2 x n m t 2 2 t(in sec) Q.12 Two masses, nm and m, start simultaneouslyfrom
the intersection oftwo straig ht lines with velocities v and nv respectively. It
is observed that the path of their centre of mass is a straight line bisecting
the angle between the given st raight lines. Find the magnitude of the velocity
of centre of inertia, (here 6 = angle between the lines) Q.13 Two blocks of equa
l masses m are releasedfromthe top of a smooth fixed wedge as shown in the figur
e. Find the magnitude ofthe acc eleration of the centre of mass of the two block
s. Q.14 From a uniform circular disc of radius R, a square is cut out with radiu
s R as its diagonal. Find the ce ntre of mass of remainder is at a distance, (fr
om the centre) Q.15 A sphere of m ass m j in motion hits directly another sphere
of mass m, at rest and sticks to it, the total kinetic energy after collision i
s 2/3 oftheir total K.E. before co llision. Find the ratio ofm,: m . 2 Q.16 Two
bodies of same mass tied with an inelastic string of length I lie toget her. One
of them is projected vertically upwards with velocity ^/6g/ . Find the maximum
height up to which the centre of mass of system of the two masses rises. Q.17 Di
sc A of mass m collides with stationary disk B of mass 2m as shown in fi gure. F
ind the value of coefficient of restitution for which the two disks move in perp
endicular direction after collision. Q.18 A force time (F -1) graph for l inear
motion is shown in the following figure. The segments shown are circular. Find t
he linear momentum gained between 4 and 8 second.(Assume S.I. units) Q.19 A plat
form of mass m and a counter weight of mass (m + M) are connected by a lig ht co
rd which passes over a smooth pulley. A man of mass M is standing on the pl atfo
rm which is at rest. If the man leaps vertically upwards with velocity u,fin dth
e distance through which the platform will descend. Show that when the man me et
s the platform again both are in their original positions. Q.20 The figure sho w
s the positions and velocities of two particles. If the 5m/s 3 m/s ncg ^kg part
icles move under the mutual attraction of each other, thenfindthe x=2m x=8m posi
tion of centre of mass at t = 1 s. Q.21 After scaling a wall of 3 m height a ma
n of weight W drops himself to the ground. If his body comes to a complete stop
0 .15 sec. After his feet touch the ground, calculate the average impulsive forc
e in the vertical direction exerted by ground on his feet, (g = 9.8 m/s ) Q.22 A
h eavy ball of mass 2m moving with a velocity u collides elastically 2 m head-o
n w ith a cradle of three identical balls each of mass m as shown @@ in figure. D
eter mine the velocity of each ball after coll ision. 2 Q <! Bansal Classes Parti
cle Dynamics [13]

Q.L Q.2 Q.3 (a) (b) Q.4 A billiard table is 15 cm by 20 cm. A smooth bail of coe
fficient of restitution e = 4/9 is projected from a point on the shorter side so
as to describe a rectan gle and return to the point ofproj ection after rebound
ing at each of the other three cushions. Find the position ofthe point and the d
irection of projection. I n a game of Carom Board, the Queen (a wooden disc of r
adius 2 cm and mass 50 gm) is placed at the exact center of the horizontal board
. The striker is a smooth plastic disc of radius 3 cm and mass 100 gm. The board
is fiictionless. The stri ker is given an initial velocity 'u' parallel to the
sides BC or AD so that it h its the Queen inelastically with coefficient ofresti
tution=2/3. The impact param eter for the collision is'd' (shown in the figure).
The Queen rebounds from the edge AB of the board inelastically with same coeffi
cient ofrestitution - 2/3 and enters the hole D following the dotted path shown.
The side of the board is L. Find the value of impact parameter' d' and the time
which the Queen takes to ent er hole D after collision with the striker. Two pa
rticles each of mass m are con nected by a light inextensible string and a parti
cle of mass M is attached to th e midpoint of the string. The system is at rest
on a smooth horizontal table wit h the string just taut and in a straight line.
The particle M is given a velocit y V along the table perpendicular to the strin
g. Prove that when the two end par ticles are about to collide: MV the velocity
of M is (M + 2m) \ j 2M(M + m) the speed of each of the other particles is (M +
2m) ~ V The Atwood machine in fig h as a third mass attached to it by a limp str
ing. After being released, the 2m ma ss falls a distance x before the limp strin
g becomes taut. Thereafter both the m ass on the left rise at the same speed. Wh
at is the final speed ? Assume that pu lley is ideal. miiiiiiiiiiiiiii EXERCISEII Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 <! Bansal Classes Two scale pans, each of mass m, are connected by
a light inelastic string which passes over a small smooth fixed light pulley. O
n one scale pan there is an inel astic particle A of mass 2m. The system is rele
ased from rest with the hanging p arts of the string vertical. Find the tension
in the string and the acceleration of either scale pan. At the instant when moti
on begins, a particle of mass 3 m is allowed tr fallfromrest and after t seconds
it strikes, and adheres to, A. Fi nd the impulsive tension in the string and th
e velocity of either scale pan imme diately after the impact. Three spheres, eac
h of mass m, can slidefreelyon afiic tionless,horizontal surface. Spheres A and
B are attached to an inextensible ine lastic cord of length / and are at rest in
the position shown when sphere B is s truck directly by sphere C which is movin
g to the right with a velocity v . Know ing that the cord is taut when sphere B
is struck by sphere C and assuming perfe ctly elastic impact between B and C, de
termine the velocity of each sphere immed iately after impact. A wedge ofmass M=
2m rests on a smooth horizontal plane. A s mall block of mass m rests over it at
left end A as shown in figure. A sharp imp

ulse is B applied on the block, due to which it starts moving to the right with
velocity ? cm v, 6 ms . At highest point ofits traj ectory, the block collides w
ith a particle of same mass m moving vertically downwards with velocity v=2 ms
a nd J A M gets stuck with it. If the combined body lands at the end point A of
bo dy of A rrn,// mass M, calculate length /. Neglectfriction(g=10 ms ) Q -1 2 0
-1 /7777777777777777V 7/V7//777 7 7 7 -2 Particle Dynamics [13]

Q.8 Q.9 (a) (b) Q.10 Q.ll Q.12 Q.13 Q.14 (a) (b) Q.15 Q.16 Two towers AB and CD
are situated a distance d apart as shown in fig. AB is 20 m high and CD is 3 0 m
highfromthe ground. An obj ect of mass m is thrown fr om the top ofAB horizonta
lly with a velocity 10 m/s towards CD. Simultaneously a nother object of mass 2m
is thrown from the top of CD at an angle of 60 to the ho rizontal towards AB wit
h the same magnitude of initial velocity as that of the f irst object. The two o
bjects move in the same vertical plane, collide in mid air and stick to each oth
er (a) Calculate the distance d between the towers and (b) findthe position wher
e the objects hit the ground? <! Bansal Classes A ball of mass = 1 Kg is hung ver
tically by a thread of length / = 1.50 m. Upper end ofthe thread is attached to
the ceiling of a trolley of mass M = 4 kg. Init ially, 1.50m trolley is stationa
ry and it isfreeto move along horizontal rails w ithoutfriction.A m M J C shell
ofmass m = 1 kg moving horizontally with velocity v =6ms" collides with ////////
//////////////// the ball and gets stuck with it. As a result, thread starts to
deflect towards right. mWuummuHumrmmi Calculate i ts maximum deflection with the
vertical, (g = 10m s ) A 70g ball B droped from a height h = 9 m reaches a heig
ht h = 0.25m after bouncing twice from identical 2 1 Og plates. W/W//M ' (X Plat
e A rests directly on hard ground, while plate C re sts on a foam-rubber mat. De
termine CV b the coefficient of resitution between t he ball and the plates, AV
the height h, of the ball's first bounce. A sphere of mass m is moving with a ve
locity 41 - j when it hits a smooth wall and rebounds with velocity i + 3 j. Fin
d the impulse it receives. Find also the coefficient o frestitution between the
sphere and the wall. A sphere A is of mass m and anothe r sphere B of identical
size but of mass 2m, move towards each other with veloci ty [ + 2 j and - i + 3
j respectively. They collide when their line of centre is parallel to i - j. If
e = 1/2, find the velocities of A and B after impact. A b all of mass m = 1 kg f
alling vertically with a velocity v =2 m/s strikes a wedge of mass M = 2kg kept
on a smooth, horizontal surface as shown in figure. The co efficient ofrestituti
on between the ball and the wedge is e = 112. Find the velo city ofthe wedge and
the ball immediately after collision. A cannon isfixedon a plank of mass nij wh
ich is kept on smooth horizontal surface. On smooth surface of plank, a mass m i
s kept as shown above. If m? u = 0 shells of mass m each are firedfromcanon at t
he rate ofN per second with m, velocity u relative to mj, an d the mass of shell
is mass m find velocity of m & m as function of time. A chai n of length I and
m lies in a pile on the floor. It its end A is raised vertical ly at a constant
speed v , express in terms of the length y of chain which is of f the floor at a
ny given instant. the magnitude of the force P applied to end A. the reaction of
the floor, (c) energy lost during the lifting of the chain. Two blocks A and B
of masses m and 2m respectively are connected by a spring of for ce constant k.
The masses are moving to the right with uniform velocity v each, the heavier mas
s leading the lighter one. The spring in between them is of natur al length duri
ng the motion. Block B B collides with a third block C of mass m, at rest. The c
ollision being K 2m v m completely inelastic. Calculate the maximu m compression
ofthe spring. - m () 1 m -2 0

2 7777777777777777777 Q 2 p 1 ? 0 A > 77/777777777777777 Particle Dynamics [13]

EXERCISE-III Q.l A set of n-identical cubical blocks lie at rest parallel to eac
h other along a l ine on a smooth horizontal surface. The separation between the
near surfaces of any two adj acent blocks is L. The block at one end is given a
speed V towards t he next one at time t = 0. All colisions are completely inela
stic, then (i) the last block starts moving at t = n(n -1 )L/(2v) (ii) the last
block starts moving at t= (n -1 )L/v (iii) the centre of mass of the system will
have a final speed v/n (iv) the centre of mass of the system will have a final
speed v. [IIT 95] A small bucket of mass M (=10~ kg) is attached to a long cord
of length L (= 5 x 10~ m). The bucket is released from rest when the cord is in
a horizontal positi on. In its lowest position the bucket scoops up m(= 10 kg) o
f water, what is the height of the swing above the lowest position [REE 95] 2 2
_3 Q.2 Q.3 A small sphere of radius R is held against the inner surface of a lar
ger sphere of radius 6R. The masses of large and small spheres are 4M and M resp
ectively. T his arrangement is placed on a horizontal table. There is no frictio
n between an y surfaces of contact. The small sphere is now released. Find the c
oordinates of the centre of the large sphere when the smaller sphere reaches the
other extrem e position. [IIT 96] Q.4 A body of mass 5kg moves along the x axis
with a veloci ty 2m/s. A second body of mass 1 Okg moves along the y axis with
a velocity V3 m /s. They collide at the origin and stick together. Calculate (i)
the final veloc ity ofthe combined mass after collision (ii) the amount of heat
liberated in the collision. [REE 96] Q.5 An isolated particle of mass m is movi
ng in a horizonta l plane (x-y) along the x-axis at a certain height above the g
round. It suddenly explodes into twofragmentsof masses m/4 and 3m/4. An instant
later the smaller fragment is at y = +15 cm. The largerfragmentat this instant i
s at [IIT 97] (A) y = -5cm (B)y = + 20cm (C)y = + 5cm (D)y = -20cm Q.6 A cart is
moving along +x d irection with a velocity of 4m/s. A person in the cart throws
a stone with a vel ocity of 6m/s relative to himself. In theframeof reference o
f the cart the stone is thrown in y-z plane making an angle of 3 0 with the verti
cal z-axis. At the h ighest point of its trajectory, the stone hits an object of
equal mass hung vert icallyfrombranch of a tree by means of a string of length
L. A completely inelas tic collision occurs, in which the stone gets embedded in
the object. Determine (a) the speed ofthe combined mass immediately after the c
ollision with respect t o an observer on the ground. (b) the length L of the str
ing such that the tensio n in the string becomes zero when the string becomes ho
rizontal during the subse quent motion ofthe combined mass. [IIT 97] Q.7 A parti
cle ofmass m and velocity v collides elastically and obliquely with a stationary
particle ofmass m. Calcul ate the angle between the velocity vectors of the two
particles after the collis ion. [REE 97] Q. 8 Two blocks of mass 2kg and M are
at rest on an indiclined pla ne and are separated by a distance of 6.0m as shown
. The coefficient of friction between each of the blocks and the inclined plane
is 0.25. The 2kg block is giv en a velocity of 10.Om/s up the inclined plane. It
collides with M, comes back a nd has a velocity of 1.0m/s when it reaches its i
nitial position. The other bloc k M after the collision moves 0.5m up and comes
to rest. Calculate the coefficie nt of restitution between the blocks and the ma
ss of the block M. [Take sin9 * t anG = 0.05 and g = 10m/s ] [IIT 99] 2 <! Bansal
Classes Particle Dynamics [13]

Q.9 Two trolleys A and B of equal masses M are moving in oppsite directions with
velocities y and - v respectively on separate horizontal fiictionless parallel
tracks. When they start crossing each other, a ball of mass m is thrownfromB to
A and another of same mass is thrown from A to B with velocities normal to y The
balls may be thrown in following two ways: (i) ballsfromA to B and B to A are t
hrown simultaneously. (ii) ball is thrown from A to B after the ball thrown fro
m B reaches A. Which procedure would lead to a larger change in the velocities o
f the trolleys? [REE 2000] Q.10 A wind-powered generator converts wind energy in
t o electrical energy. Assume that the generator converts a fixed fraction of th
e wind energy intercepted by its blades into electrical energy. For wind speed v
, the electrical power output will be proportional to: [IIT (Scr) 2000] (A)v (B)
v (C) v (D) v 2 3 4 Q. 11 Two particles of masses m, and m in projectile motion
have velocities v, a nd v respectively at time t=0. They collide at time t . Th
eir velocities become vj and v, at time 2t while still moving in air. The value
of [(nijVj + m v ) - ( nijVj + m,v )j is [IIT (Scr) 2001] (A) zero (B) (m, + m )
gt (C) 2(1X1, + m )gt ( D) ^(m, + m )gt 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 Q.12 A car P i
s moving with a uniform speed of 5(3 ) m/s towards a carriage of m ass 9 Kg at r
est kept on the rails at a point B as shown infig.The height AC is 120 m. Cannon
balls of 1 Kg arefiredfrom the car with an initial velocity 100 m/ s at an angl
e 30 with the horizontal. Thefirstcanon ball hits the stationary carr iage after
a time t and sticks to it. Determine t . At t , the second cannon bal l isfired.
Assume that the resistive force between the rails and the carriage M M is consta
nt and ignore the vertical motion of the carriage throughout. If the ~ p second
ball also hits and sticks to the carriage. What will be the horizontal 1 velocit
y ofthe carriage just after the second impact? [IIT 2001] A B 1/2 0 0 0 Q.13 Two
block of masses 10 kg and 4 kg are connected by a spring of negligible mass and
placed on a fiictionless horizontal surface. An impulse gives a velocit y of 14
m/s to the heavier block in the direction of the lighter block. The velo city o
f the centre of mass is: [IIT (Scr) 2002] (A) 30 m/s (B) 20 m/s (C) 10 m/s (D)5m
/s <! Bansal Classes Particle Dynamics [13]

force between the block and the belt is 10.5 N 306 N , 4.7 m/s 2 Q.2 Q.6 Q.ll 3
5 kg 2 sec Q.5 1 sec 100 N towards left Q.9 2 x > x , > x x j : x : x : 1 5 :18
:10 2 3 2 3 1kg Q.10 3 N Q.15 300 N 4 Q.19 - sec Q.23 a Q.12 12 N Q.13 7.5 msQ.1
7 5 Q.21 40 N ^m] - 2 m ^ 2m 2 J 2 Q.14 10/3 kg Q.18 2 sec Q.22 tan1 v Q.16 55 Q
-20 | 1 Q.25 5 sec and - m 3V3y Q.24 1/2 sec EXERCISE-II m sin 0 cos 9 (a) a = g
cotO, (b) u Q.2 2V2 mcos 0 + M a = 12g/25 , ag = 9g/25 , N = 12mg/25 3mg Q.4 (a
) a =3g^= a ; a =0; T=mg/2; (b) a =2gt, a =2g4, a=0, T=0; (c) a =a = g/2t, a =gl
, T=7 T=2mg -^ '2 Q.5 2g/23 15x300 Q.6 T = 32 Q.7 (a) r) = ; (b) acceleration = 4
m/s ' | Q.l Q.3 2 A A A H c A B A B N a = m / s 2 2 Q.8 (a) 2ra/s* <45" 2 (b) 22
.5 m/s ; (c) -275 m; (d) 2 2 sec 2 2 2 Q.9 (a) (i) a, = a, = 3.2 m/s , (ii) a, =
5.75 m/s , a, = 2m/s ; (b) a, = 5 m/s ,a = -l0/3 m/s Q.10 (i)90N,(ii) 112.5N(ii
i) 15ON Q.ll =0.4 , = 0.3 mg cot a Q.12 Ar=5-,1cm 4ft k 2

Q.13 F mgu Q.3 B A [13] 2(1 - n K ) EXERCISE-III Q.l B Q.2 (i) zero, (ii) can't
be determined, (iii) can't be determined Q.4 (b) a = 3/5 m/s , T = 18 N, F = 60N
Q.5 C Q.6 D Q.7 Q.8 11.313m <! Bansal Classes Particle Dynamics

2 Q.3 Q.7 Q.ll Q.15 3 V 3 2 tan6 -1 m v2 -ka /4 2 Q.4 Q.8 - 1J 9 VTo m/s 2 Q.13
80 kW Q.17 9a/2 Q.22 - 3k rad/s , - 2k rad/s Q.21 625 J Q.23 (a) 2 rad/s , (b) 1
2+2t for t < 2s, 16 for t>2s,(c) ^28565 ~ 169,256 m/s (d) 44rad Q.24 0.1875 Q.25
P 2 2 2 T^. -+-> 2 4 2V2V 71R 4^5 m/s 2m g k Q.10 9 Q.14 ^2g rad/s Q.18 m i IS
Q.12 (l-V3/2)mg Q.16 6mg Q.20 2 sec 1 Q.19 - j T rad/s EXERCISE-II Q.l QF = -3ax
+ b, x 2 , KE 2 2b b 3V3 Q.2 2 m/s Q.3

v = v , 57ia/v 0 0 N=^^ /ra) -l g Q.5 Q.6 (i) ^,(ii)2V^g, 2a 500N/m : Q.7 40 (a)
V2 r, (b) h = 2 19r , (c) g Q.8 N 1.19R Q.9 V 2 R=0.2m, ION R(vt-R)v.1/2 (2Rt-v
t ) 2 3/2 Q.ll u = vsec9, v A/41 m/s Q.13 up, 10cm N Q.l Q.3 Q.8 mg max R Q.12 a
= (2Rt-vt ) ' EXERCISEIII Q.14 9 =7r/2, T=mg(3sin9+3cos9-2) Q.15 4, -J^fis 25 Q
.16 24 > Vo> , a=5V3 g/8, N=3mg/8 if C Q.2 Q.5 (i)36N,(ii) 11.66rad/sec,(iii) 0.
1m, 0.2m D Q.6 V u = - J g | 3 2 3 y Q.7 Q.13 B Q.12 D L + 2 F=-8mgi-mgj, h=3R Q
.4 A Q.9 A A Q.10 5.79 m/'s Q.ll C <! Bansal Classes

Particle Dynamics [13]

Q.14 (a) N=3mg cosG - 2mg, (b) p = m v mg Mng PM P M I CS O0 cos0~ 2/3 0=| COS0-1 cos0 2/3 =-mv sincoti+m(v cosa)t-v )j COS 2 2 1 Q.15 A Q.17 A COS0 (CENTRE OF
MASS & MOMENTUM) EXERCISE-I Q.l 5v RcosG 1 Q-2 Q.6 -6m (a) mg(h -h ) _ ;(b)0 3 2
( h 2 h ; ) Q.3 2^2V Q 1 3 [muV3] - Q.8 e/ 2 Q Q.4 Q.9 R 4 ^ 11/14 4/3 m/s Q Q.5
cos" (3/4) Q.10 L/4 Q.16 I Q.21 6.21 W Q.l Q.2 Q 100m Q.12 Q.7 5h ~ ' 1 4 Q.ll 2
J 1 2 0

2nvcos(0/2) T H Q.19 v 1 5 2 : 1
' 27 Q.4 M -A Vfirst Mu^ 2g(M
l g ' third ball 3 . N = f = V x
0 1 5 EXERCISE-II ' 6 8 4v 0 1 5

Q.17 1 2 Q.18 +2TI N - s = Q.22 v,heavy ball }h

+ 2m) Q.20 x = 6m 4Ur 4u 4Ur ball 27 ' Second bal
= 3 units, tanG = 2/3 5/VT7 cm, 153L/80U V208 '
Q.5 22 14 7 9_ 16 Q.7 40cm Q.8 37

Q.9 (a) 0.66, (b)4 m Q.10 impulse = m(-3i + 4j), e 22 ? 2 Q.ll I ( - i + 7 j ) i

( - i + 9j) Q.12 Vj = ^/J m/s, vv = m/s, = m Q.14 (a)y(gy + v 2),(b)mg 0 N n 2
V (m,+m ) m/s Q.13 v=u /n| mj+m -Nmt , mv y ^ , mv2 ^ 27~ Vllk ' (0 10V3, (ii)l 1
.5 4 from AB IJ ' Q Q 1 6 EXERCISE-III 2 Q.l (iX (iii) Q.5 A Q.8 e= 5 + V3 8 Q.2
4.13 x 10~ m Q.3(L + 2R,0) Q.6 2.5 m, 0,319 m Q.7 90 , M=^kg, 11 26 Q.4 4/3 m/s,
35/3 J Q.9 2 in case I Q.10 C Q.ll C Q.12 t = 12 sec, v = 100V3 <! Bansal Classes
Q.13 C Particle Dynamics [13]


QUESTION FOR SHORT ANSWER Q. 1 Fluorescent light bulbs are usually more efficien
t light emitters than inca ndescent bulbs. That is, for the same input energy, t
he fluorescent bulb gives o ffmore light than the incandescent bulb. Carefully t
ouch a fluorescent bulb and in an incandescent one after each has been lit for a
few minutes. Explain why th e incandesent bulb is a less efficient light emitte
r. Q. 2 Birds perch on high t ension wires all the time. Why are they not electr
ocuted, even when they perch o n a part ofthe wire where the insulation has worn
off? Q.3 Explain why touching an exposed circuit wire when you are in a damp ba
sement is much more dangerous t han touching the same wire when you are on the s
econd floor. Q.4 Initiallly, a s ingle resistor R, is wired to a battery. Then r
esistor R is added in parallel. A re (a) the potential difference across R, and
(b) the current through R, now mor e than, less than, or the same as previously?
(c) Is the equivalent resistance R ofR, and R, more than, less than, or equal t
o Rj? (d) Is the total current thro ugh R, and R, together more than, less than,
or equal to the current through R p reviously? Q.5 A current enters the top of
a copper sphere of radius R and leave s through the diametrically opposite point
, are all parts equally effective in d issipating joule heat? Q. 6 How can an el
ectric heater designed for 220 V be ado pted for 110 V without changing the leng
th ofthe coil and also without a change in the consumed power? Q. 7 The brillian
ce oflamps in a room noticeably drops as soon as a high power electric iron is s
witched on and after a short interval, t he bulbs regain their original brillian
ce. Explain. Q. S Consider a circuit cont aining an ideal battery connected to a
resistor. Do "work done by the battery" a nd " the thermal energy developed" re
present two names of the same physical quan tity? Q.9 A current is passed throug
h a steel wire which gets heated to a dull r ed. then halfthe wire is immersed i
n cold water. The portion out of the water be comes brighter. Why? Q.10 Anon ide
al battery is connected to a resistor. Is work done by the battery equal to the
thermal energy developed in the resistor? Does your answer change ifthe battery
is ideal? Q.ll For manual control ofthe curren t ofa circuit, two rheostats in p
arallel are preferable to a single rheostat. Wh y? Q.12 The drift velocity of el
ectrons is quite small. How then does a bulb lig ht up as soon as the switch is
turned on, although the bulb may be quite farfrom the switch? Q.13 Some times it
is said that "heat is developed" in a resistance when there is an electric curr
ent in it. Recall that heat is defined as the ener gy being transferred due to t
he temperature difference. Is the statement under q uotes technically correct? Q
.14 Does emfhave electrostatic origin? Q.15 The resi stance ofthe human body is
about lOkQ. Ifthe resistance ofour body is so large, why does one experience a s
trong shockfroma live wire of220 V supply ? Q.16 Woul d you prefer a voltmeter o
r a potentiometer to measure the emf of a battery? Q.1 7 Can the potential diffe
rence across a battery be greater than its emf? 2 12 <!Bansal Classes Question Ba
nk On Current Electricity [3]

ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT. Take approx. 2 minutes for answering each question.
Q. 1 A storage battery is connected to a charger for charging with a voltage of
12.5 Volts. The internal resistance of the storage battery is lfi. When thecharg
ing current is0.5A,theemfofthe storage batteryis: (A) 13 Volts (B) 12.5 Volts (
C ) 12 Volts (D) 11.5 Volts Q. 2 Under what condition current passing through th
e resistance R can be El r, ft increased by short circuiting the battery ofemfE
. The internal resistances | I.AAA/* 1 IJ\AAA of the two batteries are r and r respe
ct ively. (A)E rj >Ej (R + r ) (B) E r > E 2 ( R + r l ) wR w (C) E r >E1(R + r
) ( D) E ^ > E (R + r,) 2 r 2 L 2 2 2 t 2 2 2 2 2 Q.3 Q.4 A battery consists of
a variable number n ofidentical cells having internal resi stance connected in s
eries. The terminals of the battery are short circuited and the current I measur
ed. Which one of the graph below shows the relationship bet ween I and n? (B) (C
)2 o (E)S o i X Q.5 Q.6 In previous problem, if the cell had been connected in p
arallel (instead of in s eries) which of the above graphs would have shown the r
elationship between total current I and n? (C)(D)(E) n identical cells are j oin
ed in series with its two cells A and B in the loop w

ith reversed polarities. EMF of each shell is E and internal resistance r. Poten
tial difference across cell A or B is (here n>4) r 2E 4E (B)2E 1 1 (D)2E (A) n (
C ) n v n, v n In the figure shown, battery 1 has emf = 6 V and internal resista
nc e = 1 O. Battery 2 has emf = 2V and internal resistance=3 Q. The wires have n
egl igible resistance. What is the potential difference across the terminals ofb
atte ry 2 ? (A) 4 V (B) 1.5 V (C) 5 V (D)0.5V \ \1-Wvin 3Q Q. 7 The terminal vol
tage across a battery of emfE can be fy m^-(A)0 (B)>E (C)<E cjf Q.8 s t \v A cir
cuit is comprised of eight identical batteries and a resistor R = 0.8Q. Eac h ba
ttery has an emf of 1.0 V and internal resistance of 0.2Q. The voltage diffe ren
ce across any ofthe battery is (A) 0.5 V (B)1.0V (C) 0 V (D) 2 V iwy^ <!Bansal Cl
asses Question Bank On Current Electricity [3]

Q.9 Q.10 Q.ll 0* 9/ Q.12 Q.13 In order to determine the of a storage batter
y it was connected in series with a standard cell in a certain circuit and a cur
rent Ij was obtained. When th e batteiy is connected to the same circuit opposit
e to the standard cell a curre nt \ flow in the external circuit from the positi
ve pole ofthe storage battery w as obtained. What is the e.m.f. s of the storage
battery? The e.m.f. of the stan dard cell is s . (C)s,= I1-I2 (D)e 1 , - 1 ( B
) M+h (A) 6,= h+h I2-I1 I, +u I1I2 In the network shown the potential difference
between A and B A-^jwv is(R = r = r = r i a , E = 3Y,E = 2 V E = l V ) (B) 2 V
(A) 1 V (D)4 V (C) 3 V Two batte ries one ofthe emf 3 V, internal resistance 1 o
hm and the other of emf 15 V, int ernal resistance 2 ohm are connected in series
with a resistance R as shown. If the 3V,IQ 15V.2Q potential difference between
a and b is zero the resistance ofR in ohm is R VvVv (A) 5 (B)7 (C)3 (D)l A wire
oflength L and 3 identical cells o fnegligible internal resistances are connecte
d in series. Due to the current, th e temperature of the wire is raised by AT in
time t. N number of similar cells i s now connected in series with a wire ofthe
same material and cross section but of length 2L. The temperature of the wire i
s raised by the same amount AT in the same time t. The value ofN is : (A) 4 (B)
6 (C) 8 (D) 9 A cell of emf E has an internal 1 esistance r & is connected to rh
eostat. When resistance R of rheostat is changed correct graph of potential diff
erence across it is } 2 6l 1 2 3 1 2 ; 3 (A) v (B) R (D) Q.14 The battery in the
diagram is to be charged by the generator G. The generat or has a terminal volt
age of 120 volts when the charging current isl 0 amperes. The battery has an emf
of 100 volts and an internal resistance of 1 ohm. In orde r to charge the batte
ry at 10 amperes charging current, the resistance R should be set at (A) 0.1 Q (
B) 0.5 H (cjl.on (D)5.0Q Q.15 Two current elements P and Q have current voltage
characteristics as shown below: a, 1 r 10 100 V, l f i y? r 10 P.D. (Volt) P.D.
(Volt) Which ofthe graphs given below represents current vol tage characteristic
s when P and Q are in series. 2 '/ " E 1, Ii _ J i1 (A) (B) ~ 10 20 10 20 10 20
10 20 P.D. rvoit) P.P. Ofclt)

2 2 r P.D. (Volt) P.D.fVWt) <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electricity


Q. 16 A wire of cross-section area A, length L,, resistivity p and temperature c

oefficient of resistivity otj is connected to a second wire oflength L , resist
i vity p , temperature coefficient of resistivity a and the same area A, so that
w ire carries same current. Total resistance R is independent of temperature fo
r O small temperature change if (Thermal expansion effect is negligible) (A) a !
= - a (B)p L a +p L a = 0 (C) Lj a j + L a = 0 (D)None t 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
2 Q.17 Resistances Rj and R each 600 are connected in series as shown in figure.
T he Potential difference between A and B is kept 120 volt. Then what will be t
he reading of voltmeter connected between the point C & D if resistance of voltm
ete r is 120fi. (A) 48 V (B) 24 V (C) 40V (D) None 2 R, R, WA Xww-T^ C Q.18 The
resistance of all the wires between any two adjacent dots is R. Then eq uivalent
resistance between A and B as shown infigureis : . (A) 7/3 R (B) 7/6 R (C) 14/8
R (D) None of these Q.19 Consider an infinte ladder network shown infig ure.A v
oltage V is applied between the points A and B. This applied value ofvolt age is
halved after each section. (A^/R^l (B) Rj/R^ -1/2 (QR^-2 (0)^/^ =3 See Q.20 AB
CD is a square where each side is a uniform wire of resistance 1Q. A poi nt E li
es on CD such that if a uniform wire of resistance 1Q is connected across AE and
constantpotentialdifferenceisappliedacrossAandCthenBandEareequipotential . CE C
E 1 CE CE CD) -V2 ED " i5= < ' e 5 VI ( A ) 1 ( B ) 2 c = S 'V Q.21 In order to
increase the resistance of a given wire of uniform cross sectio n to four times
its value, a 3 fraction ofits length is stretched uniformly till the full length
of the wire becomes times the original length what is the value ofthis fraction
? 1 1 (A) 4 (C) 16 8 Ri Q. 22 In the given circuit the current f lowing through
the resistance 20 ohms is 0.3 W v ampere while the ammetre reads 0.8 ampere. Wha
t is the value ofRj ? *VvVV (A) 30 ohms (B) 40 ohms (C) 50 ohms (D) 60 ohms 150 WvV
I <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electricity [3]

Q.23 The circuit diagram shown consists of a large number of element (each eleme
nt has two resistors R, and R^). The resistance of the resistors in each subseq
u ent element differs by a factor of K = 1/2 from the resistance ofthe resistors
i n the previous elements. The equivalent reistance between A and B shown in /
fig ure is: (A) (C) RJ - R J (B) A 2 1 2 (R -R ) + 1 2 V6R R 1 2 (Rj - R ) + /Rf
+ R + 6R R 2 (D) None of these Q.24 Abrass disc and a carbon disc of same radiu
s are assembled alternatively to make a cylindrical conductor. The resistance of
the cylinder is independent of the temperature. The ratio of thickness ofthe br
ass disc to that of the carbon d isc is [a is temperature coefficient of resista
nce & Neglect linear expansion ] > (A) a a BPl3 cPc (B) a PB c BPC (C) a Pc B O-C
PB (D) c P c B a a PB

Q.25 In the circuit shown, what is the potential difference V Q? (A) + 3 V (B) +
2 V (C)-2V P rVWV 2Ci ^2V ,4V iy (D)none -WA'-VAVH 3R 6R S < V R Q.26 In the cir
cuit shown infigurereading ofvoltmeter is Vj when only S j is h v w w H closed,
reading ofvoltmeter is V when only S is closed. The reading _ o fvoltmeter is V
when both S and S are closed then L- (B)V >V >V (A)V >V >V (D)V > V >V (C)V >V >V
2 2 3 l 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 3 2 Q.27 One end of a Nichrome wire of length 2
L and cross-sectional area Ais attatc hed to an end of another Nichrome wire ofl
ength L and cross-sectional area 2A. I fthefreeend ofthe longer wire is at an el
ectric potential of 8.0 voits, and the free end of the shorter wire is at an ele
ctric potential of 1.0 volt, the potent ial at the junction of the two wires is
equal to (A) 2.4 V (B) 3.2 V (C)4.5V (D) 5.6V i Q.28 In the diagram resistance b
etween any two junctions is R. Equivalent resist ance across terminals Aand B is
11R 18R 7R 11R CD) 18 (C) 11 (A) (B) 11 Q.29 Pow er generated across a uniform
wire connected across a supply is H. If the wire i s cut into n equal parts and
all the parts are connected in parallel across the same supply, the total power
generated in the wire is H H (C)nH (B)n H (D) n (A) "a n <!Bansal Classes Questio
n Bank On Current Electricity [3] 2 t

Q.30 A constant voltage is applied between the two ends of a uniform metallic wi
re. Some heat is developed in it. The heat developed is doubled if (A) both the
length and the radius ofthe wire are halved. (B) both the length and the radius
of the wire are doubled (C) the radius of the wire is doubled (D) the length of
t he wire is doubled Q.31 When electric bulbs of same power, but different marke
d voltage are connected in series across the power line, their brightness will b
e: (A) proportional to their marked voltage Is (B) inversely proportional to the
ir marked voltage (C) proportional to the square oftheir marked voltage (D) inve
rs ely proportional to the square oftheir marked voltage (E) the same for all of
the m Q.32 Two bulbs rated (25 W - 220V) and (100W- 220V) are connected in serie
s to a 440 Vline. Which one is likely to fuse? (A) 25 W bulb (B) 100 W bulb (C)
both bulbs (D)none Q.33 Rate of dissipation of Joule's heat in resistance per un
it v olume is (symbols have usual meaning) (A)oE (B)oJ (C) JE (D) None Q.34 The
charg e flowing through a resistance R varies with time as Q = 2t - 8t . The tot
al hea t produced in the 1 resistance is (for 0 < t <) 2 R (A) joules R (B) joule
s R (C) joules (D)Rjoules Q.35 A total charge Q flows aero ss a resistor R durin
g a time interval = T in s uch a way that the current vs. time graph for 0 - T is
like the loop of a sin cur ve in the range 0 - n. The total heat generated in th
e \ resistor is (A) Q27C R / 8T (B)2Q ti R/T (C)2Q TIR/T (D) Q V R / 2 T 2 2 2 2
Q.36 If the length of thefilamentof a heater is reduced by 10%, the power ofthe
heater will (A) increase by about 9% (B) increase by about 11 % (C) increase by
about 19% (D) decrease by about 10% Q.37 Aheater Agives out 300 W of heat when
c onnected to a 200 V d.c. supply. A second heater B gives out 600 W when connec
te d to a 200 v d.c. supply. If a series combination of the two heaters is conne
cte d C (r '} O "to a 200 V d.c. supply the heat output will be (A) 100 W (B) 45
0 W (C) 300 W (D)200W Q.38 Two bulbs one of200 volts, 60 watts & the other of200
vol ts, 100 watts are connected in series to a 200 volt supply. The power consu
med w ill be (A) 37.5 watt (B) 160 watt (C) 62.5 watt (D) 110 watt . <!Bansal Cla
sses Question Bank On Current Electricity [3]

39 In the circuit shown the cells are ideal and of equal emfs, the capacitance o
f the capacitor is C and the resistance of the resistor is R. X isfirstjoined t
o Y and then to Z. After a long time, the total heat produced in the resistor wi
l l be -ji+A (A) equal to the energyfinallystored in the capacitor (B) half ofth
e energyfinallystored in the capacitor SIIM^t'(C) twice the energyfinallystored
in the capacitor (D) 4 times the energyfinallystored in the capacitor t-ws Q 40 T
hr ee 60 W light bulbs are mistakenly wired in series and connected to a 120 V p
owe r supply Assume the light bulbs are rated for single connection to 120 V Wit
h th e mistaken connection, the power dissipated by each bulb is: (A) 6.7 W (B)
13.3 W (C)20W (D)40W R Q.41 The ratio of powers dissipatted respectively in R an
d 3R, as shown is: (A) 9 (B) 27/4 (C) 4/9 (D) 4/27 Q. 42 In thefigureshown the p
ower generated in y is maximum wheny=5Q. Then R is C (A) 2 H (B)6Q (C) 5f2 (D) 3
Q 2R 3R lOV^r 2Q R 3 R: :3on ^ Q. 43 In the circuit shown, the resistances are
given in ohms and the so n iVWvba tteiy is assumed ideal with emfequal to 3.0 vol
ts. The resistor i R ^60 Q that d issipates the most power is % $50 Q i 3V(C)R (
d)R 3 4 Q. 44 What amount ofheat will be generated in a coil ofresistance R due
to a cha rge q passing through it if the current in the coil decreases to zero u
niformly during a time interval At 1 (2At) 2q R (B)/n ^ R (D)ln (A) (C) 3At 2At
2 Q.45 The variation ofcurrent (I) and voltage (V) is as shown infigureA. The va
ri ation of power P with current / is best shown by which ofthe following graph
P" . T . (B) / (C) T I T 20Q Q. 46 In a galvanometer, the deflection becomes one
ha lfwhen the galvanometer is A/WVshunted by a 20Q resistor. The galvanometer r
esis tance is i/2 (A) 5Q (B) 10Q (C) 40H (D) 20Q - i i/2 Rg P <!Bansal Classes Qu
estion Bank On Current Electricity [3]

tig Sx Q.47 When a galvanometer is shunted with a 4 0 resistance, the deflection

is red uced to one-fifth. If the galvanometer is further shunted with 2 0 wire,
the fur ther reduction in the deflection will be (the main current remains same
) (A) ~ of the deflection when shunted with 4 0 only 5 (B) ~ of the deflection wh
en shunte d with 4 0 only 3 (C) ofthe deflection when shunted with 4Q only 3 (D)
of the de flection when shunted with 4 0 only Q. 48 A galvanometer has a resist
ance of 200 and readsfoil-scalewhen 0.2 V is applied across it. To convert it in
to a 10 A a mmeter, the galvanometer coil should have a (A) 0.010 resistor conne
cted across it (B) 0.020 resistor connected across it (C) 2000 resistor connecte
d in series with it (D) 2000 O resistor connected in series with it Q .49 A mill
iammeter of range 10 mA and resistance 9 O is joined in a circuit as shown. The
metre gives full-scale deflection for current I when A and B are use d as its te
rminals, i. e., current enters at A and leaves at B (C is left isolat ed). The v
alue ofI is (A) 100 mA (B) 900 mA (C) 1A (D)1.1A 9 Q 10 mA 8 V#v -WA 0.9 Q 0.1 Q B
C Q. 50 Agalvanometer coil has a resistance 90 O and full scale deflection curre
nt 10 mA. A 9100 resistance is connected in series with the galvanometer to make
a voltmeter. Ifthe least count of the voltmeter is 0. IV, the number of divisio
ns on its scale is (A) 90 (B) 91 (C) 100 (D) none Q.51 In the circuit shown the
re sistance ofvoltmeter is 10,000 ohm and that ofammeter pvw<>is 20 ohm. The ammet
er reading is 0.10 Amp and voltmeter reading is 12 volt. Q Then R is equal to (A
) 1 22 O (B) 140 O (C) 116 O (D)1000 Q 52 By error, a student places moving-coil
vol tmeter V (nearly ideal) in series with the resistance in a circuit in order
to r ead the current, as shown. The voltmeter reading will be (A) 0 (B)4V (C)6V
(D) 1 2V E = 12V, R = 2Q 4FI Q.53 In a balanced wheat stone bridge, current in
the galvanometer is zero. It r emains zero when; [1] battery emf is increased [2
] all resistances are increased by 10 ohms \ [3 ] all resistances are madefiveti
mes [4] the battery and the gal vanometer are interchanged (A) only [ 1 ] is cor
rect (B) [ 1 ], [2] and [3 ] are correct (C) [ 1 ], [3] and [4] are correct (D)
[1] and [3] are correct <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electricity [3]

Q. 54 A Wheatstone's bridge is balanced with a resistance of625 Q in the third a

rm, where P, Q and S are in the 1 , 2 and 4 arm respectively. If P and Q are in
t erchanged, the resistance in the third arm has to be increased by 5 lO to I\ s
ec ure balance. The unknown resistance in the fourth arm is (A) 625 Q (B)650n (C
)67 6Q (D)600fi st nd th ' 625C2 Q. 55 In thefigureshown for gives values of Rj
and Rj the balance point for Jock ey is at 40 cmfromA. When R2 is shunted by a r
esistance of 10 Q, balance shifts to 50 cm. Rj and Rj are (AB = 1 m): A 10 (B)2o
n,3on (C) 10 Q, 15 Q (D)5n, y f i 3 HH -wB Q. 56 A 6 V battery of negligible int
ernal resistance is connected across a unif orm wire oflength 1 m. The positive
terminal ofanother battery of A\ emf4V and i nternal resistance 1 Disjoined to t
he pointAas shown in y figure. The ammeter sh ows zero deflection when the jocke
y touches the wire at the point C. The AC is e qual to (A) 2/3 m (B) 1/3 m (C) 3
/5 m (D) 1/2 m 6V H4v, in g Q. 57 The figure shows a metre-bridge circuit, withA
B = 100 cm, X= 12Q and R = 1 8Q, and the jockey J in the position of balance. lf
R is now made 80, through wha t distance will J have to be moved to obtain balan
ce? (A) 10 cm (B) 20 cm (C) 30 cm (D) 40 cm 5EM Q.58 A potentiometer wire has le
ngth 10 m and resistance 100. It is connected to a battery ofEMF 11 volt and int
ernal resistance 10, then the potential gradient in the wire is (A) 10 V/m (B) 1
V/m (C) 0.1 V/m (D)none Q. 59 The length of a p otentiometer wire is I. Acell o
f emfE is balanced at a length 113fromthe positiv e end of the wire. Ifthe lengt
h ofthe wire is increased by 1/2. At what distance will the same cell give a bal
ance fW p o ^ * " point. (A) 21 Ptu cbGut (B) I I (D)y 41 Q.60 Inthefigure, the
potentiometer wire AB oflength Land resistance 9r is joine d to the cell D of em
f s and internal resistance r. The cell C's emf is s/2 and its internal resistan
ce is 2r. The galvanometer G will show no deflection when t

he A length AJ is 11L 4L 7L 5L x(C) 18 (D) 18 (B) (A) T 2r o <!Bansal Classes Que

stion Bank On Current Electricity [3]

& s Q.61 An ammeter A offiniteresistance, and a resistor R are joined in series

to a n ideal cell C. A potentiometer P is joined in parallel to R. The ammeter r
eadin g is I and the potentiometer reading is V . P is now replaced by a voltmet
er of finite resistance. The ammeter reading now is I and the voltmeter reading
is V. (D) I < I , V =V (A) I > I , V < V (B) I > I , V = V (C) I = I , V < V 0 0
Q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Q.62 In the given potentiometer circuit length ofthe wire AB is
3 m and resistan ce is R=4.5 O. The length AC for no deflection in galvanometer
is (A) 2 m (B) 1. 8 m (C) dependent on r (D) none ofthese t 0 E=5V r=0.5n E!=3V
i Q.63 A battery of emf E = 12 Vis connected across a 4m long uniform wire havi
ng resistance 4Q/m. The cells of small emfs = 2V and e = 4V having internal R=8Q
resistance 2Cl and 6 0 respectively, are connected as shown in the figure. If f
I galvanometer shows no deflection at the point N, the distance ofpoint N from
the point Ais equal to Hi W/k| VAV-J 1 2 '2 (B)|m (C) 25 cm (D) 50 cm CA) l 2 h 5
Q.64 In the arrangement shown infigurewhen the switch S is open, the galvanomete
r shows no deflection for I=L/2. When the switch S is j closed, the galvanomete
r shows no deflection for/= 5L/12. The internal resistance (r) of 6 V cell, and
t he emf E of the other battery are respectively (A)3Q,8V (B) 2Q, 12V (C)2Q,24V
(D )3Q, 12V 2 2 ion HiVvVWi 6V r 1* T HHH E S, Q.65 The diagram besides shows a c
ircuit used in an experiment to determine the emf and internal resistance of the
cell C. Agraph was plotted ofthe potential di fference V between the terminals
of the cell against the current I, which was va ried by adjusting the rheostat.
The graph is shown on the right; x and y are the intercepts of the graph with th
e axes as shown. What is the internal resistance ofthe cell ? (A)x (C)x/y (B)y (
D)y/x V(V) -<Y>-

L-VWV ! y i T(A) Q.66 Which ofthe following wiring diagrams could be used to exp
erimentally deter mine R using ohm's law? Assume an ideal voltmeter and an ideal
ammeter. R R R R w p r- W\ r <SH v W H W i (A) (B) S M (C) (D) 1 -AA |h AA |f -AA
|h Q. 67 A current of (2.5 0.05) Aflowsthrough a wire and develops a potential d
iff erence of (10 0.1) volt. Resistance of the wire in ohm, is (A) 4 0.12 (B) 4 0.
04 ( C) 4 0.08 (D) 4 0.02 <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electricity [

Q. 68 Two wires each of radius of cross section r but of different materials are
connected together end to end (in series). Ifthe densities of charge carriers i
n the two wires are in the ratio 1 : 4, the drift velocity of electrons in the
t wo wires will be in the ratio: (A) 1:2 (B) 2 : 1 (C) 4 : 1 (D)l:4 Q. 69 In a w
ir e of cross-section radius r, free electrons travel with drift velocity v when
a current I flows through the wire. What is the current in another wire ofhalft
he radius and ofthe same material when the \ drift velocity is 2v? Tm^VO ( ) (B)
(C ) 1/2 CD) 1/4 H A 2 1 1 A Q. 70 Read the following statements careMy: Y: The
resistivity of a semiconducto r decreases with increases oftemperature. Z: In a
conducting solid, the rate of collision betweenfreeelectrons and ions increases
with increase of temperature. ' Select the correct statementfromthe following:
(A) Yis true but Z is false (B) Yis false but Z is true. (C) Both Y and Z are tr
ue. (D) Yis true and Z is the c orrect reason for Y. Q. 71 A piece of copper and
another ofgermanium are cooledf romroom temperature to 80 K. The resistance of:
(A) each of them increases (B) e ach of them decreases ^ (C) copper increases a
nd germanium decreases (D) copper decreases and germanium increases. Q. 72 An in
sulating pipe of cross-section area A contains an electrolyte which h as two typ
es of ions their / charges being -e and +2e. A potential difference appl ied betwe
en the ends of the pipe result in the _\t drifting ofthe two types ofio ns, havi
ng drift speed =v(-ve ion) and v/4(+ve ion). Both ions have the ,V , sam e numbe
r per unit volume=n. The currentflowingthrough the pipe is (A) nevA/2 (B) nevA/4
(C) 5nevA/2 (D)3nevA/2 Q.'73 As the temperature of a conductor increases , its
resistivity and conductivity change, Hie ratio ofresistivity to conductivi ty C'
\\ (A) increases (B) decreases (C) remains constant (D) may increase or dec reas
e depending on the actual temperature. 1 Q.74 Current density in a cylindrical w
ire of radius R is given as J C\ The curr entflowingin the wire is: y - 1 jforO
< x R J 2 , x R J for < x < _ R R 2 n fx R V ' , (A) ~ 7tJ R2 0 (B) ~ tcI R 0 2 (C)
~ 7tJ R2 0 (D) ~ TC^R

2 Q. 75 A current Iflowsthrough a uniform wire of diameter d when the mean elect

ro n drift velocity is V The q same current willflowthrough a wire of diameter d
/2 made ofthe same material ifthe mean drift velocity ofthe electron is: (A)v/4
(B) v/2 (C)2v (D)4v <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electricity [3]

Q.76 A wire has a non-uniform cross-section as shown infigure.A steady current f

lows through it. The drift speed of electrons at points P and q is v and v . p
Q (A) v (C) v > v p p = Vq Q (D) Data insufficient (B)VP<VQ Q. 77 When an ammete
r of negligible internal resistance is inserted in series wi th circuit it reads
1 A. When the voltmeter ofvery large resistance is connected across X it reads
1V. When the point A and B are shorted by a conducting wire, the voltmeter measu
res 10 V across the battery. The internal resistance of the b attery is equal to
(A) zero (B) 0.5 Q i f '12V 1 W * - (C) 0.2 O (D) 0.1 2 Q.78 I n the box shown c
urrent i enters at H and leaves at C. If / = ~ , /' = . AB Dc 1 2i V r / / = - ,
/qp = , / = 6, choose the branch in which current is zero (B) FC (C)ED (D) none (A
)BG H A HE 2 i i i o D y Q.79 The current in a metallic conductor is plotted aga
inst voltage at two diffe rent temperatures Tj and T . Which is correct Q.80 Aun
iform copper wire carries a current i amperes and has p carriers per metre . The
length ofthe wire is metr es and its cross-section area is s metre . If the cha
rge on a carrier is q coulo mbs, the drift Bvelocity in ms is given by (A) i/^sq
(B) i/psq (C)psq/i (D) i/ps ^q 3 2 -1

(C)T,=T ( A ) TJ > T 2 2 (D) none (B)T,<T 2 Voltage Q.81 If X, Y and Z infigurear

e identical lamps, which ofthe following changes to the brightnesses ofthe lamps
occur when switch S is closed? (A) X stays the sam e, Y decreases (B) X increas
es, Y decreases (C) X increases, Y stays the same (D ) X decreases, Y increases
Question No. 82 to 85 (4 questions) Thefigureshows a network offiveresistances a
nd two batteries Q.82 The current th rough the 30V battery is (A) 3 A (B) 1A (C)
2A Q.83 The current through the 15 V battery is (A) zero (B) 1A (C)3A Q.84 Which
ofthe batteries is getting charged. (A) 30V (B) 15 V (C) both Q.85 The total el
ectrical power consumed by the circui t is (A) 15W (B) 75W (C) 105W <!Bansal B rWr-^-Wf-zP 30 V A R3 A 15 V (D)none (D)none (D)none (D) 90W Classes Question Ban
k On Current Electricity [3]

Question No. 86 to 88 (3 questions) The figure shows a network of resistances in

which the point Ais earthed. Q. 8 6 The point which has the least potential is
(A) A (B)B Q. 87 The current through the 3 Q resistor is (A) 2A from D to A (C)
3.33 Afrom Ato D Q. 8 8 The current through the 4fi resistor is (A) 0.5 Afrom B
to C (C) lAfromCtoB Question No. 89 to 93 (5 questions) (C)C (B) 2A from A to D
(D) 3.33 A from D to A (B) 0.5 A from C to B (D) 1AfromB to C (D)D The figure sh
ows a network of four resistances and three batteries Q. 89 Choose the correct a
lternative (A) The potential difference V -'V = 6V. (B) No currentf lowsin the b
ranch CF. (C) Currentflowsin the branch from F to C. (D) Both (A) an d (C) c F B
-m30 V" AL ^ "6 V D Ml E 15 V Q. 90 Mark the incorrect statement. (A) The curren
tflowingin the icft loop is in dependent ofthe right loop. (B) The currentflowin
gin the right loop is independe nt ofthe left loop. (C) Both 3 0V and 15 V batte
ries do not produce current in t he branch CF (D) both (A) and (B) Q.91 Which of
the battery is getting charged. ( A) Only 6V (B) both 6Y and 15V (C) Only 15V Q.
92 The current through the branch CF is (A) 4A (B) 3 A Q. 93 The electrical pow
er dissipated as heat is (A) 207 W (B) 123 W (C)7A (C) 165 W (D) None (D) 1A (D)
none <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electricity [3]

ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Take approx. 3 minutes for answering
each question. Q.l A battery is of emfE is being chargedfroma charger such that
positive terminal o fthe batteiy is connected to terminal A of charger and negat
ive terminal ofthe b attery is connected to terminal B of charger. The internal
resistance of the bat tery is r. (A) Potential difference across points A and B
must be more than E. ( B) Amust be at higher potential than B (C) In battery, cu
rrent flowsfrompositive terminal to the negative terminal (D) No currentflowsthr
ough battery A battery of emf E and internal resistance r is connected across a
resistance R. (volt) Re sistance R can be adjusted to any value greater than or
equal to zero. A graph j o is plotted between the current (i) passing through th
e resistance and potenti al difference (V) across it. S elect the correct altern
ative(s). (A) internal re sistance of battery is 5Q (B) emf ofthe battery is 20
V (C) maximum current whic h can be taken from the battery is 4A (D) V- i graph
can never be a straight lin e as shown in figure. 1 Q.2 (ampere) Q. 3 The equiva
lent resistance ofa group ofresistances is R. If another resistance is connected
in parallel to the group, its new equivalent becomes R, & ifit is con nected in
series to the group, its new equivalent becomes Rj we have : (A)Rj >R (B)Rj <R
(C)R2>R (D)R2<R Two identical fuses are rated at 10A. Ifthey are joined (A) in p
arallel, the combination acts as a fuse ofrating 20A (B) in parallel, t he combi
nation acts as a fuse ofrating 5A (C) in series, the combination acts as a fuse
ofrating 10A. (D) in series, the combination acts as afiiseofrating 20A. Two cir
cuits (shown below) are called' Circuit A' and' Circuit B'. The equivale nt resi
stance of' Circuit a' is x and that of 'Circuit B' is>' between 1 and 2. Q.4 Q.5
Circuit A Circuit B (A)y>x Q.6 (B)^ = (V3 + 1 ) R (C) x>' = 2R 2 The value ofth
e resistance Rinfigureis adjusted such that power dissipated in th e 2Q resistor
is maximum. Under this condition (A) R = 0 (B)R=8H (C) power dissi pated in the
2 O resistor is 72 W. (D) power dissipated in the 2 O resistor is 8 W. (D)x-j>
= 2R 8Q -WW 12V

<!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electricity [3]

Q. 7 A galvanometer may be converted into ammeter or voltmeter. In which ofthe f

ollow ing cases the resistance of the device will be the largest ? (Asssume maxi
mum ra nge of galvanometer = 1 mA) (A) an ammeter of range 1 OA (B) a voltmeter
of rang e 5 V (C) an ammeter of range 5 A (D) a voltmeter of range 10 V Mark out
the cor rect options. (A) An ammeter should have small resistance. (B) An ammet
er should have large resistance. (C) A voltmeter should have small resistance. (
D) A volt meter should have large resistance. In the circuit shown the readings
of ammeter and voltmeter are 4A and 20V respectively. The meters are non ideal,
then R is: (A) 5Q (B) less than 5H (C) greater than 5Q (D) between 4Q&5Q ^ R maV
TAWV-r* ~~ L J Q. 8 Q.9 Q.10 A micrometer has a resistance of 100Q and a full sca
le range of 50pA. It ca n be used as a voltmeter or a higher range ammeter provi
ded a resistance is adde d to it. Pick the correct range and resistance combinat
ions). (A) 50 V range wit h 10 kC2 resistance in series. (B) 10 V range with 200
kQ resistance in series. (C) 5 mA range with 1 Q resistance in parallel. (D) 10
mA range with 1 kQ resist ance in parallel. Q.ll In a potentiometer arrangement
. Ej is the cell establishi ng current in primary circuit. E is the cell to be m
easured. AB is the potentiom eter wire and G is a galvanometer. Which ofthe foll
owing are the essential condi tion for balance to be obtained. (A) The emf ofEj
must be greater than the emf o f E . (B) Either the positive terminals of both E
j and E or the negative termina ls ofboth Ej and E must be joined to one end of
potentiometer wire. (C) The posi tive terminals ofE, and E must be joined to one
end of potentiometer wire. (D) T he resistance of G must be less than the resis
tance ofAB. 2 2 2 2 2 !l Q.12 In a potentiometer wire experiment the emf of a ba
ttery in the primary circ uit is 20V and its internal resistance is 5Q. There is
a resistance box in serie s with the battery and the potentiometer wire, whose
resistance can be variedfro m120Q to 170Q. Resistance ofthe potentiometer wire i
s 75 Q. The following potent ial differences can be measured using this potentio
meter. (A) 5 V (B)6V (C)7V (D )8V Q.13 In the given potentiometer circuit, the r
esistance of the potentiometer wire AB is Rq . C is a cell ofinternal resistance
r, FvLThe galvanometer G does n ot give zero deflection for any position ofthe jo
ckey J. Which of the following cannot be a lpcl reason for this? o (A)r>R (B)R>>R
o (C) emf of C > emf of D (D) T he negative terminal of C is connected to A. D 0
Q.14 Which ofthe following quantities do not change when a resistor connected t
o a battery is heated due to the current? (A) drift speed (B) resistivity (C) re
s istance (D) number offreeelectrons <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current El
ectricity [3]

Q.15 Ametallic conductor of irregular cross-section is as shown in thefigure.A c

onstant potential difference is applied across the ends (1) and (2). Then : (A)
the current at the cross-section P equals the current at the cross-section Q (B
) the electricfieldintensity at P is less than that at Q. (C) the rate of heat g
e nerated per unit time at Q is greater than that at P (D) the number of electro
ns crossing per unit area of cross-section at P is less than that at Q. Q.16 A c
on ductor is made of an isotropic material and has shape of a truncated cone. A
bat tery of constant emfis connected across it and its left end is earthed as sh
own in figure. Ifat a section distant xfromleft end, electricfieldintensity, pot
enti al and the rate ofgeneration of heat per unit length are E, V and H respect
ively , which of the following graphs is/are correct? Vi i / E (D) Ol \ Q.17 A si
mple circuit contains an ideal battery and a resistance R. If a second resistor
is placed in parallel with the first, (A) the potential across R will d ecrease
(B) the current through Rwill decreased (C) the current delivered by the battery
will increase (D) the power dissipated by Rwill increased. Q.18 In the circuit
shown E, F, G and H are cells of e.m.f. 2V, IV, 3 V and IV respectively and thei
r internal resistances a I C Z , i i , I i i , 3Q and 1Q respectively. ( A ) V V = -2/13V ( B ) V - V = 2/13V (C) V = 21 /13 V = potential difference a cross G
. (D) V = 19/13 V=potential difference across H. 5n 3Q A 3Q rAWv-rVWvr-^VW v Q.19
Consider the circuit shown in the figure (A) the current in the 5 Q resist or is
2 A 28 Vr >ion < ion 4Q (B) the current in the 5 D resistor is 1A (C) the poten
tial difference V - V is 10 V LAAAVJ-V^AV-J-AWVI (D) the potential differenc e V
- V is 5 V 4 n B 2Q 3Q d b d b G H A B A B Q. 20 A current passes through a wire
of nonuniform cross section. Which of the following quantities are independent
ofthe cross-section? (A) the charge crossin g in a given time interval. (B) drif
t speed (C) current density (D) free-electro n density. <!Bansal Classes Question
Bank On Current Electricity [3]

1Q B "VNWTHVW VyA/W D The figure shows a network of resistors and a battery. If 1

A >6Q current flows through the branch CF, then answer the f 1A following quest
i ons H G F E Q.21 The current through (A) branch DE is 1A (B) branch BC is 2A (
C) branch BG is 4A (D) branch HG is 6 A Q.22 The emfE ofthe batteiy is (C) 18V (
D) 6V (A) 24 V (B) 12 V If a zero resistance -wire is connected in parallel to b
ran ch CF Q.23 The current through (B) branch BC is zero (A) branch DE is zero (
D) b ranch AB is 1.5 A (C)branchBGis0.5A Q.24 The emfE of the battery is (D) 10.
5V (E ) 12V (C) 5.25 V (A) 9V (B) 6.6V Question No. 21 to 24 (4 questions) T 11
Inside a super conducting ring six identical resistors each of resistance R are
connected as shown in figure. Q.25 The equivalent resistance(s) (A) between 1 &
3 is zero. (B) between 1 & 3 is R/2 (C) between 1 & 2, 2 & 3, 3 & 1 are all equa
l. (D) between 1 & 3 is two times that between 1 & 2. Q.26 The equivalent resis
t ance(s) (A) between 0 & 1 is R. (B) between 0 & 1 is R/3 (C) between 0 & 1 is
ze ro. (D) between 0 & 1, 0 & 2 and 0 & 3 are all equal. Q.27 Imagine a battery
of emf E between the point 0 and 1, with its positive terminal connected with O.
(A ) The current entering at O is equally divided into three resistances. (B) t
he c urrent in the other three resistances R , R , R^ is zero. (C) The resistanc
es R^ and R^ have equal magnitudes of current while the resistance Rq, have diff
erent current. (D) Potential V = V >V,. 12 13 2 3 Question No. 25 to 27 (3 quest
ions) The figure shows a tetrahedron, each side ofwhich has a resistance r Q.28
Choose the correct statements) related to the resistance between any two points.
( ) AB ( ) AB A R B R = = R R Question No. 28 to 30 (3 questions) (C) R is the
least c d BD AC = = R R BC AD BC = = R R CD BD R = = R R CA AD BC * ^ D

= R R ( ) AB D R = R AC = R A N D CD = AD = R BD <!Bansal Classes Question Bank O

n Current Electricity [3]

Q, 29 Choose the correct diagram(s), which show two-dimensional equivalent ofthe

tetrahedron. D > ->R Q.30 If a battery is connected between any two points ofth
e tetrahedron, t hen identify the correct statement(s). (A) The potentials of th
e other two point s are always equal. (B) There always exists a branch through w
hich no current fl ows. (C) The current coming out ofthe battery in each case is
same. (D) None oft hese 40/\4fi Question No, 31 to 33 (3 questions) A ^ tAC The
givenfigureshows a network of resistances and a battery. Q.31 Identify the corr
ect statements) E=!2 V (A) The circuit satisfies the condition of a balanced Whe
atstone bridge. (B) V - V - 0 (C) V - V = 8 (D) no currentflowsin the branch BD
B D b d Q.32 Which ofthe two batteries is getting charged? (A) 8V battery (B) 12
ry (C) none Q.33 Choose the correct statement(s). (A) The current coming he 8V
battery is 2A (B) The current coming out of the 12V battery is 3 A currentflowin
gin all the 4 0 branches is same. (D) The currentflowingin gonally opposite bran
ches is same (D) can't be said <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electric
ity [3] V batte out oft (C) The the dia

ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT ANSWER KEY Q.4 Q.ll Q.18 Q.25 Q.32 Q.39 Q.46 Q.53 Q.6
0 Q.67 Q.74 Q.81 Q.88 A C B B A D D C B A D B C Q.l Q.8 Q.15 Q.22 Q.29 Q.36 Q.43
Q.50 Q.57 Q.64 Q.71 Q.78 Q.85 Q.92 C C C D B B A C B B D B C C Q.2 Q.9 Q.16 Q.2
3 Q.30 Q.37 Q.44 Q.51 Q.58 Q.65 Q.72 Q.79 Q.86 Q.93 B A B C B D A D B D D B B B
Q.3 Q.10 Q.17 Q.24 Q.31 Q.38 Q.45 Q.52 Q.59 Q.66 Q.73 Q.80 Q.87 D B A A C A B D
B B A B A Q.5 Q.12 Q.19 Q.26 Q.33 Q.40 Q.47 Q.54 Q.61 Q.68 Q.75 Q.82 Q.89 D B B
A C A A B A C D A A Q.6 Q.13 Q.20 Q.27 Q.34 Q.41 Q.48 Q.55 Q.62 Q.69 Q.76 Q.83 Q
.90 C D D A A D B A D C C B C Q.7 Q.14 Q.21 Q.28 Q.35 Q.42 Q.49 Q.56 Q.63 Q.70 Q
CT Q.l Q5 Q9 Q.13 Q.17 Q.21 Q.25 Q.29 Q.33 AB,C AB,C C A C AB AC,D AB,C,D AB,D Q
2 Q.6 Q.10 Q.14 Q.18 Q.22 Q.26 Q.30 A AC B,C D AC,D B B,D AB,C Q.3 Q.7 Q.ll Q.15
Q.19 Q.23 Q.27 Q.31 B,C D AB AB,C,D A A AB C Q.4 Q.8 Q.12 Q.16 Q.20 Q.24 Q.28 Q
.32 AC AD AB,C B,C AD E AD C <!Bansal Classes Question Bank On Current Electricit
y [3]


CURRENT 1. ELECTRIC CURRENT : ELECTRICITY Electric charges in motion constitute

an electric current. Any medium having pra ctically free electric charges,freeto
migrate is a conductor of electricity. The electric charge flowsfromhigher pote
ntial energy state to lower potential energ y state. Positive charge flows from
higher to lower potential and negative charg e flowsfromlower to higher. Metals
such as gold, silver, copper, aluminium etc. are good conductors. In absence of
potential difference across a conductor no ne t current flows through a corss se
ction. When a potential difference is applied across a conductor the charge carr
iers (electrons in case of metallic conductors ) flow in a definite direction wh
ich constitutes a net current in it. These elec trons are not accelerated by ele
ctric field in the conductor produced by potenti al difference across the conduc
tor. They move with a constant drift velocity. Th e direction of current is alon
g the flow ofpositive charge (or opposite to flow of negative charge), i = nv eA
where V = drift velocity. d d 2. ELECTRIC CURRENT I N A CONDUCTOR : 3. The stre
ngth ofthe current i is the rate at which the electric charges are flowi ng. If
a charge Q coulomb passes through a given cross section ofthe conductor i n t se
cond the current I through the conductor is , Q gtven by I = = Coulomb =Q ampere
. t second t dq Ampere is the unit of current. If i is not constant then / = ,
where dq is net charge transported at . . . dt a time dt. In a curren
t carrying conductor we can define a vector which gives the direction as c urren
t per unit normal, cross sectional area. Thus J = ^ n or I = J S Where n is the
unit vector in the direction of theflowof current. T CHARGE A N D CURRENT : > >
For random J or S, we use 1= - J -ds f 4. In conductors drift vol. of electrons
is proportional to the electric field in s ide the conductor as- v = pE where p
is the mobility of electrons current densit y is given as J = = ne v = ne(pE) =
aE d RELATION IN J , E AND V D : d where a = neu is called conductivity of mater
ial and we can also write p = -> re sistivity a of material. Thus E = p J. It is
called as differential form of Ohm' s Law. 5. Dry cells, secondary cells, gener
ator and thermo couple are the devices used for producing potential difference i
n an electric circuit. The potential difference between the two terminals ofa so
urce when no energy is drawn from it is called

the " Electromotive force" or " EMF " ofthe source. The unit of potential differ
ence is volt. 1 volt = 1 Amphere x 1 Ohm. il.Bansal Classes SOURCES O F POTENTI

6. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE : The property of a substance which opposes theflowof e

lectric current through it is termed as electrical resistance. Electrical resist
ance depends on the size, g eometery, temperature and internal structure ofthe c
onductor. LAW O F RESISTANCE : 7. The resistance R offered by a conductor depend
s on the following factors : R a y (cross section area of the conductor) R a L (
length of the conductor) ; at a given temperature R= P ~ . Where p is the resist
ivity ofthe material of the conductor at the given temperature. It is also known
as specific resistance of the material. 8. [ The resistance ofmost conductors a
nd all pure metals increases with temperature, but there are a few in which resi
stance decreases with temperature. If R & Rbe the resistance of a conductor at 0
C and 6 C, then it is found that R = R (1 +aG). c 0 DEPENDENCE O F RESISTANCE O N
TEMPERATURE : Here we assume that the dimensions ofresistance does not change w
ith temperature if expansion coefficient ofmaterial is considerable. Then instea
d of resistance we use same property for resistivity as p = p (1 + a0) The mater
ials for which resistance decreases with temperature, the temperature coefficien
t of resistance is negative. 0 Where a is called the temperature co-efficient of
resistance. The unit of a is K " of C reciprocal of resistivity is called conduc
tivity and reciprocal ofresistan ce is called conductance (G). S.I. unit of G is
ohm. 1 _1 9. Ohm's law is the most fundamental of all the laws in electricity.
It says that t he current through the cross section or the conductor is proporti
onal to the app lied potential difference under the given physical condition. V
= R I . Ohm's la w is applicable to only metalic conductors. I - Law (Junction l
aw or Nodal Analy sis) :This law is based on law of conservation of charge. It s
tates that" The al gebric sum of the currents meeting at a point is zero" or tot
al currents enterin g a junction equals total current leaving the junction. I I
= I I . It is also k nown as KCL (Kirchhoffs current law). in out O H M ' S LAW

EL - Law(Loop analysis) :The algebric sum ofall the voltages in closed - v, circ
uit is zero. I I I R + 2 EMF = 0 in a closed loop. The closed loop can be trave
r sed in any direction . While traversing a loop if higher potential point is >
en tered, put a + ve sign in expression or if lower potential point is i + 4 ent
ere d put a negative sign. -Vj -V +V -V = 0. Boxes may contain resistor or batte
iy o r any other element (linear or non-linear). It is also known as KVL (Kirchh
offs voltage law). + e V 2 3 4 il.Bansal Classes Current Electricity [5]

11. A number of resistances can be connected and all the v. V, V complecated comb
inat ions can be reduced to two different types, namely series and parallel. V (
i) RE SISTANCE IN SERIES : When the resistances are connected end toend then the
y are said to be in series, The current through each resistor is same. The effec
tive r esistance appearing across the batter}', R = RJ + R J + R + + R and r/WV\f
yWvA-WV3 N COMBINATION O F RESISTANCES : -VWV-H + Rn V = VJ + V 2 + V 3 + The volta
ge across a resistor is proportional to the resistance R i V V;V = R,+R+. .+R R,+R
-+. +R_ R 2 +V. (ii) Aparallel circuit of resistors is one in which the same volt
age is applied acros s all the components in a parallel grouping of resistors R
R,, R3, , R,,. 1; RESISTANCE IN PARALLEL : CONCLUSIONS : (a) (c) Potential diffe
rence across each resistor is same. I = Ij + I + I + I 1 Effectiv e resistance (
R) then -J_ ^ Current in different resistors is inversally proporti onal to the r
esistance. ,,.111; I,:l : R_ Rj R , R 2 3 2 3 (b) (d) 1 R.n A -WW-iR -WW 12. I,
etc, I,l G,+G~+. + _ G G . + G2 + . . . . . . . . . + G _ 1 n I where G - = C on
ductance ofa resistor. R Ij = 1 2 0 13.

If a cell of emf E an d internal resistance r be connected with a resistance R t

he total resistance of the circuit is (R+r). ,r E,RE,R E,? upton I = AB ^ 7 R+r
; E = Terminal voltage of the batten .If r 0, cell is Ideal & V -> E. AVvV V = W
n r R t h e n I Let there be n cells each ofemf E, arranged in series,Let r be t
he internal resi stance of each cell, nE The total emf = n E. Current in the cir
cuit I R+nr nE R CELLS IN SERIES : If nr K then I E Series combination should be
used. Series combination should not be used Current Electricity il.Bansal Class
es [5]

(ii) C E L L S I N PARALLEL : If m ceils each of emf E & internal resistance r b

e connected in parallel and if this combination be connected to an external resi
stance then the emf ofthe circ uit=E. Internal resistance ofthe circuit = m -^1wU
mE 1= R+ mR+r m R m mE Parallel co mbination should be used. If m R r ; 1 = If m R
r : 1 = R - Parallel combination should not be used. upto (iii) mn=number ofident
ical cells. n=number of rows m=number of cells in each rows. Th e combination of
cells is equivalent to single cell of: mr (a) emf = mE & (b) int ernal resistanc
e = n For maximum current N = mr or R Current I = mE R+mr n C E L L S LN M U L T
I P L E A R C : 12 3 m HHH>m R HHH mr R= = internal resistance of battery. T _ n
E_mE ~ 2r~2R ' m a x W H E A T STONE N E T W O R K : When current through the ga
lvanometer is zero (null point or balance point) = . When PS > QR; V < V & PS <Q
R; V > V or Q S PS = QR => products of opposite arms are equal. Potential differ
ence between C & D at null point is zero. The null po int is not affected by res
istance of G & E. It is not affected even ifthe positi ons of G & E are inter ch
anged. I a (QR-PS). c D c D C D 14. A potentiometer is a linear conductor ofunif
orm cross-section with a steady curr ent set up in it. This maintains a uniform
potential gradient along the length o fthe wire. Any potential difference which
is less then the potential difference maintained across the potentiometer wire c
an be measured using this. The i Ii po tentiometer equation is = . 2 I2 E L E POT
ENTIOMETER : il.Bansal Classes Current Electricity [5]

15. AMMETER : It is a modified form of suspended coil galvanometer it is used to

measure curre nt . A shunt (small resistance) is connected in parallel with I-R
galvanometer to convert into ammeter. S = ; An ideal ammeter has zero resistance
. where I = Max imum current that canflowthrough the galvanometer. I = Maximum c
urrent that can be measured using the given ammeter. g i J -vwv g 16. A high resi
stance is put in series with galvanometer. It is used to measure pote ntial diff
erence. V I R I = ^ g WW R+R " * + v R-oo , Ideal voltmeter. 8 s 8 0 VOLTMETER : 17.
While solving an electric circuit it is convinient to chose a reference point a
n d assigning its voltage as zero. Then all other potential are measured with re
sp ect to this point, This point is also called the common point. The energy lib
era ted per second in a device is called its power. The electrical power P deliv
ered by an electrical device is given by P = VI , where V=potential difference a
cros s device & I = current. Ifthe current enters the higher potential point oft
he de vice then power is consumed by it (i.e. acts as load). If the current ente
rs the lower potential point then the device supplies power (i.e. acts as source
). V P ower consumed by a resistor P = I R = VI = . 2 2 RELATIVE POTENTIAL : 18.
ELECTRICAL POWER : 19. When a current is passed through a resistor energy is we
sted in over coming the resistances ofthe wire . This energy is converted into h
eat. V W = Vlt Joule; = I Rt Joule ;= t Joule. R 2 2 HEATING EFFECT O F ELECTRIC
CURRENT : 20. The heat generated (in joules) when a current ofI ampere flows th
rough a resista nce of R ohm for T second is given by: I H = I RT Joules ; = RT C
alories. 4.2 If current is variable passing through the conductor then we use fo
r heat produced in resistance in time t 0 tot is: =jl Rdt 2 2 H 2


1 unit of electrical energy = Kilowatt hour = 1 KWh = 3.6 x 10 Joules. 6 il.Ban
sal Classes Current Electricity [5]

EXERCISE # I Q. 1 Anetwork ofnine conductors connects six points A B, C, D, E an

d F as shown infigure.Thefiguredenotes resistances in ohms. Find the equivalent
resistance be tween A and D. Q.2 1 In the circuit shown infigurepotential differ
ence between point A and B is 16 V. Find the current passing through 2Q resistan
ce. " a 2n Find the current I & vol tage V in the circuit shown. AO 4fi 9V i n 3
V 4n VW-r-4 I II I W OB so "1 T 20V la ,60V Q. 3 Q. 4 Q.5 Q.6 Q. 7 0.443 4Q3 2Q<
Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit between points A and B shown in fi
gure is: (each branch is ofresistance = 10) ^ |10V |SV J 2 0 V J30V Find the cu
r rent through 25V cell & power supplied by T ~r 20V cell in thefigureshown. 9s
If Ss t 25V Ifa cell of constant E.M.F. produces the same amount ofthe heat duri
ng the same time in two independent resistors R and R^,, when they are separatel
y connected across the terminals of the cell, one after the another,findthe inte
rnal resista nce ofthe cell. Find the effective resistance ofthe network (seefig
ure)between t he points A and B. Where R is the resistance of each part. R Q.8 Q
. 9 In the circuit shown infigure,all wires have equal resistance r. Find the eq
uiva lent resistance between A and B. Find the resistor in which maximum heat wi
ll be produced. Q. 10 For what value of Rin circuit, current through 4f2 resista
nce is zero. Q.l l In the circuit shown infigurethe reading of ammeter is the sa
me with both swit ches open as with both closed. Thenfindthe resistance R. (amme
ter is ideal) 4y loon _ wwhf, . w wJWt w 1 ( ison [5] il.Bansal Classes

Current Electricity W^tlv

Q.12 Ifthe switches S , S and S in thefigureare arranged such that current throu
gh the battery is minimum,findthe voltage across points A and B. t 2 3 >J 6D -r
-Vv 24V 6n - 9fJ w h 3! Q.13 Thefigureshows a network ofresistor each heaving val
ue 12H. Find the equiva lent resistance between points Aand B. Q.14 A battery of
emfs = 10 Vis connected across a i m long uniform wire having resistance 1 OQ/m
. Two cells ofemfgj = 2V and e = 4V having internal resistances 1Q and 5Q respec
tively are connected as shown in thefigure.If a galvanometer sh ows no deflectio
n at the point P,findthe distance ofpoint P from the point a. 0 2 Q.15 A potenti
ometer wire AB is 100 cm long and has a total resistance of lOohm. If the galvan
ometer shows zero deflection at the position C, thenfindthe value ofunknown resi
stance R. Q.16 In thefigureshown for gives values ofRj and fL the balance point
for Jockey is at 40 cmfromA When R, is shunted by a resistance of 10 O, balance
shifts to 50 cm.findR, and R,. (AB = lm): -w R 3 -W2 R Q.17 A part of a circuit
is shown in figure. Here reading of ammeter is 5 R -A/W WWV ampere and voltmeter
is 96V & voltmeter resistance is 480 ohm. Then find the resistance R Q.18 An ac
cumulator of emf 2 Volt and negligible internal resistan ce is connected across
a uniform wire of length 10m and resistance 30Q. The appr opriate terminals ofa
cell of emf 1.5 Volt and internal resistance 10 is connect ed to one end ofthe w
ire, and the other terminal ofthe cell is connected through a sensitive galvanom
eter to a slider on the wire. What length ofthe wire will b e required to produc
e zero deflection of the galvanometer ? How will the balanci ng change (a) when
a coil ofresistance 5fi is placed in series with the accumula tor, (b) the cell
of 1.5 volt is shunted with 5Q resistor ? Q.19 The resistance ofthe galvanometer
G in the circuit is 25f2. The meter deflects Ri R-, full scal e for a current o
f 10 mA. The meter behaves as an ammeter of -v-AVrvWv- 'vVvVthr ee different ran
ges. The range is 0-10 A ifthe terminals O and P are taken; rang e is 0 - 1 A be
tween O and Q; range is 0 - 0.1A between O 10A 1A 0.1 A R and R. Calculate the r
esistance Rj, R2 and R . List of recommended questions from I.E. Irodov, 3,147,
3.149, 3.150,3.154,3.155,3.169, 3.175, 3.176, 3.179,3.186, 3.189, 3.190, 3.194,3
.196, 3.207 3 il.Bansal Classes

Current Electricity [5]

Q. 1 Atriangle is constructed using the wires AB, BC & CAof same material and of
resistance a, 2a & 3a respectively. Another wire of resistance a/3 from A can m
ake a sliding contact with wire BC. Find the maximum resistance ofthe network b
e tween points A and the point of sliding wire with BC. Q.2(a) The current densi
ty across a cylindrical conductor of radius R varies according to the equation ,
w here r is the distancefromthe axis. Thus the current density is a maximum J a
t t he axis r = 0 and decreases linearly to zero at the surface r = R. Calculate
the current in terms of J and the conductor's cross sectional areaisA=7iR Suppo
se t hat instead the current density is a maximum J at the surface and decreases
line arly to zero at the axis so that J = J . Calculate the current. 0 0 2 0 0 E
XERCISE # II (b) Q.3 Q4 What will be the change in the resistance of a circuit c
onsisting of five identi cal conductors iftwo similar conductors are added as sh
own by the dashed line in figure. The current I through a rod of a certain metal
lic oxide is given by 1 = 0.2 V , where V is the potential difference across it.
The rod is connected in series with a resistance to a 6V battery ofnegligible i
nternal resistance. What value should the series resistance have so that: the cu
rrent in the circuit is 0 .44 the power dissipated in the rod is twice that diss
ipated in the resistance. 5/2 00 Q.5 Q.6 (I) 01) Q.7 Q. 8 Apiece ofresistive wir
e is made up into two squares with a common side of length 10 cm. A currant ente
rs the rectangular system at one ofthe corners and leaves at the diagonally oppo
site corners. Show that the current in the common side is l/5th of the entering
current. What length of wire connected between input and o utput terminals wouid
have an equivalent effect. A network of resistance is cons tructed with R, & R^
as shown inthefigure.The potential at the points 1,2,3,.., N are Vj, V , V ,..,
V respectively each having a potential k tune smaller than previous one Find: R
j R p and p in terms of k current that passes through the re sistance R2 nearest
to the V in terms V , k &R . 2 3 R 2 0 0 A hemisphere network ofradius a is mad
e by using a conducting wire of resistance per unit length r. Find the equivalen
t resistance across OP. Three equal resist ance each of R ohm are connected as s
hown infigure.A battery of2 volts of intern al resistance 0.1 ohm is connected a
cross the circuit. Calculate Rfor which the heat generated in the circuit is max
imum. c 3 r XL. R / 2V

il.Bansal Classes Current Electricity [5]

Q.9 A person decides to use his bath tub water to generate electric power to run
a 4 0 watt bulb. The bath tube is located at a height of 10 m from the ground &
it h olds 200 litres ofwater. If we install a water driven wheel generator on t
he gro und, at what rate should the water drain from the bath tube to light bulb
? How l ong can we keep the bulb on, ifthe bath tub was full initially. The effi
ciency o f generator is 90%. (g= lOm/s" ) 2 |36V Q.10 C O m en: In the circuit s
hown infigure,calculate the following: Potential difference between points a and
b when switch S is open. Current through S in the circuit w hen S is closed. 3Q
-" 6Q Q.ll The circuit shown infigureis made of a homogeneous wire ofuniform cros
s-sec tion. ABCD is a square. Find the ratio ofthe amounts of heat liberated per
unit time in wire A-B and C-D. T Q.12 Arod oflength L and cross-section area Al
ies along the x-axis between x = 0 and x = L. The material obeys Ohm's law and i
ts resistivity varies along the ro d according to p (x) = p e . The end ofthe ro
d at x = 0 is at a potential V and it is zero at x = L. (a) Find the total resis
tance of the rod and the current in the wire. (b) Find the electric potential in
the rod as a function ofx. 0 _xL 0 Q.13 In the figure. PQ is a wire of uniform
cross-section and of resistance Rq. Ais an ideal ammeter and the cells are ofneg
ligible resistance. Thejockey J canf reelyslide over the wire PQ making contact
on it at S. If the length ofthe wire PS is f= l/n* ofPQ, find the reading on the
ammeter. Find the value of'f for max imum and minimum reading on the ammeter. Q
.14 An ideal cell having a steady emfo f2 volt is connected across the potentiom
eter wire oflength 10 m. The potentiome ter wire is ofmagnesium and having resis
tance of 11.5 Q/m. An another cell gives a null point at 6.9 m. Ifa resistance o
f 52 is put in series with potentiometer wire,findthe new position ofthe null poi
nt. Q.15 Find the equivalent resistance of the following group of resistances be
tween A and B. Each resistance of the ci rcuit is R (a) -w-*A v Vr, v -oB -Vyx 2 Q.1
6 An enquiring physics student connects a cell to a circuit and measures the cur
rent drawn from the cell to Ij. When he joins a second identical cell is seri es
with the first, the current becomes I . When the cells are connected are in p a
rallel, the current through the circuit is I,. Show that relation between the c
urrent is 31 1 = 2 I (I +1 ) iv iv iv iv 3 2 t 2 3 n Q.17 Find the potential dif
ference V - V for the circuit shown in the figure. A B il.Bansal Classes Current


Q.18 A resistance R of thermal coefficient of resistivity = a is connected in pa

rallel with a resistance = 3R, having thermal coefficient of resistivity = 2a.
F ind the value of a . 40 -AV-2Q. w 2/3 f2 -W- 4nw Q.19 Find the current through
O resistance in thefigureshown. 2Q eff I Q.20 A galvanometer having 50 division
s provided with a variable shunt s is used to measure the current when connected
in series with a resistance of 90 Q and a battery of internal resistance 10 Q.
It is observed that when the shunt resista nce are 10Q, 500, respectively the de
flection are respectively 9 & 30 divisions. What is the resistance ofthe galvano
meter? Further ifthe full scale deflection ofthe galvanometer movement is 300 mA
find the emf ofthe cell. Q.21 In the prima ry circuit of potentiometer the rheo
stat can be variedfrom0 to 100. Initially it is at minimum iov ion resistance (z
ero). ^-HpvWv vwv (a) Find the length AP oft he wire such that the galvanometer
shows zero 9n deflection. 12m (b) Now the rhe ostat is put at maximum resistance
(100) and the switch S is closed. New balanci ng length is found to 8m. Find th
e internal resistance r 4.5V ofthe 4.5 V cell. 2n Q.22 A galvanometer (coil resi
stance 99 D) is converted into a ammeter using a shunt of 1Q and connected as sh
own in thefigure(i). The ammeter reads 3 A The same galvanometer is converted in
to a voltmeter by connecting a resistance of 10 1 O in series. This voltmeter is
connected as shown infigure(ii).Its reading is found to be 4/5 of the full scal
e reading. Find 12V r 12 V r |H' VWv| H'VWVI intern al resistance r ofthe cell (a)
2n (b) range ofthe ammeter and voltmeter -AAAA W/v I full scale deflection curren
t ofthe galvanometer 2n (c) (ii) G) 11 10 V V. il.Bansal Classes Current Electric
ity [5]

EXERCISE # III Q. 1 An electrical circuit is shown in the figure. Calculate the

potential diffe rence across the resistance of400 ohm, as will be measured by th
e voltmeter V of resistance 400 ohm, either by applying Kirchhoffs rules or othe
rwise. [JEE'96, 6] 4000 -VvVv100Q 100Q 2001 rwv-WAVivwv-h -Wr 100Q MV O Q.2(i) A s
teady current flows in a metallic conductor ofnonuniform cross-section . The qua
ntity /quantities constant along the length ofthe conductor is / are: [ JEE' 97,
1 +2+5] (A) current, electricfieldand drift speed (B) drift speed only ( C) curr
ent and drift speed (D) current only (ii) The dimension of electricity co nducti
vity is . (iii) Find the emf (E) & internal resistance (r) ofa single batt ery w
hich is equivalent to a parallel combination oftwo batteries ofemfs V, &V & inte
rnal resistances r. & r respectively with their similar polarity connected to ea
ch other ^Wr-Wr-rW, Q.3 In the circuit shown in thefigure,the current throu gh:
(A) the 3fi resistor is 0.50 A (B) the 3Q resistor is 0,25 A ^yL sq| 40(C) 4 Q r
esistor is 0.50 A (D) the 4Q resistor is 0.25 A 20 21 2SI M/W^wM-VM [JEE'98,2 ] 2
2 Q.4 In the circuit shown, P # R, the reading ofthe galvanometer is same with
switch S open or closed. Then L-VWV L-(g> (A)I = I (B) I = I (C)I = I (D)I = I [J
EE'99,2 ] r 0 p G Q G Q r r-Wv p Q Wr K I; Q. 5 The effective resistance between t
he points P and Q of the electrical circuit sh own in thefigureis (A)2Rr/ (R+r)
(B) 8R(R+r)/(3R+r) (C)2r + 4R (D) 5 R/2 + 2r [J EE 2002 (Scr), 3] 2 3 2R WW-^-WA:
2R t2R 2R -Wv -VWvf-AMA 2R VM2R

Q.6 A100 W bulb Bj, and two 60 W bulbs B and B , are connected to a 250 V source
, as shown in the figure. Now W W and W are the output powers ofthe bulbs B,,B a
nd B respectively. Then (A) W > W = W (B) W, > W > W (C)Wj < w = w (D) Wj <W < W
[JE E 2002 (Scr), 3] p 2 3 2 3 5 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 B, ^ ?50V h il.Bansal Classes
Current Electricity [5]

Q.7 (a) (b) (c) Q. 8 A thin uniform wire AB oflengthlm, an unknown resistance X
and a resistance of 1 2 Cl are connected by thick conducting strips, as shown in
figure.Abattery and a galvanometer (with a sliding jockey connected to it) are a
lso available. Connect ions are to be made to measure the unknown resistance X u
sing the x 12 n princip le ofWheatstone bridge. Answer the following question. B
C D Are there positive and negative terminals on the galvanometer? A Copy thefi
gurein your answer book and show the battery and the galvanometer (withjockey) c
onnected at appropriate points. After appropriate connections are made, it is fo
und that no deflection t akes place in the galvanometer when the sliding jockey
touches the wire at a dis tance of 60 cmfromA. Obtain the value of resistance X.
[JEE' 2002, 1+2 + 2] Arra nge the order of power dissipated in the given circui
ts, ifthe same current is p assing through all circuits and each resistor is 'r'
[JEE' 2003 (Scr)] (ffl) A/V 2 3 4 1 3 2 4 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 (A)P >P >P >P (B)P >P >
P >Pj (C)P >P >P >Pj (D)P >P >P >P Q.9 In the given circu it, no current is pass
ing through the galvanometer. If the cross-sectional diame ter of AB is doubled
then for null point of galvanometer the value ofAC would [J EE' 2003 (Scr)] (A)x
(B)x/2 (C)2x (D) None Q.10 How a battery is to be connected so that shown rheos
tat will behave like a potential divider? Also indicate the points about which o
utput can betaken. [JEE '2003] Q.ll Six equal resistances are connected between
points P, Q and R as sho wn in thefigure.Then the net resistance will be maximum
between (A) P and Q (B) Q and R (C) P and R (D) any two points [JEE' 2004 (Scr)
] AWv*B r c Q Q.12 In an RC circuit while charging, the graph of In I versus time
is as shown by the dotted line in the adjoining diagram where I is the current.
When the val ue ofthe resistance is doubled, which of the solid curves best rep
resents the va riation of In I versus time? [JEE' 2004 (Scr)] (A)P (B)Q (C)R (D)
S " M 1 -R -s "Q p il.BansalClasses Current Electricity [5]

Q.13 For the post office box arrangement to determine the value ofunknown resist
ance, the unknown resistance should be connected between [JEE' 2004 (Scr)] (A)
B and C (B)CandD (C) A and D (D)B andC 1 1 ooo*oogTi 'jaTotoo o o fESuSsjEEOQi 3
Q. 14 Draw the circuit for experimental verification of Ohm's law using a source
ofvariable D.C. voltage, a main resistance of 100 O, two galvanometers and two
resistances ofvalues 10 Q and 10* O respectively. Clearly show the positions oft
he voltmeter and the ammeter. [JEE' 2004] 6 Q.15 In thefigureshown the current
through 2Q resistor is (A) 2 A (B) OA (C) 4 A (D) 6 A , 10V f50 VWv 10Q 2fJ Wr 20V
[JEE' 2005 (Scr)] Q.16 An uncharged capacitor of capacitance 4pF, a battery of
emf 12 volt and a r esistor of 2.5 MO are connected in series. The time after wh
ich v = 3v is (take /n2 = 0.693) (A) 6.93 sec. (B) 13.86 sec. (C) 20.52 sec, (D)
none of these [JEE' 2005 (Scr)] c R Q.17 A galvanometer has resistance 100Q and
it requires current lOOpAforfull sca le deflection. Aresistor 0. ID is connecte
d to make it an ammeter. The smallest current required in the circuit to produce
the full scale deflection is (A) 1000 .1mA (B) 1.1mA (C) 10.1mA (D) 100.1mA [JE
E' 2005 (Scr)] Q.18 An unknown resistan ce X is to be determined using resistanc
es R,, R or R,. Their corresponding null points are A, B and C. Find which of th
e above will give the most accurate read ing and why? [JEE 2005] 2 1| VWv -sC or
R 3 A B R=R, or R 2 Q.19 Consider a cylindrical element as shown in thefigure.Cu
rrent , flowing the through element is I and resistivity ofmaterial ofthe 4 cyli
nder is p. Choose th e correct option out * the following. (A) Power loss in sec
ond half is four time s the power loss infirsthalf. (B) Voltage drop infirsthalf
is twice ofvoltage dro p in second half. (C) Current density in both halves are
equal. (D) Electricfiel din both halves is equal.

r B $2r 1/2 1/2 [JEE 2006] il.Bansal Classes Current Electricity [5]

ANSWER KEY Q I in 12A-20W 4Q 9n 20 ohm Q.2 Q.5 Q.9 Q.13 Q.17 Q.l Q.4 22 I = 2.5
A V = 3.5 Volts Q.4 ^n 3r Q.7 8/7R Q.8 Q.6 V i 2 Q.10 lQ Q.ll 600n Q. 12 I V 10
Q.16 y n , 5 n Q.14 46.67 cm Q.15 4 ohm Q.18 7.5 m, 8.75m, 6.25m Q.19 Rj = 0.027
8 n , R2 = 0.25 n , R = 2.5 n 3.5 A R EXERCISE # I Q.3 R R _3 Q.3 R! 5 (3/1 l)a
Q.2 (a)J A/3;(b)2J A/3 Q.5 7/5 times the length of any si de of the square (i)10
.52n;(u)0.3125n (2 + 7i)ar Q.6 (i) (k - l ) ' ( kk- l )(ii ) ((k-l)/k )v Q7 R 8
Q.8 0.3n Q.9 4/9 kg/sec., 450 sec Q.10 (i) V = - 12 V, (ii) 3 amp from b to a Q.
ll II + 6V2 < ^ V Af - ^ Q.12 R PoL . - I ; i = ;v = V" (e" 1 - e -1 ) A Po e l , Q.13 r + R ( f - f ) ' m a f = 0 , l ; I f = l / 2 Q.14 7.2m Q.15 (a) 5/7R,
(b) 9R/14 22 Q eff ^ Q.19 1A Q.20 233.3n; 144V Q.21 (a) 6m, (b) i n Q.17 - V Q.2
2 (a) 1.01 W, (b) 0-5A 0-10V, (c) 0.05 A 2 0 0 2 2 0 k w 3 ab n 0 e EXERCISE # I
I 3 L v 0 2 f o r I X m in 1 8 a = a EXERCISE # III Vir +V r! l 2 2 2 r + r

Q. 1 20/3 V Q-4 Q.2 (i) D; (ii) M L~ T A ; (iii) Q.5 Q.6 D _1 3 3 2 ( Y ) rr t +

r 2 r l 2 Q.3 D Q.7 (a) No, (b) A J 0-y) ^ B VWV 12 O D (c)8n Q.8 A Q9 Q.10 Batte
ry should be connected across Aand B. Out put can be taken across the terminals
Aand C or B and C Q.ll A Q.12meterB Q.13 C Volt 10' n\ r t - ^ Q.14 t 2 Q.15 B Q
.16 B Q.17 D Q.19 A [5] Q.18 This is true for r = r ; So R, given most accurate
value il.BansalClasses Current Electricity


When a conductor is moved across a magnetic field, an electromotive force (emf)

is produced in the conductor. If the conductors forms part of a closed circuit t
hen the emf produced caused an electric current to flow round the circuit. Henc
e an emf (and thus a current) is induced in the conductor as a result of its mov
e ment across the magnetic field. This is known as "ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION."
1. MAGNETIC FLUX : KEY CONCEPTS (]) = B . A ^BA cos 9 weber for uniform B . (j)
= j B . d A for non uniform B . 2. (i) (ii) An induced emf is setup whenever the
magnetic flux linking that circuit changes. The magnitude of the induced emf in
any circuit is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux linking
the circuit, s a . dt The direction of an in duced emf is always such as to oppo
se the cause producing it. LAW O F EMI: LENZ'S LAWS : FARADAY'S LAWS O F ELECTRO
MAGNETIC INDUCTION : 3. 4. e = - . The neaative sign indicated that the induced
emf opposes the change of t he flux. dt 5. E = BLV sin 0 voltwhere B = flux dens
i ty in wb/m ; L = length of the conductor (m); V=velocity of the conductor (m/s
); 9 = angle between direction of motion of conductor & B . 2 E M F INDUCED IN A
f. N = number of turns in the coil ; B = magnetic induct ion ; E = maximum induc
ed emf. 0 THE MAGNETIC FIELD : A = area of one turn; = uniform angular velocity o
fthe coil; E = NABco sin cot = EQ sin cot, where 7. When a current flowing throu
gh a coil is changed the flux linking with its own w

inding changes & due to the change in linking flux with the coil an emf is induc
ed which is known as self induced emf & this phenomenon is known as self induct
i on. This induced emf opposes the causes ofInduction. The property ofthe coil o
r the circuit due to which it opposes any change ofthe current coil or the circu
it is known as SELF - INDUCTANCE . It's unit is Henry. Coefficient of Self induc
ta nce L = or 4> = Li s SELF INDUCTION & SELF INDUCTANCE : fe Bansal Classes Ele
ctromagnetic Induction [10]

L depends only on; (i) (ii) shape of the loop & medium i = current in the circui
t. <j) = magnetic flux linked with the circuit due to the current i. dtj) d di
s elf induced emf e = = - (Li) = - L (ifL is constant) dt dt dt s s s 8. If two el
ectric circuits are such that the magneticfielddue to a current in one is partly
or wholly linked with the other, the two coils are said to be electrom agnetica
lly coupled circuits . Than any change of current in one produces a chan ge of m
agnetic flux in the other & the latter opposes the change by inducing an emfwith
in kself. This phenomenon is called MUTUAL INDUCTION & the induced emfin the lat
ter circuit due to a change of current in the former is called MUTUALLY I NDUCED
E M F . The circuit in which the current is changed, is called the primar y & t
he other circuit in which the emf is induced is called the secondary. The c o-ef
ficient of mutual induction (mutual inductance) between two electromagnetica lly
coupled circuit is the magnetic flux linked with the secondary per unit curr en
t in the primary. , ^m linked , Mutual..inductance = M = -7 =fluxcurrent inwith s
econdary mutually .induced emf. l the primary p MUTUAL INDUCTION : E = ^ = - ~ (
MI) = (If M is constant) M depends on (1) geometery of loops (2) me dium (3) ori
entation & distance of loops . m 9. There is a uniform magneticfieldalong the ax
is the solenoid (ideal: length diame ter) B = p ni where; u = magnetic permeabil
ity of the core material; n = number of turns in the solenoid per unit length; i
= current in the solenoid ; Self ind uctance of a solenoid L - p n A1; A = area
of cross section of solenoid. 0 2 SOLENOID : > II axis of solenoid J 0 vj 1H Q)
re 10. R = 0 ; E = 0. Therefore (j) = constant. Thus in a superconducting loop f
lux nev er changes, (or it opposes 100%) total SUPER CONDUCTION LOOP IN MAGNETIC
FIELD : 11.

(i) ENERGY STORED IN A N INDUCTOR : (ii) W = -2 LI . Energy of interation of two

loops U = l,(j) = I ^ , = M I j I , wher e M is mutual inductance . 2 2 2 fe Ba
nsal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

12. GROWTH O F A Rt/L CURRENT IN A N L - R CIRCUIT : I = (1 - e~ ) . [ If initia

l current = 0 ] R L R = time constant of the circuit. E (i) (ii) 13. L behaves a
s open circuit at t = 0 [If /' = 0 ] L behaves as short circuit at t = oo always
. L Curve (1) > Large R L Curve (2) Small R 0 DECAY O F CURRENT : Initial curren
t through the inductor = I ; Current at any instant i = I e~ M 0 Rt/L ^Bansal Cl
asses Electromagnetic Induction [4]

EXJER CISEI Q.l Q.2 The horizontal component ofthe earth's magneticfieldat a plac
e is 3 x 10^T and t he dip is tan '(4/3). A metal rod of length 0.25 m placed in
the north-south pos ition is moved at a constant speed of lOcm/s towards the ea
st. Find the e.rnf. i nduced in the rod. A wire forming one cycle of sine curve
is moved in x-y plane with velocity V = V i + V j. There exist a magneticfieldB
= - B k Find the motio nal emf develop across the ends PQ of wire. x y 0 Q.3 A c
onducting circular loop is placed in a uniform magneticfieldof0.02 T, with it s
plane perpendicular to thefield.If the radius ofthe loop starts shrinking at a c
onstant rate of 1.0 mm/s, thenfindthe emfinduced in the loop, at the instant w h
en the radius is 4 cm. Find the dimension of the quantity 7-7-7 , where symbols
have usual meaimng. RCV A rectangular loop with a sliding connector of length I
= 1.0 m is situated in a uniform magnetic field B = 2T perpendicular to the pla
ne of loop. Resistance of connector is r = 2 f l Two resistances of 6 0 and 3Q a
re connected as shown infigure.Find the external force required to keep the con
n ector moving with a constant velocity v = 2m/s. B 3Q:? Q. 4 Q.5 >6Cl Q. 6 Two co
ncentric and coplanar circular coils have radii a and b(a)as shown in figur e. Re
sistance of the inner coil is R. Current in the outer coil is increased fro m 0
to i, thenfindthe total charge circulating the inner coil. A horizontal wire isf
reeto slide on the vertical rails of a conductingframeas shown infigure.The wire
has a mass m and length I and the resistance ofthe circuit is R. If a unifo rm
magneticfieldB is directed perpendicular to the frame, thenfindthe terminal s pe
ed ofthe wire as it falls under the force ofgravity. Q, 7 *B x -yww xR X Q.8 Q.9
A metal rod of resistance 200 isfixedalong a diameter of a conducting ring of r
a dius 0.1 m and lies on x-y plane. There is a magnetic field B = (50T)k- The ri
ng rotates with an angular velocity 0 = 20 rad/ sec about its axis. An external
re sistance of 10Q is connected across the centre of the ring andrim.Find the cu
rre nt through external resistance. 6Q r-VW\A 2 mH In the given current,findthe
rati o of i, to i where i, is the initial (at t = 0) current and i i s steady st
ate ( at t = 0 ) current through the battery. 0

2 2 10 Q 10 In the circuit shown, initially the switch is in position 1 for a lo

ng time . Then the switch is shifted to position 2 for a long time. Find the tot
al heat produced in R,. R. -WVVfe Bansal Classes H HVWVR; Electromagnetic Induct
ion [10]

Q.ll Two resistors of 1OQ and 20Q and an ideal inductor of 1 OH are connected to
a 2V battery as shown. The key K is shorted at time t = 0. Find the initial (t
= 0) and final (t oo) currents through battery. L = 10H IW-j I V V W R= ion H>J 2on
Q.12 There exists a uniform cylindrically symmetric magneticfielddirected along
the axis ofa cylinder but varying with time as B = kt. Ifan electron is release
d fromrest in thisfieldat a distance of' r'fromthe axis of cylinder, its acceler
at ion, just after it is released would be (e and m are the electronic charge an
d m ass respectively) Q.13 An emf of 15 volt is applied in a circuit containing
5 H inductance and 10 Q resistance. Find the ratio of the currents at time t = o
o an d t = 1 second. Q. 14 A uniform magnetic field of 0.08 T is directed into t
he pl ane of the page and perpendicular to it as shown in thefigure.A wire loop
in the plane of the page has constant area 0.010 m . The magnitude ofmagneticfie
lddecr ease at a constant rate of 3.0x10 Ts . Find the magnitude and direction o
fthe in duced emf in the loop. 2 4 -1 X x x x Q.15 In the circuit shown infigure
switch S is closed at time t = 0. Find the cha rge which passes through the batt
ery in one time constant. r ^ Li M Rn Q.16 Two coils, 1 & 2, have a mutual induc
tance=M and resistances R each. A curr ent flows in coil 1, which varies with ti
me as: Ij = kt , where K is a constant and't' is time. Find the total charge tha
t has flown through coil 2, between t = 0 and t = T. 2 Q.17 In a L-R decay circu
it, the initial current at t = 0 is I. Find the total c harge that hasflownthrou
gh the resistor till the energy in the inductor has redu ced to one-fourth its i
nitial value. Q.18 A charged ring of mass m = 50 gm, char ge 2 coulomb and radiu
s R=2m is placed on a smooth horizontal surface. Amagnetic fieldvarying with tim
e at a rate of(0.21) Tesla/sec is applied on to theringin a direction normal to
the surface of ring. Find the angular speed attained in a t ime t = 10 sec. x Q.
19 A capacitor C with a charge Q is connected across an inductor through a sw i
tch S. If at t = 0, the switch is closed, thenfindthe instantaneous charge q on
the upper plate of capacitor. 0 Q^ ^ 0 c Q.20 A uniform but time varying magneti
cfieldB = K t - C ; ( 0 < t < C/K), where

K and C are constants and t is time, is applied perpendicular to the plane ofth
e circular loop of radius' a' and resistance R. Find the total charge that will
pass around the loop. Q.21 A coil ofresistance 3000 and inductance 1.0 henry is
connected across an alternating voltage of frequency 3 00/271: Hz. Calculate the
phase difference between the voltage and current in the circuit. Q.22 Find the
value of an inductance which should be connected in series with a capacitor of 5
pF, a resistance of 10Q and an ac source of 50 Hz so that the power factor of t
he circuit is unity. fe Bansal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

Q.23 In an L-R series A. C circuit the potential difference across an inductance

and resistance j oined in series are respectively 12 V and 16V. Find the total
potential difference across the circuit. Q.24 When 100 volt D.C. is applied acro
ss a coil, a current of one ampere flows through it, when 100 V ac of 5 0 Hz is
applied to the same coil, only 0.5 amp flows. Calculate the resistance and indu
c tance of the coil. Q.25 A 50W, 100V lamp is to be connected to an ac mains of2
00 V, 50Hz. What capacitance is essential to be put in seirs with the lamp. List
of recommended questions from I.E. Irodov. 3.288 to 3.299, 3.301 to 3.309, 3.31
1, 3.313, 3.315, 3.316, 3.326 to 3.329, 3.331, 3.333 to 3.335, 4.98, 4.99, 4.100
, 4 .134, 4.135, 4.121, 4.124, 4.125, 4.126, 4.136, 4.137, 4.141, 4.144 fe Bansa
l Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

EXERCISEII Q. 1 Two straight conducting rails form a right angle where their ends
are joine d. A conducting bar contact with the rails starts at vertex at the ti
me t = 0 & moves symmetrically with a constant velocity of 5.2 m/s to the right
as shown in figure. A 0.35 T magnetic field points out ofthe page. Calculate: (i
) The flux through the triangle by the rails & bar at t = 3.0 s. (ii) The emf ar
ound the tr iangle at that time. (iii) In what manner does the emf around the tr
iangle vary with time. Q. 2 5.2m/s

Two long parallel rails, a distance I apart and each having a resistance X per u
nit length are joined at one end by a resistance R. A perfectly conducting rod
M N of mass m is free to slide along the rails without friction. There is a unif
or m magnetic field of induction B normal to the plane of the paper and directed
in to the paper. A variable force F is applied to the rod MN such that, as the
rod moves, a constant current i flows through R. Find the velocity ofthe rod and
the applied force F as function of the distance x of the rod from R Q.3 A wirei
sben t into 3 circular segments ofradiusr = 10 cm as shown in figure. Each segme
nt is a quadrant of a circle, ab lying in the xy plane, be lying in the yz plane
& ca lying in the zx plane. (i) if a magnetic field B points in the positive x
direc tion, what is the magnitude of the emf developed in the wire, when B incre
ases a t the rate of 3 mT/s ? (ii) what is the direction ofthe current in the se
gment b e. Q. 4 Consider the possibility of a new design for an electric train.
The engi ne is driven by the force due to the vertical component ofthe earths ma
gneticfie ldon a conducting axle. Current is passed down one coil, into a conduc
ting wheel through the axle, through another conducting wheel & then back to the
source vi a the other rail. (i) what current is needed to provide a modest 10 KN force ? Take the vertical component of the earth'sfieldbe 10 pT & the length
of axle to be 3.0 m. (ii) how much power would be lost for each Q, of resistivi
ty in the r ails ? (iii) is such a train unrealistic ? Q.5 A square wire loop wi
th 2 m sides in perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field, o o o(s ao o o o wit
he ar e loop in the field. The loop contains a 20 V battery with 'i negligible i
nterna l resistance. If the magnitude of the field varies with time S according
to B = 0.042 - 0.871, withB in tesla&tin sec. V ' / (i) What is the total emf in
the ci rcuit ? \ /\ (ii) What is the direction of the current through the batte
ry ? Q.6 A rectangular loop of dimensions I & w and resistance R moves with cons
tant vel ocity V to the right as shown in the figure. It continues to move with
same spee d through a region containing a uniform magnetic field B directed into
the plane ofthe paper & extending a distance 3 W. Sketch the flux, induced emf
& external force acting on the loop as a function ofthe distance. ! : 0 0 0 v fe
Bansal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

Q.7 Q.8 A rectangular loop with current I has dimension as shown in figure. Find
the mag netic flux $ through the infinite region to the right of line PQ. A squ
are loop of side 'a' & resistance R moves with a uniform velocity v away from a
long wire that carries current I as shown in the figure. The loop is moved awayf
romthe wi re with side AB always parallel to the wire. Initially, distance betwe
en the sid e AB of the loop & wire is 'a'. Find the work done when the loop is m
oved throug h distance 'a' from the initial position. Two long parallel conducti
ng horizonta l rails are connected by a conducting wire at one end. A uniform ma
gneticfieldB exists in the region of space. A light uniform ring of diameter d w
hich is pract ically equal to separation between the rails, is placed over the r
ails as shown in thefigure.Ifresistance of ring is X per unit length, calculate
the force requ ired to pull theringwith uniform velocity v. B ic c a 'I'D a | C 0
D * A Q.9 Q.10 Q.ll \ x x x x x x x x x x y. x x Q.12 Available magneticfieldcr
eates a constant emf E in a conductor ABCDA. The r esistances of portion ABC, CD
A and AMC are R R and R respectively. What current will be shown by meter M? The
magnetic field is concentrated near the axis ofthe circular conductor. p 2 3 Q
.13 In the circuit shown in the figure the switched S and S are closed at time t
= 0. After time t = (0.1) In 2 sec, switch S is opened. Find the current in t h
e circuit at time t = (0.2) In 2 sec. t 2 2 #100V 401 S 2 IH j Q.14 (i) (ii) (iii)
(iv) Find the values of / and i immediately after the switch S is closed. long
time l ater, with S closed. immediately after S is open. long time after S is op
ened. C ion i 30Q

i^ioov fe Bansal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

Q.15 Consider the circuit shown infigure.The oscillating source ofemf deliver a
sinusoidal emfof amplitude e andfrequencyco to the inductor L and two capacitors
Cj and C . Find the maximum instantaneous current in each capacitor. max 2 R i(
t) Q.16 Suppose the emfofthe battery, the circuit shown varies with timet so the
current WvV ~ is given by /'(t) = 3 + 5t, where i is in amperes & t is in s eco
nds. Take R = 4Q, L = 6H &findan expression for the battery emf as function o f
time. Q.17 A current of 4 A flows in a coil when connected to a 12 Vdc source. I
fthe same coil is connected to a 12V, 50 rad/s ac source a current of 2.4 A fl o
ws in the circuit. Determine the inductance ofthe coil. Also find the power dev
eloped in the circuit if a 2500 pF capacitor is connected in series with the coi
l. Q.18 An LCR series circuit with 1000 resistance is connected to an ac source
of2 00 V and angular frequency 300 rad/s. When only the capacitance is removed,
the current lags behind the voltage by 60. When only the inductance is removed,
the c urrent leads the voltage by 60. Calculate the current and the power dissipa
ted in the LCR circuit. Q.19 A box P and a coil Q are connected in series with a
n ac s ource ofvariable frequency. The emf of source at 10 V. Box P contains a c
apacita nce of 1 pF in series with a resistance of 32Q coil Q has a self-inducta
nce 4.9 mH and a resistance of 68Q series. The frequency is adjusted so that the
maximum current flows in P and Q. Find the impedan-^ of P and Q at this frequen
cy. Also find the voltage across P and Q respectively. Q.20 A series LCR circuit
contain ing a resistance of 120Q has angular resonancefrequency4 x 10 rad s' .
At resona nce the voltages across resistance and inductance are 60 V and 40 V re
spectively . Find the values of L and C. At whatfrequencythe current in the circ
uit lags th e voltage by 45? 5 1 fe Bansal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

EXERCISEIII Q. 1 Arectangular frame ABCD made of auniform metal wire has a straig
ht connecti on B between E & F made ofthe same wire as shown in thefigure.AEFD i
s a square x x x x of side 1 m & EB = FC = 0.5 m. The entire circuit is placed i
n a steadily X X X X X y increasing uniform magneticfielddirected into the place
ofthe paper & normal X IK X X X to it. The rate of change of the magneticfieldi
s 1 T/s, the resistance per unit D length ofthe wire is 1 O/m. Find the current
in segments AE, BE & EF. [JEE'93, 5] Q.2 An inductance L, resistance R, battery
B and switch S are ji H 3 H connected in series. Voltmeters V and V are connected a
cross L and R respectively. When switch is closed: (A) The initial reading in V
will be grea ter than in V . (B) The initial reading in V will be lesser than V
. (C) The ini tial readings in V and V will be the same. s (D) The reading in V
will be decrea sing as time increases. [JEE'93, 2] Q.3 Two parallel vertical met
allic rails AB & CD are separated by 1 m. They are connected at the two ends by
resistance R & R as shown in the figure. A horizontally metallic bar L of mass 0
.2 kg slides wi thoutfriction,vertically down the rails under the action of grav
ity. There is a uniform horizontal magnetic field of 0.6T perpendicular to the p
lane of the rail s, it is observed that when the terminal velocity is attained,
the power dissipa ted inRj & R, are 0.76 W & 1.2 W respectively. Find the termin
al velocity of bar L & value R, & R [JEE '94, 6] v L R L R L R L R L } 2 n Q. 4
Two different coils have self inductance 8mH and 2mH. The current in one coil is
increased at a constant rate. The current in the second coild is also increased
at the same constant. At a certain instant of time, the power given to the two
coils is the same. At that time the current, the induced voltage and the energy
stored in thefirstcoil are I Vj and respectively. Corresponding values for the s
econd coil at the same instant are I , v and W, respectively. Then: [JEE' 94,2]
]_ Ij 1 2 Ii Yl. (B) (D) V, 4 IT4 p 2 2 W ( A ) Q.5

(a) (b) A metal rod OA of mass m & length r is kept rotating with a constant ang
ular spe ed co in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis at the end O. Thefree
end Ais a rranged to slide withoutfrictionalong afixedconducting circular ring i
n the same plane as that ofrotation. Auniform & constant magnetic induction is a
pplied per pendicular & into the plane ofrotation as shown in figure. An inducto
r L and an external resistance R are connected through a switch S between the po
int O & a p oint C on the ring to form an electrical circuit. Neglect the resist
ance ofthe r ing and the rod. Initially, the switch is open. What is the induced
emf across t he terminals of the switch ? (i) Obtain an expression for the curr
ent as a funct ion of time after switch S is closed. (ii) Obtain the time depend
ence ofthe torq ue required to maintain the constant angular speed, given that t
he rod OA was al ong the positive X-axis at t = 0. [JEE '95,10] Electromagnetic
Induction fe Bansal Classes [10]

Q.6 Q.7 A solenoid has an inductance of 10 Henry & a resistance of 2 D. It is co

nnected to a 10 volt battery. How long will it take for the magnetic energy to r
each 1 / 4 of its maximum value ? [JEE'96, 3] Select the correct alternative. X
X X A thi n semicircular conducting ring of radius R is falling with its plane v
ertical in X :X B x a horizontal magnetic induction B. At the position MNQ the sp
eed of the ring is x /\ A x v & the potential difference developed across the ri
ng is: M B VTCR (A)zero & M is at higher potential (B) (D) 2 RB V & Q is at high
er potentia l (C) k RB V & Q is at higher potential Fill inthe blank. A metallic
block carry ing current I is subjected to a uniform magnetic induction which re
sults B j. Th e moving charges experience a force F given by in the lowering of
the potential of the face [JEE '96, 2] [assume the speed of the carrier to be v]
.' N >: x V V * , VI A X x x xY x \ X Q.8 [JEE'96,2] A pair ofparallel horizonta
l conducting rails ofnegligible resistance shorted at one end is fixed on a tabl
e. The distance between the rails is L. A conducting massless rod of resistance
R can slide on the rails frictionlessly. The rod is t ied to a massless string w
hich passes over a pulleyfixedto the edge of the table . Amass m, tied to the ot
her end of the string hangs vertically. A constant magn eticfieldB exists perpen
dicular to the table. If the system is releasedfromrest, calculate: the terminal
velocity achieved by the rod. 0) the acceleration ofthe mass at the instant whe
n the velocity ofthe rod is halfthe terminal velocity. ( ") [JEE '97, 5] Q.10 Ac
urrent/ = 3.36 (1 +2t) x 10" A increases at a steady rate in a long straight wir
e. A small circular loop of radius 10~ m is in the plane of the wire & is placed
at a distance of 1 m from the wire. The resistance of th e loop is 8.4 x 10" D.
Find the magnitude & the direction of the induced current in the loop. [REE '98
, 5] Q.ll Select the correct alternative(s). [ JEE '98, 3 x 2 = 6,4x2=8] The SI
unit of inductance, the Henry, can be written as : (i) (A) weber/ampere (B) volt
-second/ampere (C) joule/(ampere) (D) ohm-second of side I is placed inside a la
rge square wire of A small square loop ofwirecentres coinc ide. The mutual induc
tanceloop ofsystem isside L(L I ) .toThe loop are co-planar & their of the propo
rtional : (D)K (A) ( B )i Q9 2 3 2 2 2 (iii) fe Bansal Classes A metal rod moves
at a constant velocity in a direction perpendicular to its len gth. A constant,
uniform magneticfieldexists in space in a direction perpendicul ar to the rod a
s well as its velocity. Select the correct statement(s)fromthe fo llowing (A) th
e entire rod is at the same electric potential (B) there is an ele

ctricfieldin the rod (C) the electric potential is highest at the centre of the
rod & decreases towards its ends (D) the electric potential is lowest at the cen
tre of the rod & increases towards its ends. Electromagnetic Induction [10]

(iv) An inductor of inductance 2.0mH,is connected across a charged capacitor of

capac itance 5.0pF,and the resulting LC circuit is set oscillating at its natura
lfrequ ency.Let Q denote the instantaneous charge on the capacitor, and I the cu
rrent i n the circuit. It is found that the maximum value of Q is 200 pC. (a) wh
en Q= 10 0 pC, what is the value of | dl / dt| ? (b) when Q=200 pC ,what is the
value of I ? (c) Find the maximum value of I. (d) when I is equal to one half it
s maximum value, what is the value of | Q| Q.12 Two identical circular loops of
metal wir e are lying on a table without touching each other. Loop-A carries a c
urrent whi ch increases with time. In response, the loop-B [JEE' 99] (A) remains
stationary (B) is attracted by the loop-A (C) is repelled by the loop-A (D) rot
ates about its CM, with CM fixed Q.13 A coil of inductance 8.4 mH and resistance
6Q is conn ected to a 12V battery. The current in the coil is 1.0 A at approxim
ately the ti me (A) 500 s (B) 20 s (C)35 ms (D) 1 ms [ JEE'99 ] Q.14 A circular
loop of radiu s R, carrying current I, lies in x-y plane with its centre at orig
in. The total magnetic flux through x-y plane is (A) directly prop ortional to I
(B) directly proportional to R (C) directly proportional to R (D) zero [JEE' 99
] 2 Q.15 A magneticfieldB = (B y / a) k is into the plane ofpaper in the +z dire
ctio n. B and a are positive constants. A square loop EFGH of side a, mass m and
resi stance R in x-y plane, starts falling under the influence of gravity. Note
the d irections ofx and y axes in the figure. Find (a) the induced current in t
he loop and indicate its direction, (b) the total Lorentz force acting on the lo
op and indicate its direction, (c) an expression for the speed ofthe loop, v(t)
and its terminal value. 0 0 <g>E, F I GMH 8 0 0 0 1 1 [JEE '99] Q.16 Two circular
coils can be arranged in any ofthe three situations shown in t hefigure.Their m
utual inductance will be (A) maximum in situation (a) <=> 0 (B) maximum in situa
tion (b) ^ -^Q (C) maximum in situation (c) <a) (b) <c) (D) the s ame in all situ
ations [JEE'2001, (Scr)] g c Q.17 An inductor of inductance L = 400 mH and resis
tors of resistances R, = 2Q a nd II, = 2D. are connected to a battery of e.m.f.
E= 12V as shownin thefigure.Th e internal resistance of the battery is negligibl
e. The switch S is closed at ti me t = 0. What is the potential drop across L as
a function oftime? After the st eady state is reached, the switch is opened. Wh
at is the direction and the magni tude of current through R as a function of tim
e? [JEE'2001] : fe Bansal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

Q 18 As shown inthefigure,P and Q are two coaxial conducting loops separated by

some distance. When the switch S is closed, a clockwise current I flows in P (as
seen by E) and an induced current I flows in Q. The switch remains closed for a
long time. When S is opened, a current I flows in Q. Then the directions of I a
dn I (as seen by E) are: (A) respectively clockwise and anti-clockwise (B) both
clockwise Battery' (C) both anti-clockwise (D) respectively anti-clockwise and
c lockwise [JEE 2002(Scr), 3] Q.19 A short -circuited coil is placed in a time v
ar ying magneticfield.Electrical power is dissipated due to the current induced
in the coil. Ifthe number ofturns were to be quadrupled and the wire radius halv
ed, the electrical power dissipated would be [JEE 2002(Scr), 3] (A) halved (B) t
he same (C) doubled (D) quadrupled p Q2 Q! Q2 Q . 20 A square loop of side 'a' w
ith a capacitor of capacitance C is located be tween two current carrying long p
arallel wires as shown. The value of I in the i s given as I = I sincot. (a) cal
culate maximum current in the square loop. (b) D raw a graph between charge on t
he lower plate of the capacitor v/s time. Q.21 Th e variation of induced emf (s)
with time (t) in a coil if a short bar magnet is moved along its axis with a co
nstant velocity is best represented as 0 [JEE 2003] mm [JEE 2004(Scr)] (A) (B) (
C) 0 (D) Q.22 In an LR series circuit, a sinusoidal voltage V = V sin cot is app
lied. It is given that L = 3 5 mH, R = 11 O, co V = 220 V,' 2% 50 Hz and % = 22/
7. Find t he amplitude of current in the steady state and obtain the phase diffe
rence betw een the current and the voltage. Also plot the variation of current f
or one cycl e on the given graph. [JEE 2004] Q.23 An infinitely long cylindrical
conducting rod is kept along + Z direction. A constant magneticfieldis also pre
sent in+Z direction. Then current induced wil l be (A) 0 (B) along +z direction
(C) along clockwise as seen from + Z (D) along anticlockwise as seen from+Z [JEE
' 2005 (Scr)] Q.24 A long solenoid of radius a and number ofturns per unit lengt
h n is enclosed by cylindrical shell of radius R, thickness d (d R ) and length
L. A variable current i = i sin cot flows thro ugh the coil. Ifthe resistivity o
f the material of cylindrical shell is p,findth e induced current inthe shell. [
JEE 2005] Q JT" 3 fe Bansal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

Q.25 In the given diagram, a line offeree of a particular force field is shown.
Out ofthe following options, it can never represent (A) an electrostatic field (
B) a magnetostatic field (C) a gravitationalfieldof a mass at rest (D) an induc
e d electric field [JEE 2006] Comprehension -/ The capacitor of capacitance C ca
n be charged (with the help of a resistance R) by a voltage source V, by closing
s witch S[ while keeping switch S open. The capacitor can be connected in serie
s w ith an inductor 'L' by closing switch S and opening S j. 2 2 2 Q. 26 Initial
ly, the capacitor was uncharged. Now, switch Sj is closed and S is kept open. If
time constant of this circuit is x, then (A) after time interval x , charge on
the capacitor is CV/2 (B) after time interval 2x, charge on the capa citor is C
V( l-e~ ) (C) the work done by the voltage source will be half of the heat dissi
pated when the capacitor is fully charged. (D) after time interval 2x , charge o
n the capacitor is C V( 1-e ) [JEE 2006] 2 1 -npmw ! Q.27 After the capacitor ge
ts fully charged, Sj is opened and S is closed so tha t the inductor is connecte
d in series with the capacitor. Then, (A) at t = 0, en ergy stored in the circui
t is purely in the form of magnetic energy (B) at any t ime t > 0, current in th
e circuit is in the same direction (C) at t > 0, there i s no exchange of energy
between the inductor and capacitor 2 (D) at any time t > 0, instantaneous curre
nt in the circuit may V j 1 [JEE 2006] Q.28 If the total charge stored in the LC
circuit is Q , then for t > 0 (r 71 tt (A) the charge on the capacitor is Q = Q
cos V2 VLC (B) the charge on the capac itor is Q = Q cosf it t 2 VLC 0 tt 0 + 0
(C) the charge on the capacitor is Q = -LC d Q dt (D) the charge on the capacito
r is Q = - 1 d Q V L C dt 2 2 2 [JEE 2006] fe Bansal Classes Electromagnetic In
duction [10]

Comprehension IV Magler Train: This train is based on the Lenz law and phenomena
of electromagnetic induction. In this there is a coil on a railway track and mag
net on the base of train. So as train is deviated then as is move down coil on
t rack repel it and as it move up then coil attract it. Disadvantage of magler t
ra in is that as it slow down the forces decreases and as it moves forward so du
e t o Lenz law coil attract it backward. Due to motion oftrain current induces i
n th e coil of track which levitate it. Q.29 What is the advantage ofthe train?
(A) E lectrostatic force draws the train (C) Electromagnetic force draws the tra
in (B) Gravitational force is zero. (D) Dissipative force due to friction are ab
sent [ JEE 2006] Q.30 What is the disadvantage of the train? (A) Train experienc
e upward force du e to Lenz's law. (B) Friction force create a drag on the train
. (C) Retardation (D) By Lenz's law train experience a drag Q.31 Which force cau
ses the train to e levate up (A) Electrostatic force (C) magnetic force Q.32 Mat
ch the following Co lumns Column 1 (A) Dielectric ring uniformly charged (B) Die
lectric ring uniform ly charged rotating with angular velocity. (C) Constant cur
rent inringi (D) Curr ent i = i cos cot in ring 0 0 [JEE 2006] [JEE 2006] (B) Ti
me varying electric field (D) Induced electric field Column 2 (P) Time independe
nt electrostaticfieldout of system (Q) Magnetic field (R) Induced electric field
(S) Magnetic moment [JEE 2006] fe Bansal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

ANSWER Q.l 10 n V Q.2 XVB0 Q.3 EXERCISE-I 5.0 p V KEY Q.4 I" 1 Q.5 2N LE Q.6 Q.l
l p ia % 2Rb 0 Q.7 mgR B/ 2 2 Q8 -A Q.9 O.J Q.10 2Rr erk Q12 Q-13 2 _ e d i r e
c t e d a i o n g tangent to the circle of radius r, whose centre lies on the ax
is of cylinder. Q.15 EL Q.16 kMT /(R) 2 1 Q.14 3nV, clockwise f Q.17 LI/2R Q.21
7t/4 T" ^ Q.18 200 rad/sec Q.19 q = Q sin LC t + 7C 1 2J 0 A Q.20 C7ta /R 2

nrr Q.22 = 2H Q 23 20 V 2 0 K Q.24 R= 100W, V3/71 Hz Q.25 C = 9.2 pF EXERCISE-II

Q.l 85.22Tm ;(ii)56.8 V; (iii)linearly 2 Q.2 8 Bd Bd 17 + Q.3 (i) 2.4 x 10-5 v
(ii) from to b Q.4 (i) 3.3 x 10 A,(ii) 1.0 x 10 W,(iii) totally unrealistic c 4Q
.5 21.74 V, anticlockwise Q.6 ~1 rl 3 Q.7 <|) = 271 L /n a+b ~I a Q.9 4B vd 2 Q.
8 ^o I a V (n 3a a 4 4n R 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 ^o I aV , 2tt R 3 4 2 2 1 2 nX Q.lO^^/n 2
71 a fe Bansal Classes Electromagnetic Induction [10]

Q.ll v / dB L 2 - R / 2 dt v 4 2 2 2 Q.12 R E Rj 1 2 2 3 3 1 R + R R + R R 2 2 Q
.13 67/32 A Q. 14 (i) ij = i = 10/3 A, 00 ii = 50/11 A; i = 30/11A (iii) h = 0,
i = 20/11 A, (iv) = i = 0 2 Q.15 C = 2 i r- f r V 1 1+M v coL-- 1 Ca fflL(Q+Cs). (
Cj + C ) Ci V 2 A V 2 A r c c C 2 Q.16 42 + 20t volt Q.17 0.08 H, 17.28 W Q.20 0
.2 mH, ^ F , 8 > < 10 rad/s 5 Q.18 2A 400W Q.19 77Q, 97.6Q, 7.7V, 9.76V EXERCISE
-III Q h \ 22 ' 1 A I b e 11 A ; i p E 22 A Q.2 A, D Q.3 V= 1 ms , i = 0.47 0 ,
R^, = 0.30D _1 R Q.4ACD 1 Bor [l-e" J mgr Q.5 (a) E= - Bror (b) (i) 1= ^ , (ii)
x= - f - coscot + coB r (l-e~ ) o 2 Rt/L 2 4 2 J 4 R Rt/L Q.6 t = /n2 = 3.47 sec
R mgR Q-9 V terminal Q.7 D o

Q.8 evBk , ABDC = ; (ii) f Q.10 1.6 71 x 10-13 A= 50.3 pA 4 Q. 11 (i) A, B, C, D

, (ii) B, (iii) B, (iv) (a) 10 A/s (b) 0 (c) 2A (d) 100^3 pC Q.12 C Q.13 D Q.14
D Q.15 (a) i = ~ in anticlockwise direction, v=velocity at tim e t, (b) F =B a V/R
, R nett 0 2 2 ( C ) V mgR ' 1 - e Ba 2 2 Bpa 2 t ^ m R fe Bansal Classes Electr
omagnetic Induction [10]

Q.16 A Q.18 D Q.17 I2e" , 6e 5t _10t Q.19 B 2 Q-20 ( a ) I = ^ C I G ) / n 2 , (

b) m a x 0 Q.21 B v = 220V2 sin cot i = 20 sin (at-n'4) V,I Q.22 20A,7, ' Steady s
tate current i = 20sin 71 lOOt71 2 ?> W-J2 r/8 r/4 \sr/8" T 9TIS Q.23 A Q.25 A,C Q
.29 D Q.26 B Q.30 D Q.24 1 = Q.27 D Q.31 C (H ni (Dcoscot)7ta (Ld) 0 0 p27iR Q.2
8 C Q.32 (A) P; (B) P, Q, S; (C) Q,S ; (D) Q, R, S


QUESTION FOR SHORT ANSWER Q.l Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Are induced emfs and currents diff
erent in any way from emfs and currents provid ed by a battery connected to a co
nducting loop? Can a charged particle at rest b e set in motion by the action of
a magnetic field? If not, why not? If so, how? Consider both static and time-va
rying fields. In Faraday's law of induction, doe s the induced emf depend on the
resistance ofthe circuit? If so, how? Figure sho ws a copper ring that is hung
from a ceiling by two threads. Describe in detail how you might most effectively
use a bar magnet to get this ring to swing back a nd forth. Two conducting loop
s face each other a distance d apart, as shown in f igure. An observer sights al
ong their common axis from left to right. A clockwis e current i is suddenly est
ablished in the larger loop by a battery not shown, ( a) What is the direction o
f the induced current in the smaller loop? (b) What is the direction ofthe force
(if any) that acts on the smaller loop? A circular lo op moves with constant ve
locity through regions where uniform magneticfieldsofth e same magnitude are dir
ected into or out ofthe plane of the page, as indicated infigure.At which ofthe
seven indicated positions will the induced current be (a ) clockwise, (b) counte
rclockwise, and (c) zero? Q.6 IX X X Q.7 Q.8 Q. 9 Can an induced current ever es
tablish a magneticfieldB that is in the same direc tion as the magnetic field in
ducing the current? Justify your answer. A plane cl osed loop is placed in a uni
form magneticfield.In what ways can the loop be move d without inducing an emf?
Consider motions both oftranslation and rotation. Fig ure (a) shows a top view o
f the electron orbit in a betatron. Electrons are acce lerated in a circular orb
it in the xy plane and then withdrawn to strike the tar get T. The magneticfield
B is along the z axis (the positive z axis is out ofthe page). The magneticfield
B along this axis varies sinusoidally as shown in figure (b). Recall that the ma
gneticfieldmust (i) guide the electrons in their circula r path and (ii) generat
e the electricfieldthat accelerates the electrons. Which quarter cycle(s) infigu
reare suitable (a) according to (i), (b) according to (ii ), and (c) for operati
on of the betatron? z 2 5/-\6 '4 7\ (a) | | Bansal Classes (b) Question Bank on
EMI [2]

Q.10 (i) A piece of metal and a piece of non-metallic stone are droppedfromthe s
ame height near the surface of the earth. Which one will reach the ground earli
e r? (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) A metallic loop is placed in a nonuniform magneticfield
,w ill an emf be induced in the loop ? A wire loop is held with its plane horizo
nta l. Amagnet with its north pole downward is allowed to fall through itfromsom
e he ight. Will the magnet fall with constant acceleration? What will happen ift
he po les are reversed? A magnet is dropped down into long vertically copper tub
e. Sho w that, even neglecting air resistance the magnet will reach a constant t
erminal velocity. A magnet is droppedfromthe ceiling along the axis of a copper
loop ly ingflaton thefloor.Ifthe falling magnet is photographed with a time sequ
ence cam era, what differences, if any will be noted if, (i) the loop is at room
temperat ure the loop is packed in dry ice ? Q.ll A copper ring is suspended in
a vertical plane by a thread. A steel bar is passed through the ring in the hori
zontal direction which is perpendicular to th e plane of the loop. Then a magnet
is similarly passed through the loop. Will th e motion ofthe magnet and the bar
affect the position of the ring? Q.12 If the m agneticfieldoutside a copper box
is suddenly changed, what happens to the magnet icfieldinside the box ? Such lo
w-resistivity metals are used to form enclosures which shield objects inside the
m against varying magnetic fields. Q.13 Metallic (nonferromagnetic) and nonmetal
lic particles in a solid waste may be separated a s follows. The waste is allowe
d to slide down an incline over permanent magnets. The metallic particles slow d
own as compared to the nonmetallic ones and hence are separated. Discuss the rol
e of eddy currents in the process. Q.14 Ajet plane isflyingdue north. A potentia
l difference is produced between he wing tips ofth e plane. Will a passenger sit
ting inside the plane also expect some emfbetween t he wing tips? Will a tiny bu
lb connected to the wing tips glow? Q.15 Is the indu ctance per unit length for
a solenoid near its centre; (a) the same as(b) less t han or (c) greater than th
e inductance per unit length near its ends ? Q.16 Two solenoids A & B have the s
ame diameter & length & contain only one layer of wind ings, with adj acent turn
s touching, insulation thickness being negligible. Sole noid A contains many tur
ns offinewire & solenoid B contains fewer turns ofheavie r wire, (i) which solen
oid has the larger inductance? (i) which solenoid has the larger inductive time
constant ? (material is same) B Q.17 If thefluxN4> through each turn of a coil i
s the same, the inductance of th e coil may be computed passing from L = j . How
might one compute L for a coil f or which this assumption is not valid . (fe Ba
nsal Classes Question Bank on EMI [3]

Q.18 If a current in a source of emfis in the direction of the emf, the energy o
fthe source decreases, if a current is in a direction opposite to the emf (as i
n charging a battery), the energy of the source increases Do these statements ap
p ly to the inductor. Q.19 Does the time required for the current in particular
LR circuit to build up to any given fraction of its equilibrium value depend on
th e value of the applied emf. Q.20 A steady current is set up in a coil with a
ver y large inductive time constant. When the current is interupted with a switc
h a heavy arc tends to appear at the switch blades. Explain? [Note: interrupting
cur rents in highly inductive circuits can be dangerous] Q.21 What is the advan
tage of placing the two electric wires carrying ac close together? Q. 22 In an L
R ser ies circuit the selfinduced emfis a maximum at the instant the switch is c
losed. How can this be since there is no current in the inductance at this insta
nt. Q. 23 Explain what is meant by the statement "A motor acts as a motor and ge
nerato r at the same time." Can the same be said for a generator? Q. 24 In a tor
oid, is the energy density larger near the inner radius or near the outer radius
? Q.25 Two circular loop s are placed with their centres separated by afixeddis
tance. How would you orient the loops to have (a) the largest mutual inductance
(b) the smallest mutual inductance ? Q.26 If the resistance R in the left hand c
ircuit offigureis increased, what is the direction ofthe induced current in the
right h and circuit ? (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [14]

ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT. Take approx. 2 minutes for answering each question.
An electron is moving in a circular orbit on a. At the centre ofthe orbit is kep
t a The e.m.f induced in the smaller loop due ero, since charge on electron in c
onstant a er er y^Q-rl a conducting loop of radius R is present in a uniform mag
netic field B perpendic ular the plane ofthe ring. Ifradius R varies as a functi
on oftime't', as R = R + 1. The e.m.f induced in the loop is (A) 2TC(R + t)B clo
ckwise ( B ) 7 T ( R + T ) B clockwise (C) 27T(R + t)B anticlockwise (D) zero A
wire loop is placed in a region oftime varying magneticfieldwhich is oriented or
thogonally to the plane o f the loop as shown in thefigure.The graph shows the m
agneticfieldvariation as t he function oftime. Assume the positive emf is the on
e which drives a current in the clockwise direction and seen by the observer in
the direction of B. Which o f the following graphs best represents the induced e
mf as a function oftime. 0 d 4TTR Q 0 J J T 4 Q.5 (C) (D) ST A square wire loop
of 10.0 cm side lies at right angles to a uniform magneticfieldof 20T. A10 V lig
ht bulb is in a series with the loop as shown in t hefig.The magneticfieldis dec
reasing steadily to zero over a time interval At. T he bulb will shine with full
brightness if At is equal to (A) 20 ms (B) 0.02 ms (C) 2 ms (D) 0.2 ms A long s
traight wire is parallel to one edge as infig.If the current in the long wire is
varies intime as I = T -fx, what will be the induce d emf in the loop?" p bl d
+ a ^ d+a (A) In ( B ) ^ f e . 711 / 2ttc V e T 0 w (A) (B) t, t. (D) TIT In d+a
7ix v a A rectangular loop with a sliding connector oflength 10 c m is situated
in uniform magneticfieldperpendicular to plane of loop. The magnet ic induction
is 0.1 tesla and resistance of connector (R) is 1 ohm. The sides AB and CD have
resistances 2 ohm and 3 ohm respectively. Find the current in the c onnector dur
ing its motion with constant velocity one metre/sec. p 0 bl (B) 220 of radius R
with an angular accelerati conducting loop of radius r, (r R ) . to the motion o
f the electron is (A) z (B) Po a 4R (D) none of these (C) M-o

1 (D) 440 A (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [5]

Q/f The magnetic flux through a stationary loop with resistance R varies during
inte rval of time T as <j> = at (T -1). The heat generated during this time negl
ectin g the inductance of loop will be a^T aT a a (C) 3R (A) 3R (B) 3R CD) R Q/8
" The dimensions of permeability offreespace can be given by (D) [MLA^ ] (A) [ML
T A" ] (B) [MLA" ] (C) [ML" T A ] Q.9 A wire as a parabola y = a x is located in
a uni form magnetic field of inductance B, the vector B being perpendicular to
the pla ne xy. At the moment t = 0 a connector starts translation wisefromthe pa
rabola a pex with a constant acceleration co tofindthe emf of electromagnetic in
duction i n the loop this formed as a function of y 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 (AW =2 B
y c S = (BK in By (D) s ( ) in a ' 2 A thin circular ring of area 10~ m is held
perpendicular t o a uniform magneticfieldofinduction 0.1 T. A small cut is made
in the ring and the galvanometer is connected across the ends such that the tota
l resistance of the circuit is 0.1 Q. The ring is squeezed to area 0.5 x 10 m in
time 0.1 sec. T he average induced current in the circuit is (A) insufficient d
ata (B) 0.05 A (C )0.5A (D)5A A closed planar wire loop ofarea A and arbitrary s
hape is placed in a uniform magneticfieldofmagnitude B, with its plane perpendic
ular to magneticfi eld.The resistance of the wire loop is R. The loop is now tur
ned upside down by 180 so that its plane again becomes perpendicular to the magne
ticfield.The total charge that must have flowed through the wire ring in the pro
cess is (A) < AB/R (B)=AB/R (C) = 2AB/R (D)None D fy r A square coil ABCD is pla
ced in x-y plane wi th its centre at origin. A long straight wire, passing throu
gh origin, carries a current in negative z-direction. Current in this wire incre
ases with time. The induced current in the coil is : (A) clockwise (B) anticlock
wise (C) zero (D) al ternating By 2 2 -2 2 J ^ 3 s j * r1I 5 (fe Bansal Classes
A vertical bar magnet is droppedfromposition on the axis ofafixedmetallic rh s c
ii coil as shown infig-1. Infig- II the magnet isfixedand horizontal coil is dr
opped. The acceleration ofthe magnet and coil are al and cl, respectively i1. N
L then C ]1 J) fixed fixed N (B) aj > g, a < g (A) a, > g , a > (C) a, < g a < g
fig-H (D) a. < fig-I Two identical coaxial circular loops carry a current i eac
h circulating inthe same direction. If the loops approach each other (A) the cur
r ent in each will decrease (B) the current in each will increase (C) the curren
t in each will remain the same (D) the current in one will increase and in other
w ill decrease A long straight conductor is placed along axis of a circular coi
l o f radius R. Ifthe current, B as shown infigure,starts decreasing with time,
the current induced in loop would be \ (A) clockwise (ACB) (B) anticlockwise (AB
C) S e ^ (C) can not be decided (D) there will be no induced current. 2

2 2 A Question Bank on EMI [6]

Q . 16 In a long hollow vertical metal pipe a magnet is dropped. During its fall
, the acceleration of magnet: (A) will decrease linearly (B) will decrease upto
a value which is less than g. (C) will decrease to zero and will attain a termi
n al speed (D) may increase or decrease s^tyrff In the arrangement shown in give
nf igurecurrentfromAto B is increasing inmagnitude. Induced current in the loop
wil l (A) have clockwise direction (B) have anticlockwise direction (C) be zero
(D) oscillate between clockwise and anticlockwise An electric current ij canflow
eith erdirectionthroughloop(l) and induced current i, in loop (2). Positive i, i
s whe n current isfrom'a' to 'b' in loop (1) ' loop (l) and positive i is when t
he cur rent is from 'c' to'd' in loop (2) In an experiment, the graph of i again
st time *t* is as shown below v 2 2 l o o p (2) Which one(s) of the following gr
aphs could have caused i to behave as give above . 2 (A) (C) (B)o (D) ^Qr1"9 A b
ar magnet is releasedfromrest along the axis of a very long, vertical copper tub
e after some time, the magnet (A) will stop the tube (B) will move wit h almost
constant speed (C) will move with acceleration g (D) will oscillate J^> 0 Figure
shows a bar magnet and a long straight wire W, carrying current into th e plane
of paper. Point P is the point of intersection of axis of magnet and the line N
of shortest distance between magnet and the wire. If P is the midpoint o f the
magnet, then which of the following statements is correct ? W (A) magnet e xperi
ences a torque in clockwise direction (B) magnet experiences a torque in an ticl
ockwise direction (C) magnet experiences a force, normal to the line of shor tes
t distance (D) magnet experiences a force along the line of shortest distance X
QrlT A square coil ABCD is lying in xy plane with its centre at origin. A lng st
raight wire passing through origin carries a current i = 2t in negative z-direc
t ion. The induced current in the coil is (A) clockwise (B) anticlockwise (C) al
te rnating (D) zero x ^. Bansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [130]

(YXI A negative charge is given to a nonconducting loop and the loop is rotated
in the IIIIII fj plane of paper about its centre as shown infigure.The magneticf
ieldproduced by the ring affects a small magnet placed above the ring in the sa
m e plane: s (A) the magnet does not rotate (B) the magnet rotates clockwise as
se enfrombelow. (C) the magnet rotates anticlockwise as seen from below (D) no e
ffe ct on magnet is there. Two infinitely long conducting parallel rails are con
nect ed through a capacitor C B as shown in thefigure.A conductor of length I is
move d with constant speed J7 v .'Which of the following graph truly depicts the
varia tion of current L through the conductor with time ? p % 1 0 N (A) Current
T I(t) (B) Current T I(t) t (time) t (time) (C) Current t I(t) (D) t (time) Curr
ent t I(t) 1= 0 t (time) Two identical conductors P and Q are placed on twofiict
ionlessrails R and S in a uniform magneticfielddirected into the plane. If P is
moved in the X direction shown infigurewith a constant speed then Rrod Q V (A) w
ill be attracted towards P X (B) will be repelled away from P (C) will remain st
ationary (D) maybe repell ed or attracted towards P s X X X X X X X B x X

Qs25 Thefigureshows an isosceles triangle wireframewith apex angle equal to n/2.

The frame starts entering into the region ofuniform magneticfieldB with constan
t velocity v at t= 0. The longest side of the frame is perpendicular to the dir
e ction ofvelocity. If i is the instantaneous current through theframethen choos
e the alternati ve showing the correct variation ofi with time. (A) (B) (C) (D)
i" A thin wire of length 2m is perpendicular to the xy plane. It is moved with v
elo city v = (2i + 3 j + k) m / s through a region ofmagnetic induction B = (I +
2 j ) Wb / m Then potential difference induced between the ends ofthe wire : (A
) 2 v olts (D) none ofthese (B) 4 volts (C)0 volts 2 ^. Bansal Classes Question
Bank on EMI [131]

y Q J Z ^ A long metal bar of 30 cm length is aligned along a north south line a

nd moves eastward at a speed of 10 ms" . A uniform magnetic field of 4.0 T poin
t s vertically downwards. If the south end of the bar has a potential of 0 V, th
e induced potential at the north end ofthe bar is (A) + 12 V (B)-12V (C) 0 V (D)
c annot be determined since there is not closed circuit 8 A square metal loop o
f s ide 10 cm and resistance 1 Q is moved with a constant velocity partly inside
a m agnetic field of 2 Wbrrr , directed into the paper, as shown in thefigure.T
his l oop is connected to a network offiveresistors each of X X X value 3 f l If
a ste ady current of 1 mAflows inthe loop, then the speed of the loop is (A) 0.
5 cms" (B) 1 cms (C)2cms" (D) 4 cms" Q.29 Two conducting rings P and Q ofradii r
and 2r rotate uniformly in opposite directions with centre of mass velocities 2
v and v respectively on a conducting surface S. There is auniform magneticfieldo
fmagnit ude B perpendicular to the plane ofthe rings. The potential difference b
etween B ,2r/ o the highest points ofthe two rings is iinriimniiinnninuiii P S Q
(A) zer o (B) 4 Bvr (C) 8 Bvr (D) 16Bvr ^ J ^ f ) Two coils, X and Y, are linke
d such th at emfE is induced in Y when the current in X is changing at the rate
1 2 1 -1 1 1 dIN dt . If a current I is now made toflowthrough Y, thefluxlinked
with X will be 0 t c , (C)(EI)I (D)ioi IJ E A conductor AB of length I oriented
along x-axis moves in X Y plane with velocity v = v (i - j). A magneticfieldB =
B (i + j) exists in the region. The induced emf is (A)V2B /v (B)2B /V (C)B /V (D
)zero A conducting rod m oves with constant velocity u perpendicular to the long
, straight wire carrying a current I as shown compute that the emf generated bet
ween the ends of the rod. p ol/ p ol/ 2p ol/ p ol/ VY (A) (B) 2izr (C) (D) 4Tv 7
ir %r A conducting rod of length I moves with velocity u a direction parallel to
a long wire carrying a s teady current I. The axis of the rod is maintained per
pendicular to the wire wit h near end a distance r away as shown in thefig.Find
the emf induced in the rod. 0 (A) EI 1 (B) E \ 6 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v / (A) (C K In T+l \ r J i ^ T+l J (B r + / 7t Vol" , K ( D ) I

n T+l (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [9]

A square loop of side a and resistance R is moved in the region of uniform magne
tic field B(loop remaining completely insidefield) ,with a velocity v through a
distance x. The work done is : 4B ^ vx 2B ^ 2 VX B2vx (D) none (C) R (B) R (A) R
A metallic rod oflength L and mass M is moving under the action oftwo unequal f
o rces F and F (directed opposite to each other) acting at its ends along its le
ng th. Ignore gravity and any external magneticfield.If specific charge ofelectr
ons is (e/m), then the potential difference between the ends ofthe rod is steady
st ate must be (A)|F -F |mL/eM (B) (F -F )mL/eM (C) [mL/eM]/n [F,/F ] (D)None T
wo p arallel rigid wires arefixedat a distance' d' apart, with each wire in a ve
rtica l position. The top ends of the two wires are connected through an ideal i
nducto r of inductance L. Astraight connector of mass M can slidefreelyup and do
wn, mai ntaining electrical contact with the two wires, in a horizontal position
. Aunifo rm magneticfieldexists perpendicular to the plane of the wires. If the
connector is releasedfromrest, the graph ofits downward velocity with time is: 2
2 2 } 2 1 2 1 2 2 (D) (C) (B) 31 A rod closing the circuit shown infiguremoves
along a U shaped wi re at a constant speed v under the action of the force F. Th
e circuit is in a un iform magnetic field perpendicular to the plane. Calculate
F ifthe rate ofheat g eneration in the circuti is Q. (A) (A) F = Qv ( B ) F =v ?
(- Q F = ^ Q (D) F = a/Qv Two parallel long straight con ductors lie on a smoot
h surface. Two other parallel conductors rest on J^ them a t right angles so as
to form a square of side a initially. Auniform magneticfiel dB exists at right a
ngles to the plane containing the conductors. They start mov ing out with a cons
tant velocity v. If r is the resistance per unit length ofthe wire the current i
n the circuit will be Bv Br (B) (C)Bvr (D) Bv (A) r v <39 Ther e is a uniform mag
neticfieldB normal to the xy plane. A conductor ABC has length AB = l , parallel
to the x-axis, and length BC = / , parallel to the y-axis. AB C moves in the xy
plane with velocity ,c v i + v j . The potential difference be tween Aand C is
proportional to (A)v / v / (B )v / + v / (Qv/rV. () V i \l2 A con ducting rod PQ
of length 5 m oriented as shown infigureis moving with velocity ( 2 m/s) i witho
ut any rotation in a uniform magneticfield(3j + 4k) Tesla. Emf ind uced in the r
od is (A) 3 2 Volts (B) 40 Volt (C) 50 Volt (D)none An equilateral triangular lo
op ADC of somefinitemagneticfieldB as shown in thefigure.At time t = 0, side DC
ofloop is at edge ofthe magneticfield.Magnetic field is perpendicul ar to the pa
per inwards (or perpendicular to the plane of the x coil). The induc ed current
versus time graph will be as x

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X y~yF; 8 x 2 x y x 1 + y 2 x 2 y 1 x
x (A) (B) (Q (D) (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [10]

QA2 In the circuit shown infigure,a conducting wire HE is moved with a constant
speed V towards left. The complete circuit is placed in a uniform magnetic field
B perpendicular to the plane of the circuit directed in inward direction. The c
urrent in HKDE is (A) clockwise (B) anticlockwise (C) alternating (D) zero C =
c A H K "C D The magnetic field in a region is given by B B 1 + X jk A square lo
op of edge length d is a] J*44 placed with its edge along x & y axis. The loop i
s moved with constant velocity V = v i The emf induced in the loop is VBa V B d^
%B d" (D) None (A) a (C) d (B) 2a When a ' J' shaped conducting rod is rotating
in its own plane with constant angular velocity w, about one of its end P, in a
uniform magneticfieldB directe d normally into the plane of paper) then magnitu
de of emfinduced across it will be o 0 0 0 0 0 (A)BQ^L +l 2 2 2 (B) ^ B o L 2 2
^ (fe Bansal Classes (C) ^-Bco(L / ) (D) ^-Bco/ Q.45 Ametal disc rotatesfreely,b
etween the poles ofa magnet in the direction N indicated. Brushes P and Q make c
ontact with the edge ofthe disc and the metal axle. What current, if any,flowsth
rough R? ^ 1 (A) a cu rrentfromP to Q (B) a currentfromQ to P (C) no current, be
cause the emf in the d isc is opposed by the back emf (D) no current, because th
e emfinduced in one sid e ofthe disc is opposed by the emf induced in the other
side. (E) no current, be cause no radial emf is induced inthe disc For L-R circu
it, the time constant is equal to (A) twice the ratio of the energy stored in th
e magneticfieldto the rat e of dissipation of energy in the resistance (B) ratio
of the energy stored in t he magneticfieldto the rate of dissipation of energy
in the resistance (C) half the ratio of the energy stored in the magneticfieldto
the rate of dissipation of energy in the resistance (D) square ofthe ratio ofth
e energy stored in the magn

eticfieldto the rate of dissipation of energy in the resistance A rectangular co

il of single turn, having area A, rotates in a uniform magneticfieldB an angula
r velocity 0) about an axis perpendicular to thefield.If initially the plane of
c oil is perpendicular to thefield,then the average induced e.m.f. when it has r
ot ated through 90 is CDBA coBA coBA 2CDBA (A) % (B)' 2tz (Q 4k (D)r * * ' % 8 A
rin g of resistance 10H, radius 10cm and 100 turns is rotated at a rate 100 revo
luti ons per second about afixedaxis which is perpendicular to a uniform magneti
cfiel dof induction 1 OmT. The amplitude of the current in the loop will be near
ly (Ta ke : k2 = 10) (A) 200A (B)2A (C)0.002A (D) none of these 2 Question Bank
on EMI [11]

v^ 9 A copper rod AB of length L, pivoted at one end A, rotates at constant angu

lar v elocity Q, at right angles to a uniform magneticfieldofinduction B. The e.
m.f de veloped between the mid point C of the rod and end B is 3B/ Bar B a r (C)
(B) (A) Figure shows auniform magneticfieldB confined to a cylindrical volume an
d is in creasing at a constant rate. The instantaneous acceleration experienced
by an el ectron placed at P is (A) zero (B) towards right (C) towards left (D) u
pwards A triangular wire frame (each side = 2m) is placed in a region oftime var
iant Xcv magneticfieldhaving dB/dt=V3 T/s. The magneticfieldis perpendicular to
the plane of the triangle. The base of the triangle AB has a resistance 1 Q whil
e the oth er two sides have resistance 2D each. The magnitude ofpotential differ
ence betwe en the points A and B will be (A) 0.4 V (B) 0.6 V (C) 1.2 V (D)None 1
0V In the a djoining circuit, initially the switch Sis open. The switch's' is cl
osed 0.1 H i on at t = 0. The difference between the maximum and minimum current
that A/VH TftM Tcan flow in the circuit is (A) 2 Amp (B) 3 Amp (C) 1 Amp (D) noth
ing can be con cluded R The ratio oftime constant in charging and discharging in
the AAAL 2R circ uit shown infigureis AAA(A)1 : 1 (B)3 : 2 (C)2:3 (D) 1:3 In anL-R
circuit connect ed to a battery of constant e.m.f. E switch S is closed at time
t = 0. If e deno tes the magnitude of induced e.m.f. across inductor and i the
current in the cir cuite at any time t. Then which of the following graphs shows
the variation of e with i ? 10Q y 0 51 (B) (C) (D) A curren of2A is increasing
at a rate of 4 A/s through a coil of inductance 2H. The energy stored in the ind
uctor per unit time is (A) 2 J/s (B) 1 J/s (C) 16 J/ s (D) 4 J/s x Q<56 Two iden
tical inductance carry currents that vary with time according to li near laws (a
s shown infigure).In which of two inductance is the self induction e mf greater?
(A) 1 1 (B)2 (C) same (D) data are insufficient to decide (fe Bansal Classes Qu
estion Bank on EMI [12]

y 5 8 The current in the given circuit is increasing with a rate a=4 amp/s. The
charge on the capacitor at an instant when the current in the circuit is 2 amp w
ill be : (A) 4pC (B) 5pC L=1H 0 3 P F (C) 6pC (D) none of these L, C and R repre
sent p hysical quantities inductance, capacitance and resistance. The combinatio
n which has the dimensions of frequency is 1 (A) ^ and I (B) V R C and (C) Vlc <
59 A coil of inductance 5H is joined to a c ell of emf 6 V through a resistance
10Q at time t = 0. The emf across the coil a t time t = In J2 s is: (A) 3V (B) 1
.5 V (C) 0.75 V (D)4.5V 60 Along solenoid of N turns has a self inductance L and
area of cross section A. When a current i fl ows through the solenoid, the magn
eticfieldinside it has magnitude B. The curren t i is equal to: (A) BAN/L (B)BAN
L (C) BN/AL (D) B/ANL Q.61 A long straight wire of circular cross-section is mad
e of a non-magnetic material. The wire is of ra dius a. The wire carries a curre
nt I which is uniformly ditributed over its cros s-section. The energy stored pe
r unit lenght in the magneticfieldcontained withi n the wire is ( A ) U = ^ (B)U
= M (C)U = M-QI (D)U = 2K 8tt 1671 4tc is part uQ - 6 2 The network shown in th
eIfigure and it isof a complete circuit.ofIf at a 1 Q + 5 mH certain instant, th
e current is 5 A decreasing at a rate A-WA11rsmRP 15 V 10 As" then V - V equals (A)
20 V ' (B) 15 V (C)10V (D) 5 V In Problem 62, if I is reversed in direction, th
en V - V equals (A) 5 V (B)10V (C) 15 V (D) 20 V 10H Two resistors of 10 D and 2
0 fl and an ideal inductor of 10 H are connected to a 2 V battery as shown. The
key K is inserted at time t = 0. The initial (t = 0) and lA/vW final (t ->00) curr
ents through battery are ion ^2on J_ J_ 15 ' 10 K V. WVo >T5 B 3 1 B A B A 1 ( A
) A A A A 2V A small coil of radius r is placed at the centre of a large coil o
f radius R, wh ere R r. The coils are coplanar. The coefficient inductance betwe
en the coils is

(A) 2R (B) 2R (C) 2R (D) 2 R ^ Q.66 Two long parallel wires whose centres are a
distance d apart carry equal currents in opposite directions. If the flux withi
n wires is neglected, the inductance of such arrangement of wire of length / and
radius a will be a_ u / d Li / a Po/ (A)L = log da- - B L= l o g (C)L= l o gd(D
)none 71 71 a 71 2 2 n n e e Bansal Classes Question Bank on EMI j [13]

V^ 9 The inductor in a L-C oscillation has a maximum potential difference of 16

V and maximum energy of 160 pJ. The value of capacitor in L-C circuit is (A) 0.8
pF ( B) 0.625 pF (C) 1.6 pF (D)1.25pF In the circuit shown, the cell is ideal.
The co il has an inductance of 4H and L " I W i h zero resistance. F is a fuse o
fzero r esistance and will blow when the current j fuse through it reaches 5 A.
The swit ch is closed at t = 0. The fuse will blow : s A (A) just after t=0 (B)
after 2s 1 j^ (C) after 5 s (D) after 10s 2V A coil of inductance L and zero res
istance i s connected to a source of variable emf at t = 0. The emf of the sourc
e is varie d with time according to the graph shown on the right above. What wil
l be the av erage current that flows through the coil during time T? (A) V T/2L
(B) V T/3L ( C) 3V T/2L (D) V T/L In the LR circuit shown, what is the variation
ofthe curren t I as a function 2V of time? The switch is closed at time t = 0 s
ec. I L R ,V (m an- a w H V f1-e r A V (B) e (A)R R V R 0 0 0 0 h 1 L V - (D) None
(C)--E^ In the circuit shown, X is joined to Y for a long time, and then X is j
oined to Z. The total heat produced in R^ is : -WW LE/ LEr LE RO TSWP LE Y L (A)
2R?j (C) 2RJR (D) 2Rf (B) z.iv 2Ri ' -AAAA R An induction coil stores 32 joules
of magnetic energy and dissipates energy as heat at the rate of 320 w atts. Whe
n a current of 4 amperes is passed through it. Find the time constant o f the ci
rcuit when the coil is joined across a battery. (D) 0.4 s (A) 0.2 s (B)0 .1s (C)
0.3 s The figure shows a part of a complete circuit. The potential 5 mH differe
nce V - V when the current I is 5 A and is decreasing at 11PC(VC\ A 15 V B a rate o
f 10 As is given by (D) 20 V (A) 15 V (B) 10 V (C) -15 V In a L-R decay c ircuit
, the initial current at t = 0 is I. The total charge that has flown throu gh th
e resistor till the energy in the inductor has reduced to one-fourth its in itia
l value, is (A) LI/R (B) LI/2R (C) L1V2/R (D) None A capacitor of capacitanc e 2
pF is charged to a potential difference of 12 V. It is then connected across an
inductor of inductance 0.6 mH. The current in the circuit when the potential di
fference across the capacitor is 6 V is : (A) 3.6 A (B) 2.4A (C) 1.2 A (D) 0. 6
A KMlSHtMP 1 | di ^ C y / 6 In an LC circuit, the capacitor has maximum charge q
. The value of ^ is max 2 2 2 v B A 0 L V M H t 3V 3 -1 0 ^. Bansal Classes (A)
_qn_ LC (B) VLC (D) none of these

Question Bank on EMI [14]

xJ^ An inductor coil stores U energy when i current is passed through it and dis
sipa tes energy at the rate of P. The time constant ofthe circuit, when this coi
l is connected across a battery of zero internal resistance is 2P 4U U 2U (D)~ (
A) (B ) 17 (C) p p V-/ p VV The mutual inductance between the rectangular loop a
nd the long straight wire as shown in figure is M. .o pa (B) M 271 In 1 + 1(A) M
= Zer o H : 0 p f 0 0 0 a. pb (D)M=In (C) M 2ti In V c, A long straight wire is
placed along the axis o a circular ring of radius R. The mutual inductance of th
is system is P 7lR (D) (A) p R (B) (C) H o 0 0
^80 vX 8 4 2 n si (100 t) The power factor of the circuit is 1 / V2 . The capacita
nce ofthe c ircuit is equal to ion o.i H (A) 400 pF (B) 300 pF L-AA,WMiHH (C) 500
pF (D) 200 pF c An ac-circuit having supply voltage E consists of a resistor of
resistance 3D and an inductor of reactance 4Q. as shown in the figure. The volt
age across t he V \ W i i P inductor at t = T/2 is (A) 2 volts (B) 10 volts E=10
sin cat (C) zero (D) 4.8 volts In the circuit, as shown in the figure, if the v
alue of R.M.S current is ioon r^SMJIP- AV 2.2 ampere, the power factor of the bo
x is I/71 Hen ry Box (A) T J (B) 1 -V = 220 volt. u = 100 it s-< > <Q# (0,1 When
100 V DC is ap plied across a solenoid a current of 1A flows in it. When 100 VAC
is applied acr oss the same coil, the current drops to 0.5 A. If the frequency
of the AC source is 50 Hz, the impedance and inductance ofthe solenoid are: (A)
1000, 0.93 H (B) 200H, 1.0 H (C) 102, 0.86H (D)200H, 0.55 H An inductive circuit
contains resistan ce of 10 Q and an inductance of 2 .0 H. If an AC voltage of 12
0 V and frequency 60 Hz is applied to this circuit, the current would be nearly:
(A) 0.8 A (B) 0.4 8 A (C) 0.16 A (D) 0.32A The power in ac circuit is given by
P - E I cos<j).The vale of cos ()) in series LCR circuit at resonance is: - e rm
s rms rms (A) zero (B)l (C) < >vi In ac circuit when ac ammeter is connected it
reads i cu rrent if a student uses dc ammeter in place of ac ammeter the reading
in the dc ammeter will be: 1 D (B) V2 i (C) 0.637 i (D) zero (fe Bansal Classes
Question Bank on EMI [15]

QrSf In the circuti shown in 0. The current throughC and ual to: (A) CR (B) CR I
n (2) ce at an instant is 5 V, the nstant is 4 V. The potential (B)9V 0 c R S AW^
i R V (D)none Othe figure, R= J ~ . Switch S is closed at time t = r^MWT- -A/VW L R L would be
equal after a time t eq AAAAr (D)LR L' In the circuit shown ifthe emfof sour pote
ntial difference across capacitor at the same i difference across R at that inst
ant can be (A) 3 V
An AC current is given by I = I +1 j sin wt then its rms value will be (C)0 (D)
I /V2 (A) v V + O ^ (B) I + 0 . 5 I Let f = 50 Hz, and C = 100 pF in an AC circu
it containing a capicator only. If the peak value of the current in the circuit
isl.57Aatt = 0. The expression for the instantaneous voltage across the capacit
o r will be (A) E = 50 sin (100 TCt - 7t/2) (B)E= 100 sin (50 Tit) (C) E = 50 si
n 100 nt (D) E = 50 sin (100 7tt + TC/2) In a series CR circuit shown in figure,
t he applied voltage is 10 V and the voltage across capacitor is found to be 8
V. Then the voltage across R, and the phase difference between current and the a
ppl ied voltage will respectively be V 8V (B) 3 V, tan" (A) 6V, tan (!) 2 0 2 0
2 0 c 1 1 (C) 6V, tan,-1 (D)none 10V3, J > 9 2 The phase difference between curr
ent and vo ltage in an AC circuit is tc/4 radian. If thefrequencyofAC is 50 Hz,
then the ph ase difference is equivalent to the time difference : (A)0.78 s (B)
15.7ms (C) 0 .25 s (D)2.5ms The given figure represents the phasor diagram of a
series LCR ci rcuit connected to an ac source. At the instant t' when the source
voltage is gi ven by V = V cosa>t', the current in the circuit will be (A) I =
I cos(t' + TC/6) (B) I = I cos(t' - 7i/6) (C) I = I cos(ot' + tc/3) (D) I = I cos(t
' - tc/3) 0 0 0 0 0 V =3V V =VIV OL 0R J^ 4 A coil, a capacitor and an AC source
of rms voltage 24 V are connected in series . By varying the frequency of the s
ource, a maximum rms current of 6 A is observ ed. If coil is connected to a batt
ery of emf 12 volt and internal resistance 4Q, then current through it in steady
state is (A) 2.4 A (B) 1.8 A (C)1.5A (D)1.2A (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank o
n EMI [16]

0 ^ 5 Power factor of an L-R series circuit is 0.6 and that of a C-R series circ
uit is 0.5. If the element (L, C, and R) of the two circuits are joined in seri
e s the power factor of this circuit is found to be 1. The ratio of the resistan
ce in the L-R circuit to the resistance in the C-R circuit is 3V3 (B) 5/6 (D) (A
) 6/5 6 The direct current which would give the same heating effect in an equal
co nstant resistance as the current shown infigure,i.e. therms, current, is (B)
42 A (A) zero (D) 2 V2 A (C) 2A Current/A 1 0 0.0] -1 -2 2 0.02 0.03 0.04 Time/s
. ^ J ^ l The effective value of current i = 2 sin 100 n t + 2 sin(100 % t + 30)
is : (A) V2 A (B) 2^2 + 73 (C)4 (D) None Q.98 In the circuit diagram shown, X =
100 Q, X = 200 Q and R = 100 Q. The effective current through the source is (A)
2 A (B) V2 A (C) 0.5 A (D) 2V2 A c L aT <5 L-Y ^ Q.9 9 If Ij, Ij, I and I are th
e respective r.m.s. values of the time varying currents as shown in the four cas
es I, II, III and IV Then identify the correct relations. i Io In rv\ O O 0 -lo
-In (A) I, = I = I3 = I ( B ) I > I = I > I (C) I > I > I - Ij (D) I > I > Ij >
I 3 4 In Jt -In 2 4 3 1 2 4 3 4 2 3

2 4 ^ 1 0 0 In series LR circuit X = 3R. Now a capacitor with X = R is added in

seri es. Ratio of new to old power factor is 1 (B)2 (A) 1 (D)V2 L c vX 0 1 The c
urrent I, potential difference V across the inductor and potential differen ce V
across the capacitor in circuit as shown in thefigureare best represented v ect
orially as L c L -WW . ,c V, V. r F(A) iv, 02 (B) (C) ' 1 (D) v j A coil, a capa
citor and an A.C. source of rms voltage 24 V are connected in seri es. By varyin
g the frequency of the source, a maximum rms current of 6 A is obse rved. Ifthis
coil is connected to a battery of emf 12 V and internal resistance 4Q, the curr
ent through it will be (A) 2.4 A (B) 1.8 A (C)1.5A (D)1.2A (fe Bansal Classes Qu
estion Bank on EMI [17]

MV3 In the shown AC circuit phase different between currents I, and I is 2 ,,xc
- e TfOTWr W W R X 1 n a 04 ,x T (B) tan" L R C 1 X n ,x T (D) tan L ~ C 2 R X X
The circuit shown is in a uniform magnetic field that is into the page and is x
x x decreasing in magnitude at the rate of 150 tesla/second. The ideal ammeter (
A) reads X X X (A) 0.15 A (B) 0.35 A (C) 0.50 A (D) 0.65 A A Hh 5.0 V A capacit
o r C = 2pF and an inductor with L = 10 H and coil resistance 5 H are in series
in a circuit. When an alternating current of r.m.s. value 2Aflows in the circuit
, the average power in watts in the circuit is (A) 100 (B) 50 (C) 20 (D) 10 WA io
n 10cm ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Take approx. 3 minutes for ans
yvering each question. The dimension of the ratio of magneticfluxand the resista
nce is equal to that of : (A) induced emf (B) charge (C) inductance (D) current
Question No. 2 to 5 (4 questions) 1 1b** X J*2 II The value of magneticfluxin ea
ch case is given by (A) Case I: O = TI(L + Case II: <D = %(L - ) B (B) Case I: O
= u(L + Case II: $ = k(L + )B (C) Case I: <0 = (L + ^ )B; Case II: <D = (L - ^
)B (D) Case I: <D = (L + ^) B; Case II: <D = T

( - ) B C L The direction of induced current in the case I is (A) from a to b and

from c to d (B) from a to b and from/to e (C) from b to a and from d to c (D) f
rom b to a and from e t o / The direction ofinduced current in the case II is (
A ) from a to b and from c to d (B) from b to a and from/ t o e (C) from b to a
an d from c to d (D) from a to b and from d to c If Ij and I are the magnitudes
of induced current in the cases I and II, respectively, then (A) = I (B)I, > I (
C) Ij < I (D) nothing can be said 2 T* X x| X X X The adjoiningfigureshows two d
ifferent arrangements in which two square wirefram esare placed in a uniform con
stantly decreasing magneticfieldB. hi 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (fe Bansal C
lasses Question Bank on EMI [18]

Qk^f Figure shown plane figure made of a conductor located in a magnetic field a
long the inward normal to the plane of thefigure.The magnetic field starts dimi
n ishing. Then the induced current (A) at point P is clockwise (B) at point Q is
a nticlockwise (C) at point Q is clockwise (D) at point R is zero vX 1 x A cond
ucting wire frame is placed in a magneticfieldwhich is directed into the p aper.
The magneticfieldis increasing at a constant rate. The directions of induc ed c
urrents in wires AB and CD are (A) B to Aand D to C (B)Ato B and Cto D (C) A to
B and D to C (D) B to A and C to D sj** Two circular coils A and B are facing ea
ch other as shown in figure. The current i through A can be altered (A) there wi
ll be repulsion between A and B if i is increased (B) there will be attraction b
etween A and B if i is increased (C) the re will be neither attraction nor repul
sion when i is changed (D) attraction or repulsion between Aand B depends on the
direction of current. It does not depend whether the current is increased or de
creased. When a magnet with its magnetic moment along the axis of a circular coi
l and directed towards the coil is withdr awn away from the coil, parallel to it
self, the current in the coil, as seen by the withdrawing magnet is (A) zero (B)
clockwise (C) anticlockwise (D) independe nt ofthe resistance of the coil 10 A
bar magnet is moved along the axis of coppe r ring placed far awayfromthe magnet
. Lookingfromthe side of the magnet, an anti clockwise current is found to be in
duced in the ring. Which of the following may be true? (A) The south pole faces
the ring and the magnet moves towards it. (B) The north pole faces the ring and
the magnet moves towards it. (C) The south po le faces theringand the magnet mov
es away from it. (D) The north pole faces ther ingand the magnet moves awayfromi
t. Q.ll In previous question, if P is on the le ft ofmidpoint: (A) magnet experi
ences no torque (B) magnet experiences no net fo rce but experiences a torque (C
) magnet experiences arightwardforce as well as a torque (D) magnet will not exp
eriences a rightward force as well as a torque X 2 Two circular coils P & Q are
fixed coaxially & carry currents I, and I respect ively (A) if \ = 0 & P moves t
owards Q, a current in the samedirection as I ^ is induced in Q (B) if Ij - 0 &
Q moves towards P, a current in the opposite direc tion to that of 1 isinduced i
n P. P' Q" (C) when ^ ^ 0 and 1, A 0 are in the sam e direction then the two coi
ls tend to move apart (D) when Ij ^ 0 and i ^ 0 are in opposite directions then
the coils tends to move apart. 2 ( 2 2 (ISBansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [1

Q. 13 AB and CD are smooth parallel rails, separated by a distance /, and inclin

ed to the horizontal at an angle 9. Auniform magnetic field of magnitude B, dir
e cted vertically upwards, exists in the region. EF is a conductor of mass m, ca
rr ying a current /'. For EF to be in equilibrium, (A) i mustflowfrom E to F (B)
Bi l = mg tan 0 (C) Bil = mg sin 9 (D)Bil = mg In the previous question, if B i
s no rmal to the plane of the rails (A) Bil - mg tan 9 (B)Bil = mgsin9 (C) Bil =
mg c os 9 (D) equilibrium cannot be reached xp Qd5 A conducting rod PQ of lengt
h L = 1.0 m is moving with a uniform speed v = 20 m/s in a uniform magneticfield
B = 4. 0 T directed into the paper. A capacitor of capacity C = 10 pF is connect
ed as s hown in figure. Then C (A) q = + 800pC and q = - 800pC (B) q = - 800pC a
nd q = + 800pC (C) q = 0 = q (D) charged stored in the capacitor increases expon
entially with time The e.m.f. induced in a coil of wire, which is rotating in a
magnetic field,does not depend on (A) the angular speed of rotation (B) the area
of the c oil (C) the number of turns on the coil (D) the resistance of the coil
A B A B A B 17 A semicircle conducting ring of radius R is placed in the xy pla
ne, as shown in the figure. A uniform magneticfieldis set up along the x-axis. N
o emf, will b e induced in thering,if Y B / R X (A) it moves along the x-axis (C
) it moves along the z-axis Question No. 18 to 20 (3 questions) (B) it moves alo
ng the y-axis (D) it remains stationary A conducting ring of radius a is rotated
about a point O on its periphery as sho wn in thefigurein a plane perpendicular
to uniform magneticfieldB which exists e verywhere. The rotational velocity is
co. Q.18 Choose the correct statement(s) r elated to the potential of the points
P, Q and R (A) V - V > 0 and V - V < 0 (B) V = V > V (C) V > V = Vq (D) V - V =
V - V Q.19 Choose the correct statement(s) related to the magnitude of potentia
l differences 1 1 (A)V V = ~ Boa. (B) V - V Q = Bcoa ( C ) V - V 2Bcoa (D) V - V
= 2Bffla P 0 R 0 p R 0 0 p Q p p 0 p Q 2 p 2 Q 0 2 p R 2 (fe Bansal Classes Que
stion Bank on EMI [20]

Q.20 Choose the correct statement(s) related to the induced current inthe ring (
A) Current flows from Q P O >R > Q (B) Current flows from Q R > O >? > Q (C) Cu
r rent flows from Q > P > 0 and from Q ->R > O (D) No current flows Current growt
h in two L-R circuits (b) and (c) as shown in figure (a). Let L L , R and Rj be
th e \ corresponding values in two circuits. Then (D)L <L (A)R >R (B)R =R (C)L >
L WTv v L R2 L, Ri Tc) p 2 t 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 (a) (b) (c) A circuit consisting of
a constant e.m.f.'E', a self induction'L and a resistance'R'is closed at t = 0.
The relation between the current I in the ci rcuit and time t is as shown by cur
ve 'a' in the fig. When one or more of parame ters E, R & L are changed, the cur
ve 'b' is obtained .The steady state current i s same in both the cases. Thenit
is possible that : (A) E & R are kept constant & L is increased (B) E & R are ke
pt constant & L is decreased (C) E & R are both halved and L is kept constant (D
) E & L are kept constant and R is decreased A circuit element is placed in a cl
osed box. At time t=0, constant current v(voits ) generator supplying a current
of 1 amp, is connected across the box. Potential difference across the box varie
s according to graph shown in figure. The elemen t in the box is : (A) resistanc
e of 2H (B) battery of emf 6Y (C) inductance of 2 H (D) capacitance of 0. 5F A c
onstant current i is maintained in a solenoid. Whi ch ofthe following quantities
will increase if an iron rod is inserted in the so lenoid along its axis? (A) m
agneticfieldat the centre. (B) magnetic flux linked with the solenoid (C) self-i
nductance of the solenoid (D) rate of Joule heating. The symbols L, C, R represe
nt inductance, capacitance and resistance respective ly. Dimension of frequency
are given by the combination 1 (A) 1 / RC (B) R / L ( C) (D) C / L An LR circuit
with a battery is connected at t = 0. Which ofthe fol lowing quantities is not
zero just after the circuit (A) current in the circuit (B) magneticfieldenergy i
n the inductor (C) power delivered by the battery (D) e mf induced in the induct
or ^P^Z/ The switches in figures (a) and (b) are L R r^H W- - W n closed at t =
0 (A) The charge on C just after t = 0 is EC. (B) The cha rge on C long after t
= 0 is EC. -A. (C) The current in L just after t = 0 is E/ R. (D) The current in
L long after t = 0 is E/R. (b) s (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [21]

Q.28 At a moment (t = 0) when charge on capacitor C, is zero, the switch is clos

ed. If I be the current through inductor at that instant, for t > 0, (A) maximu
m current through inductor equals I /2. C, (B) maximum current through inductor
e quals Cjlp 0 0 c I+ c 2 (C) maximum charge on C, = c,+c 2 (D) maximum charge o
n Cj = I C, ^ q QA9 For L - R circuit, the time constant is equal to (A) twice t
he ratio of the energy sto red in the magnetic field to the rate ofthe dissipati
on of energy in the resista nce. (B) the ratio ofthe energy stored in the magnet
ic field to the rate of diss ipation of energy in the resistance. (C) half ofthe
ratio of the energy stored i n the magneticfieldto the rate of dissipation of e
nergy in the resistance. (D) s quare of the ratio of the energy stored in the ma
gneticfieldto the rate of dissi pation energy in the resistance. 0 An inductor L
, a resistance R and two identical bulbs and B are connected to a b attery throu
gh a switch S as shown in the figure. The R vwv [[B, I L-; resistance of coil havi
ng inductance L is also R. Which of the following statement gives th e correct d
escription of the happenings when the switch S is closed? (A) The bul b B lights
up earlier than B, and finally both the bulbs shine equally bright. (B ) B, ligh
t up earlier and finally both the bulbs acquire equal brightness. (C) B lights up
earlier and finally B, shines brighter than B,. (D) Bj and B^ light up together
with equal brightness all the time. 2 h n Which of the following quantities can
be written in SI units in Kgm A~ S"~ ? (A) Resistance (B) Inductance (C) Capaci
tance (D) Magnetic flux 2 2 3 In figure, the switch S is closed so that a curren
t flows in the iron-core induc tor r^flftHnRT-i R which has inductance L and the
resistance R. When the switch is opened, a H iB spark is obtained in it at the
contacts. The spark is due to ( A) a slow flux change in L (B) a sudden increase
in the emf ofthe battery B (C) a rapid flux change in L (D) a rapidfluxchange i
n R J* In figure, a lamp P is in series with an iron-core inductor L. When the s
witch S r O - is closed, the brightness of the lamp rises relatively slowly to i
ts full brightness than it would do without the inductor. This is due to B (A) t
he low resistance of P (B) the induced-emf in L (C) the low resistance of L (D)
the hig h voltage of the battery B I (feBansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [22]

Q M Two coil Aand B have coefficient of mutual inductance M = 2H. The magnetic f
lux passing through coil V A changes by 4 Weber in 10 seconds due to the change
in current in B. Then (A) change in current in B in this time interval is 0.5 A
(B) the change in current inB in this time interval is 2A (C) the change in cur
r ent in B in this time interval is 8A (D) a change in current of 1A in coil A w
il l produce a change in flux passing through B by 4 Weber. X 5 Which ofthe foll
owing is true for an ideal transformer (A) Total magnetic flux l inked with prim
ary coil equals flux linked with secondary coil (B) flux per turn in primary is
equal to flux per turn in secondary (C) induced emf in secondary coil equals ind
uced emf in primary (D) power associated with primary coil at any moment equals
power associated with secondary coil Q.36 A circuit has three elements, a resist
ance of 11W, a coil of inductive resi stance 120W and a capacitive reactance of
120W in series and connected to an A.C . source of 110 V, 60 Hz. Which of the th
ree elements have minimum potential dif ference? (A) Resistance (B) Capacitance
(C) Inductor (D) All will have equal pot ential difference (X3-7 The reactance o
f a circuit is zero. It is possible that the circuit contains : (A) an inductor
and a capacitor (B) an inductor but no ca pacitor (C) a capacitor but no inducto
r (D) neigher an inductor nor a capacitor. 3 8 In a series R-L-C circuit, thefre
quencyof the source is half of the resonan cefrequency.The nature of the circuit
will be (A) capacitive (B) inductive (C) p urely resistive (D) data insufficien
t 9 An a. c. source of voltage V and of freq uency 5 0 Hz is connected to an ind
uctor of 2H and negligible resistance. A curr ent of r.m. s. value 7 flows in th
e coil. When the frequency of the voltage is c hanged to 400 Hz keeping the magn
itude ofV the same, the current is now (A) 87 i n phase with V (B) 47 and leadin
g by 90 from V (C) 7/4 and lagging by 90 from V (D ) 7/8 and lagging by 90 from V (
fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [23]

ANSWER KEY ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT Q.l Q.8 Q.15 Q.22 Q.29 Q.36 Q.43 Q.50 Q.57
Q.64 Q.71 Q.78 Q.85 Q.92 Q.99 B A D B C A A B C A A D B D B Q.l Q.5 Q.9 Q.13 Q.
17 Q.21 Q.25 Q.29 Q.33 Q.37 Q.2 Q.9 Q.16 Q.23 Q.30 Q.37 Q 44 Q.51 Q.58 Q.65 Q.72
Q.79 Q.86 Q.93 Q.100 C A C C B B C A A B A D D B D Q.3 Q.10 Q.17 Q.24 Q.31 Q.38
Q.45 Q.52 Q.59 Q.66 Q.73 Q.80 Q.87 Q.94 Q.101 Q.2 Q .6 Q.10 Q.14 Q.18 Q.22 Q.26
Q.30 Q.34 Q.38 C B A A D A A C A A C C B C D C A,C,D B,C B B,D A,C D A B A Q.4
Q.ll Q.18 Q.25 Q.32 Q.39 Q.46 Q.53 Q.60 Q.67 Q.74 Q.81 Q.88 Q.95 Q.102 A C D D B
C A B A D B D B D C Q.3 Q.7 Q.ll Q.15 Q.19 Q.23 Q.27 Q.31 Q.35 Q.39 Q5 Q.12 Q.1
9 Q.26 Q.33 Q.40 Q.47 Q.54 Q.61 Q.68 Q.75 Q.82 Q.89 Q.96 Q.l 03 C A C A C D B,D
A B,D D B C B A D A D A B D D A A C C Q.6 Q.13 Q.20 Q.27 Q.34 Q.41 Q.48 Q.55 Q.6
2 Q.69 Q.76 Q.83 Q.90 Q.97 Q.l 04 Q.4 Q.8 Q.12 Q.16 Q.20 Q.24 Q.28 Q.32 Q.36 B C
D A D B B C B B A D C D B B A B,D D D A,B,C D C A Q.7 Q.14 Q.21 Q.28 Q.35 Q.42
Q.49 Q.56 Q.63 Q.70 Q.77 Q.84 Q.91 Q.98 Q.105 A A D C A D D A C C A A C c c ONE
ansal Classes Question Bank on EMI [24]


1. ELECTRIC Charge of a material body is that possesion (acquired or natural) du

e to which i t strongly interacts with other material body. It can be postive or
negative. S. I. unit is coulomb. Charge is quantized, conserved, and additive.
COULOMB'S 0 CHARGE KEY CONCEPTS 2. LAW: F = - ^ r . In vector form F = r ? where
1 s = permittivity of free space = 8.85 x 10 N m~ c or F/m and e = Relative per
mit tivity of the medium = Spec. Inductive Capacity = Dielectric Const. s = 1 fo
r ai r (vacuum) = oo for metals e e = Absolute permittivity of the medium N O T
E : T he Law is applicable only for static and point charges. Only applicable to
stati c charges as moving charges may result magnetic <ii interaction also and
only fo r point charges as if charges are extended, induction may change the cha
rge dist ribution. -12 -1 2 2 r r 0 r 47ts0er r 47ls osr r 12 3. PRINCIPLE OF SU
PER POSITION 1 2 3 Force on a point charge due to many charges is given by F=F +
F +F + NOTE : The f orce due to one charge is not affected by the presence of ot
her charges. 4. ELECTRIC (VECTOR "The physical field where a charged particle, i
rrespective of the fact whether i t is in motion or at rest, experiences force i
s called an electric field". The d irection of the field is the direction of the
force experienced by a positively charged particle & the magnitude of the field
(electric intensity) is F the forc e experienced by the particle carrying unit
charge E = T^ unit is NC ; S.I. unit


n represents that this charge does not alter the magnitude of electri c field. D
ue to charge induction on the source ofelectric field. 5. ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Point charge: E = = --^-r (vector form) . Z 47ts r 471 G r q E
Where r = vector dr awn from the source charge to the point. Continuous charge
distribution E=- [ f dE ; dE = electric field due to an elementry charge 47TS r .
Note E* J dE because E is a vector quantity . dq = X dl (for line charge) = a ds
(for surface charge) = p dv (for volume charge) In general X, a & p are linear,
surface and volume ch arge densities respectively. 2kX Infinite line of charge
E = j where r=perpendicul ar distance of the point from the line charge. 0 q 0 J J
^Bansal Classes Semi oo line of charge E = r an angle 4 5 as, E = & E = at a poin
t above the end of wire at r r y ELECTROSTATICS [2]

(v) (vi) Uniformly charged ring, E centre = 0, E = axis dE . , Electricfieldis m

aximum when - = 0 for a point on the axis of the ring. He re we get x = R/V2. 0 (
X +R ) 2 2 kQx 3 / 2 (vii) Infinite non conducting sheet of charge E=-^-n where
2e ii = unit normal v ector to the plane of sheet, where c is surface charge den
sity (viii) oo charged conductor sheet having surface charge density a on both s
urfaces E = a/e . (ix) Just outside a conducting surface charged with a surface
charge density a, elec tricfieldis always given as E = a/e . (x) Uniformly charg
ed solid sphere (Insula ting material) E = Q j ; r > R, 0 0 t 4ne i 0 Behaves as
a point charge situated at the centre for these points E- = (xi) r < R where p
= volume charge density Uniformly charged spherical shell (conduct ing or non-do
nducting) or uniformly charged solid conducting sphere. E = ^ ^ ; r > R out 2 in
pr ; 47IqR 3Q Qr Behaves as a point charge situated at the centre for these point
s E J= 0 ; r < R (xii) uniformly charged cylinder with a charge density p is -(r
adius of cylinde r = R) for r < R pr pR E = 2 e ; for r > R o E= 2 e r ~ (xiii)
Uniformly charged cylinderical shell with surface charge density a is forr<R E =
0 ; forr>R E= pr 2 m 0 0 m e o r 6. ELECTRIC (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 7.

The line of force in an electricfieldis a hypothetical line, tangent to which at

any point on it represents' the direction of electricfieldat the given point. P
roperties of ( E L F ) : Electric lines offerees never intersects. ELF originat
e sfrompositive charge or oo and terminate on a negative charge of infinity. Pre
fe rence oftermination is towards a negative charge. If an ELF is originated, it
mu st require termination either at a negetive charge or at oo. Quantity of ELF
ori ginated or terminated from a charge or on a charge is proportional to the m
agnit ude of charge. ELECTROSTATIC LINES OF FORCE (ELF) (i) (ii) Position where
net force (or net torque) on a charge(or electric dipole) = 0 STA BLE EQUILIBRIU
M : If charge is displaced by a small distance the charge comes (o r tries to co
me back) to the equilibrium. UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM : If charge is di splaced by a
small distance the charge does not return to the equilibrium positi on. EQUILIB
RIUM tl^Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS [5]

8. ELECTRIC "Work done by external agent to bring a unit positive charge(without

accelaratio n) from infinity to a point in an electricfieldis called electric p
otential at t hat point" . if w is the work done to bring a charge q (very small
) from infinit y to a point then potential at that point is V = (W ) ; S.I. unit i
s volt (= 1 J/C ) w r POTENTIAL (Scalar Quantity) 9. POTENTIAL A B q r ext DIFFE
RENCE e (W ) V^ =V - V = ^ V ^ = p.d. between point A& B . W = w.d. by external
source t o transfer a point charge q from B to A (Withoutacceleration). * BA 10. E
LECTRIC FIELD & ELECTRIC E = - grad V = - V V {read as gradient of V} grad = iox
+ k ; oy oz Used whenEF varies in three dimensional coordinate system. Forfindi
ngpotential difference be tween two points in electricfield,we use V - V = ~ j E
dt if j varying with dista nce A if E is constant & here d is the distance betwe
en points A and B. A B s POINTENIAL ? d *d *d 11. POTENTIAL DUE TO 0 (i) (iii) (
iv) (v)

a point charge V = ^ 47is r (ii) . many charges V = ++ + 47tE r 47te r 47rs r 0 1 0 2

3 continuous charge distribution V = i f ^ spherical shell (conducting or non cond
uc ting) or solid conducting sphere non conducting uniformly charged solid spher
e : V o u t 4TTS r j 0 S r ' ( ] > V i n 2 4TTER 0 ' ( r " R ) 12. EQUIPOTENTIAL
In an electricfield the locus of points of equal potential is called an equipot
e ntial surface. An equipotential surface and the electricfieldmeet at right ang
le s. The region where E = 0, Potential of the whole region must remain constant
as no work is done in displacement of charge in it. It is called as equipotenti
al region like conducting bodies. SURFACE AND EQUIPOTENTIAL REGION ^Bansal Class

13. MUTUAL "The work to be done to integrate the charge system." q,q For 2 parti
cle system U = 47is r 2 mutual 0 POTENTIAL ENERGY OR INTERACTION ENERGY For 3 par
ticle system U 14. (a) m u t u a l = q,q q2qs , q3qi 47is r 47i8 r 47te r 2 0 12
0 23 0 31 15. (b) (c) For n particles there will be \ ^ terms . Total energy of
a system = U + U P.E. of charge q in potential field U = qV. Interaction energy
of a system of two cha rges U=q V = q V . ELECTRIC DIPOLE. O is mid point of li
ne AB (centre ofthe dipo le) - equitorial line on the axis (except points on lin
e AB) -q +q E= E P 27is [ r (a /4)] 27ts r ( i f r < < a ) p = qa = Dipole momen
t, r = distance of the poi nt from the centre of dipole p p on the equitorial ;
E= ~ 47is [r +(a /4)] 47cs r At a general point P(r, 0) in polar co-ordinate sys
tem is 2kp sin 0 Radial ele ctricfieldE= n ( se]f mutual 1 2 2 1 0 2 2 2 0 3 0 2
2 3/2 0 3 Tangentral electric field E = T net 2 kpcos0 2 2 Net electric field at
P is E = ^ E + E = ^ Vl + 3sin 0 kpsinO Potential at point P is V = N O T E : I
f 0 is measured from axis of dipole. Then sin0 and cos0 wil l be interchanged p
(d) (e) (f) (g) (i) 16. Dipole V = ^ p=qa electric dipole moment . If 0 is angle
between p and 4718 r 47is r reache

s vector of the point. Electric Dipole in uniform electric field : torque x=pxE
; F = 0 . Work done in rotation of dipole is w = PE (cos 0 - cos 0 ) P.E. of an
electric dipole in electric field U = - p.E. / ^ dEc Force on a dipole when plac
ed in a non uniform electricfieldis F= d (-PE)i = P.-i. dx ' dx PG Q _ p.r 2 0 1
2 v ELECTRIC FLUX (ii) For uniform electric field; (j) = E.A = EA cos 0 where 0
= angle between & area vector ( A ). Flux is contributed only due to the compon
ent of electricfieldwhic h is perpendicular to the plane. If E is not uniform th
roughout the area A, then <> = j" E.d A J tl^Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS [5]

17. GA USS'S LAW ." cj) = J>EdA = o o (j) does not depend on the E s q p - -> (Ap
plicable only to closed surface)" Net flux emerging out of a closed surface i s
q q = net charge enclosed by the closed surface . (i) (ii) shape and size of the
c losed surface The charges located Outside the closed surface. 18. 19. 20. Flu
x of charge q having through the circle of radius R is q/e q ( j ) = x O = r. (l
-cos9) o Energy stored p.u. volume in an electricfield= ^ 0 z e 2 2 CONCEPT OF S
OLID ANGLE : Solid angle of coneof half angle 9 is Q=2rt(l-cos0) Electric pressu
re due to its own charge on a surface having charged density a is P = c . 2s Ele
ctric pressur e on a charged surface with charged density a due to external elec
tric field is P E L E =aE 2 ele 0 t IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED (i) (ii) (
iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) Electric field
is always perpendicular to a conducting surface (or any equipoten tial surface).
No tangential component on such surfaces. Charge density at sharp points on a c
onductor is greater. When a conductor is charged, the charge resid es only on th
e surface. For a conductor of any shape E (just outside) = o p.d. b etween two p
oints in an electric field does not depend on the path joining them. Potential a
t a point due to positive charge is positive & due to negative charg e is negati
ve. Positive charge flows from higher to lower (i. e. in the directio n of elect
ricfield)and negative charge from lower to higher (i.e. opposite to th e electri
c field) potential. When p||E the dipole is in stable equilibrium p||(E) the dip
ole is in unstable equilibrium When a charged isolated conducting sphe re is con
nected to an unchaged small conducting sphere then potential (and charg e) remai
ns almost same on the larger sphere while smaller is charged . Self pote ntial e
nergy of a charged shell = KO . 2R 3k0 Self potential energy of an insula ting u
niformly charged sphere = . 5R A spherically symmetric charge {i.e p depen ds on
ly on r} behaves as if its charge is concentrated at its centre (for outsid

e points). Dielectric strength of material: The minimum electricfieldrequired to

ionise the medium or the maximum electricfieldwhich the medium can bear without
breaking down. 8 2 2 tl^Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS [5]

EXERCISE # I Q. 1 A negative point charge 2q and a positive charge q are fixed a

t a distance I apart. Where should a positive test charge Q be placed on the lin
e connecting the charge for it to be in equilibrium? What is the nature ofthe eq
uilibrium wit h respect to longitudinal motions? Q.2 Two particles A and B each
carrying a cha rge Q are held fixed with a separation d between then A particle
C having mass m ans charge q is kept at the midpoint ofline AB. Ifit is displace
d through a sma ll distance x (x d) perpendicular to AB, (a) thenfindthe time pe
riod ofthe oscil lations of C. (b) If in the above question C is displaced along
AB,findthe time period ofthe oscillations of C. Q.3 Draw E - r graph for 0 < r
< b, if two point charges a & b are located r distance apart, when (i) both are
+ ve (ii) both ar e - ve _ (iii) a is + ve and b is - ve (iv) a is - ve and b is
+ ve Q.4 A charge + 10 C is located at the origin in free space & another charg
e Q at (2, 0, 0). If the X-component ofthe electricfieldat (3,1,1) is zero, calc
ulate the value of Q. Is the Y-component zero at (3,1, 1)? 9 Q.5 Six charges are
placed at the vertices of a regular hexagon as shown in the figure. +Q -Q Find
the electricfieldon the line passing through O and perpendicular to the pla ne Q< +Q of thefigureas a function of distance xfrompoint O. (assume x a) + + T hef
igureshows three infinite non-conducting + plates of charge perpendicular to the
plane of A + B _ + the paper with charge per unit area + a, + 2o + + and - a .
Find the ratio ofthe net electricfieldat + 2.5m that point Ato that at point B .
+C7 +2ct 5m 5m Q.7 A thin circular wire of radius r has a charge Q. If a point
charge q is placed at the centre ofthe ring, then find the increase in tension i
n the wire. Q.8 In thefigureshown S is a large nonconducting sheet ofuniform ch
arge density a. A rod R oflength / and mass 'm' is parallel to the sheet and hin
ged at its mid point. The linear charge densities on the upper and lower half o
f the rod are shown in the figure. Find the angular acceleration of the rod just
a fter it is released. Q.9 A simple pendulum of length / and bob mass m is hang
ing in front of a large nonconducting sheet having surface charge density a. If
sud denly a charge +q is given to the bob & it is releasedfromthe position shown
inf igure.Find the maximum angle through which the string is deflectedfromverti
cal. A particle of mass m and charge - q moves along a diameter of a uniformly c
harge d sphere of radius R and carrying a total charge + Q. Find the frequency o
f S .H .M. ofthe particle if the amplitude does not exceed R. Q.ll A charge + Q
is unif ormly distributed over a thin ring with radius R. A negative point charg
e - Q an d mass m starts from rest at a point far awayfromthe centre ofthe ring
and moves towards the centre. Find the velocity ofthis particle at the moment it
passes t hrough the centre of the ring. J ^Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS [9]

Q.12 A spherical balloon ofradius R charged uniformly on its surface with surfac
e density o. Find work done against electric forces in expanding it upto radius
2R. Q.13 A point charge + q & mass 100 gm experiences a force of 100 N at a poi
n t at a distance 20 cm from a long infinite uniformly charged wire. Ifit is rel
ea sedfindits speed when it is at a distance 40 cm from wire Q.14 Consider the c
onf iguration of a system offour charges each of value +q. Find the work done by
ext ernal agent in changing the +q configuration ofthe systemfromfigure(i) tofi
g(ii) . +qr fig(ii) fig (i) Q.15 There are 27 drops of a conducting fluid. Each
has ra dius r and they are charged to a potential V . They are then combined to
form a bigger drop. Find its potential. Q.16 Two identical particles of mass m c
arry ch arge Q each. Initially one is at rest on a smooth horizontal plane and t
he other is projected along the plane directly towards the first from a large di
stance w ith an initial speed V. Find the closest distance of approach. Q.17 A p
article o f mass m and negative charge q is thrown in a gravity free space with
speed u fr om the point A on the large non conducting charged sheet with surface
charge den sity a, as shown infigure.Find the maximum distancefromAon sheet whe
re the parti cle can strike. Q.18 Consider two concentric conducting spheres of
radii a & b ( b > a). Inside sphere has a positive charge q What charge should b
e given to the outer sphere so that potential of the inner sphere becomes zero?
How does the p otential varies between the two spheres & outside ? Q.19 Three ch
arges 0.1 coulo mb each are placed on the corners of an equilateral triangle of
side 1 m. If the energy is supplied to this system at the rate of 1 kW, how much
time would be r equired to move one of the charges onto the midpoint ofthe line
joining the othe r two? Q.20 Two thin conducting shells ofradii R and 3R are sh
own infigure.The o uter shell carries a charge +Q and the inner shell is neutral
. The inner shell i s earthed with the help of switch S. Find the charge attaine
d by the inner shell . 0 r Q.21 Consider three identical metal spheres A B and C
. Spheres A carries charge + 6q and sphere B carries charge - 3q. Sphere C carri
es no charge. Spheres A and B are touched together and then separated. Sphere C
is then touched to sphere A and separated from it. Finally the sphere C is touch
ed to sphere B and separated fromit. Find thefinalcharge on the sphere C. y p '(
0,y) Q.22 A dipole is placed at origin of coordinate system as shown infigure,fi
nd the electricfieldat point P (0, y). \p Q.23 Two point dipoles p k and -P k ar
e located at (0,0,0) and (lm, 0,2m) respectively. Find the resultant electricfie
lddue to the two dipoles at t he point (lm, 0,0). Q. 24 The length of each side
ofa cubical clo sed surface is /. If charge q is situated on one of the vertices
of the cube, thenfindthe flux passing through shaded face of the cube. Q.25 A p
oint charge Q is located on th e axis of a disc of radius R at a distance a from
the plane of the disc. If one fourth (l/4th) of the flux from the charge passes
through the disc, then find th e relation between a & R. *Q C] <!Bansal Classes

A rigid insulated wire frame in the form of a right angled triangle ABC, is set
in a vertical plane as shown. Two bead of equal masses m each and carrying charg
es qj & q are connected by a cord of length 1 & slide withoutfrictionon the wir
e s. Considering the case when the beads are stationary, determine. (b) The tens
io n in the cord & HORIZON (a) The angle a. The normal reaction on the beads. If
the cord is now cut, what are the values ofthe charges for which the '(c) beads
con tinue to remain stationary. Q.2 A proton and an a-particle are projected wit
h ve locity v = , ke each, when V ml Vo they are far away from each other, as sh
own. The distance between their initial velocities is L. Find their closest appr
oach distance, mass ofproton=m; charge=+e, mass of a-particle = 4m, charge = + 2
e. * ^ Q.3 A clock face has negative charges-q,-2q,^ 3 q, , 12qfixedat the posit
ion o f the corresponding numerals on the dial. The clock hands do not disturb t
he net field due to point charges. At what time does the hour hand point in the
same d irection is electricfieldat the centre ofthe dial. Q.4 A circular ring of
radius R with uniform positive charge density X per unit length isfixedin the YZ plane with its centre at the origin 0. Aparticle of mass m and positive charge
q is p rojectedfromthe point P (V3R,0,0) on the positive X-axis directly toward
s 0, wit h initial velocity v. Find the smallest value of the speed v such that
the parti cle does not return to P. Q.5 2 small balls having the same mass & cha
rge & loca ted on the same vertical at heights h & h^ are thrown in the same dir
ection alon g the horizontal at the same velocity v. The 1 ball touches the grou
nd at a dist ance / from the initial vertical. At what height will the 2 ball be
at this inst ant ? The air drag & the charges induced should be neglected. Q. 6
Two concentri c rings ofradii r and 2r are placed with centre at origin. Two '+
q charges +q ea ch arefixedat the diametrically opposite points of the rings as
shown infigure.S maller ring is now rotated by an angle 90 about Z-axis then it i
s again rotated b y 90 about Y-axis. Find the work done by electrostatic forces i
n each step. Iffin allylarger ring is rotated by 90 about X-axis,findthe total wo
rk required to perf orm all three steps. +q Q. 7 Apositive charge Q is uniformly
distributed through out the volume of a dielectric sphere ofradius R. A point m
ass having charge + q and mass m isfiredtowards the centre of the sphere with ve
locity v from a point at distance r (r > R) from the centre of the sphere. Find
the minimum velocity v so that it can penetrate R/2 distance of the sphere. Negl
ect any resistance ot her than electric interaction. Charge on the small mass re
mains constant through out the motion. Q.8 An electrometer consists of vertical
metal bar at the top of which is attached a thin rod which gets deflectedfromthe
bar under the action o f an electric charge (fig.). The reading are taken on a
quadrant graduated in de grees. The length ofthe rod is I and its mass is m. Wha
t will be the charge when the rod of such an electrometer is deflected through a
n angle a . Make the foll owing assumptions: Uu\uumuuuuuuvuft\\< (a) the charge
on the electrometer is equ ally distributed between the bar & the rod (b) the ch
arges are concentrated at p oint A on the rod & at point B on the bar. Q.l 2 0 1
81 nd EXERCISE # II ^Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS [9]

Q.9 A cavity ofradius r is present inside a solid dielectric sphere of radius R

havi ng a volume charge density of p. The distance between the centres of the sp
here and the cavity is a. An electron e is kept inside the cavity at an angle 6
= 45 a s shown. How long will it take to touch the sphere again? t 2 Q.10 Two ide
ntical balls of charges q & q initially have equal velocity of the s ame magnitu
de and direction. After a uniform electricfieldis applied for some ti me, the di
rection ofthe velocity ofthefirstball changes by 60 and the magnitude i s reduced
by half*. The direction of the velocity of the second ball changes the re by 90.
In what proportion will the velocity of the second ball changes ? Q. 11 Electri
cally charged drops of mercury fallfromaltitude h into a spherical metal vessel
of radius R in the upper part ofwhich there is a small opening. The mass of each
drop is m & charge is Q. What is the number 'n' of last drop that can s till en
ter the sphere. Given that the (n + 1)* drop just fails to enter the sphe re. Q.
12 Small identical balls with equal charges are fixed at vertices of regul ar 20
04 - gon with side a. At a certain instant, one ofthe balls is released & a suff
iciently long time interval later, the ball adjacent to the first released ball
is freed The kinetic energies of the released balls are found to differ by K at
a sufficiently long distancefromthe polygon. Determine the charge q of each part
. Ex Q.13 The electricfieldin a region is given by E = j -i. Find the charge conta
ined inside a cubical volume bounded by the surfaces x = 0, x = a, y = 0, y = a,
z = 0 and z = a. Take E = 5 * 10 N/C, /=2cm and a = 1 cm. 0 0 3 Q.14 2 small me
tallic balls ofradii R, & R are kept in vacuum at a large distanc e compared to
the radii. Find the ratio between the charges on the 2 balls at wh ich electrost
atic energy ofthe system is minimum. What is the potential differen ce between t
he 2 balls? Total charge ofballs is constant. 2 Q.15 Figure shows a section thro
ugh two long thin concentric cylinders of radii a & b with a < b . The cylinders
have equal and opposite charges per unit length X. Find the electricfieldat a d
istance rfromthe axis for (a) r < a (b) a < r < b (c) r > b Q.16 A solid non con
ducting sphere of radius R has a non-uniform cha rge distribution of volume char
ge density, p = p , where p is a constant and r is the distancefromthe centre oft
he sphere. Show that: R (a) the total charge on t he sphere is Q = I p R and T 0
0 0 3 (b) the electricfieldinside the sphere has a magnitude given by, E = R 4
. Q.17 A nonconducting ring ofmass m and radius R is charged as shown. The charg
ed density i.e. charge per unit length is X. It is then placed on a rough noncon
du cting horizontal surface plane. At time t=0, auniform electricfieldE = E0i is
sw itched on and the ring start rolling without sliding. Determine thefrictionf
orce (magnitude mvmmmuum and direction) acting on the ring, when it starts movin
g. <!Bansal Classes


Q. 18 Two spherical bobs of same mass & radius having equal charges are suspende
dfromthe same point by strings of same length. The bobs are immersed in a liqui
d of relative permittivity e & density p . Find the density c of the bob for whi
c h the angle of divergence ofthe strings to be the same in the air & in the liq
ui d? r 0 Q.19 An electron beam after being acceleratedfromrest through a potent
ial differ ence of500 V in vacuum is allowed to impinge normally on a fixed surf
ace. Ifthe incident current is 100 p A, determine the force exerted on the surfa
ce assuming that it brings the electrons to rest, (e = 1 6x 10~ C;m = 9.Ox 10~ k
g) 19 31 Y Q.20 Find the electricfieldat centre of semicircular ring shown in fi
gure. Q.21 A cone made of insulating material has a total charge Q spread unifor
mly over it s sloping surface. Calculate the energy required to take a test char
ge qfrominfi nity to apex A of cone. The slant length is L. Q.22 An infinite die
lectric sheet having charge density a has a hole ofradius R in it. An electron i
s released on the axis of the hole at a distance from the centre. What will be t
he velocity w hich it crosses the plane of sheet, (e = charge on electron and m
= mass of elec tron) Q.23 Two concentric rings, one ofradius 'a' and the other o
fradius 'b' hav e the charges +q and - (2/5)~ q respectively as shown in thefigu
re.Find the rati o b/a if a charge particle placed on the axis at z = a is in eq
uilibrium. 3/2 B Q.24 Two charges + qj & - q are placed at A and B respectively.
Aline of force e mergesfromqj at angle a with line AB. At what angle will it A/
^a terminate at q ? +q 2 2 t <!Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS [11]

Q. 1 Q.2 Q.3 The magnitude of electricfieldE in the annular region of charged cy

lindrical cap acitor (A) Is same throughout (B) Is higher near the outer cylinde
r than near th e inner cylinder (C) Varies as (1 /r) where r is the distancefrom
the axis (D) Va ries as (1 /r ) where r is the distancefromthe axis ^ [IIT '96,2
] A metallic sol id sphere is placed in a uniform electricfield.The " lines offo
rce follow the pa th (s) shown infigureas: (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 [IIT'96,2] An
on-conducting ring ofradius 0.5 m carries a total charge of 1.11 x 10" C distrib
uted non-uniformly on its circumference producing an electricfieldE every where
in space. The valu e of the line integral 2 1 10 EXERCISE # III t=o Q. 4 (i) (ii
) | -EM (/= 0 being centre ofthe ring) in volts is: (X) + 2 (B) - 1 (C) - 2 (D)
ze ro[JEE '97, 1 ] Select the correct alternative: [JEE '982 + 2 + 2 = 6] A+ly c
har ged thin metal ring of radius R isfixedin the xy-plane with its centre at th
e or igin 0 . A - ly charged particle P is released from rest at the point (0, 0
, z ) where z > 0. Then the motion of P is: (A) periodic, for all values of z sa
tisfy ing 0 < z < oo (B) simple harmonic, for all values of Z satisfying 0 < Z <
R q q (C) approximately simple harmonic, provided Z G R (D) such that P crosses
0 & c ontinues to move along the -ve z-axis towards x = -oo A charge +q isfixed
at each of the points x = x , x = 3x , x = 5x , oo on the x-axis & a charge -q i
sfixeda t each ofthe points x = 2XQ, X=4XQ, X = 6XQ, .... oo. Here XQ is a +ve c
onstant. Take the electric potential at a point due to a charge Q at a distance
rfromit to be . Then the potential at the origin 47te r due to the above system of
charges is : q q^n2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (A ^Bansal Classes A non-conducting solid sp
here ofradius R is uniformly charged. The magnitude oft he electricfielddue to t
he sphere at a distance r from its centre: (A) increases as r increases, for r <
R (B) decreases as r increases, for 0 < r < oo (C) decr eases as r increases, f
or R < r < oo (D) is discontinuous at r = R. Q.5 A conduc ting sphere S of radiu
s r is attached to an insulating handle. Another conductin g sphere S of radius
R is mounted on an insulating stand. S is initially uncharg ed. S is given a cha
rge Q, brought into contact with S & removed, S j is recharg ed such that the ch
arge on it is again Q & it is again brought into contact with S & removed. This
procedure is repeated n times. (a) Find the electrostatic ene rgy of S after n s
uch contacts with S j. (b) What is the limiting value of this energy as n - oo? [
JEE '98, 7 +1 ] Q. 6(i) An ellipsoidal cavity is carved withi n a perfect condu
ctor. Apositive charge q is placed at the center of the cavity. The points A & B
are on the cavity surface as shown in thefigure.Then: (A) elec tricfieldnear A
in the cavity = electricfieldnear B in the cavity (B) charge den sity at A = cha
rge density at B (C) potential at A= potential at B (D) total ele ctricfieldflux
through the surface ofthe cavity is q/e . [ JEE '99, 3 ] l 2 2 l 2 2 2

(iii) > Wta^S (C) ELECTROSTATICS 0 ~[U]

(ii) A non-conducting disc ofradius a and uniform positive surface charge densit
y a i s placed on the ground, with its axis vertical. A particle of mass m & pos
itive charge q is dropped, along the axis ofthe disc, from q 4e g a height H wit
h zero initial velocity. The particle has m = cr . (a) Find the value of H ifthe
parti cle just reaches the disc. (b) Sketch the potential energy of the particl
e as a function ofits height and find its equilibrium position. [ JEE '99, 5 + 5
] Q.7( a) The dimension of (y)e E (e : permittivity offreespace ; E : electricf
ield)is : (A) M L T (B)ML T(C)MLT' (D)ML T(E)ML- T(b) Three charges Q,+q and+q a
re place d at the vertices of a right-angled isosceles triangle as shown . The n
et electr ostatic energy of the configuration is zero if Q is equal to: [ JEE 20
00(Scr) 1 + 1 ] -2q ( ) 1+V2 C ) 2+V2 (C) - 2 q (D) +q 0 0 2 0 _1 2 2 2 2 1 ! 2
A 0 (c) Four point charges + 8 pC, - 1 pC, - 1 pC and + 8 pC, are fixed at the p
oints, 4 0 0 m , m , Q.8 m and m respectively on the y-axis . A particle of mass
6 x 10" kg and of charge + 0.1 pC moves along the - x direction. Its speed at x
= + 0 is v . Find the lea st value ofv for which 0 the particle will cross the o
rigin. Find also the kinet ic energy of the particle at the origin. Assume that
space is gratity free. (Giv en: 1/(4 it e ) = 9 x 10 Nm /C ) [ JEE 2000,10 ] Thr
ee positive charges of equal value q are placed at the vertices of an equilatera
l triangle. The resulting li nes offorce should be sketched as in [JEE 2001 (Scr
)] 0 9 2 2 (C) Q.9 3 (D) A small ball of mass 2 x 10" Kg having a charge of 1 pC
is suspended by a string of length 0. 8m. Another identical ball having the sam
e charge is kept at the p oint of suspension. Determine the minimum horizontal v
elocity which should be im parted to the lower ball so tht it can make complete
revolution. [JEE 2001] Q.10 Two equal point charges arefixedat x = - a and x = +
a on the x-axis. Another po int charge Q is placed at the origin. The change in
the electrical potential ene rgy of Q, when it is displaced by a small distance
x along the x-axis, is approx imately proportional to (A)x (B)x (C)x (D) 1/x [JE
E 2002 (Scr), 3] Q.ll A point charge 'q' is placed at a point inside a hollow co
nducting sphere. Which ofthe f ollowing electric force pattern is correct ? [JEE
'2003 (scr)] 2 3 <!Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS [11]

Q.12 Charges +q and -q are located at the corners of a cube of side a as shown i
n the +q figure. Find the work done to separate the charges to infinite distanc
e . [JEE 2003] ^1 / 2 Q.13 A charge +Q isfixedat the origin ofthe co-ordinate sy
st em while a small electric dipole ofdipole-moment p pointing awayfromthe charg
e a long the x-axis is set freefroma point far awayfromthe origin. (a) calculate
the K.E. ofthe dipole when it reaches to a point (d, 0) (b) calculate the force
on the charge +Q at this moment. [JEE 2003] Q.14 Consider the charge configurat
ion and a spherical Gaussian surface as shown in thefigure.When calculating thef
luxo fthe electricfieldover the spherical surface, | 1 the electricfieldwill be
due t o [JEE 2004 (SCR)] \ (A) q (B) only the positive charges (C) all the charg
es (D) +q( and -qj Q.15 Six charges, three positive and three negative of equal
magnit ude are to be placed at the vertices of a regular hexagon such that the e
lectric fieldat O is double the electricfieldwhen only one positive charge of sa
me magni tude is placed at R. Which ofthe following arrangements of charges is p
ossible f or P, Q, R, S, T and U respectively? [JEE 2004 (SCR)] (A) +, -, +, + (
B) +, -, + , +, (C) +, +, -, +, (D) +, +, +, Q.16 Two uniformly charged infinite
ly large pl anar sheet S and S are held in air parallel to each other with separ
ation d betw een them. The sheets have charge distribution per unit area Cj and
o (Cm ), resp ectively, withCTJ>CT .Find the work done by the electricfieldon a
point charge Q that moves from from S j towards S along a line of length a (a <
d) making an a nglerc/4with the normal to the sheets. Assume that the charge Q d
oes not affect the charge distributions ofthe sheets. [JEE 2004] Q.17 Three larg
e parallel plat es have uniform surface charge densities as shown in the figure.
What is the ele ctricfieldat P. [JEE' 2005 (Scr)] k. z=a 4ct 4cr 2a 2a z=-a (A)
- k (B)~ (C)-^k (D)-k z=-2a o o 0 Q.18 Which of the following groups do not hav
e same dimensions [JEE' 2005 (Scr)] (A) Young's modulus, pressure, stress (B) wo
rk, heat, energy (C) electromotive force, potential difference, voltage (D) elec
tric dipole, elec tricflux,electric field Q.19 A conducting liquid bubble of rad
ius a and thicknes s t (t a ) is charged to potential V. Ifthe bubble collapses
to a droplet,findth e potential on the droplet. [JEE 2005] Q.20 The electrostati
c potential (<j>) of a spherical symmetric system, kept at origin, is shown in t
he adjacent figure, a nd given as <b = -er (r > R ) 4ti T q 2 l 2 2 -2 2 2 k -2aq
e 0 G e r V r o K oJ <t> (r<RJ o o Which ofthe following option(s) is/are correc
t? (A) For spherical region r <R , total electrostatic energy stored is zero. (B
) Within r = 2R , tot al charge is q. (C) There will be no charge anywhere excep
t at r = R . (D) Elect ricfieldis discontinuous at r = R . r = o 0 0 o

<!Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS 0 [JEE 2006] [11]

ANSWER KEY EXERCISE # I Q.2 Efl Q.l a=/(l + a/2), the equilibrium will be stable
E (a) m7i s d 3 0 3 fl a E| t Qq (b) E|l m7t 3 s 0 d 3 2Qq Q.3 Q.4 Q.8 (i) Sh~c
* (ii) -9 T 0 1 0 (iii) Q.6 Q10 b "f* (iv) a - 11 3_

i3/2 3 x 10 C Q.5 Q.9 Q.7 qQ 87U s r 2 0 2 3 al 2m Gn TTCTR 2 3 2 tan" 2s mg qQ

2 Q11 2kQ mR 0 Q.12 Q.13 20-7&2 Q.14 - kq b-s) Q.15 9V Q.16 mn e0 V Q.17 2e u m
Q.18 qc 0 4718 r r a b _ qi f 1 1 VK = OK- ~qi;00 4m b ; qi q2 V,= 47ce r r v a<
r<b r=b x r a z + r>b

0 Q.19 1.8 x 10 sec Q.20 -Q/3 5 Q.21 1.125 q Q.25 a R = 7 f Q.22 q-26 kP Q j(-i2j) A A Q.23 ~~kpk Q.24 24 En xvu i vi o 2 ^ Q.l (a) 60 (b) mg + kqiq (c) & mg, mg
. qj & q should have unlike charges for the b eads to remain stationaly & q q =
-mg/Vk ' 5 + V89' Q.2 Q.3 9.30 Q.4 Xq Q.5 H = h h - g 8 ' 26 m 8 4 "|Kq 2KQq r-R
H ,1/2 3' Q.6 Wfirst step ,' W second.step= 0 ,' W total = 0 , Q.7 U VsJ r mR r
8 2 t 2 2 1+ 2 n 2 t t EXERCISE # II Q.8 q = 4/^|47iE mgsin 0 0 Q.ll n= 47ts mg(
h-R)R ~ Q.12 ^/47TS Ka 0 . a sin 2 Q.9 6V2mr e epa V 3 12 Q.13 2.2 x 10" C Q
.14 <!Bansal Classes


Q . 1 5 0, 2KX , 0 4kq Q.17 XRE0l Q.18 a = SrPo E ~1 r Q.19 7.5 x 10~ N 9 Q 2 0

Qq Q.21 271 e L n 1 a 1 laeR Q.22 v = me n Q.23 2 f IA Q.24 b = 2 sin" sin Qi v 2
Vq 2 Q.l C Q.5 (a) U Q.2 D Q.3 A 2.2 ^ 87te R 1-a where a = 0 EXERCISE # III (b
) U (n 2 2 2 Q.4 (i) A C, (ii) D, (iii) A C oo) = 87T r 0 aAfj Q.7 (a) E, (b) B,
(c) v = 3 m/s ;K.E. at the origin = (27-10V6) x 10 J appr ox.2.5 xio~ J Q.8 C '
Q.9 5.86 m/s Q.10 B Q.ll A 1 q 4 [3V3-3V6-V2I Q.12 47ts a V 6 along positive x-a
xis Q.14 C 47I8 d^ (b) 27t s d Q.13 (a)KE = - 2 _ Q / >1/3 Q .15 - , + , + , - ,
+ , - Q.16 Q.17 C Q.18 D Q.19 V' = v3t, .V Q.20 AB,C,D 0 4 4 2 0 0 0 Q P Q.6 (i
) C, (ii) (a) H = ~ , (b) U = mg 2^h +a -h equilibrium at h = - = , V3 o Un 2mga
V3mga <!Bansal Classes ELECTROSTATICS


BANSALCLASSES TARGET IIT JEE 2007 IflJiSlHti PHISIGS XI l l l l l i r i v ilyffl

i^---ilff ^:- - ::T| EM jij::::; if'' iH!!::^i:;i-iO f -Viij^y ;f = :i; 1 : yXVVil
i]!;;??TXX lvV; QUESTION BANK ON iSSlif-:-, .S

ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT. Take approx. 2 minutes for answering each question.
Two identical conducting spheres, having charges of opposite sign, attract each
other with a force of 0.108 N when separated by 0.5 m. The spheres are connected
by a conducting wire, which is then removed, and thereafter, they repel each ot
her with a force of 0.036 N. The initial charges on the ^ v / spheres are (A) 5
xlO" C and + 1 5 x l O ' C (B) 1.0 x 10" C and + 3.0 x 10" C (C) 2.0 x 10" C an
d + 6.0 x 10" C (D) 0.5 x 10" C and + 1.5 x 10" C Q . 2 / A point charge 50pC is
located in the XY plane at the point of position vector f = 2i + 3 j What is th
e electric field at the point ofposition vector r = 8i - 5 j ' t/ (A) 1200V/m (B
) 0.04V/m (C)900V/m (D) 4500 V/m Q.3 A point charge q is placed at origin. Let E
, E and E be the electric field at three points A (1,2,3), B (1,1, - 1) and C (
2 ,2,2) due to charge q. Then r [i] E -L E [ii]|E |=4|E | Xs select the correct
al ternative (A) only [i] is correct (B) only [ii] is correct (C) both [i] and [
ii] are correct (D) both [i] and [ii] are wrong Two identicalpoint charges are p
lac ed at a separation of 1. P is a point on the line joimng the charges, at / a
dis tance x from any one charge. The field at P is E. E is plotted against x fo
r val ues of x from close to zero to slightly less than 1. Which ofthe following
best represents the resulting curve? El E' E' (D) (A) 1 V (B> O O Q.5 A particle
of mas s m and charge Q is placed in an electric field E which varies with time
t ass E =E sincot. It will undergo simple harmonic motion of amplitude QE QE QE
, QE (A) mcoo (D) mco (B) mco (C) mm +q -q Q.6 Four charges are arranged at the
corners of a square ABCD, as shown. The force on a +ve charge kept at the centre
of the square is zero (B) along diagonal AC e (A) along diagonal BD +2q i D (C)
(D) per pendicular to the side A Q.7 Twofreepositive charges 4q and q are a dis
tance 1 a part. What charge Q is needed to achieve equilibrium for the entire sy
stem and w here should it be placed form charge q? 4 I 4 / (A) Q q (negative) at
(B)Q= - q (positive) at 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 f a B c a b B c Q Q.l t Wl \/ f 0 n 2
q : I (C) Q = q (positive) at (D) Q = q (negative) at q / Six charges are place
d at the corner of a regular hexagon as shown. Ifan electron is placed at its ce
ntre O, force on it will be: (A) Zero (B) Along OF (C) Along OC (D) None of thes
e "-q 3q,B TS \.~2q - . SU [15]

(f| Bansal Classes Question Bank on Electrostatics

Two identical positive charges are fixed on the y-axis, at equal distancesfromth
e origin 0. Aparticle with a negative charge starts on the x-axis at a large di
s tancefromO, moves along the+x-axis, passes through O and moves far away from O
. Its acceleration a is taken as positive along its direction of motion. The par
ti cle's acceleration a is plotted against its x-coordinate. Which of the follow
ing best represents the plot? ta ta ta J ta x -> ^ x - (C) (A) (B) O x - (D) O 0 0
Q. l 0 / Four equal positive charges are fixed at the vertices of a square of s
ide L. Z-axis is perpendicular to the plane of the square. The point z = 0 is th
e po int where the diagonals of the square intersect each other. The plot of ele
ctric field due to the four charges, as one moves on the z-axis. E r t Ef (B) L
(C) (D) o V2L V2 Q. 1Y A nonconducting ring of radius R has uniformly dist ribut
ed positive charge Q. A small part ofthe ring, of length d, is removed (d R ). T
he electric field at the centre of the ring will now be (A) directed towards the
gap, inversely proportional to R . (B) directed towards the gap, inversely prop
ortional to R . (C) directed awayfromthe gap, inversely proportional to R . (D)
directed awayfromthe gap, inversely proportional to R . y -2a - if Q.12 The char
ge per unit length of the four quadrant of the ring is 2X, - 2X, X and \+ 21 X r
espectively. The electric field at the centre is +1 R j- a (A) 0 3 2 3 2 / i (A)
- 27is R 0 \ (B) 27te R J 0 y (C) 47is R 1 0 V2 X r (D) None 1 *y Q.13 The direc
tion (0) of E at point P due to uniformly charged finite rod will be ... 4 (A) a
t angle 30fromx-axis // ' (B) 45 from x-axis (C) 60fromx-axis 20/ (D) none of these
Q.14 Two equal negative charges are fixed at the points [0, a ] a nd [0, -a] on
the y-axis. A positive charge Q is releasedfromrest at the points [2a, 0] on th
e x-axis. The charge Q will (A) execute simple harmonic motion abou t the origin
(B) move to the origin and remain at rest (C) move to infinity (D) execute osci
llatory but not simple harmonic motion. Q / 5 An uncharged sphere of metal place
d inside a charged parallel plate capacitor. The lines of force look like (A)

(f| Bansal Classes DCC (C) (D) IX [15] Question Bank on Electrostatics

A small particle of mass m and charge -q is placed at point P and released. If R

x, the particle will undergo oscillations along the axis of symmetry with an an
gular frequency that is equal to qQ qQ* 47te mR 0 3 ( D ) 0 4 qQ qQx 4ns mR 4 mR
4 Q .VI Which ofthe following is a volt: (A) Erg per cm \jO) J oule per coulomb
(C) Erg per ampere (D) Newton / (coulomb x m ) Q.18 n small dro ps of same size
are charged to V volts each. Ifthey coalesce to form a signal la rge drop, then
its potential will be (A) V/n (B) Vn (C)Vn jPfVn Q.19 1000 identi cal drops of
mercury are charged to a potential of 1 V each. They join to form a single drop.
The potential ofthis drop will be 5 (A) 0.01 V (B)0.1V (C)10V (D>1 00V Q.20 Pot
ential difference between centre & the surface of sphere of radius R and uniform
volume charge densitv p within it will be: ( C ) 0 2 1/3 273 Q.21 If the electr
ic potential ofthe inner metal sphere is 10 volt & that of the outer shell is 5
volt, then the potential at the centre will be: (A) 10 volt (B ) 5 volt (C) 15 v
olt (D) 0 ^ pR 2 pR 2 () C 0 ( )pR D k 2 Q.22 Three concentric metallic spherica
l shell A, B and C or radii a, b and c (a < b < c) have surface charge densities
- cr, + cr, and - a respectively. The po tential of shell A is: (A)(o/e )[a + b
- c ] (B)(a/e )[a-b + c] J # ( a / e ) [ b - a - c ] (D)none Q.23 A charged par
ticle having some mass is resting in equil ibrium at a height H above the centre
ofa uniformly charged non-conducting horiz ontal ring ofradius R. The force ofg
ravity acts downwards. The equilibrium of th e particle will be stable i R R R (
A) for all values of H (B) only if H> ^ (C) o nly if H < ^ (D) only if H = 0 0 0
Q.24 An infinite number of concentric rings cany a charge Q each alternately po
s itive and negative. Their radii are 1,2,4,8 meters in geometric progression as
s hown in the figure. The potential at the centre ofthe rings will be Q Q (A) z
ero (B) ^ (C, ^ --..4 /I )\ Q.2J When a negative charge is released and moves in
electric field, it moves to ward a position of (A) lower electric potential and
lower potential energy (B) l ower electric potential and higher potential energ
y (C) higher electric potentia l and lower potential energy (D) higher electric
potential and higher potential energy (f| Bansal Classes

Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q.26 A hollow metal sphere of radius 5 cm is charged such that the potential on
its surface is 10 V. The potential at the centre of the sphere is (A)0V fe (B)10
V (C) same as at point 5 cm away from the surface out side sphere. (D) same as
a point 25 cm away from the surface. Q.27 A solid sphere of radius R is charged
u niformly. At what distance from its surface is the electrostatic potential hal
f of the potential at the centre? i - (A)R (B)R/2 (C)R/3 (D)2R Q.28 An infinite
no nconducting sheet of charge has a surface charge density of 10~ C/m . The sep
ara tion ^ between two equipotential surfaces near the sheet whose potential dif
fer by 5 V is (A) 0.88 cm (B) 0.88 mm (C) 0.88 m (D)5xl0" m Q.29 Four equal char
ges +q are placed at four corners of a square with its centre at origin and lyin
g in yz plane. The electrostatic potential energy of a fifth charge +q' varies o
n xaxis as: u u /\ (A) (D) 7 2 7 2 Q.30 Two identical thin rings, each of radius
R meter are coaxially placed at di stance R meter apart. If Qj and Q coulomb ar
e respectively the charges uniformly spread on the two rings, the work done in m
oving a charge qfromthe centre of on e ring to that of the other is (A) zero (B)
< f a ^ J j 2 - \ ) / ( j 2 A n e R ) (C) qV2(Q +Q )/47i R (D) qr(Qj-Q )(V2+l)/(
V2.47rs R) Q.31 Two positively charge d particles X and Y are initially far away
fromeach other and at rest. X begins t o move towards Y with some initial veloci
ty. The total momentum and energy of th e system are p and E. (A) If Y is fixed,
both p and E are conserved. (B) If Y is fixed, E is conserved, but not p. (C) I
f both are free to move, p is conserved but not E. (D) If both are free, E is co
nserved, but not p. Q.33 Two particles X and Y, ofequal mass and with unequal po
sitive charges, arefreeto move and are i nitially far awayfromeach other. With Y
at rest, X begins to move towards it wit h initial velocity u. After a long tim
e, finally (A) X will stop, Y will move wi th velocity u. (B) X and Y will both
move with velocities u/2 each. (C) X will s top, Y will move with velocity < u.
(D) both will move with velocities < u/2. Q. 34 A circular ring of radius R with
uniform positive charge density X per unit l ength is located in the y-z plane
with its centre at the origin O. Aparticle of mass m and positive charge q is pr
ojected from the Xq_ point P(R V3 , 0 , 0 ) on the positive x-axis directly towa
rds O, with an initial kinetic energy *tb . (A ) The particle crosses O and goes
to infinity. (B) The particle returns to P. (C ) The particle will just reach O
. (D) The particle crosses O and goes to -RV3. 0 1 2 0 2 0 d 0 (f| Bansal Classe
s Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q.35 A bullet of mass m and charge q is fired towards a solid uniformly charged
sphere of radius R and total charge + q. If it strikes the surface of sphere wit
h speed u,findthe minimum speed u so that it can penetrate through the sphere.
( Neglect all resistance forces orfiictionacting on bullet except electrostatic
fo rces) + + , ++ + \ m + I t+ + + V3q (C) yj 87i mR (D) yj 47ts mR (B) ^47is mR
Q.36 In space of horizontal EF (E = (mg)/q) exist as shown in figure and a /////
///// mass m attached at the end of a light rod. If mass m is releasedfromthe po
sition shown in figure find the ang ular velocity of the rod when it X passes th
rough the bottom most position (A) ^27rs mR 0 0 0 0 ( A ) v (B) - f (D) Q.37 Two
identical particles of mass m carry a charge Q each. Initially one is a t rest
on a smooth horizontal plane and the other is projected along the plane d irectl
y towardsfirstparticle from a large distance with speed v. The closed dist ance
of approach be VOr 1 3Q 1 2Q 1 4Q (D) 4tc8O m v (A) 4TCS m v (B) 47is mv (C ) 4T
IS MV Q.38 The diagram shows a small bead of mass m carrying charge q. The b ead
can freely move on the smooth fixed ring placed on a smooth horizontal plane .
In the same plane a charge +Q has also beenfixedas shown. The potential atthe po
int /* P due to +Q is V. The velocity with which the bead should projected fro m
the point P so that it can complete a circle should be greater than I qV 3qV 6
qV (D)none (A) V m (B) m (C) m Q.39 Electricfieldgiven by the vector E = xi + yj
is present in the XY plane. (0,L) A small ring carrying charge +Q, which canfre
elyslide on a smooth non conducting rod, is projetced along the rod from the po
i nt (0, L) such \ that it can reach the other end ofthe rod. What minimum veloc
it y should be given to the ring?(Assume zero gravity) (A) (QL /m) (B) 2(QL /m)
(C) 4(QL /m) (D)(QL /2m) 2 0 0 2 0

2 2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 Q.40 A unit positive point charge of mass m is proje
cted with a velocity V insid e the tunnel as shown. The tunnel has been made ins
ide a uniformly charged non c onducting sphere. The minimum velocity with which
the point charge should be pro jected such it can it reach the opposite end of t
he tunnel, is equal to (A) [pR /4ms ] (B) [pR /24ms ] (C) [pR /6me ] (D) zero be
cause the initial and thefinalp oints are at same potential. > 2 0 1/2 2 0 1/2 2
0 1/2 (f| Bansal Classes Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q.41 A conducting sphere of radius a has charge Q on it. It is enclosed by a neu

tral conducting concentric spherical shell having inner radius 2a and outer rad
i us 3a. Find electrostatic energy of system. 5kQi JikQl 12 a 12 a 2a 1 Q.42 A p
ar ticle of mass 1 kg & charge. pC is projected towards a non conducting fixed s
phe rical shell having the same charge ] uniformly distributed on its surface. F
ind the minimum initial velocity of projection required if the particle just gra
zes the shell. ( A ) O ( D ) n o n e z^LZX. I l^T'j ' A "f from (A) J 7 m/s [2 (B
) 2 J m/s [2 (C) m/s 2 (D) none of these Y Q. 4 3 The diagram shows three infinit
ely long uniform line charges placed on 3X the X, Y and Z axis. The work done in
moving a unit positive charge from(l, 1, l)to (0,1,1) is equal to (A)(Un2)/27is
(B) (X In 2) /ne 2X (C)(3Xln2)/2ne (D)Non e Q. 44 A charged particle of charge
Q is heldfixedand another charged particle ofmass m and charge q (ofthe same sig
n) is released from a distance r. The impul se of the force exerted by the exter
nal agent on the fixed charge by the time di stance between Q and q becomes 2r i
s Qq I Qqm Qqm Qqm 0 0 0 ( D ) P ^ 0 r Q.45 In a uniform electricfield,the poten
tial is 10V at the origin of coordinate s, and 8 V at each of the points /T (1,0
,0),(0,1,0) and (0,0,1). The potential a t the point (1,1,1) will be (A) 0 (B) 4
V (C) 8 V (D)10V Q.46 In a regular polyg on of n sides, each corner is at a dis
tance r from the centre. Identical charges are placed at (n - 1) corners. At the
centre, the intensity is E and the potent ial is V. The ratio V/E has magnitude
. (A)rn (B)r(n-l) (C)(n-l)/r (D)r(n-l)/n Q.

47 The equation of an equipotential line in an electricfieldis y=2x, then the el

ectricfieldstrength vector at (1,2) maybe i (A) 4i + 3j (B) 4i + 8j (C) 8 i + 4
j (D) - 8 i + 4 j Q.48 The electric field in a region is given by : E = (4axy V
z )i + (2ax Vz )j + (ax / Vz )k, where a is a positive constant. The equation of
an equipotential surface will be of the form (A) z = constant / [x y ] (B) z =
c onstant / [xy ] (C) z - constant / [x y ] (D) None Q.49 A charge 3 coulomb exp
er iences a force 3000 N when placed in a uniform electricfield.The potential di
ffe rence between two points separated by a distance of 1 cm along thefieldlines
is ^ (A) 10 V (B) 90 V (C) 1000V (D) 9000V Q. 5 0 Two point charges of+Q each h
ave been placed at the positions (-a /2,0,0) and (a / 2,0,0). The locus of the p
oint s where - Q charge can be placed such the that total electrostatic potentia
l ene rgy of the system can become equal to zero, is represented by which of the
follo wing equations? (A) Z + (Y-a) = 2a (B) Z + (Y-a) = 27a /4 (C) Z + Y = 15a
/4 (D) None 1 2 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (f| Bansal Classes Question Bank on
Electrostatics [15]

Q.51 Figure shows equi-potential surfaces for a two charges system. At which of
the labeled points point will an I electron have the highest potential energy? (
B) Point B (A) Point A (C) Point C (D) Point D Q.52 Auniform electricfieldhavin
g strength is existing in x-y plane as shown infigure.Find the p.d. between orig
i n O & A(d, d, 0) (A) Ed (cos0 + sin0) (B) -Ed (sin6 - cos0) (C) 4 l Ed (D) non
e of these $ Q.53 In a certain region of space, the potential is given by: V = k
[2x - y + z ] . The electric field at the point (1,1,1) has magnitude = (A) k-/6
(B)2kV6 (C)2k V3 (D) 4kV3 Q.54 Find the force experienced by the semicircular r
od charged with a charge q, placed as shown in figure. Radius of the wire is R a
nd the line of charge with linear charge density A, is passing through its centr
e and perpendic ular to the plane ofwire. 1 Aq Aq A,q Aq (B) 7L S R 2tt S R 2 2
2 2 0 2 0 Q.55 Uniform electric field of magnitude 100 V/m in space is directed
along the line y = 3 + x. Find the potential difference between point A (3,1) &
B (1,3) (A ) 100 V (B)200V2V (C)200V (D)0 Q.56 A wheel having mass m has charges
+q and -q on diametrically opposite points. It remains in equilibrium on a roug
h inclined plane in the presence of uniform vertical electricfieldE = mg mg tan
0 mg (D)non e (A) (B) 2q (C) 2q Q.57 An equilateral triangle wire frame of side
L having 3 p oint charges at its vertices is kept in x-y plane as shown. Compone
nt of electri cfielddue to the configuration in z direction at (0,0, L) is [orig
in is centroid of triangle] 9 kg 9V3kq (B)zero (D) None (C) 8L 8L Q.58 A, B, C,
D, P and Q are points in a uniform electricfield.The potentials B C a these poin
ts are V (A) = 2 volt. V (P) = V (B) = V (D) = 5 volt. f y* P V (C) = 8 volt. Th
e electric fie ld at P is Q D A (A) 10 Vm" along PQ (B) 15^2 V n r along PA i (C
) 5 V n r along PC (D) 5 V m along PA 0.2 m 2 2 1 1 1 _1 (f|BansalClasses Questi
on Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q. 5 9 A and B are two points on the axis and the perpendicular bisector respect
ively of an electric dipole. A and B are far awayfromthe dipole and at equal di
s tancefromit. The field at A and B are E and E . (A)E,A _: FB (B)E 2E (D) | E |
= | E |, and E is perpendicular to E^ y (C) E = - 2 E A B y A = B a R B a 0 Q.6
0 Figure shows the electric field lines around an electric dipole. Which ofth e
arrows best represents the electricfieldat point P ? (B)\ (A) | Q.61 A dipole co
nsists of two particles one with charge +lpC and mass 1kg and the other with c h
arge -1 pC and mass 2kg separated by a distance of 3m. For small oscillations a
bout its equilibrium position, the angularfrequency,when placed in a uniform ele
ctricfieldof 20kV/m is (A) 0.1 rad/s (B) 1.1 rad/s - (C) 10 rad/s (D)2.5rad/s Q
. 62 The dipole moment of a system of charge +q distributed uniformly on an arc
of radius R subtending an angle 7t/2 at its centre where another charge -q is pl
ac ed is: f qR 2qR 2V2qR V2qR (A) 71 (B) 71 (D) 71 71 Q.63 An electric dipole is
kep t on the axis of a uniformly charged ring at distance R/ V2 from the centre
ofth e ring. The direction ofthe dipole moment is along the axis. The dipole mom
ent i s P, charge of the ring is Q and radius of the ring is R. The force on the
dipol e is nearly 4kPQ 2kPQ i ( A ) 4kPQ2 ^ (B)^rT ( )W3V 3 R c ( D ) z e r o (
C ) / ( P ) / Q.64 Alarge sheet carries uniform surface charge density a. Arod
oflength 21 has a linear charge density X on one half and -X on the second half.
The rod is hin ged at mid point O and makes an angle 6 with the normal to the s
heet. The torque experienced by the rod is y (A)0 (C) s i n e GXI 2 (B) ^7~sine
2s 0 aXl 2 (D) 2 T Q.65 Two short electric dipoles are placed as shown. The ener
gy of elect ric interaction between these dipoles will be 2kPjP cose - 2kPjP sin
6 2kP]P cosB - 4kPjP cos 6 (A) (B) (C) (D)

2 2 2 2 aXl Q.66 Point

y 90 anticloc k wise,
lock wise (C) 90 anti
Bank on Electrostatics

P lies on the axis of a dipole. Ifthe dipole is rotated b

the electricfieldvector E P u (A)at90will rotate by (B) 180 c
clock wise (D) none clock wise (f| Bansal Classes Question

Q.67 4 charges are placed each at a distance 'a' from origin. The dipole moment
of configuration is (A) 2qaj (B) 3qaj (C)2aq[i + j] (D)none " y 2q -2q Q.68 Both
question (a) and (b) refer to the system of charges as shown in the fi gure. A
spherical shell with an inner radius 'a' and an outer radius 'b' is made of cond
ucting material. A point charge +Q is placed at the centre of the spheri cal she
ll and a total charge - q is placed on the shell. (a) Charge - q is distr ibuted
on the surfaces as (A) - Q on the inner surface, - q on outer surface (B) - Q o
n the inner surface, - q + Q on the outer surface (C) +Q on the inner surf ace,
-q - Q on the outer surface (D) The charge - q is spread uniformly between the i
nner and outer surface. Assume that the electrostatic potential is zero at an in
finite distancefromthe spherical shell. The electrostatic potential at a di stan
ce R (a < R < b)fromthe centre of the shell is (A) o (where K = 1 47IS 0 (b) (B)
^ ) 0 Q.69 In a as E = E rallel to (B)s E a 3 0 0 3 E region of space, the elect
ric field is in the x direction and is given x i. Consider an imaginary cubical
volume of edge a, with its edges pa the axes of coordinates. The charge inside t
his volume is: 1 1 (A) zero (C) o (D) s E a a 3 7 0 0 2
Q. 7 0 Electricfluxthrough a surface of area 100 m lying in the xy plane is (in
V-m) if E = i + V2 j + V3k (A) 100 (B) 141.4 (C) 173.2 (D)200 2 Q. 71 An infinit
e, uniformly charged sheet with surface charge density a cuts th rough a spheric
al Gaussian surface of radius R at a distance xfromits center, as shown in the f
igure. The electric flux O through the Gaussian surface is HIV a 7tR u (A) " 7 o
2 E ztiiin. R- x x ) a 27t( - (B) ~ o 2 2 / V _ x /\ N ' o o Q. 72 Two spherica
l, nonconducting, and very thin shells ofuniformly distr ibuted positive charge
Q and radius d are located a distance 1 Odfromeach other. A positive point charg
e q is placed inside one ofthe shells at a distance d/2 f rom the center, on the
line connecting the centers of the two shells, as shown i n the figure. What is
the net force on the charge q? b s (C)

TT(R-X) 2 CT (D) * TT(R -X 2 ) A 2 (A) 36l7T8 d 0 qQ 2 t o t h e l e f t (B) 36l

7ts d totheright 0 2 qQ ' 362qQ < > 36l7TE d C 0 2 t o t h e l e f t 360qQ CD) 2
totheright 3 6 l 7 r g ( ) d iod w (f| Bansal Classes Question Bank on Electros
tatics [15]

Q.73 A positive charge q is placed in a spherical cavity made in apositively cha

rged sphere. The centres of sphere and cavity are displaced by a small distance
/ . Force on charge q is: (A) in the direction parallel to vector J (B) in radi
a l direction (C) in a direction which depends on the magnitude of charge densit
y in sphere (D) direction can not be determined. Q.74 There are four concentric
sh ells A, B, C and D ofradii a, 2a, 3a and 4a respectively. Shells B and D are
giv en charges +q and -q respectively. Shell C is now earthed. The potential dif
fere nce V - V is: Kq Kq Kq Kq (B)' 3a (D) 6a ^ y A c Q.75 A metal ball of radiu
s R is placed concentrically inside a hollow metal sph ere of inner radius 2R an
d outer radius 3R. The ball is given a charge +2Q and t he hollow sphere a total
charge - Q. The electrostatic potential energy ofthis s ystem is: 7Q 5Q 5Q (D)
None (A) 247is R (B) 167t8 R (C) 87is R Question No. 76 t o 80 % fcfcjtft wuLuff
x' b e soVv <4 oat Apoint charge +Q having mass m is fixed o n horizontal smooth
surface. Another point charge having magnitude +2Q & mass 2m is projected horiz
ontally towards the charge +Q from far distance with velocity V . Q.76 Force app
lied by floor on the fixed charge in horizontal direction, wh en distance betwee
n charges becomes'd'. 2KQ KQ (C) Zero (D) None (A) (B) 0 0 0 o 2 2 Q. 77 The imp
ulse acting on the system ofparticles (Q + 2Q) in the time interval when distanc
e between them becomes'd'. (A) 2m o 2 K md md Q -V (B)2mV (D) None n (C) 2m k 2
Q. 7 8 Minimum distance of approach. 2KQ KQ 4KQ (D) None (A) mV (B) (D) mV Q.79
Acceleration ofparticle 2Q when it is closest to fixed particle Q mV mV (A) Zero
(D) None (B) 2KQ (C) 4KQ Q.80 If particle +Q isfreeto move, then what will be t
he closest distance between the particles. 6KQ' 3KQ' (A) Zero (D) None (B) mV (
C ) mV 2 2 2 2 Z 2 2 (f| Bansal Classes Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]

ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Take approx. 3 minutes for answering
each question. Q.l Mid way between the two equal and similar charges, we placed
the third equal and similar charge. Which ofthe following statements is correct,
concerned to the equilibrium along the line joining the charges ? (A) The third
charge experienced a net force inclined to the line joining the charges (B) The
third charge is in stable equilibrium (C) The third charge is in unstable equil
ibrium (D) The third charge experiences a net force perpendicular to the line j
o ining the charges A negative point charge placed at the point A is (A) in stab
le equilibrium along x-axis (B) in unstable equilibrium along y-axis (p^-- (C) in
s table equilibrium along y-axis (D) in unstable equilibrium along x-axis Five
bal ls numbered 1 to 5 are suspended using separate threads. Pairs (1,2), (2,4)
and (4,1) show electrostatic attraction while pairs (2,3) and (4,5) show repulsi
on. Therefore ball 1 must be (A) positively charged (B) negatively charged (C) n
eutr al (D) made of metal a a Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Four charges of 1 pC,2pC,3 pC, and-6pC
are placed one at each corner ofthe squar e of side lm. The square lies in the
x-y plane with its centre at the origin. (A ) The electric potential is zero at
the origin. (B) The electric potential is ze ro everywhere along the x-axis only
^f the sides ofthe square are parallel to x a nd y axis. (C) The electric potent
ial is zero everywhere along the z-axis for an y orientation ofthe square in the
xy plane. (D) The electric potential is not ze ro along the z-axis except at th
e origin. Twofixedcharges 4Q (positive) and Q (n egative) are located at A and B
, the distance AB being 3 m. + 4Q A - Q B Q. 5 (A) The point P where the resultan
tfielddue to both is zero is on AB outside AB. (B) The point P where the resulta
nt field due to both is zero is on AB inside A B. (C) If a positive charge is pl
aced at P and displaced slightly along AB it wi ll execute oscillations. (D) If
a negative charge is placed at P and displaced s lightly along AB it will execut
e oscillations. Q. 6 Two identical charges +Q are keptfixedsome distance apart.
A small particle P with charge q is placed midway between them. IfP is given a s
mall displacement A, it will undergo simple harmo nic motion if (A) q is positiv
e and A is along the line joining the charges. (B) q is positive and A is perpen
dicular to the line joining the charges. (C) q is negative and A is perpendicula
r to the line joining the charges. (D) q is negati ve and A is along the line jo
ining the charges. Select the correct statement: (O nly force on a particle is d
ue to electric field) (A) A charged particle always moves along the electric lin
e of force. (B) A charged particle may move along th e line of force (C) A charg
e particle never moves along the line of force (D) A charged particle moves alon
g the line of force only ifreleased from rest. 3M Q. 7 (f|Bansal Classes Questio
n Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q. 8 Two point charges Q and - Q/4 are separated by a distance x. Then Q x ~Q (A

) pot ential is zero at a point on the axis which is x/3 on the right side of th
e char ge - Q/4 (B) potential is zero at a point on the axis which is x/5 on the
left s ide ofthe charge - Q/4 (C) electricfieldis zero at apoint on the axis wh
ich is a t a distance x on the right side ofthe charge - Q/4 (D) there exist two
points o n the axis where electricfieldis zero. 8 /4 Q.9 An electric charge 10~
C is placed at the point (4m, 7m, 2m). At the point (lm, 3m, 2m), the electric
(A) potential will be 18 V (B)fieldhas no Y-component (C)f ieldwill be along Z-a
xis (D) potential will be 1.8 V Q.10 Let V be electric potential and E the magni
tude of the electricfield.At a g iven position, which of the statement is true?
(A) E is always zero where V is z ero (B) V is always zero where E is zero (C) E
can be zero where V is non zero ( D) E is always nonzero where V is nonzero Q.l
l Three point charges Q, 4Q and 16Q are placed on a straight line 9 cm long. Cha
rges are placed in such a way that the system has minimum potential energy. Then
(A) 4Q and 16Q must be at the ends and Q at a distance of 3 cm from the 16Q. (B
) 4Q and 16Q must be at the ends an d Q at a distance of 6 cm from the 16Q. (C)
Electricfieldat the position of Q is zero. Q (D) Electricfieldat the position of
Q is . Q.12 Two infinite sheets ofu niform charge density +ct and -cr are paral
lel to each other as shown in the fig ure. Electricfieldat the + (A) points to t
he left or to the right ofthe sheets i s zero. + (B) midpoint between the sheets
is zero. + + (C) midpoint of the sheet s is C / s and is directed towards right
. J + (D) midpoint of the sheet is 2c / s and is directed towards right. 0 0 Q.
13 The electric potential decreases uniformly from V to -V along X-axis in a coo
rdinate system as we movesfroma point (-x , 0) to (x , 0), then the electricf ie
ldat the origin. Q Q (A) must be equal to x ; 0 (B) may be equal to x (D) may be
less than x Q (C) must be greater than x o o Q. 14 The electric potential decre
ases uniformly from 120 V to 80 V as one moves on the X-axis from x=-1 cm to x =
+ 1 cm. The electric field at the origin (A) must be equal to 20 V/cm (B) may b
e equal to 20 V/cm (C) may be greater than 20 V/cm (D) may be less than 20 V/cm
Q.15 Potential at apoint Ais 3 volt and at a p oint B is 7 volt, an electron is
moving towards Afrom B. (A) It must have some K

.E. at B to reach A (B) It need not have any K.E. at B to reach A (C) to reach
it must have more than or equal to 4 eV K. E. at B. (D) when it will reach A,
t will have K.E. more then or at least equal to 4 eV ifit was releasedfromrest
t B. a MBansal Classes N lmmmmmmmjags-, Question Bank on


Q.16 A ring of radius R carries charge Q distributed uniformly over the ring. P
is a point on its axis, at a distance rfromits centre. The electric field at P d
ue to ring is E. Which of the following is correct? 1 Qr ( ) 47tB '(r + R ) (B)
E is maximum for r = R/ V2 (C) E * 0 at the centre of the ring. (D) As r increa
s es, E will first increase, then decrease. Q.17 A conducting sphere of radius r
h as a charge. Then (A) The charge is uniformly distributed over its surface, i
fth ere is an external electric field. (B) Distribution of charge over its surfa
ce w ill be non uniform ifno external electricfieldexist in space. (C) Electricf
ields trength inside the sphere will be equal to zero only when no external elec
tricfi eldexists (D) Potential at every point of the sphere must be same Q.18 Fo
r a sph erical shell (A) Ifpotential inside it is zero then it necessarily elect
rically neutral (B) electricfieldin a charged conducting spherical shell can be
zero onl y when the charge is uniformly distributed. (C) electric potential due
to induce d charges at a point inside it will always be zero (D) none of these A
E = 0 2 2 3 / 2 Q.19 A circular ring carries a uniformly distributed positive c
harge. The electr icfield(E) and potential (V) varies with distance (r)fromthe c
entre of the ring along its axis as (A) (B) (C) Q.20 The figure shows a noncondu
cting ring which has positive and negative charg e non uniformly distributed on
it such that the total charge is zero. - I0 Which ofthe following statements is
true? ; axis I (A) The potential at all the point s on the axis will be zero. (B
) The electricfieldat all the points on the axis w ill be zero. (C) The directio
n of electricfieldat all points on the axis will be along the axis. (D) Ifthe ri
ng is placed inside a uniform external electricfiel dthen net torque and force a
cting on the ring would be zero. Q.21 At distance of 5cm and 1 Ocm outwards from
the surface of a uniformly charged solid sphere, th e potentials are 100V and 7
5V respectively. Then (A) potential at its surface is 150V. (B) the charge on th
e sphere is (5/3) * 10" C. (C) the electricfieldon th e surface is 1500 V/m. (D)
the electric potential at its centre is 225V. 10 Q.22 Four identical charges ar
e placed at the points (1,0,0), (0,1,0), (-1,0,0) and (0, -1,0). (A) The potenti
al at the origin is zero. (B) Thefieldat the origi n is zero. (C) The potential
at all points on the z-axis, other than the origin, is zero. (D) Thefieldat all
points on the z-axis, other than the origin acts al ong the z-axis. (f| Bansal C
lasses Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q.23 Variation of electrostatic potential along x-direction is shown in the grap

h. The correct statement about electricfieldis (A) x component at point B is ma
x imum (B) x component at point A is towards positive x-axis. (C) x component at
p oint C is along negative x-axis (D) x component at point C is along positive
x-a xis Q.24 A particle of charge 1 pC & mass 1 gm moving with a velocity of 4 m
/s i s subj ected to a uniform electric field of magnitude 300 V/m for 10 sec. T
hen i t's final speed cannot be: (A) 0.5 m/s (B)4m/s (C)3m/s (D)6m/s Q.25 Two po
int ch arges q and 2q are placed at (a, 0) and (0, a). Apoint charge q[ is place
d at a point P on the quarter circle of radius a as shown in the diagram so that
the el ectricfieldat the origin becomes zero: a V2a '_a_ 2a ^ (A) the point P i
s 7 3 ' V T (B) the point Pis V5'V5 (C)q,=-5q (D) none of these Q.26 A charged c
ork of m ass m suspended by a light string is placed in uniform electricfiledof
strength E = (i + ]) x 10 NC~' as shown in thefig.Ifin equilibrium 2mg position
tension i n the string is then angle'a'with the vertical is (A) 60 (B) 30 (C) 45 (D
)18 Q.27 Tw o particles of same mass and charge are thrown in the same direction
along the h orizontal with same velocity vfromtwo different heights hj and h (h,
< h ). Init ially they were located on the same vertical line. Choose the corre
ct alternativ e. (A) Both the particles will always lie on a vertical line. (B)
Acceleration o fthe centre of mass of two particles will be g downwards. (C) Hor
izontal displac ement of the particle lying at hj is less and the particle lying
at h is more th an the value, which would had been inthe absence of charges on
them. (D) all of these. 5 2 2 2 Q.28 A proton and a deuteron are initially at re
st and are accelerated through t he same potential difference. Which ofthe follo
wing is false concerning thefinal properties ofthe two particles ? (A) They have
different speeds (B) They have sa me momentum (C) They have same kinetic energy
(D) They have been subj ected to s ame force Q.29 A particle of charge - q and
mass m moves in a circle around a lo ng wire of linear charge density + X. If r=
radius of the circular path and T = t ime period of the motion circular path. Th
en: (A) T = 2 ti r (m/2KXq) (B) T = 4 tt m r /2qK>, (C) T = 1/2 7r r (2KA,q/m) (
D) T = l/27tr (m/KTtAq) where K = l/4n e i/2 2 2 3 1/2 172 0 (f| Bansal Classes
Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q.30 Charge Q is distributed non-uniformly over a ring of radius R, P is a point

on the axis of ring at a distance Sr from its centre. Which ofthe following is a
wrong statement. KQ (A) Potential at P is -2R V3KQ (B) Magnitude of electric fie
ld at P may be greater than y~ 8R V3KQ (C) Magnitude of electric field at P mus
t be equal to j 8R V3KQ (D) Magnitude of electric field at P cannot be less than
8R Q.31 An electric dipole moment p = (2.0i + 3.0j) pC. m is placed in a unifor
m el ectric field E = (3.0i + 2.Ok) x 10 NC" . (A) The torque that E exerts on p
is ( 0.6i - 0.4 j - 0.9k) Nm. (B) The potential energy of the dipole is -0.6 J.
(C) T he potential energy ofthe dipole is 0.6 J. (D) Ifthe dipole is rotated in
the el ectric field, the maximum potential energy of the dipole is 1.3 J. 5 1 Q
.32 Which ofthe following is true for thefigureshowing electric lines of force?
(E is electricalfield,V is potential) (A)E >E (B)E >E (C)V >V (D)V >V a b b a A
B b a Q.33 If we use permittivity s, resistance R, gravitational constant G and
voltag e V as fundamental physical quantities, then (A) [angular displacement] =
s R GV (B) [Velocity] = e - ' R ' W (C) [dipole moment] = s ^ V V (D) [force] =
e ' R ^ V Q.34 Units ofelectric flux are 0 0 0 1 2 < c ) v o l , m ( D ) V o l t
m 3 Q.35 Which ofthe following statements are correct? (A) Electricfieldcalcula
ted b y Gauss law is thefielddue to only those charges which are enclosed inside
the G aussian surface. (B) Gauss law is applicable only when there is a symmetr
ical di stribution of charge. (C) Electric flux through a closed surface will de
pends on ly on charges enclosed within that surface only. (D) None of these Q.36
Mark the correct options: (A) Gauss's law is valid only for uniform charge dist
ributions . (B) Gauss's law is valid only for charges placed in vacuum. (C) The
electricfi eldcalculated by Gauss's law is thefielddue to all the charges. (D) T
he flux of the electricfieldthrough a closed surface due to all the charges is e
qual to the flux due to the charges enclosed by the surface. (f| Bansal Classes
Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q.37 A thin-walled, spherical conducting shell S ofradius R is given charge Q. T

he same amount of charge is also placed at its centre C. Which of the following
statements are correct? Q (A) On the outer surface of S, the charge density is
2 7tR (B) The electric field is zero at all points inside S. (C) At a point just
o utside S, the electric field is double the field at a point just inside S. (D
) A t any point inside S, the electricfieldis inversely proportional to the squa
re o fits distancefromC. 2 Q.38 A hollow closed conductor of irregular shape is
given some charge. Which of the following statements are correct? (A) The entire
charge will appear on its o uter surface. (B) All points on the conductor will
have the same potential. (C) All points on its surface will have the same charge
density. (D) All points near its surface and outside it will have the same elec
tric intensity. Q.39 Charges Q, and Q lies inside and outside respectively of a
closed surface S. Let E be th efieldat any point on S and < be the flux of E ove
r S. ( > (A) If Q j changes, b oth E and <}) will change. (B) If Q changes, E wi
ll change but <|> will not chan ge. (C) If Qj = 0 and q * 0 then E * 0 but <j) =
0. (D) If Q, * 0 and Q = 0 then E = 0 but (j) * 0. 2 2 2 2 Q.40 Three points ch
arges are placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle o f - 2q side Las sho
wn in the figure. /\ (A) The potential at the centroid ofthe triangle is zero. L
/ \L (B) The electricfieldat the centroid ofthe triangle is z ero. / \ (C) The di
pole moment of the system is J l qL \ +q L +q (D) The dipole m oment of the syst
em is V3 qL Q. 41 An electric dipole is placed at the centre of a sphere. Mark t
he correct answer (A) thefluxofthe electricfieldthrough the sphe re is zero (B)
the electricfieldis zero at every point of the sphere. (C) the el ectric potenti
al is zero everywhere on the sphere. (D) the electric potential is zero on a cir
cle on the surface. Q.42 An electric field converges at the origin whose magnitu
de is given by the expression E = 1 OOrNt/Coul, where r is the dis tance measure
dfromthe origin. (A) total charge contained in any spherical volume with its cen
tre at origin is negative. (B) total charge contained at any spheri cal volume,
irrespective ofthe location of its centre, is negative. (C) total ch arge contai
ned in a spherical volume of radius 3 cm with its centre at origin ha s magnitud
e 3 xlO~ C. (D) total charge contained in a spherical volume of radius 3 cm with
its centre at origin has magnitude 3 * 10 Coul. 13 -9 (f| Bansal Classes Questi
on Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q. 4 3 A conducting sphere A ofradius a, with charge Q, is placed concentrically

inside a conducting shell B of radius b. B is earthed. C is the common centre o
f the A andB. (A) The field is a distance r from C, where a < r < b i s 47Tq rQ
, 1 2 1 Q (B) The potential at a distance r from C, where a < r < b, is ^ s r 0
(C) The potential difference between A and B is Q a b Q r b Q.44 Three concentri
c conducting spherical shells have radius r, 2r and 3r and Q,, Q, and Q are fina
l charges respectively. Innermost and outermost shells are already earthed as sh
own in figure. Choose the wrong statement. . 0, 3 (D) The potential at a distanc
e r from C, where a<r<b, , (A) Q. + Q (C) 3 Qi Q .45 Two thin conducting shells
of radii R and 3R are shown in the figure. The outer shell carries a charge + Q
and the inner shell is neutral. The inner shell is earthed with the help of a sw
itch S. (A) With the switch S open, the potenti al ofthe inner sphere is equal t
o that ofthe outer. (B) When the switch S is clo sed, the potential of the inner
sphere becomes zero. (C) With the switch S close d, the charge attained by the
inner sphere is - q/3. (D) By closing the switch t he capacitance of the system
increases. Q.46 X and Y are large, parallel conduct ing plates closed to each ot
her. Each face has an area A. X is given a charge Q. Y is without any charge. Po
ints A, B and C are as shown in figure. (A) The fiel d at B is ^ T ^ o ,E Q. (B)
Q , =-Q r H Q -1 o7 T 2 3 ( D ) = Q X Y (B) The field at Bis 7 T (C) Thefieldsa
t A, B and C are of the same magnitude. ( D) Thefieldat Aand C are of the same m
agnitude, but in opposite directions. Q.47 Plates A andB constitute an isolated,
charge parallel-plate capacitor. [~1+Q [~ | _Q The inner surfaces (I and IV) of
A and B have charges +Q and - Q respective ly. A third plate C with charge +Q i
s now introduced midway " between Aand B. Wh ich ofthe following statements is n
ot correct? II III IV (A) The surfaces I and II will have equal and opposite cha
rges. (B) The surfaces III and IV will have e qual and opposite charges. (C) the
charge on surface III will be greater than Q. (D) The potential difference betw
een Aand C will be equal to the potential diff erence between C and B. B Q

B (f| Bansal Classes Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]

Q .4 8 A particle ofmass m and charge q is thrown in a region where uniform grav

itational field and electric field are present. The path of particle (A) may be
a straight line (B) may be a circle (C) may be a parabola (D) may be a hyperbol
a Question No. 49 to 54 (6 questions) An empty thick conducting shell of inner r
a dius a and outer radius b is shown in figure. If it is observed that the inner
f ace ofthe shell carries a uniform charge density -cr and the surface carries
a u niform charge density 'a' Q.49 If a point charge q is placed at the center o
f th e shell, then choose the correct statement(s) (A) The charge must be positi
ve (B ) The charge must be negative (C) The magnitude of charge must be 4naa2 (D
) The magnitude of charge must be 4na(b - a ) Q.50 If another point charge q is
also p laced at a distance c (>b) the center of shell, then choose the correct s
tatemen ts q (A) force experienced by charge A is s c A 2 2 B a A b 2 2 0 (B) fo
rce experienced by charge A is zero (C) The force experienced by charge B is s c
2 Q pq B b 2 (D) The force experienced by charge B is A kq q 2 A B (f| Bansal Cl
asses Q. 51 Ifthe charge q is slowly moved inside the shell, then choose the sta
tement (s) (A) Charge distribution on the inner and outer face ofthe shell chang
es (B) The force acting on the charge B charges (C) The charge B also starts mov
ing slo wly (D) None of these Q.52 Choose the correct statement related to the p
otential of the shell in absence of q (A) Potential ofthe outer surface is more
than tha t ofthe inner surface because it is positively charged (B) Potential of
the outer surface is more than that of the inner surface because it carries more
charge ( C) Both the surfaces have equal potential ob (D) The potential of the
outer surf ace is o Q. 5 3 If the outer surface of the shell is earthed, then id
entify the correct statement(s) (A) Only the potential of outer surface becomes
zero (B) Ch arge on the outer surface also becomes zero (C) The outer surface at
tains negati ve charge (D) Negative charge on the inner surface decreases Q.54 I
f the inner s urface of the shell is earthed, then identify the correct statemen
t(s) (A) The p otential of both the inner and outer surface ofthe shell becomes
zero (B) Charge on the outer surface becomes zero (C) Charge on the inner surfac
e decreases (D) Positive charge flows from the shell to the earth B fc C Questio
n Bank on Electrostatics [15]

ANSWER KEY Q.l Q.7 Q.13 Q.19 Q.25 Q.31 Q.38 Q.44 Q.50 Q.56 Q.62 Q.68 Q.74 Q.80 Q
.l Q.5 Q.9 Q.13 Q.17 Q.21 Q.25 Q.29 Q.33 Q.37 Q.41 Q.45 Q.49 Q.53 B A A D C B A
B C B A (a)B,(b)D D B B A, D A B D A, C, D B A A,B,D A,C,D A,D A,B ,C,D A,C B Q.
2 Q.8 Q.14 Q.20 Q.26 Q.33 Q.39 Q.45 Q.51 Q.57 Q.63 Q.69 Q.75 D D D A B A D B B B
D B A ONLY ONE OPTION IS Q.3 Q.9 Q.15 Q.21 Q.27 Q.34 Q.40 Q.46 Q.52 Q.58 Q.64 Q
.70 Q.76 C B B A C C A B A B B C A Q.4 Q.10 Q.16 Q.22 Q.28 Q.35 Q.41 Q.47 Q.53 Q
.59 Q.65 Q.71 Q.77 D D A C B B A D B C B D A CORRECT. Q.5 Q.ll Q.17 Q.23 Q.29 Q.
36 Q.42 Q.48 Q.54 Q.60 Q.66 Q.72 Q.78 B A B B B B B C B B A A A Q.6 Q.12 Q.18 Q.
24 Q.30 Q.37 Q.43 Q.49 Q.55 Q.61 Q.67 Q.73 Q.79 D A D D B B B A D A A A C ONE OR
MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Q.2 Q.6 Q.10 Q.14 Q.18 Q.22 Q.26 Q.30 Q.34
Q.38 Q.42 Q.46 Q.50 Q.54 C, D A, C C B,C D B,D A,B C C A,B A,B,C A,C,D B A,B,D Q
.3 Q.7 Q.ll Q.15 Q.19 Q.23 Q.27 Q.31 Q.35 Q.39 Q.43 Q.47 Q.51 C, D B B, C A, C B
D D A, B, D C A,B,C A,C,D D D Q.4 Q.8 Q.12 Q.16 Q.20 Q.24 Q.28 Q.32 Q.36 Q.40 Q
.44 Q.48 Q.52 A, C A, B, C A, C A, B,D A A B A, D C, D A,D D A,C C,D 9 (f| Bansa
l Classes Question Bank on Electrostatics [15]


Whenever an experiment is performed, two kinds of errors can appear in the measu
red quantity. (1) indeterminate and (2) determinate (or systematic) errors. 1.
I ndeterminate errors appear randomly because ofoperator, fluctuations in extern
al conditions and variability of measuring instruments. The effect ofindetermina
te error can be some what reduced by taking the average of measured values. Inde
te rminate errors have no fixed sign or size. 2. Determinate errors occur due to
er ror in the procedure, or miscalibration ofthe intrument etc. Such errors hav
e sa me size and sign for all the measurements. Such errors can be determined. A
measu rement with relatively small indeterminate error is said to have high prec
ision. Ameasurement with small indeterminate error and small determinate error i
s said to have high accuracy. The experimental error [uncertainty] can be expres
sed in several standard ways. Error limits Q AQ is the measured quantity and AQ
is the magnitude of its limit of error. This expresses the experimenter's judgme
nt tha t the 'true' value of Q lies between Q - AQ and Q + AQ. This entire inter
val wit hin which the measurement lies is called the range of error. Indetermina
te error s are expressed in this form. Absolute Error ERRORS Error may be expres
sed as absolute measures, giving the size ofthe error in a qu antity in the same
units as the quantity itself Relative (or Fractional) Error Error may be expres
sed as relative measures, giving the ratio ofthe quantity's e rror to the quanti
ty itself. In general absolute pnor in a measurement relative error = f the meas
urement We should know the error in the measurement because th ese errors propag
ate through the calculations to produce errors in results. A. D eterminate error
s : They have a known sign. 1. Suppose that a result R is calcul atedfromthe sum
of two measured quantities A and B. We' 11 use a and b to repres ent the error
in A and B respectively, r is the error in the result R. Then (R + r) = (A + B)
+ (a + b) The error in R is therefore : r = a + b. Similarly, when two quantitie
s are subtracted, the determinate errors also get subtracted. 2. S uppose that a
result R is calculated by multiplying two measured quantities A an d B. Then R=
AB. (R + r) = (A+ a) (B + b) = AB + aB + Ab + ab => = = + . Thus when two quantit
ies are multiplied, their relative determinate error add. R AB A B 3 . Quotient
rule: When two quantities are divided, the relative determinate error ofthe quot
ient is the relative A determinate error ofthe numerator minus the re lative det
erminate error ofthe denominator. Thus ifR = then D - JL_Jl R~A~B 4. P ower rule
: When a quantity Q is raised to a power, P, the relative determinate e rror in
the result is P times the relative determinate error in Q. . p = 0 I f R Q P x T
his also holds for negative powers. (1% Bansal Classes ERROR IN MEASUREMENTS & I

5. The quotient rule is not applicable if the numerator and denominator are depe
nde nt on each other. XY e.g ifR = . We cannot apply quotient rule to find the erro
r in R. Instead we write the equation as follows .X. + Y 1 1 1 = A + Y Different
iati ng both the sides, we get R . dR _ dX dY _ * y r R x R y 7~ n 7. Thus 7 7 7
or x h X R X Y R X Y R X X Y Y Indeterminate error: They have unknown sign. Thus
they are represented in the form A a. Here we are only concerned with limits ofe
rror. We must assume a "worst-case" combination. In the case of substraction, A
- B, the worst-case deviation of the answer occurs when the errors are either +
a and - b or - a and + b. In either case, the maximum error will be (a + b) Addi
tion and subtraction rule: The absolute indeterminate errors add. Thus if R = A
+ B, r = a + b and if R = A-B, r = a + b Product and quotient rule: The relative
inde terminate errors add. r a b Thus if R=AB, = + R A B A r a b and if R = , th
en als o R= A B B Power rule: When a quantity Q is raised to a power P, the relat
ive err or in the result is P times the relative error in Q. This also holds for
negativ e powers. r = 2 2 2 2 2 B. 1. 2. + 3. fR-Q^-Pxi Examples A student finds
the constant acceleration of a slowly moving object with a stopw atch. The equa
tion used is S = (1/2)AT . The time is measured with a stopwatch, the distance,
S with a meter stick. What is the acceleration and its estimated e rror? S = 2 0
.005 meter. T = 4.2 0.2 second. Sol: We use capital letters for quan tities, lowe
r case for errors. Solve the equation for the result, a. 2 1. A=2S/T . Its indet
erminate-error equation is = 2 + Thus A = 0.23 0.02 m/s . SIGNIF ICANT DIGITS Sign
ificantfiguresare digits that are statistically significant. Th ere are two kind
s ofvalues in science: 1. Measured Values 2. Computed Values The way that we ide
ntify the proper number of significantfiguresin science are diff erent for these
two types. 2 2 ci

t S (1% Bansal Classes ERROR IN MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTS Identifying a measure

d value with the correct number of significant digits requi res that the instrum
ent's calibration be taken into consideration. The last sign ificant digit in a
measured value will be thefirstestimated position.For example , a metric ruler i
s calibrated with numbered calibrations equal to 1 cm. In addi tion, there will
be ten unnumbered calibration marks between each numbered posit ion, (each equal
to 0.1 cm). Then one could with a little practice estimate betw een each ofthos
e marking, (each equal to 0.05 cm). Thatfirstestimated position w ould be the la
st significant digit reported in the measured value. Let's say tha t we were mea
suring the length ofa tube, and it extended past the fourteenth num bered calibr
ation halfway between the third and fourth unnumbered mark. The metr ic ruler wa
s a meter stick with 100 numbered calibrations. The reported measured length wou
ld be 14.35 cm. Here the total number of significant digits will be 4 . MEASURED

The other type ofvalue is a computed value. The proper number of significant fig
ures that a computed value should have is decided by a set of conventional rule
s . However before we get to those rules for computed values we have to consider
h ow to determine how many significant digits are indicated in the numbers bein
g u sed in the math computation. A. Rules for determining the number of signific
ant digits in number with indicated decimals. 1. All non-zero digits (1 -9) are
to b e counted as significant. 2. Zeros that have any non-zero digits anywhere t
o the LEFT of them are considered significant zeros. 3. All other zeros not cove
red i n rule (ii) above are NOT be considered significant digits. For example: 0
.00400 00 The 4 is obviously to be counted significant (Rule-1), but what about
the zer os? Thefirstthree zeros would not be considered significant since they h
ave no n on-zero digits anywhere to their left (Rule-3). The last four zeros wou
ld all be considered significant since each ofthem has the non-zero digit 4 to t
heir left (Rule-2). Therefore the number has a total offivesignificant digits. H
ere is an other example: 120.00420 The digit 1,2,4 and 2 are all considered sign
ificant (R ule-1). All zeros are considered significant since they have non-zero
digits som ewhere to their left (Rule-2). So there are a total of eight signifi
cant digits. B. Determining the number of significant digits if number is not ha
ving an indi cated decimal. The decimal indicated in a number tells us to what p
osition of es timation the number has been indicated. But what about 1,000,000?
Notice that th ere is no decimal indicated in the number. In other words, there
is an ambiguity concerning the estimated position. This ambiguity can only be cl
arified by plac ing the number in exponential notation. For example: If I write
the number above in this manner. 1.00 x 10 I have indicated that the number has
been recorded wi th three significant digits. On the other hand, ifI write the s
ame number as : 1 .0000 x 10 I have identified the number to have 5 significant
digits. Once the n umber has been expressed in exponential notation form then th
e digits that appea r before the power of ten will all be considered significant
. So for example : 2 .0040 x 10 will havefivesignificant digits. This means that
unit conversion will not change the number of significant digits. Thus 0.000010
km =1.0 cm = 0.010 m = 1.0 x 10~ m = 1.0 x 10" km Rule for expressing proper nu
mber of significant d igits in an answer from multiplication or division For mul
tiplication AND divisi on there is the following rule for expressing a computed
product or quotient wit h the proper number of significant digits. The product o
r quotient will be repor ted as having as many significant digits as the number
involved in the operation with the least number of significant digits. For examp
le : 0.000170 x 100.40 = 0.017068 The product could be expressed with no more th
at three significant digi ts since 0.000170 has only three significant digits, a
nd 100.40 hasfive.So accor ding to the rule the product answer could only be exp
ressed with three significa nt digits. Thus the answer should be 0.0171 (after r
ounding off) Another example : 2.000 x 10 / 6.0 x 10~ = 0.33 x 10 The answer cou
ld be expressed with no more that two significant digits since the least digited
number involved in the oper ation has two significant digits. Sometimes this wo
uld required expressing the a nswer in exponential notation. For example : 3.0 x
800.0 = 2.4 x 10 The number 3 .0 has two significant digits and then number 800
.0 has four. The rule states th at the answer can have no more than two digits e
xpressed. However the answer as we can all see would be 2400. How do we express
the answer 2400 while obeying th e rules? The only way is to express the answer
in exponential notation so 2400 c ould be expressed as : 2.4 x 10 6 6 4 2 5 4 3

Rule for expressing the correct number of significant digits in an addition or s

ubstraction : The ruie for expressing a sum or difference is considerably diffe
r ent than the one for multiplication of division. The sum or difference can be
no more precise than the least precise number involved in the mathematical opera
ti on.Precision has to do with the number ofpositions to the RIGHT ofthe decimal
. T he more position to the right ofthe decimal, the more precise the number. So
a s um or difference can have no more indicated positions to therightof the dec
imal as the number involved in the operation with the LEAST indicated positions
to th erightofits decimal. For example: 160.45 + 6.732 = 167.18 (after rounding
off) T he answer could be expressed only to two positions to the right of the de
cimal, since 160.45 is the least precise. Another example: 45.621+4.3-6.41 =43.5
(after rounding off) The answer could be expressed only to one position to the
right o fthe decimal, since the number 4.3 is the least precise number (i.e. hav
ing only one position to therightofits decimal). Notice we aren't really determi
ning the total number ofsignificant digits in the answer with this rule. Rules f
or round ing off digits : There are a set of conventional rules for rounding off
. 1. Dete rmine according to the rule what the last reported digit should be. 2.
Consider the digit to the right ofthe last reported digit. 3. If the digit to t
he right o f the last reported digit is less than 5 round it and all digits to i
tsrightoff 4 If the digit to the right of the last reported digit is greater tha
n 5 round i t and all digits to its right off and increased the last reported di
git by one. 5 Ifthe digit to therightofthe last reported digit is a 5 followed b
y either no other digits or all zeros, round it and all digits to its right off
and ifthe la st reported digit is odd round up to the next even digit. Ifthe las
t reported di git is even then leave it as is. For example if we wish to round o
ffthe followin g number to 3 significant digits: 18.3 682 The last reported digi
ts would be the 3. The digit to its right is a 6 which is greater than 5. Accord
ing to the Rule -4 above, the digit 3 is increased by one and the answer is : 18
.4 Another examp le: Round off 4.565 to three significant digits. The last repor
ted digit would b e the 6. The digit to therightis a 5 followed by nothing. Ther
efore according to Rule-5 above since the 6 is even it remains so and the answer
would be 4.56. (i ) Measurement of length The simplest method measuring the len
gth of a straight l ine is by means of a meter scale. But there exists some limi
tation in the accura cy ofthe result: (i) the dividing lines have a finite thick
ness. (ii) naked eye cannot correctly estimate less than 0.5 mm For greater accu
racy devices like (a) Vernier callipers (b) micrometer scales (screw gauge) are
used. It consists of a main scale graduated in cm/mm over which an auxiliary sca
le (or Vernier scale) can slide along the length. The division ofthe Vernier sca
le being either sligh tly longer and shorter than the divisions ofthe main scale
. Least count of Verni er Callipers The least count or Vernier constant (v. c) i
s the minimum value of correct estimation of length without eye estimation. IfN
division ofvernier coin cides with (N-1) division ofmain scale, then N-O Vernier
constant = 1 ms - 1 vs ms = , which is equal to the value ofthe smallest divisi
on on v N , the main sca le divided bv total number of divisions on the vernier

Zero error: Ifthe zero marking ofmain scale and vernier callipers do not coincid
e, necessary correction has to be made for this error which is known as zero er
r or ofthe instrument. Ifthe zero ofthe vernier scale is to the right ofthe zero
o fthe main scale the zero error is said to be positive and the correction will
be negative and vice versa. In general vernier callipers can measure accurately
up to 0.01 em and for greater accuracy micrometer screw devices e.g. screw gaug
e, s pherometer are used. These consist of accurately cut screw which can be mov
ed in a closely fitting fixed nut by turning it axially. The instrument is provi
ded w ith two scales: (i) The main scale or pitch scale M graduated along the ax
is of the screw. (ii) The cap-scale or head scale H round the edge ofthe screw h
ead. C onstants ofthe Screw Gauge Pitch: The translational motion ofthe screw is
direct ly proportional to the total rotation ofthe head. The pitch ofthe instru
ment is the distance between two consecutive threads ofthe screw which is equal
to the d istance moved by the screw due to one complete rotation of the cap. Thu
s for 10 rotation of cap =5 mm. then pitch = 0.5 mm Least count: In this case al
so, the m inimum (or least) measurement (or count) of length is equal to one div
ision on t he head scale which is equal to pitch divided by the total cap divisi
ons. Thus i n the aforesaid Illustration:, ifthe total cap division is 100, then
least count = 0.5mm/100 = 0.005 mm Zero Error: In a perfect instrument the zero
of the heat scale coincides with the line of graduation along the screw axis wit
h no zero-er ror, otherwise the instrument is said to have zero-error which is e
qual to the c ap reading with the gap closed. This error is positive when zero l
ine or referen ce line ofthe cap lies above the line of graduation and versa. Th
e corresponding corrections will be just opposite. Measurement of g using a simp
le pendulum A s mall spherical bob is attached to a cotton thread and the combin
ation is suspend edfroma point A. The length ofthe thread (L) is read off on a m
eter scale. A cor rection is added to L to include thefinitesize of the bob and
the hook. The corr ected value of L is used for further calculation. The bob is
displaced slightly to one side and is allowed to oscillate, and the total time t
aken for 50 complet e oscillations is noted on a stop-watch. The time period (T)
of a O B single osc illation is now calculated by division. Observations are no
w taken by using diff erent lengths for the cotton thread (L) and pairs ofvalues
of L and T are taken. Aplot ofL v/s T , on a graph, is linear, g is given / 2 S
CREW GAUGE (OR MICROMETER SCREW) (a) (b) 00 byg=47c ^2 A .A T (a) (b) The major
errors in this experiment are Systematic: Error due tofiniteamplitude ofthe pend
ulum (as the motion is not exactly SHM). This may be corrected for by using the
correct numerical estimate for the time period. However the practice i s to ensu
re that the amplitude is small. Statistical: Errors arisingfrommeasurem ent ofle
ngth and time. 5L 5T L v. i J The contributions to 8L, 8T are both stati stical
and systematic. These are reduced by the process of averaging. The system atic e
rror in L can be reduced by plotting several values of L vs T andfittingto

a straight line. The slope ofthisfitgives the correct value ofL/T 2 2 2 <! Bansal

(iii) Determination of Young's Modulus by Searle's Method The experimental set u

p cons ists oftwo identical wires P and Q ofuniform cross section suspended from
afixed rigid support. Thefreeends of these parallel wires are connected to afra
meF as s hown in thefigure.The length ofthe wire Q remainsfixedwhile the load L
attached to the wire P through theframeF is varied in equal steps so as to produ
ce extens ion along .the length. The extension thus produced is measured with th
e help of spirit level SL and micrometer screw M attached to the Fframeon the si
de ofthe e xperimental wire.On placing the slotted weights on the hanger H upto
a permissib le value (half ofthe breaking force) the wire gets extended by small
amount and the spirit level gets disturbed fromhorizontal setting. This increas
e inlength i s measured by turning the micrometer screw M upwards so as to resto
re the balanc e of the spirit level. If n be the number ofturns ofthe micrometer
screw and f b e the difference in the cap reading, the increase in length Mis o
btained by A/ = n * pitch + f x least count ''V^^Xx-.^i^y r.1i :l I (iv) The load o
n the hanger is reduced in the same steps and spirit level is restored to horizo
ntal position. The mean ofthese two observations gives the true increa se in len
gth of the wire corresponding to the given value of load. From the data obtained
, a graph showing extension (AI) against the load (W) is plotted which is obtain
ed as a straight line passing through the origin. The slope of the line gives n
/ tan0 = = / W Mg , Mg I m Now, stress = nr 7 and strain = L _ MgL L Y = Stress/
strain = - 5 nr' I 7tr tanG With known values ofinitial length L, radiu s r of t
he experimental wire and tanO, Young's modulus Y can be calculated. Spec ific He
at of a liquid using a calorimeter: The principle is to take a known quan tity o
f liquid in an insulated calorimeter and heat it by passing a known curren t (i)
through a heating coil immersed within the liquid for a known length of ti me (
t). The mass ofthe calorimeter (mj) and, the combined mass ofthe calorimeter and
the liquid (m ) are measured. The potential drop across the heating coil is V a
nd the maximum temperature ofthe liquid is measured to 0 . The specific heat of
the liquid (S ) is found by using the relation ( 2 - m ^ A - e ) + m, S (0 0 ) =
i. V. t or, (m -m )S + m S = i. V t / ( 0 - 0 ) (1) Here, 0 is the room t emper
ature, while S is the specific heat of the material of the calorimeter and the s
tirrer. If S is known, then S can be determined. On the other hand, if S is unkn
own: one can either repeat the experiment with water or a different mass of the
liquid and use the two equations to eliminate mj S . The sources of error in thi
s experiment are errors due to improper connection of the heating coil, radi ati
on, apartfromstatistical errors in measurement. The direction ofthe current i s
reversed midway during the experiment to remove the effect of any differential c
ontacts, radiation correction is introduced to take care of the second major s o
urce of systematic error. Radiation correction: The temperature ofthe system is
recorded for half the length oftime t, i.e. t/2, where t is the time during whi
ch the current was switched on} after the current is switched off. The fall in t
emperature 5, during this interval is now added to thefinaltemperature 0 to giv
e the correctedfinaltemperature: 0' =0 +6 This temperature is used in the calcul
a tion of the specific heat, S 2 2 7 m 0 c c 2 O 2 1 / 1 2 o O c c 7 c c 2 2 2 t

(V) (vi) Error analysis: After correcting for systematic errors, equation (i) is
used to estimate the remaining errors. Focal length of a concave mirror and a c
onvex len s using the u-v method. In this method one uses an optical bench and t
he convex lens (or the concave mirror) is placed on the holder. The position of
the lens i s noted by reading the scale at the bottom ofthe holder. Abright obje
ct (a filam ent lamp or some similar object) is placed at afixeddistance (u) inf
rontofthe le ns (mirror). The position ofthe image (v) is determined by moving a
white screen behind the lens until a sharp image is obtained (for real images).
For the conc ave mirror, the position ofthe image is determined by placing a sh
arp object (a pin) on the optical bench such that the parallax between the objec
t pin and the image is nil. l/jv] A plot of ju| versus |v| gives a rectangular h
yperbola. A pl ot of - i - vs X j v j |u| >s\ gives a straight line. X 1 1/|U| T
he intercepts a re equal to jyj,where/is the focal length. Error: The systematic
error in this e xperiment is mostly due to improper position ofthe object on th
e holder. This er ror maybe eliminated by reversing the holder (rotating the hol
der by 180 about th e vertical) and then taking the readings again. Averages are
then taken. The equ ation for errors gives: 5f 5u 5v 15u I +1 Sv! t u + V ju|+|v
| The errors 5u, 8v correspond to the error in the measurement ofu and v. Index
Error or Bench Error and its correction: In an experiment using an optical bench
we are required to measure the object and image distancesfromthe pole or vertex
on the mirror. The distance between the tip of the needles and the pole of the
mirror is the actual distance. But we practically measure distances between the
indices with the hel p ofthe scale engraved on the bench. These distances are ca
lled the observed dis tances. The actual distances may not be equal to the obser
ved distances and due to this reason an error creeps in the measurement ofthe di
stances. This error is called the index or the bench error. Index Error Observed
distance - actual dis tance and Index Correction = Actual - observed distance N
ote; Index correction w hether positive or negative, is always added algebraical
ly to the observed dista nce to get the corrected distance. Speed of sound using
resonance column A tunin g fork of known frequency (f) is held at the mouth of
a long tube, which is dipp ed into water as shown in thefigure.The length (/j) o
fthe air column in the tube is adjusted until it resonates with the tuning fork.
The air temperature and hu midity are noted.The length of the tube is adjusted
again until a second resonan ce length (/ ) is found (provided the tube is long)
Then, / -1 -X i 2, provided l , l are resonance lengths for adjacent resonances
. X = 2(/ - /,), is the wavel ength of sound. Since thefrequencyi, is known; the
velocity of sound in air at t he temperature (9) and humidity (h) is given by C
= f A, = 2(/ ~/ )f It is also possible to use a single measurement ofthe resona
nt length directly, but, then i t has to be correctedfor the "end effect": /..(f
undamental) = 4(/j + 0.3 d), whe re d = diameter Errors: The major systematic er
rors introduced are due to end ef fects in (end correction) and also due to exce
ssive humidity. 2 2 { x 2 2 2 1 ^ Bansal Classes ERROR IN MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUM

Random errors are given by SC _ S ( / - / ) _ 51 +5/, 2 t 2 1,-1, k-K (vii) Veri

fication of Ohm's law using voltmeter and ammeter A voltmeter (V) and an ammeter
(A) are connected in a circuit along with a resistance R as shown in thefigure,
along with a battery B and a rheostat, Rh Simultaneous readings ofthe current i
and the potential drop V are taken by changing the resistance in the r heostat (
Rh), Agraph ofV vs i is plotted and it is found to be linear (within er rors). T
he magnitude ofR is determined by either V (a) taking the ratio and then (b) fit
ting to a straight line: V=iR, and determining the slope R. Errors: Syst ematic
errors in this experiment arisefromthe currentflowingthrough V (finite re sistan
ce ofthe voltmeter), the Joule heating effect in the circuit and the resis tance
ofthe connecting wires/ connections of the resistance. The effect ofJoule heati
ng may be minimsed by switching on the circuit for a short while only, whil e th
e effect offiniteresistance of the voltmeter can be overcome by using a high res
istance instrument or a potentiometer. The lengths of connecting wires shoul d b
e minimised as much as possible. Error analysis: 5R SV Si The error in comput in
g the ratio R = is given by R V + i where 5V and 5i are ofthe order ofthe leas t
counts ofthe instruments used. (viii) Specific resistance of the material of a
wire using a meter bridge: A known length (/) of a wire is connected in one oft
he gaps (P) of a metre bridge, while a Resistance Box is inserted into the other
gap (Q). The circuit is completed by using a battery (B), a Rheostat (Rh), a Ke
y (K) and a galvanometer (G). The balance length (/) is found by closing key k
a nd momentarily connecting the galvanometer until it gives zero deflection (nul
l point). Then, P Q~100-/ CI) using the expression for the meter bridge at balan
ce . Here, represents the resistance of the wire while Q represents the resistan
ce in the resistance box. The key K is open when the circuit is not in use. L nr
Th e resistance of the wire, P = p Ttrj => p = P (2) 2 T where r is the radius
of wire and L is the length of the wire, r is measured usi ng a screw gauge whil
e L is measured with a scale. Errors: The major systematic errors in this experi
ment are due to the heating effect, end corrections introdu ced due to shift oft
he zero ofthe scale at A and B, and stray resistances in P a nd Q, and errors du
e to non-uniformity of the meter bridge wire. Error analysis: End corrections ca
n be estimated by including known resistances P, and Qj inthe two ends andfindin
gthe null point: Q, 100-/,+p +a (2), where a and p are the end corrections. <! Ba

When the resistance Q is placed in the left gap and P, in the right gap, Qj _ /
+ a ~F\~~IOO-/ +[3 which give two linear equation forfindinga and (3. } 2 2 In o
rder that a and (3 be measured accurately, P and Qj should be as different f rom
each other as possible. For the actual balance point, _P I, l+ a Q 100-/ + P L
} Errors due to non-uniformity of the meter bridge wire can be minimised by inte
rc hanging the resistances in the gaps P and Q. 8P 51, + 51. P where, 8/' and S/
' a re of the order ofthe least count ofthe scale. } 2 (ix) The error is, theref
ore, minimum if /' = /' i.e. when the balance point is in th e middle ofthe brid
ge. The error in pis SP _ 28r 8L , SP P ~ r L^ P s Measuremen t of unknown resis
tance using a P.O. Box ~wm A P.O. Box can also be used to meas ure an unknown re
sistance. It is a Wheatstone Bridge with three arms P, Q and R; while the fourth
arm(s) is the unknown resistance. P and Q are known as the rat io arms while R
is known at the rheostat arm. At balance, the unknown resistance S = vvy R (1) t
2 + The ratio arms are first adjusted so that they carry 100 O each. The resist
ance in the rheostat arm is now adjusted so that the galvanometer deflection is
in on e direction, ifR = Rq (Ohm) and in the opposite direction when R=Rq+1 (ohm
). Thi s implies that the unknown resistance, S lies between R^and R^ + 1 (ohm).
Now, t he resistance in P and Q are made 100 Q and 1000 Q respectively, and the
process is repeated. Equation (1) is used to compute S. The ratio P/Q is progre
ssively made 1: 10, and then 1 :100. The resistance S can be accurately measured
. Errors : The major sources of error are the connecting wires, unclear resistan
ce plugs, change in resistance due to Joule heating, and the insensitivity ofthe
Wheatsto ne bridge. These may be removed by using thick connecting wires, clean
plugs, ke eping the circuit on for very brief periods (to avoid Joule heating)
and calcula ting the sensitivity. In order that the sensitivity is maximum, the
resistance i n the arm P is close to the value ofthe resistance S. <! Bansal Clas

Q.l Q.2 Q.3 IN In a Vernier Calipers (VC), N divisions of the main scale coincid
e with N + m divisions ofthe vernier scale What is the value of m for which the
instrument h as minimum least count? (A) 1 (B)N (C) Infinity (D)N/2 EXERCISE Con
sider the vernier calipers as shown, the instrument has no zero error. What i s
the length ofthe rod shown, if 1 msd = 1mm? Use 7 msd = 8 vsd. (A) 4.6 mm (B)4 .
5mm (C) 4.3 mm (D)none Main Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314 1 i 'i I i' i' i1
'i Vernier Scale In a vernier calipers the main scale and the vernier scale are
made up different materials. When the room temperature increases by ATC, it is f
ound the reading o f the instrument remains the same. Earlier it was observed th
at the front edge o fthe wooden rod placed for measurement crossed the N main sc
ale division and N + 2 msd coincided with the 2 vsd. Initially, 10 vsd coincided
with 9 msd. If coef ficient of linear expansion ofthe main scale is a, and that
ofthe vernier scale is c^ then what is the value of a,/a,? (Ignore the expansio
n of the rod on heati ng) (A) 1.8 / (N) (B) 1.8/(N+2) (C)1.8/(N-2) (D)None 4 nd
Q.4 Consider a screw gauge without any zero error. What will be thefinalreading
corr esponding to thefinalstate as shown? It is given that the circular head tra
nslat es P msd in N rotations. One msd is equal to 1mm. (A) (P/N) (2 + 45/100) m
m (B) (N/P) (2+45/N)mm f 45 P (C) P (2/N + 45/100)mm (D) 2 + 100 x mm N N Circul
ar scale I 45 Line of Reference The circular scale has 100 divisions Q.5 A screw
gauge has some zero error but its value is unknown. We have two identica l rods
. When thefirstrod is inserted in the screw, the state ofthe instrument is shown
by diagram (I). When both the rods are inserted together in series then t he st
ate is shown by the diagram (II). What is the zero error ofthe instrument? 1 msd
= 100 csd = 1mm (A) -0.16 mm (B)+0.16 mm (C)+0.14 mm (D) -0.14 mm (1) -12 (ii)
....... (ii)

Q.6 The hat of 314 .' 1 Q. 7 Consider a home made vernier scale as shown in the
figure. In this diagram, we are interested in measuring the length ofthe line PQ
. Ifthe angle ofboth the inclines is equal to 6 then what is the least count oft
he instr ument. <! Bansal Classes ERROR IN MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTS [15] VC sho
wn in the diagram has zero error in it (as 9 msd = 10 vsd What is the magnitude
of the zero the length ofa rod measured by this VC comes out to be 5.4 mm. If th
e vernier had been error free l'.' coincided with vsd. you can see). It is error
? The observed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 then msd would have given t reading 0 11121 \
\ I I

The zero of the main scale lies under the circular head. Q. 8 The diagram shows
the initial and thefinalstate of SQ which has zero error in it . What can be the
length ofthe object? 1 msd = 100 csd -12 S L -1 i 1+ 1 { +--+10 Q.9 In a meter bri
dge set up, which of the following should be the properties of the one meter lon
g wire? (A) High resistivity and low temperature coefficient (B) L ow resistivit
y and low temperature coefficient (C) Low resistivity and high temp erature coef
ficient (D) High resistivity and high temperature coefficient Q.10 Make the appr
opriate connections in the meter bridge set up shown. Resistan ce box is connect
ed between _. Unknown resistance is connected between . Battery is connected bet
ween. Options: (A)AB (B) CD (C)EF (D)None E r A Q.ll Let the end error on the LH
S and RHS be equal to one cm. For the balance po int at O,findout the % tage err
or in the value ofX? (Ifthe end error is 1 cm fro m both sides then it means the
corrected reading will become 10cm + 1 cm from LH S and 90cm + 1 cm from the RH
S) (A) 4.2% (B) 8.1% (C) 9.2% (D)None A x

Q.12 Consider the MB shown in the diagram, let the resistance X have temperature
coefficient a, and the resistancefromthe RB have the temperature coefficient 0L
2. Let the reading ofthe meter scale be 10cmfromthe LHS. Ifthe temperature ofth
e two resistance increase by small temperature AT then what is the shift in the
p osition ofthe null point? Neglect all the other changes in the bridge due to t
em perature rise. 1 1 (A) 9(a, - a )AT (B) 9(a + a )AT _ (C) - (a, + a )AT (D) (a , - a )AT Q.13 The diagram shows an incomplete sketch of a PO box. Battery i
s co nnected B C A SDDDdQD between . The unknown resistance is connected between The
galv anometer is connected between_ _. The key K^ is connected ]] between . ^sdaanndn
Opti ns: (A) CD (B) DA (C) CE (D)DF V|]V F (E)DE (F)BF (G) CF 2 t 2 9 V 1 2 9 2
Q.14 For a post office Box, the graph of galvanometer deflection versus R (resi
s tance pulled out ofRB) for the ratio 100 : 1 is given as shown. A careless stu
de nt pulls out two non consecutive values R as shown in thefigure.Find the valu
e o funknown resistance. (A) 3.2 ohm (B) 3.24 ohm (C) 3.206 ohm (D)None

Deflection (in division) RO <! Bansal Classes ERROR IN MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTS

Q.15 When we operate a wheat stone bridge then in starting the key of the batter
y is closedfirstand the key ofthe G is closed later. When the circuit is to be
c losed then switches are released in the opposite order. Why? (A) Look at the d
ia gram of the PO box, the switch is battery is always on the right hand hence i
t i s easier to press it first. (B) This is done to avoid the damage ofthe galva
nome ter due to induced emf. (C) If the G switch is pressed before the battery s
witch then large sparking takes place at the battery switch. (D) While disconnec
ting if we open the battery switch before the G switch then we can observe induc
ed cu rrent in the circuit till the G switch is not opened. Q.16 Identify which
of the following diagrams represent the internal construction ofthe coils wound
in a r esistance box or PQ box? \...k ....JL^. / P -s \ (A) s / (B) S i1f>, tL Hy
/ ! (C)~ A -JL (D) mMk Q.17 Which ofthe following reading is most accurate (A)
4.00 cm (B) 0.004 mm (C) 40.00 cm (D) 4.00 m Q. 18 The least count of a stop wat
ch is 1/5 sec. The time of 20 oscillations of a pendulum is measured to be 25 se
c. The minimum percentage error in the measur ement oftime will be (A) 0.1% (B)
0.8% (C) 1.8% (D)8% Q.19 A vernier callipers h aving 1 main scale division = 0.1
cm is designed to have a least count of 0.02 c m. If n be the number of divisio
ns on vernier scale and m be the length ofvernie r scale, then (A) n= 10, m=0.5
cm (B) n=9, m=0.4 cm (C)n=10,m=0.8 cm (D) n=10, m =0.2 cm Q.20 Solve with due re
gard to significant digits >.91x0,3842 (i) V6.5-6. 32 (ii) 0.080 Q.21 Abody trav
els uniformly a distance of (13.8 0.2)m in time (4. 0 0.3) sec. Calculate its ve
locity. Q.22 The main scale of a vernier calipers re ads in millimeter and its v
ernier is divided into 10 divisions which coincide wi th 9 divisions ofthe main
scale. When the two jaws ofthe instrument touch each o ther the seventh division
of the vernier scale coincide with a scale division an d the zero of the vernie
r lies to the right of the zero of main scale. Furthermo

re, when a cylinder is tightly placed along its length between the two jaws, the
zero of the vernier scale lies slightly to the left of 3.2 cm and the fourth ve
rnier division coincides with a scale division. Calculate the measured length o
f the cylinder. Q.23 A short circuit occurs in a telephone cable having a resist
a nce of 0.45 Onr . The circuit is tested with a Wheatstone bridge. The two resi
st ors in the ratio arms ofthe Wheatstone bridge network have values of 100Q and
11 10Q respectively. Abalance condition is found when the variable resistor has
a v alue of4000. Calculate the distance down the cable, where the short has occ
urred . 1 Q.24 5.74 gm of a substance occupies a volume of 1.2 cm . Calculate it
s density with due regard for significant figures. 3 <! Bansal Classes ERROR IN M

Q.25 Thetimeperiod of oscillation ofa simple pendulum is given by The length of

the pendulum is measured as / = 10 0.1 cm and the time period as T = 0.5 0.02 s.
Determine percentage error in the value of g. Q.26 A physical quantity P is rel
ated to four observables A, B, C and D as follows. P = , 4n A B VC D The percen
t age error of the measurement in A, B, C and D are 1%, 3% and 2%, 4% respective
ly . Determine the percentage error & absolute error in the quantity P. Value of
P is calculated 3.763. Round offthe result in scientific way. 2 3 2 Q.27 Aglass
prism ofangleA^ 60 gives minimum angleofdeviation9 = 30 withthemax. er ror of 1 wh
en a beam of parallel light passed through the prism during an experim ent. (i)
Find the permissible error in the measurement of refractive index p oft he mater
ial ofthe prism. (ii) Find the range of experimental value ofrefractive index 'p
'. Q.28 In the given vernier calliper scale, the length of 1 main scale division
is 1 mm whereas the length of the vernier scale is 7.65 mm. Find the re ading s
.ocm ^ ^ 5.5n ^ ^ || on the scale correct to significant digits as shown in the di
agram. I I I I I I I I II m (mainsea e) ( v e m K r scale) | <! Bansal Classes ER

ANSWER Q.l Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 A L.C = I Q.2 COS0 B Q.3 B Q.4 D Q.5 D Q.6 (i)x = 0.6msd,
(ii)6, 1St 1-cosO 4 msd + 0.1 msd + 0.12 msd = 4.22 msd; 4 msd + 0.1 msd +1.12
msd = 5.22 msd & so on A Q.10 CD, AB, C Q.15 B,C,D Q.20 (i) 0.4 ; (ii) 14 Q.23 4
0 m Q.27 5tc/18% , V2 Q.ll B Q.16 D Q.12 A Q.17 C Q.13 CE, CD, DF, BF Q.18 B Q.2
5 5% 360 7T Q.14 B Q.19 C Q.21 v = (3.5 0.31) m/s Q.24 4.8g/cm 1+ 3 Q.22 3.07 cm
Q.26 14%, 0.53,3.76 Q.28 5.045 cm 360 71 > n > V2 1 <! Bansal Classes ERROR IN M


er unit volume. Densities of solids and liquids are frequently compared with den
sity of water and the relative density of a substance is define d as follows: de
nsityof thesubs tan ce RELATIVE DENSITY with respect to water = densityof water :
mass of any volumeof subs tan ce mass of anequalvolumeof water (Also known as s
pecific gravity of the substance ). Note that relative density b eing a ratio of
same type ofphysical quantities, it is a number only, without an y physical dim
ension. The principle of Archimedes states that any body, totally or partially i
mmersed in a fluid, experiences an upward force or thrust which is equal to the
weight of fluid it displaces and acts vertically up through the C. G of the disp
laced fluid. The termfluidcovers liquids and gases. If a body floa ts in equilib
rium in a fluid, its entire weight is supported by the upward thrus t of the flu
id . Hence, the weight of a floating body is equal to the weight of the fluid di
splaced by the body at the equilibrium state. Pressure at any point in a fluid i
s defined as the normal force (or thrust) exerted by the liquid on t he surface
per unit area. Pressure is measured in dyne cm" in C G S units and in N m" in SI
units, (also known as pascal). [Note that pressure is a scalar quant ity] . Whe
n a plane surface is placed inside a liquid, the liquid exerts hydrost atic pres
sure on the surface, because of the weight of the liquid column above t he surfa
ce. The total force exerted normally on the plane surface is called the thrust.
The thrust over the surface is the vector sum of the thrusts over small area of
the surface, over which the pressure can be considered to be uniform. Th en: If
the plane surface is horizontal, the pressure over the surface is uniform and th
e thrust = (area) x (the uniform pressure) If the plane surface is rectan gular
with its plane vertical and a pair of sides horizontal, the thrust = (area ) x (
pressure at the centre of the area). 2 2 DENSITY 2. PRINCIPLE OF ARCHIMEDES : 3.
LAW OF FLOTATION: 4. FLUID PRESSURE : (i) (ii) 5. (i) (ii) The hydrostatics pre
ssure 'p' at any point in a liquid varies directly. As the v ertical height (h)
of the point below the surface & As the density (d) of the li

quid. It can be shown that p = hdg. When a liquid is at rest, the pressure is sa
me at all points at the same horizontal level. The pressure at a point in a liq
u id does not depend on either the shape of the vessel or the area of cross - se
ct ion of the vessel. PRESSURE IN LIQUIDS : fo Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [1

6. 7. (i) (ii) i 8. PASCAL'S LAW : Pressure applied to a liquid (at rest) at one
point is transmitte d equally in all directions throughout the liquid. This is
known as Pascal's Law . The compressibility of all liquids is exceedingly small
& for all practical p urposes, liquids may be considered incompressible. Hence,
the density is constan t throughout the liquid . Pressure at a point in a liquid
is the same in all dir ections and is perpendicular to the surface upon which i
ure at any point in a li quid is the addition of: The pressure due to the liquid
above the point. It is c alled guage pressure & The atmospheric pressure acting
on the surface of the liq uid. Thus total pressure = pressure due to liquid + a
tmospheric pressure The tot al pressure is called absolute pressure. THRUST DUE
TO PRESSURE : Total thrust o n a horizontal surface immersed in a liquid=(PRESSU
RE O N SURFACE) X (AREA O F S URFACE) Total thrust on a vertical surface immerse
NAMICS 1. 2. 3. 4. (i) (ii) (iii) 5. The study of fluids in flow is called HYDRO
DYNAMICS. VELOCITY-FIELD : It is that space, where at every point in that space,
there is a definite velocity. Then t he space, where a fluid is in flow is a VE
LOCITY - FIELD. FLOW-LINE : In a veloc ity field is an imaginary line in that sp
ace, where the tangent to the line at a ny point on the line gives the direction
ofthe velocity at that point. A flow li ne is also called a VELOCITY - LINE or
a STREAM-LINE . TYPES OF FLOW OF A FLUID : Then the flow of a fluid can be class
ified as : A STR EAM-LINE FLOW , the stream lines in the flow space remains stea
dy as time progre sses. A TRUBULENT-FLOW , the stream lines in the flow space sh
ift their position s as time progresses. In a STREAM-LINE FLOW , a group of stre
am lines form a tub ular volume of the flow space, the surface of which is tange
ntial to the stream lines, forming the lateral boundary of that tubular volume.
Such a tubular volum e in the flow space is a TUBE O F FLOW. A steady state flow
is the flow in which the fluid properties at any point in the velocity field do
not change with time . EQUATION O F CONTINUITY : Equation of continuity the rat
e of mass flow t . dt If the fluid is equation of continuity foBansal Classes Fl
uid Mechanics [10] states that for a steady state flow of a fluid in a pipe, acr
oss any cross section is constant . dM = p AV = constan incompressible density is
constant at all points, hence, is AV = constant .

6. BERNOULLI'S EQUATION : Consider a tube of flow in the space of the stream lin
e f low of a fluid, in a uniform gravitational Then : P p 1 1 V P 2 2 2 V p 2 2
P V Generalising and removing suffixes i+gz - constant . P 2 This equation is calle
d BERNOULLI 'S EQUATION for steady, non-viscous and incompressiblefluidflow. Su
rface Tens ion : Surface tension of a liquid is the normal force acting per u n
it length on either side of an imaginary line drawn thefreesurface ofa liquid. T
he direction ofthis force is perpendicular to the line and tangential to thefre
esurface ofliquid. F i Note: The surface tension of a liquid varies with tempera
ture as well as dissolved impurities, etc. When soap mixed with water, the surf
a ce tension ofwater decrease. T = I. SURFACE TENSION 2. 3. Surface Energy : If
the area of the liquid surface has to be increased work has to be done against t
he force of surface tension. The work done to form afilmis s tored as potential
energy in the surface. W = T AA Excess Pressure: Excess press ure inside a liqui
d drop 2T Ap= r For a soap bubble in air, there are two surfac es, and so, 2T _
4T Ap = 2 r r Capillarity : Water in the capillary rises to a h eight 2T :: h= r
gp 2T cosG R where r is the radius of meniscus, and r = where 9 is the angle of
contact and thus h = ^ : fo Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [10]

VISCOSITY If a glass plate in contact with a water column of height h is moved w

ith consta nt velocity v. Forces of viscosity appear between the solid surface a
nd the laye r in contact. where h is a consant called coefficient ofviscosity, i
ts cgs unit is poise. Dimension is ML'T . The SI units ofviscosity equal to 10 p
oise. -1 When a sphere of radius r moves with a velocity v through a fluid of vi
scosity h , the viscous force opposing the motion ofthe sphere is F = 6;tr|rv If
for a sph ere viscous force become equal to the net weight acing downward, the
velocity of the body become constant and is known as terminal velocity. 4 , 67tr
|rv = - Tcr ~(p- a)g T Stake's Law and Terminal Velocity ^Bansal Classes Fluid M
echanics 15]

A spherical tank of 1.2m radius is half filled with oil of relative density 0.8.
Ifthe tank is given a horizontal acceleration of 10 m/s . Calculate the inclina
tion ofthe oil surface to horizontal and maximum pressure on the tank. h Q.2 A
p iston ofmassM = 3kg and radius R=4cm has a hole into which a thin pipe mm Mm o
fr adius r = 1 cm is inserted. The piston can enter a cylinder tightly and witho
ut friction, and initially it is at the bottom of the cylinder. 750gm of water i
s n ow H poured into the pipe so that the piston & pipe are lifted up as shown.
Find the height H ofwater in the cylinder and height h ofwater in the pipe. Q.3
A re ctangular vessel isfilledwith water & oil in equal proportion (by volume),
the o il being twice lighter than water. Show that the force on each wall of the
vesse l will be reduced by onefifthif the vessel is filled only with oil. (take
into c onsideration the fact that the oil is found at the top ofthe vessel). Q.
4 A soli d ball of density half that of water fallsfreelyunder gravityfroma heig
ht of 19. 6 m and then enter water. Upto what depth will the ball go? How much t
ime will i t take to come again to the water surface? Neglect air resistance & v
elocity eff ects in water. Q. 5 Place a glass beaker, partiallyfilledwith water,
in a sink. The beaker has a mass 390 gm and an interior volume of 500cm . You n
ow start tof illthe sink with water and you find, by experiment, that if the bea
ker is less t han half full, it willfloat;but if it is more than half full, it r
emains on the bottom ofthe sink as the water rises to its rim. What is the densi
ty ofthe mater ial ofwhich the beaker is made? Q. 6 Two spherical balls A and B
made up of same material having masses 2m and m are releasedfromrest. Ball B lie
s at a distance h below the water surface while A is at a height of 2h above wat
er surface in t he same vertical line, at the instant they are released. (a) Obt
ain the position where they collide. (b) If the bodies stick together due to col
lision, to what maximum height above water surface does the combined mass rise?
Specific gravity of the material ofthe balls is 2/3. Neglect viscosity and loss
due to splash. Q . 7 Two very large open tanks A and F both contain the same liq
uid. A horizontal pipe BCD, having a constriction at C leads out ofthe .-. botto
m oftank A and a vertical pipe E opens into the constriction at rs-.-i-.. ~ ~ C an
d dips into the l iquid in tank F. Assume streamline flow and no r fn>. } viscos
ity. Ifthe cross s ection at C is one halfthat at D and if D is at a distance h,
below the level of liquid in A to what height h (in r terms of h, )will liquidr
isein pipe E ? 8m Q .8 For the system shown in thefigure,the cylinder on the lef
t at L has a mass of 600kg and a cross sectional area of800 cm . The piston on t
he right, at S, has c ross sectional area 25cm and negligible weight. 600kg If t
he apparatus isfilledw ith oil.(p = 0.75 gm/cm ) Find the force F required to ho
ld the system in equili brium. 2 3 Q.l EXERCISE # I I 2 \ r~"i 2 2 3 Q.9 (a) (b)

A siphon has a uniform circular base of diameter ~j= cm with its crest V7t 1.8m
A1.8 m above water level as infigure.Find velocity of flow discharge rate ofthe
flow in m /sec. absolute pressure at the crest level A. [Use P = 10 N/m & g = 10
m/s ] 3 0 5 2 2 8 3.6m ^Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [12]

Q.10 A large tank isfilledwith two liquids of specific gravities 2a and c. Two h
oles are h,4 made on the wall ofthe tank as shown. Find the ratio ofthe distanc
e sfromO ofthe points on the ground where the jets fromholes A& B strike. h/2 Ml
Q .ll The horizontal pipe shown in the diagram has a cross sectional area of 40
cm at the wider position and 10cm at the narrow poriton. A liquid of 7 JT V _ 10c
m 4 0cm specific gravity 1.6 isflowingin the pipe with volumeflowrate equal to 5
x 1 0 m /s. Find the difference in the heights h between the mercury hJ mercury
colu mn in the manometer tube. (p = 13.6 * 10 kg/m ) Q.12(a)A spherical tank of
1.2m radius is half filled with oil of relative density 0.8 . Ifthe tank is giv
en a h orizontal acceleration of 10 m/s . Calculate the inclination ofthe oil su
rface t o horizontal and maximum pressure on the tank. (b) The volume of an air
bubble i s doubled as it rises from the bottom of a lake to its surface. If the
atmospher ic pressure is H m ofmercury & the density of mercury is n times that
of lake wa ter. Find the depth of the lake. Q.13 A test tube of thin walls has s
ome lead sh ots in it at its bottom and the system floats vertically in water, s
inking by a length 1= 10cm. A liquid of density less than that of water, is pour
ed into the tube till the levels inside and outside the tube are even. If the tu
be now sinks to a length / =40cm, the specific gravity ofthe liquid is . Kerosen
e W 2 2 2 2 -3 3 mg 3 3 A 2 o s=0.8 Q.14 For the arrangement shown in thefiguret
he value ofh ifthe pressure differen ce between the vessel Aand B is 3 kN/m is 2
Q.15 An open cubical tank completelyfilledwith water is kept on a horizontal su
r face. Its acceleration is then slowly increased to 2m/s as shown in the Fig. T
he side of the tank is lm. Find the mass ofwater that would spill out ofthe tank
. 2 1m 2m/s 2 lm Q.16 In air an object weighs 15N, when immersed completely in wa
ter the same object weighs 12N. When immersed in another liquid completely, it w
eighs 13N. Fi nd (a) the specific gravity of the obj ect and (b) the specific gr
avity ofthe ot her liquid. Q.17 Compute the work which must be performed to slow
ly pump the wat er put of a hemispherical reservoir of radius R - 0.6 m. Q.18 Bl
ock Ainfigurehan gs by a cord from spring balance D and is submerged in a liquid
C contained in a

beaker B. The mass of the beaker is 1 kg & the mass of theliquidis 1.5kg. The b
alance Dreads 2.5 kg & balance E reads 7.5kg.. The volume ofblock Ais 0.003 m .
(i) What is the density ofblock & the liquid, (ii) What will each balance read i
fblock is pulled out of the liquid. 3 Q.19 A solid cube, with faces either vert
ical or horizontal, isfloatingin a liqu id of density 6 g/cc. It has two third o
fits volume submerged. If enough water i s addedfromthe top so as to completely
cover the cube, whatfractionof its volume will remain immersed inthe liquid? foB
ansalClasses Fluid Mechanics [10]

Q.20 A ball is given velocity v (greater than the terminal velocity v ) in downw
ard direction inside a highly viscous liquid placed inside a large container. T
h e height ofliquid in the container is H. The ball attains the terminal velocit
y just before striking at the bottom of the container. Draw graph between veloci
ty ofthe ball and distance moved by the ball before getting terminal velocity. 0
T 2 2 XT Q.21 Two arms of a U-tube have unequal diameters d, = 1.0 mm and d = 1
.0 cm. Ifw ater (surface tension 7 x 10~ N/m) is poured into the tube held in th
e vertical position,findthe difference of level ofwater in the U-tube. Assume th
e angle ofc ontact to be zero. Q.22 A spherical ball of radius 1 x 10" m and den
sity 10 kg/m falls freely under gravity through a distance h before entering a t
ank of water . If after entering the water the velocity of the ball does not cha
nge, find h. The viscosity of water is 9.8 x 10 N-s/m . 4 4 3 -6 2 Q. 23 Calcula
te the rate of flow of glycerine of density 1.25 x 10 kg/m through the conical s
ection of a pipe if the radii of its ends are 0. lm & 0.04m and the pressure dro
p across its length is 10N/m . 3 3 2 Q. 24 The tank infigdischarges water at con
stant rate for all water levels above the air inlet R. The height above datum to
which water would rise in the manome ter tubes M and N respectively are & Q.25
A uniform cylindrical block of length / density d, and area of cross section A f
loats in a liquid of density d contain ed in a vessel (d >d ). The bottom of the
cylinder just rests on a spring of con stant k. The other end ofthe spring is f
ixed to the bottom ofthe vessel. The wei ght that may be placed on top ofthe cyl
inder such that the cylinder is just subm erged in the liquid is 2 2 1 Open io a
tmosphere 40cm 20cm 11 Q.26 Find the speed ofrotation of 1 m diameter tank, init
ially full ofwater such that water surface makes an angle of 45 with the horizont
al at a radius of 30 cm . What is the slope ofthe surface at the wall ofthe tank
. Q. 27 A vertical unifo rm U tube open at both ends contains mercury. Water is
poured in one limb until the level of mercury is depressed 2cm in that limb. Wha
t is the length ofwater c olumn when this happens. Q. 28 Apiece of copper having
an internal cavity weigh 264gm in air and 22 lgm in water. Find the volume of c
avity. Density of copper i s 8.8 gm/cc. Q.29 A vessel contains oil density = 0.
8gm/cm . A homogeneous sphe re floats with halfits volume immersed in mercury an
d the other half in oil. The density ofthe material ofthe sphere in gm/cm is Q.3
0 An expansible balloon fill ed with air floats on the surface of a lake with 2/
3 of its volume submerged. Ho w deep must it be sunk in the water so that it is
just in equilibrium neither si nking further nor rising ? It is assumed that the
temperature of the water is co nstant & that the height of the water barometer
is 9 meters. 3 3 fo Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [10]

EXERCISE # II Q.l Q.2 (a) (b) (c) Q.3 A solid block ofvolume V=10~ m and density
d=800kg/m is tied to one end of a str ing, the other end ofwhich istiedto the b
ottom ofthe vessel. The vessel contains 2 immiscible liquids of densities p.^l 0
00kg/ m and p =15 00kg/m . The solid bl ock is immersed with 2/5 th of its volum
e in the liquid of higher density & 3/5t h in the liquid of lower density. The v
essel is placed in an elevator which is m oving up with an acceleration of a=g/2
. Find the tension in the string. [g= 1 Om /s ] An open rectangular tank 5m x 4m
* 3 m high containing water upto a 3m heig ht of 2m is accelerated horizontally
along the longer side. "Wirier 2m Determine the maximum acceleration that can b
e given without spilling the water. 5m Calcu late the percentage ofwater split o
ver, ifthis acceleration is increased by 20%. If initially, the tank is closed a
t the top and is accelerated horizontally by 9m/s ,findthe gauge pressure at the
bottom of thefrontand rear walls ofthe tank. A level controller is shown inthef
igure.It consists ofa thin circular plug of d iameter 10cm and a cylindricalfloa
tof diameter 20cm tied together with a lightri gidrod Float of length 10cm. The
plugfitsin snugly in a drain hole at the bottom of the tank which opens into atm
osphere. As waterfillsup and the level reaches height h, the 10cm plug opens. Fi
ndh. Determine the level ofwater in the tank wh en the plug closes -plug again.
Thefloathas a mass 3kg and the plug may be assum ed as massless. 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2
Q.4 A closed tube in the form of an equilateral triangle of side / contains equ
al vo lumes of three liquids which do not mix and is placed vertically with its
lowest side horizontal. Find x in the figure if the densities of the liquids are
in A. P. A ship sailingfromsea into ariversinks X mm and on discharging the car
gorises Y mm. On proceeding again into sea the shiprisesby Z mm. Assuming ship s
ides to be vertical at water line,findthe specific gravity of sea water. A conic
al vesse l without a bottom stands on a table. Aliquid is poured with the vessel
& as soo n as the level reaches h, the pressure of the liquid raises the vessel
. The radi us of the base ofthe vessel is R and half angle of the cone is a and
the weight of the vessel is W. What is the density ofthe liquid ? As the arrange
ment shown in thefigis released the rod of mass M moves down into the water. Fri
ction is ne gligible and the string is inextensible. Find the acceleration of th
e system w.r .t. the distance moved by each mass. Find the time required to comp
letely immers e the rod into water if _ P - P water M p density of rod water den
sity of water : Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 (a) (b) ////J/// w M JL Q. 8 The interface of two li
quids of densities p and 2p respectively lies at the poin t A ^ in a U tube at r
est. The height of liquid column above A is 8 a/3 where AB -a. The cross section
al area of the tube is S. With what angular velocity the tu be must be whirled a
bout a vertical axis at a distance 'a' such that the interfa ce of the liquids s
hifts towards B by 2a/3. ^Bansal Classes

Fluid Mech an ics [9]

Q.9 A closed cylindrical tank 2m high & 1 m in diameter contains 1.5 m of water.
Whe n the angular velocity is constant at 20.0 rad/s, how much of the bottom of
the tank is uncovered? (The cylinder is rotated about vertical axis of symmetry
pass ing through its length.) o o Q.10 A cylinder of height H isfilledwith wate
r to a height h (h < H), & is place d on a horizontal floor. Two small holes are
punched at time t = 0 on the vertic al line along the length of the cylinder, o
ne at a height hj from the bottom & t he other a depth hj below the level ofwate
r in the cylinder. Find bo the relatio n between hj & hj such that the instantan
eous waterjets emerging from the cylind er from the two holes will hit the groun
d at the same point. Q.ll A cylindrical tank with a height of h = lm isfilledwit
h water up to its rim. What time is requ ired to empty the tank through an orifi
ce in its bottom? The cross sectional are a of the orifice is (l/400)th ofthe ta
nk. Find the time required for the same am ount ofwater to flow out of the tank
ifthe water level in the tank is maintained constant at a height of h = 1 m from
the orifice. Q.12 A Conical funnel whose h eight H=20cm isfilledwith water. The
radius of the upper opening R - 12 cm. The lower opening through which the wate
r begins to flow out ofthe funnel has the ra dius r=0.3cm. (a) In what time is t
he water level in the funnel lowered by 5 cm ? (b) When will the funnel be empti
ed ? 20cm . Q.13 A water clock used in ancien t Greek is designed as a closed ve
ssel with a small orifice O. The time is deter mined according to the level ofth
e water in the vessel. What should be the shape of the vessel be for the time sc
ale to be uniform. Find mathematical equation g overning curve AOB. Q.14 For the
arrangement shown in thefigure.Find the time interval 80cm after which the wate
r jet ceases to cross the wall. Area of the tank = 0.5 m . A rea of the orifice
= 1 cm . 2 2 3 2 0.81 m Q.15 A cylindrical tank having cross-sectional area A =
0.5 m isfilledwith two l iquids of density p, = 900 kgm~ , to a height h=60cm as
shown in the figure. A s mall hole having area a = 5 cm is made in right vertic
al wall at a height y=20cm from the bottom. Calculate h F* C velocity of efflux.
O horizontal force F to ke ep the cylinder in static equilibrium, ifit is placed
on a smooth horizontal pla ne, value of (iii) minimum and maximumm = 0.01.F to
keep the cylinder at rest. T he coefficient of friction between cylinder and the
plane is velocity of the top most layer ofthe liquid column and also the veloci
ty ofthe boundary separating the (iv) two liquids. base S 4000 Q.16 A cylindrica
l wooden float whosewood area 0,8=gf/cm cm & the altitude H = 50 cm drifts on th
e water surface. Specific weig ht of d= . (a) What work must be performed to tak
e the float out of the water ? (b) Compute the work to be performed to submerge
completely the float into the w ater. Q.17 A10cm side cube weighing 5N is immers
ed in a liquid ofrelative densit y 0.8 contained in a rectangular tank of cross
sectional area 15cmx 15cm. If the tank contained liquid to a height of 8cm befor
e the immersion, determine the le vels of the bottom of the cube and the liquid
surface. 2 2 3 fo Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [10]

Q.18 A jug contains 15 glasses of orange juice. When you open the tap at the bot
tom it takes 12sectofilla glass with juice. If you leave the tap open, how long
will it take tofillthe remaining 14 glasses and thus empty the jug? Q.19 An int
e rstellar explorer discovers a remarkable planet made entirely of a uniform inc
om pressiblefluidon density p. The radius ofthe planet is R and the acceleration
of gravity at its surface is g. What is the pressure at the center of the plane
t. Q.20 A cylindrical rod oflength I=2m & density floatsvertically in a liquid B
of density p as shown in Fig (a). A (a) Show that it performs SHM when pulled sl
igh tly up & released & (b) (a) find its time period. Neglect change in liquid l
evel . (b) Find the time taken by the rod to completely immerse when releasedfro
mposi tion shown in (b). Assume that it remains vertical throughout its motion,
(take g = % m/s ) 2 2 Q.21 A uniform cylinder of a light material of length /=0.
8m and radius of cross section r = 0.01 m floats on a liquid of specific density
p = 0.9 upto half its length. The container of the liquid is a long cylindrical
beaker of radius R = 0.04m. Another perfectly immiscible liquid of specific den
sity o = 0.6 is now sl owly poured all along the inner periphery of the beaker a
t a uniform rate of v = 0.25x 10 m /s and it spreads itself uniformly over the f
irst liquid. Find the v elocity with which the cylinder will rise or sink in the
liquid. 4 3 Q.22 Auniform rod of length b capable oftuning about its end which
is out ofwate r, rests inclined to the vertical. Ifits specific gravity is 5/9,f
indthe length immersed in water. Q.23 An open cylindrical vessel of large crosssection A cont ains liquid upto a height H = 120cm. After an orifice of area A/1
000 at a height ofh = 20cm is opened. (a) Calculate liquid heights above orifice
for which it f alls on both ends of H horizontal plate. (b) How long will the l
iquid be falling on the plate. Given: plate AB is of length 60cm. (g = 10m/s ) 2
2 T 20cm A B Q.24 A cylindrical vessel ofheightH = 4m&area of cross section 1 m
filled with w ater rests on a stand of same height H. It has a small plugged ho
le near its bot tom. When plug is removed the liquid starts to come out. (a) Fin
d the range ofth e liquid as a function ofinstantaneous height ofthe liquid in t
he upper vessel ( b) Find the volume of liquid collected in a large initially em
pty vessel lying o n floor at a distance Hfromthe stand. Assume that water falli
ng on to thefloordo es notflowinto the vessel. Q.25 A cube with a mass'm' comple
tely wettable by wat er floats on the surface of water. Each side of the cube is
'a'. What is the dis tance h between the lower face of cube and the surface of
the water if surface t ension is S. Take density ofwater as p Take angle of cont
act in zero. ZZ3 fo Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [10]

EXERCISE # III Q.l A horizontal pipe line carries water in a streamline flow. At
a point along the pipe where the cross-sectional area is 10 cm , the water velo
city is 1 ms" & the pressure is 2000 Pa. The pressure of water at another point
where the cross sectional area is 5 cm , is pa. [ Density ofwater = 10 kg. mr ]
[ JEE '94,2 ] 2 1 2 3 3 Q.2 A container oflarge uniform cross-sectional area A r
esting on a horizontal surfa ce, holds two immiscible, non-viscous & incompressi
ble liquids of densities d & 2d, each of height as shown in figure. The lower de
nsity liquid is open to the a tmosphere having pressure P . 0 (a) A homogeneous
solid cylinder oflength L fI < ) cross-sectional area A,is immerse d such that i
t floats with its axis vertical at the liquid-liquid 5 (i) 00 (b) CO (ii) (iii)
Q.3 (0 (ii) (iii) Q.4 interface with the length in the denser liquid. Determine:
The density D ofthe s olid & The total pressure at the bottom of the container.
The cylinder is remove d and the original arrangement is restored. A tiny hole
of area s (s A) is punch ed on the vertical side of the container at a height h
j^fc < -^J . Determine Th e initial speed of efflux of the liquid at the hole ;
The horizontal distance x travelled by the liquid initially & The height h at wh
ich the hold should be pun ched so that the liquid travels the maximum distance
x initially. Also calculate x . [Neglect the air resistance in these calculation
s]. [JEE '95,10] m m m Q.5 (0 (ii) A cylindrical tank 1 m in radius rests on a p
latform 5 m high. Initially the tan k isfilledwith water to a height of 5m. A pl
ug whose area is 1CT m is removed fr om an orifice on the side ofthe tank at the
bottom. Calculate the following: ini tial speed with which the water flows from
the orifice ; initial speed with whic h the water strikes the ground & time tak
en to empty the tank to halfits origina l value. [ REE '95,5] A thin rod of leng
th L & area of cross-section S is pivote d at its lowest point P inside a statio
nary, homogeneous & non-viscous liquid (F igure). The rod is free to rotate in a
vertical plane about a horizontal axis pa ssing through P. The density d, of th
e material of the rod is smaller than the e ntity d ofthe liquid. The rod is dis
placed by a small angle 9 from its equilibri um position and then released. Show
that the motion of the rod is simple harmoni c and determine its angular freque
ncy in terms ofthe given parameters. [ JEE '96 , 5 ] A large open top container
of negligible mass & uniform cross-sectional ar ea A has a small hole of cross-s
ectional area A/100 in its side wall near the bo ttom. The container is kept on
a smooth horizontal floor and contains a liquid o f density p and mass m.. Assum
ing that the liquid starts flowing out horizontall y through the hole at t = 0,
calculate the acceleration ofthe container and its velocity when 75 % ofthe liqu
id has drained out. [ JEE 97 , 5 ] 4 2 2 ^Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [12]

Q.6 A nonviscous liquid of constant density 1000 kg/m flows in a streamline moti
on a long a tube of variable cross section. The tube is kept inclined in the ver
tical plane as shown in the figure. The area of cross section of the tube at two
poin ts P and Q at heights of 2 meters and 5 meters are respectively 4 x 10 m a
nd 8 x 10~ m . The velocity ofthe liquid at point P is 1 m/s. Find the work done
per u nit volume by the pressure and the gravity forces as the fluid flows from
point P to Q. [ JEE '97] 3 3 2 3 3 Q. 7 Water from a tap emerges vertically dow
nwards with an initial speed of 1.0 ms" . The cross-sectional area of the tap is
10~ m . Assume that the pressure is cons tant throughout the stream ofwater, an
d that the flow is steady. The cross-secti onal area of the stream 0.15m below t
he tap is [ JEE '98, 2 ] (B) 1.0 xlO" m (C) 5.0 x 10" m (D) 2.0 x l0" m (A) 5.0
x 10~ m 1 4 2 4 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 Q.8 Q.9 A wooden stick of length 1, and radius R a
nd density p has a small metal piece o f mass m (of negligible volume) attached
to its one end. Find the minimum value for the mass m (in terms of given paramet
ers) that would make the stick float ve rtically in equilibrium in a liquid of d
ensity a (>p). [ JEE '99,10] A large ope n tank has two holes in the wall. One i
s a square hole of side L at a depth yfro mthe top and the other is a circular h
ole of radius R at a depth 4yfromthe top. When the tank is completely filled wit
h water, the quantities ofwater flowing ou t per secondfromboth holes are the sa
me. Then, R is equal to: (A) (B) 2nL (C)L (D) 2it [JEE 2000 (Scr.)] Q.10 A hemis
pherical portion of radius R is removed from the b ottom of a cylinder of radius
R. The volume ofthe remaining cylinder is V and it s mass is M. It is suspended
by a string in a liquid of density p where it stays vertical. The upper surface
of the cylinder is at a depth h below the liquid su rface. The force on the bot
tom of the cylinder by the liquid is [JEE 2001 (Scr.) ] (A)Mg (B)Mg-vpg (C) Mg +
tz R h p g 2 (D) pg (V + 7iR h) 2 Q.ll A wooden block, with a coin placed on it
s top, floats in water as shown in figure. The distances I and h are shown there
. After some time the coin falls in to the water. Then [JEE 2002 (Scr.)] (A) / d
ecreases and h increases (B) I incre ases and h decreases (C) both I and h incre
ase (D) both / and h decrease 3 yCoin Q.12 Auniform solid cylinder of density 0.
8 gm/cm floats in equilibrium in a com bination of two non mixing liquids A and
b with its axis vertical. The densities

ofthe liquids A and B are 0.7 gm/cm and 1.2 g/cm , respectively. The height of l
iquid Ais h = 1.2 cm. The length ofthe part of the cylinder immersed in liquid B
is h^ = 0.8 cm. (a) Find the toal force exerted by liquid Aon the cylinder. (b
) Find h, the length ofthe part of the cylinder in air. (c) The cylinder is depr
essed in such a way that its top surface is just below the upper surface ofliqu
i d A and is then released. Find the acceleration of the cylinder immediately af
te r it is released. [JEE 2002] 3 3 A fo Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [10]

Q.13 Consider a horizontally oriented syringe containing water located at a heig

ht of 1.25 m above the ground. The diameter ofthe plunger is 8 mm and the diame
t er of the nozzle is 2 mm. The plunger is pushed with a constant speed of 0.25
m/ s. Find the horizontal range of water stream on the ground. Take g = 10 m/s2.
[J EE 2004] D=8MM ^ IP d=2mm 1.25m A\\m\\Tu\\\\\u\\u\\\u'\ Q.14 A solid sphere o
f radius R is floating in a liquid of density p with half o f its volume submerg
ed. If the sphere is slightly pushed and released, it starts performing simple h
armonic motion. Find thefrequencyof these oscillations. [JEE 2004] Q.15 Water is
filledin a container upto height 3m. A small hole of area 'a ' is punched in the
wall ofthe container a at a height 52.5 cmfromthe bottom. Th e cross sectional
area ofthe container is A. If =0.1 then v is (where v is the v elocity ofwater c
oming out ofthe hole) (D) 51.5 (A) 48 (B) 51 (C) 50 [JEE to2005 (Scr)] z Q.16 A
U tube is rotated about one of it's limbs with an angular velocity a. Fin d the
difference in height H of the liquid (density p) level, where diameter oft he tu
be d L. [JEE 2005] . a fo Bansal Classes Fluid Mechanics [10]

ANSWER KEY EXERCISE # I Q Q.l Q.4 Q.7 Q.9 Q.ll 45,9600V2 (gauge)N/m 19.6 m, 4 sec
hj = 3 hj 375 24 15.6cm 2 , 2 2m 11 Q.5 Q.8 3 2.79 gm/cc 37.5 N 3 Q.6 at the wa
ter surface, h/2 Q.10 V3:V2 (a) 6^2 m/s, (b)9.6V2 xlQ- M /sec, (c) 4.6 x 10 N/m
4 2 Q.12 (a)9600 ^ , (b) nH Q.13 0.75 Q.14 -0.5m2.5 m Q.16 (a) 5, (b) 2/3 Q.17 10
1.8 Kgf-m Q.15 100kg 3 5000 Q.18 (i) 2500 kg/m , kg/m , (ii) \ = 7.5 kg, f ^ = 2.
5 kg 3 Q.19 3/5 Q.23 6.43 x 10^m /s 3 Q.20 | Dist. moved H Q.21 2.5 cm Q.22 20.4
m + Ag Q.24 20cm, 60cm Q.27 54.4 cm Q.25

(d -d ) 2 x V2 d
0, 45kPa 2 1 9 5
-m)gx (a) M + m j
0 h ^ h j

Q.26 co= 3 1 0 5 rad/s, t a n a = Q.28 13cc Q.29 7.2gm/cm Q.30 4

Q.l Q 3 6N 2(3 + 7t) li^ 0 2 2 6 3 + 71 -^"!^" 0 Q.2 4m/s , 10%,
Q 4 x = 1 / 3 Q.5 y-x+z Q.6 Q.7 Q.9 W P 7th gtana(R-|htana) (M
g - (M + m)L ^ v 7C L 2]l g M - m j v Q.8 18g 19a 80 % rrr Q.1

Q.ll 80V5 sec, 40V5 sec Classes Fluid Mechanics [15]

Q.12 (a)33.2s,(b) 64.6 s Q.13 y = 4xl0~ x Q.14 431 sec 3 4 Q.15 (i) 4m/s, (ii) F
= 7.2N, (iii) F = 0, F = 52.2 N, (iv) both 4 x 10~ m/s mm max 3 Q16 (a) dHS 2 2
= 32 K g f - m , (b) - S H ( 1 - d) = 2 2 2 v, Kgf-m Q17 163 388 Q-" " ^ T J T
a 12Vl4 Q 1 9 pgR 2 Q.20 2 sec., 1 sec Q.21 1/90TC Q.22 b/3 3 Q.23 (a) 80cm, 5cm
; (b) 300sec. Q.24 2VhH, 3m Q.25 h= mg + 4sa Pw^ EXERCISE # III Q.l 500 Pa 5 1 /
3 Q.2 (a)(i) P = - d, (ii) p=P + - (6H+L)dg ; (b)(i) v = J % H - 4 h ) , (ii) =
Vh(3H-4h) (iii) x = 7 H 0 x

Q.3 (i) 10 m/s, (ii) 14.1 m/s, (iii) 2.5 hr m 0 fd2~dl^ 2L I dl J 3 3 Q.5 (i) 0.
2 m/s , (ii) Q.6 + 29625 J/m , - 30000 J/m Q.7 C Q.8 m = 7ir l (^pc p); if tilte
d then it's axis should become vertical. C.M. should be lower than c entre of bo
uyancy. Q.9 A Q.10 D Q.ll D Q.12 (a) 0, (b) h = 0.25 cm, (c) a= g/6 ( upward) 2
min 2 Q.13 x = 2m * 1 [37 Q.14 ^ = Q.15 C 271 V 2R L Q.16H= 2g 2 2 fo Bansal Clas
ses Fluid Mechanics [10]

ime Limit: 2 Sitting Each of 90 minutes, duration approx.

Q. 1 There are 58 questions in this question bank. QUESTION BANK ON FLUID MECHAN
ICS Q2 Two cubes of size 1.0m sides, one of relative density 0.60 and another of
relati ve density = 1.15 are connected by weightless wire and placed in a large
tank of water. Under equilibrium the lighter cube will project above the water
surface t o a height of (A) 50 cm (B) 25 cm (C)10cm (D) zero A rectangular tank
is placed on a horizontal ground and is filled with water to a height H above th
e base. A small hole is made on one vertical side at a depth D below the level o
f the wate r in the tank. The distance xfromthe bottom ofthe tank at which the w
ater jetfro mthe tank will hit the ground is (A) 2VD(H-D) (B) 2 VDH (C) 2VD(H7D)
2 -1 (D) | VDH Q.3 Q4 Q.5 Abeaker isfilledin with water is accelerated a m/s in
+x direction. The surface o fwater shall make on angle (A) tan (a/g) backwards (
B) tan (a/g) forwards (C) co t (g/a) backwards (D) cot (g/a) forwards A jet ofwa
ter with cross section of 6 c m strikes a wall at an angle of 60 to the normal an
d rebounds elastically from th e wall without losing energy. If the velocity of
the water in the jet is 12 m/s, the force acting on the wall is (A) 0.864 Nt (B)
86.4 Nt (C)72Nt (D)7.2Nt The v ertical limbs of a U shaped tube arefilledwith a
liquid of density p upto a heig ht h on each side. The horizontal portion ofthe
U tube having length 2h contains a liquid of density 2p. The U tube is moved ho
rizontally with an accelerator g/ 2 parallel to the horizontal arm. The differen
ce in heights in liquid levels in the two vertical limbs, at steady state will b
e 2h 8h 4h (D) None of these (A) ( B) ( Q T -1 -1 -1 2 Q.6 The cross sectional a
rea of a horizontal tube increases along its length linearl y, as we move in the
direction of flow. The variation of pressure, as we move al ong its length in t
he direction offlow (x-direction), is best depicted by which ofthe following gra
phs (A) (B) 2 (C) 2 (D) 2 Q.7 A cylindrical tank of height 1 m and cross section
area A= 4000 cm is initially empty when it is kept under a tap of cross section
al area 1 cm . Water starts fl owing from the tap at t = 0, with a speed = 2 m/s
. There is a small hole in the

base of the tank of cross-sectional area 0.5 cm . The variation of height of wat
er in tank (in meters) with time t is best depicted by (A) (B) (C) Q.8 A bucket
contains waterfilledupto a height = 15 cm. The bucket is tied to a rope which i
s passed over africtionlesslight pulley and the other end ofthe rope is tied to
a weight of mass which is half ofthat of the (bucket+water). The water p ressure
above atmosphere pressure at the bottom is (A) 0.5 kPa (B)lkPa (C) 5 kPa (D) No
ne of these % Bansal Classes Question Bank on Fluid Mechanics [2]

Q.9 A cubical box ofwine has a small spout located in one ofthe bottom corners.
When the box is full and placed on a level surface, opening the spout results in
a f low of wine with a initial speed of v (see figure). When the box is half em
pty, someone tilts it at 45 so that the spout is at the lowest point (see figure)
. Whe n the spout is opened the wine willflowout with a speed of .(A) v (B)V /2 '
(Qvo/ V2 (D) v M Q.10 A cone ofradius R and height H, is hanging inside a liqui
d of de nsity p by means of a string as shown in thefigure.The force, due to the
liquid acting on the slant surface ofthe cone is , 0 0 mn 0 0 (A) prtgHR 2 (B)
rcpHR 2 (C) ~ 7tpgHR 2 7TT77T7T77T7 TT (D) -TipgHR 2 Q.ll A cuboidal piece ofwoo
d has dimensions a, b and c. Its relative density is d. It isfloatingin a large
body of water such that side a is vertical. It is pus hed down a bit and release
d. The time period of SHM executed by it is : [be ( D ) 27T (C) 2tc (B) 2ti ^ da
\'dg Q.12 Water is flowing steadily through a horizon tal tube ofnonuniform cro
ss-section. If the pressure ofwater is 4 x 10 N/m at a point where cross-section
is 0.02 m and velocity of flow is 2 m/s, what is press ure at apoint where cros
s-section reduces to 0.01 m . (A) 1.4 x 10 N/m (B) 3,4 x 10 N/m (C) 2.4 x 10" N/
m (D)noneofthese Q.13 A vertical cylindrical container o f base area Aand upper
cross-section A, area Aj making an angle 30 with the. hori zontal is placed in an
open rainy field as shown near another cylindrical contai ner having same base
area A. The ratio of rates of collection ofwater inthe two containers A iimvnrfT
ii riffTTTrrTfnTr will be (D) None (A) 2/73 (B) 4/V3 (C)2 Q .14 The area of cros
s-section of the wider tube shown in figure is 121cg 800 cm . If a mass of 12 kg
is placed on the massless piston, the difference in heights h in the level ofwa
ter in the two tubes is : (A) 10 cm (B) 6 cm (C) 15 cm (D)2c m Q.15 A slender ho
mogeneous rod of length 2L floats partly immersed in water, b eing supported by
a string fastened to one ofits ends, as shown. The specific gr avity of the rod
is 0.75. The length of rod that extends out ofwater is : i 4 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 2
(A)L (B)-L (D) 3 (Q 4 L is accelerating upward on a as shown. Then the ) tan" (
B) tan -l gcosa (l-cosa) 1 Q.16 Afluidcontainer is containing a liquid of densit
y p with acceleration a along the inclined place ofinclinati angle of inclinatio
n 9 offree surface is: a + g sin a (A gcosa a-gsma (D) tan" a - g sin a (C) tan"
g(l + cosa) g

L % Bansal Classes Question Bank on Fluid Mechanics [3]

Q.17 A dumbbell is placed in water of density p. It is observed that by attachin

g a mass m to the rod, the dumbbell floats with the rod horizontal on the surfa
c e of water and each sphere exactly half submerged as shown in the figure. The
vo lume of the mass m is negligible. The value of length I is d(V -3M) d(V -2M)
(B) 2(V 3M) ( ) 2(V -2M) d(V -2M) d(V + 2M) (D) 2(V +3M) ( ) 2(V - 3M) p p A p P
p p C p P Q.18 Figure shows a three arm tube in which a liquid is filled upto l
evels of he ight I. It is now rotated at an angular frequency co about an axis p
assing throu gh arm B. The angular frequency co at which level of liquid in arm
B becomes zer o. (B) (C) (D) 3 Q.19 Two bodies having volumes Y and 2V are suspe
nded from the two arms of a com mon balance and they are found to balance each o
ther. If larger body is immersed in oil (density dj = 0.9 gm/cm ) and the smalle
r body is immersed in an unknown liquid, then the balance remain in equilibrium.
The density of unknown liquid i s given by: (A) 2.4 gm/cm (B) 1.8 gm/cm (C) 0.4
5 gm/cm (D) 2.7 gm/cm Q.20 A tube is attached as shown in closed vessel containi
ng water. The velocity of water c oming out from a small hole is : 20cm (A) ^ m/
s (B)2m/s (C) depends on pressure of air inside vessel (D) None ofthese Q.21 Ala
rge tank is filled with water to a height H. Asmall hole is made at the base oft
he tank. It takes Tj time to decre ase the height of water to H/r|, (r| > 1) and
it takes T time to take out the re st of water. If Tj = T , then the value ofr\
is : (A) 2 (B) 3 (C)4 (D) V2 i Q.22 A container oflarge surface arpa isfilledwi
th liquid of density p. Acubical blo ck of side edge a and m iss M is floating i
n it with four-fifth of its volume su bmerged. If a coin ofmass m is placed gent
ly on the top surface ofthe block is j ust submerged. M is (A) 4m/5 (B)m/5 (C)4m
(D)5m Q.23 The weight of an empty ball oon on a spring balance is Wj. The weigh
t becomes w when the balloon is filled w ith air. Let the weight ofthe air itsel
fbe w .Neglect the thickness ofthe balloo n when it isfilledwith air. Also negle
ct the difference in the densities of air inside & outside the balloon. Then: (A
) w w. (B) w Wj + w (C) w < Wj + w (D) w > Wj Q.24 In the case ofa fluid, Bernou
lli's theorem expresses the application of the principle of conservation of : (A
) linear momentum (B) energy (C)mass (D) an gular momentum Q.25 Fountains usuall
y seen in gardens are generated by a wide pi pe with an enclosure at one end hav
ing many small holes. Consider one such fount

ain which is produced by a pipe of internal diameter 2 cm in which waterflowsat

a rate 3 ms~ . The enclosure has 100 holes each of diameter 0.05 cm. The velocit
y ofwater coming out ofthe holes ids (in ms ): (A) 0.48 (B) 96 (C) 24 (D)48 3 3
3 3 2 2 2 2 2 : 2 : 2 2 ! -1 % Bansal Classes Question Bank on Fluid Mechanics

Q.26 Water flows through afiictionlessduct with a cross-section varying as shown

in figure. Pressure p at points along the axis is represented by (A) (B) (C) (D
) Q.27 A boy carries a fish in one hand and a bucket(not full) of water in the o
th er hand . If he places the fish in the bucket, the weight now carried by him
(as sume that water does not spill) : (A) is less than before (B) is more than b
efor e (C) is the same as before (D) depends upon his speed Q.28 A cubical block
ofwo od ofedge 10cmandmass0.92kgfloatsonatankofwaterwithoilofrel. density0.6 to
a dep th of 4cm above water. When the block attains equilibrium with four ofits
sides edges vertical (A) 1 cm of it will be above the free surface of oil. (B)
5cm of it will be under water. (C) 2cm ofit will be above the common surface of
oil and water. (D) 8cm of it will be under water. Q. 29 The spring balance Aread
s 2 kg with a block m suspended from it. A balance B reads 5 kg when a beaker wi
th liqu id is put on the pan ofthe balance. The two balances are now so arranged
that th e hanging mass is inside the liquid in the beaker as shown in thefigure
in this s ituation: (A) the balance A will read more than 2 kg (B) the balance B
will read more than 5 .kg (C) the balance A will read less than 2 kg and B will
read more than 5 kg (D) the balances A and B will read 2 kg and 5 kg respective
ly. Q.30 A n open cubical tank was initially fullyfilledwith water. When the tan
k was accel erated on a horizontal plane along one ofits side it was found that
one third of volume ofwater spilled out. The acceleration was (A) g/3 (B) 2g/3 (
C) 3g/2 (D)No ne Q.31 Acork of density 0.5gcm floats on a calm swimming pool. Th
e fraction oft he cork's volume which is under water is (A) 0% (B) 25% (C)10% (D
) 50% Q.32 A cy lindrical vesselfilledwith water upto the height H becomes empty
in time t due t o a small hole at the bottom of the vessel. Ifwater isfilledto
a height 4H it wi llflowout in time (A) to (B)4t (C)8t (D)2t Q.33 Acylindrical v
essel open at the top is 20cm high and 1 Ocmin diameter. A circular hole whose c
ross-sectional are a 1 cm is cut at the centre ofthe bottom ofthe vessel. Waterf
lowsfroma tube abov e it into the vessel at the rate 100 cm s"'. The height ofwa
ter in the vessel un der steady state is (Take g=1000 cms ) (A) 20 cm (B) 15 cm
(C)10cm (D) 5 cm -3 0 0 0 0 2 3 -2 Q.34 A fire hydrant delivers water of density
p at a volume rate L. The water tr avels /- vertically upward through the hydran
t and then does 90 turn to emerge hor izontally at speed V. The pipe and nozzle h
ave uniform crosssection throughout. The force exerted by the water on the corne
r ofthe hydrant is (A)pVL (B) zero (C )2pVL (D)V2 VL P v % Bansal Classes Questi
on Bank on Fluid Mechanics [5]

Q.35 Avertical tank, open at the top, isfilledwith a liquid and rests on a smoot
h horizontal surface. A small hole is opened at the centre of one side ofthe ta
n k. The area of cross-section ofthe tank is N times the area of the hole, where
N is a large number. Neglect mass ofthe tank itself. The initial acceleration o
ft he tank is Q.36 A body of density p' is droppedfromrest at a height h into a
lak e of density p, where p > p'. Neglecting all dissipative forces, calculate t
he m aximum depth to which the body sinks before returning to float on the surfa
ce. ( A) A (B, V (C) J ^ P-P p P-P P-P Q.37 A Newtonianfluidfillsthe clearance b
etween a shaft and a sleeve. When aforce of800N is applied to the shaft, paralle
l to t he sleev,e, the shaft attains a speed of 1.5 cm/sec. If a force of 2.4 kN
is app lied instead, the shaft would move with a speed of (A) 1.5 cm/sec (B) 13
.5 cm/se c (C) 4.5 cm/sec (D) None Q.38 A solid metallic sphere ofradius r is al
lowed to fallfreelythrough air. Ifthefrictionalresistance due to air is proporti
onal to t he cross-sectional area and to the square of the velocity, then the te
rminal vel ocity of the sphere is proportional to which of the following? (A) r
(B)r (C)r ( D)r Q.39 Two water pipes P and Q having diameters 2 x 10" m and 4x10
" m, respect ively, are j oined in series with the main supply line ofwater. The
velocity ofw aterflowingin pipe P is (A) 4 times that of Q (B) 2 times that of
Q (C) 1/2 time s of that of Q (D) 1/4 times that of Q Q. 40 Waterflowsinto a cyl
indrical vessel oflarge cross-sectional area at a rate of 10~ m /s. Itflowsoutfr
oma hole of are a 10^ m , which has been punched through the base. How high does
the water rise in the vessel? (A) 0.075 m (B) 0.051m (C) 0.031m (D) 0.025 m Q.4
1 Two cyllinders of same cross-section and length L but made of two materi al of
densities d j a nd d are cemented together to form a cylinder oflength 2L, The
combinationfloats in a liquid of density d with a length L/2 above the surface o
f the liquid. If d j > d then: ( D ) 2 3/2 1/2 2 2 4 3 2 2 2 (A) dj > d (B)|>d 1
(C) - > d , 4 (D) d < d j Q.42 There is a horizontalfilmof soap solution. On it
a thread is placed in the form of a loop. Thefilmis pierced inside the loop and
the thread becomes a circu lar loop of radius R. If the surface tension of the
loop be T, then what will be the tension in the thread? (A) 7cR /T (b) TIR T (C)
2TTRT (D)2RT Q.43 S ome liq uid isfilledin a cylindrical vessel ofradius R. Let
F j be the force applied by the liquid on the bottom ofthe cylinder. Now the sa
me liquid is poured into a ve ssel ofuniform square crss-section of side R. Let
F be the force applied by the liquid on the bottom of this new vessel. Then. 2 2
2 (A) Fj = 7tF. (6) ^ = 571" '' (C) F, = VttF (D)F,=F Q. 44 A tank isfilledup t
o a height 2H with a liquid and is placedon a platform ofheight Hfromthe ground.
Th e distance xfromthe ground where a small hole is punched to get the maximum
rang e R is: (A)H (B) 1.25 H (C) 1.5 H (D)2H 2 2

2 % Bansal Classes Question Bank on Fluid Mechanics [6]

Q.45 Acontainer, whose bottom has round holes with diameter 0.1 mm isfilledwith
water. Themaximum height in cm upto which water can befilledwithout leakage will
be what? Surface tension = 75 x 10 N/m and g = 10 m/s : (A) 20 cm (B) 40 cm (C)
30cm (D)60cm Q.46 In a cylindrical vessel containing liquid of density p, there
are two holes in the side walls at heights ofhj and h respectively such that th
e range of efflux at the bottom ofthe vessel is same. The height of a hole, for
w hich the range of efflux would be maximum, will be ( B ^ + hj (A) - hj h -h, (
C) (D) h +hj 3 2 2 0 2 Q.47 Apiece of steel has a weight Win air, Wj when comple
tely immersed in water and W when completely immersed in an unknown liquid. The
relative density (speci fic gravity)ofliquid is: W-W, w -w W, - w W-Wo (A) W - W
, (C) W-W, (D) w - w (B ) W -T , wW Q.48 Alarge tank isfilledwith water (densit
y = 10 kg/m ). Asmall hol e is made at 10m a depth 10 m below water surface. The
range ofwater issuing out ofthe hole is Ron ground. What extra pressure must be
applied on the water surf ace so that the range becomes 2R (take 1 atm = 10 Pa
and g = 10 m/s ): (A) 9 atm (B) 4 atm (C) 5 atm (D) 3 atm R Q.49 Two drops of sa
me radius are falling throu gh air with steady velocity of v cm/s. If the two dr
ops coalesce, what would be the terminal velocity? (A) 4 v (C)2v (D) 64 v (B) (4
) 1/3, Q.50 A ball ofrelativ e density 0.8 falls into waterfroma height of 2m. T
he depth to which the ball wi ll sink is (neglect viscous forces): (A) 8 m (B)2m
(C)6m (D)4m i Q.51 A liquid o f mass 1 kg isfilledin a flask as shown infigure.
The force exerted by the flask on the liquid is (g = 10 m/s ): (A) ION (B) great
er than ION (C) less than 1 ON (D)zero 2 2 ; 2 2 3 3 5 2 2 Q.52 Figure shows a s
iphon. Choose the wrong statement: (A) Siphon works when h > 0 (B) Pressure at p
oint 2 is P = P - pgh h=0 (C) Pressure at point 3 is P (D) None of the above X 1
(P = atmospheric pressure) Q.53 If two soap bubbles of diff erent radii are conn
ected by a tube, (A) air flowsfromthe bigger bubble to the s maller bubble till
the sizes become equal (B) air flowsfrombigger bubble to the smaller bubble till
the sizes are interchanged (C) airflowsfromthe smaller bubbl e to the bigger (D
) there is noflowof air. i 3 2 0 3 0 0 % Bansal Classes Question Bank on Fluid M
echanics m

Q.54 A cubical block of side 'a' and density 'p' slides over a fixed inclined pl
ane with constant velocity V . There is a thinfilmof viscousfluidofthickness't'
between the plane and the block. Then the coefficient ofviscosity ofthe thinfil
m will be \B=37 3pagt pagt 4pagt (D) none ofthese (A) 5v (C) v (B) 5v Q.55 Which
of the following graphs best represents the motion of a raindrop? (A) (B) 5 2 (C
) CD) Q.56 Two soap bubbles with radii r and (r > r ) come in contact. Their com
mon su rface has a radius of curvature r. r, + r, (C)r (D)r = ^ 7 (B)r = l 2 r,+
r <A)rV i ~h Q.57 A spherical ball of density p and radius 0.003m is dropped int
o a tu be containing a viscousfluidfilledup to the 0 cm mark as shown in the fig
ure. Vi scosity of 0 cm thefluid= 1.260 N.m' and its density p = p/2 = 1260
. Assum e the ball -10 cm reaches a terminal speed by the 10 cm mark. The time
taken by the ball to traverse the distance between the 10 cm and 20 cm mark is 20 cm (A) 500 ps (B) 50 ms (C)0.5s (D) 5 s (g = acceleration due to gravity = 10
ms ) Q.5 8 A sphere is dropped under gravity through afluidofviscosity r). Ifth
e average acceleration is half ofthe initial acceleration, the time to attain th
e terminal velocity is (p = density of sphere ; r = radius) 4pr 9pr 4pr 9pr (A)
9rj (B) 4r \ (C) 9rj (D) 4r| r r r 2 2 2 L 3 -2 Q.l Q.6 Q.ll Q.16 Q.21 Q.26 Q.31
Q.36 Q.41 Q.46 Q.51 Q.56 B A D B C A D C A D A B Q2 Q.7 Q.12 Q.17 Q.22 Q27 Q.32
Q.37 Q.42 Q.47 Q.52 Q.57 A C B B C C D C D B D D ANSWER KEY Q.3 Q.8 Q.13 Q.18 Q
.23 Q.28 Q.33 Q.38 Q.43 Q.48 Q.53 Q.58 AC B C C AC C,D D D D D C A Q.4 Q.9 Q.14
Q.19 Q.24 Q.29 Q.34 Q.39 Q.44 Q.49 Q.54 B D C B B B,C D A C B A Q.5 Q.10 Q.15 Q.
20 Q.25 Q.30 Q.35 Q.40 Q.45 Q.50 Q.55 B D A B D B C B C A C 4SBansal Classes Que
stion Bank on Fluid Mechanics [8]


SHORT QUESTIONS Q.l Q.2 Q.3 The po sition ofthe optical axis N, N , the path of
ray AB incident upon a lens A. and the refracted ray BC are known (figure). Find
by construction the positio n of the main foci of the lens. N, 2 N, Point S' is
the image of a point source of light S in a spherical mirror whose o ptical axi
s is N N (figure). Find by construction the position of the centre of N, curvatu
re and its focus. } 2 2 S' N 2 The positions of optical axis N j N of a spherical
mirror, the source and the .B image are known (figure). Find by construction th
e positions ofthe centre ofthe .A curvature, its focus and the pole for the case
s: N, (b) B - source, A - imag e (a) A-source, B-image; The layered lens shown i
nfigureis made oftwo kinds ofgl ass. What image will be produced by this lens wi
th a point source arranged on th e optical axis? Disregard the reflection ofligh
t on the boundary between layers. A ray of light falls on a convex mirror, as sh
own infigure.Trace the path ofthe ray further. N, Q. 4 Q.5 Q.6 A double convex l
ens of focal length/lies between a source oflight and a screen. The distance bet
ween the source oflight and the screen is less than 4f. It is k nown that in the
se conditions it is not possible to obtain an image of the sourc e on the screen
, whatever the position ofthe lens. How can an image ofthe source be obtained on
the screen with quite simple means and without moving either len s or screen? I
nfigureis depicted the path of a ray oflight BC after refraction i n a double co
nvex lens L of principal focus F and of principal axis OO. Find by construction
the path of this ray before reaching the lens. Q.7 Q.8 Where should a point sour
ce oflight lie along the principal axis of a converging lens so that it is impos
sible to see the source and its image simultaneouslyfro many point? Q.9 A disk w
hose plane surface are parallel is cut as shown infigure (i), then the lenses so
obtained are moved apart. What will happen to a beam of parallel rays falling o
n to the resulting system: figure (iii) figure (ii) 8 (a) from the side ofthe co
nverging lens (figure ii), (b) form the side ofthe diverg ing lens (figure iii)?
Consider the cases when the distance between the lenses i s less than the focal
length and when it is greater than the focal length. Q.10 What will happen if a
plane mirror is placed in the path ofa converging beam ? Q

.ll Can a prism transmit rays at all angles of incidence? fl ure <!I Bansal Clas
ses Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [13]

Q.12 Why is it difficult to shoot afishswimming in water ? Q.13 A light ray pass
es through the interface between two transparent media. Under what condition wi
l l the angle of refraction be equal to the angle of incidence ? Q.14 In what ca
se will a bi-convex lens be diverging ? Q.15 Is the width ofa beam increased or
de creased in goingfromair to water? Q.16 Ordinary paper becomes transparent whe
n i t is oiled. Explain. Q.17 If there are scratches on the lens of a camera, th
ey d o not appear on a photograph taken with the camera. Explain. Do the scratch
es af fect the photograph at all? Q.18 Concave mirrors are used as shaving mirro
rs. Wh y? Should such mirrors have short or long focal lengths? Q.19 A sign pain
ted on a store window is reversed when viewedfrominside the store. If a person i
nside t he store views the reversed sign in a plane mirror, does the sign appear
as it w ould when viewed from outside the store? (Try it by writing some letter
s on a tr ansparent sheet of paper and then holding the back side ofthe paper up
to a mirr or.) Explain. Q.20 If you stand between two parallel plane mirrors, y
ou see an i nfinite number of images of yourself. This occurs because an image i
n one mirror is reflected in the other mirror to produce another image, which is
then re-ref lected, and so forth. The multiple images are equally spaced. Suppo
se that you a re facing a convex mirror, with a plane mirror behind you. Describ
e what you wou ld see and comment about the spacing between any multiple images.
Explain your r easoning. Q.21 In the figure, suppose that a layer of oil were a
dded on top of t he water. The angle 9 at which the incident light travels throu
gh the air remain s the same. Assuming that light still enters the water, does t
he angle of refrac tion at which it does so change because of the presence of th
e oil? Explain. { Q. 22 A beam ofblue light is propagating in glass. When the li
ght reaches the bo undary between the glass and the surrounding air, the beam is
totally reflected back into the glass. However, red light with the same angle o
fincidence is not t otally reflected, and some ofthe light is refracted into the
air. Why do these t wo colors behave differently? Q.23 To a swimmer under water
, objects look blurre d and out of focus. However, when the swimmer wears goggle
s that keep the water awayfromthe eyes, the objects appear sharp and in focus. W
hy do goggles improve a swimmer's underwater vision? <!I Bansal Classes Question
Bank on Geometrical Optics [13]

Q.l ONLY ONE OPTION IS Take approx. 2 minutes for answering each question. CORRE
CT. Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 A person runs with a speed u towards a bicycle m
oving away from him with speed v . The person approaches his image in the plane
mirror fixed at the rear of bicyc le with a speed of (A) u - v (B) u - 2v (C) 2u
- v (D)2(u-v) original emerging A beam oflight strikes one mirror of a right an
gle mirror assembly at an angle of light beam incidence 45 as shown in thefigure.
The right angle mirror assembly is rotated such that the angle of incidence beco
mes 60. Which ofthe following state ment is correct about the emerging light beam
. (A) It will move through an angle of 15 w.r.t. the original emerging beam. (B)
It will move through an angle of 30 w.r.t. the original emerging beam. (C) It wil
l move through an angle 45 w.r.t. th e original beam. (D) It will emerge parallel
to the original emerging beam. . Li Two mirrors labelled Lj for left mirror and
L for right mirror in the figure ar e parallel to each other and 3.0 m apart. A
person standing 1.0 mfromthe right mi rror (L ) looks into this mirror and sees
a series ofimages. The second nearest image seen in the right mirror is situated
at a distance: (A) 2.0 mfromthe perso n (B) 4.0 m from the person 2m Tm (C) 6.0
mfromthe per son (D) 8.0 m from the pe rson. The reflection surface of a plane
mirror is vertical. Aparticle is project ed in a vertical plane which is also pe
rpendicular to the mirror. The initial ve locity ofthe particle is 10 m/s and th
e angle ofprojection is 60. The point ofpro jection is at a distance 5 mfromthe m
irror. The particle moves towards the mirro r. Just before the particle touches
the mirror the velocity of approach ofthe pa rticle and its image is: (B) 5 m/s
(A) 10 m/s (C) 10V3 m/s (D) 5V3 m/s A boy of height 1.5 m with his eye level at
1.4 m stands before a plane mirror of length 0.75m fixed on the wall. The height
ofthe lower edge ofthe mirror above thefloor is 0.8 m. Then; (A) the boy will s
ee his full image (B) the boy cannot see his h air (C) the boy cannot see his fe
et (D) the boy cannot see neither his hair nor his feet. Two plane mirrors are i
nclined at 70. Aray incident on one mirror at an gle 9 after reflection falls on
the second mirror and is reflected from there pa rallel to thefirstmirror, 9 is
: (A) 50 (B) 45 (C) 30 (D)55 Two plane mirror AB and AC are inclined at an angle 9 =
20. Aray oflight startingfrompoint P is incident at point Q on the mirroe AB, th
en at R on mirror AC and again on S on AB finally the ray ST goes parallel to mi
rror Ac. The angle iwhich the ray makes with the normal at point Q on mirror AB
is llll11II C (A) 20 (B) 30 (D) 60 (C) 40 Two plane m irrors oflength L are separate
d by distance L and a man Mj is standing M, at dis tance L from the connecting l
ine of mirrors as shown infigure.A man Mj is walkin g is a straight line at dist
ance 2 L parallel to mirrors at speed u, then man IV ^ M, at O will be able to s
ee image of Mj for total time: O9L 6L 3L 4L (D) u (C) u (A) u (B) u 2 2 2L <!I B
ansal Classes

Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [13]

Q.9 Q.10 Ci! Q.12 Q.13 Q.14 Q.15 Q 16 Q.17 <!I Bansal Classes Two plane mirrors
are placed parallel to each other at a distance L apart. Apoin t object O is pla
ced between them, at a distance L / 3 from one mirror. Both mir rors form multip
le images. The distance between any two images cannot be (A) 3L/ 2 (B)2L/3 , (C)
2L (D)None Two blocks each ofmass m lie on a smooth table. They a re attached to
two other masses as shown in the figure. The pulleys and strings are light. An
object O is C kept at rest on the table. The sides AB & CD ofthe t wo blocks are
made reflecting. isr nAolm The acceleration oftwo images formed in those two re
flecting surfaces w.r.t. each other is: (A) 5g / 6 (B)5g/3 (C)g/3 ( D)17g/6^ As
shown in the figure a particle is placed at 0 in front of a plane mi rror M. A m
an at P can move along path PY and PY' then which of the following is true (A) F
or all point on P Y man can see the image of O (B) For all point on P Y' man can
see the image, but for no point on P Y he can L see the image of O ( C) For all
point on PY' he can see the image but on PY he can see the image only upto dist
ance d. (D) He can see the image only upto a distance d on either side of P. A m
an of height 'h' is walkingawayfroma street lamp with a constant speed V . The h
eight ofthe street lamp is 3h. The rate at which of the length ofthe m an's shad
ow is increasing when he is at a distance 1 Oh from the base of the str eet lamp
is: (A) v/2 (B) v/3 (C)2v (D)v/6 A two eyed man is looking at the junct ion oft
wo large mutually perpendicular mirrorsfroma far off distance. Assume no reflect
ion to occur from the edge. Then if both the eyes are open (A) The eye 1 of man
can see image of both eye 1 and eye 2. (B) The eye 1 can see image of eye 1 only
and eye 2 see image of eye 2 only. (C) The eye 1 can see image of eye 2 only an
d eye 2 can see image of eye one only. M i r r o r ( l ) (D) All the abov e stat
ements are false. In the diagram shown, all the velocities are given with respec
t to earth. What is the relative velocity of the image in mirror (1) with respec
t to the image in the mirror (2)? The mirror (1) forms an angle (3 with th e ver
tical. (A)2Vsin2P (B)2Vsinp ' (C)2V/sin2p (D)none Mirror(2) Apoint object i s ke
pt infrontof a plane mirror. The plane mirror is doing SHM of amplitude 2 cm . T
he plane mirror moves along the x-axis and x-axis is normal to the mirror. Th e
amplitude of the mirror is such that the object is always infront of the mirro r
. The amplitude of SHM of the image is (A) zero (B)2cm (C)4cm (D) 1 cm c. A poi
nt source oflight S is placed infrontoftwo large mirrors as shown. Which of the
following observers will see only one image of S? (A) only A (B)onlyC A. mm^muuu
uu (C) Both A and C (D) Both B and C LM RM Two mirrors, labeled LM for left mir
r or and RM for right mirror in the adjacent figure, are parallel to each other
an d 3.0 m apart. Aperson standing 1.0 m from the right mirror (RM) looks into t
his mirror and sees a series ofimages. How far from the person is the second clo
ses t image seen in the right mirror (RM)? (A) 10.0 m (B)4.0m 2m lm (C) 6.0 m '
(D) 8.0 m Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [13]

A Q.18 Two mirrors AB and CD are arranged along two parallel lines. The maximum
nu mber of | images of obj ect O that can be seen by any observer is B .0 (A) On
e ( B)Two (C)Four (D) Infinite Q.19 A concave mirror is used to form image of th
e Su n on a white screen. If the lower half of the mirror ~ were covered with an
opaq ue card, the effect on the image on the screen would be YJ, , , <> (A) negl
igible AW a-fiii Cv^GQe eJ comJc(*Mo ego c oOken er^t r^ t ^ (B) to make the ima
ge les s bright than before (C) to make the upper half of the image disappear (D
) to ma ke the lower half of the image disappear Q.20 Aconvex mirror of focal le
ngth 'f is placed at the origin with its reflecting surface towards the negative
x-axis. Choose the correct graphs between V and 'u' for u < 0. D i (D) fo o Q.2
1 In the figure shown, the image of a real object is formed at point I. AB is th
e principal axis ofthe mirror. The mirror must be: T2 l I 1 (A) concave & p lace
d towards right I (B) concave & placed towards left of I (C) convex and plac ed
towards right of I (D) convex & placed towards left of I. Q.22 An infinitely lon
g rod lies along the axis of a concave mirror of focal length f. The near end of
the rod is at a distance u > f from the mirror. Its image will have a length (A)
u - f (D) Uuf f (B) uuff (C) U + f ~/ + Q.23 Apoint source is situated at a dis
tance x < ffromthe pole ofthe concave mirror of focal length f. At time t = 0 ,
the point source starts moving awayfromthe mirror with constant velocity. Whic h
ofthe graphs below represents best, variation ofimage distance j v | with the d
istance x between the pole ofmirror and the source. |V| M M It d >d V & Bansal C
lasses Xo f Xo f Xo f Xo f Q.24 Apoint object is between the Pole and Focus of a
concav e mirror, and moving away from the mirror with a constant speed. Then, t
he veloc ity of the image is: (A) awayfrommirror and increasing in magnitude (B)
towards mirror and increasing magnitude (C) awayfrommirror and decreasing in ma
gnitude ( D) towards mirror and decreasing in magnitude Q.25 An object is placed
in front of a convex mirror at a distance of 50 cm. A plane mirror is introduce
d covering the lower half of the convex mirror. Ifthe distance between the objec
t and the plane mirror is 30 cm, it is found that there is no gap between the im
ages forme d by the two mirrors. The radius ofthe convex mirror is: (A) 12.5 cm
(B) 25 cm ( C)50cm (D) 100 cm (A) (B) (C) (D)

Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [61

Q.26 A concave mirror is placed on a horizontal table, with its axis directed ve
rtically upwards. Let O be the pole of the mirror and C its centre of curvature
. Apoint object is placed at C. It has a real image, also located at C (a condit
i on called auto-collimation). Ifthe mirror is nowfilledwith water, the image wi
ll be: (A) real, and will remain at C (B) real, and located at a point between C
a nd oo (C) virtual, and located at a point between C and 0. (D) real, and loca
ted at a point between C and O. Q.27 Aray oflight is incident on a concave mirro
r. It is parallel to the principal axis and its heightfromprincipal axis is equa
l t o the focal length of the mirror. The ratio of the distance of point B to th
e di stance of the focusfromthe centre of curvature is (AB is the reflected ray)
< (B) s cof (D) Q.28 A luminous point object is moving along the principal axis
ofa concave mirr or offocal length 12 cm towards it. its distancefrommirror 4 v
elocity e Whentowa rds the mirror is 20 cm its velocity is(B)cm/s. Thefromthe of
the image in cm/s a t that instant is: (A) 6 6 away mirror (C) 9 awayfromthe mir
ror (D) 9 towards th e mirror Q.29 When an object is placed at a distance of 25
cmfroma concave mirro r, the magnification is m . The object is moved 15 cm farh
ter away with respect to the earlier position, and the magnification becomes m .
If m,/m = 4 the focal length of the mirror is (Assume image is real m,, m are n
umerical values) (A) 1 0 cm (B) 30 cm (C) 15 cm (D) 20 cm 2L . | 71X Q.30 A refl
ecting surface is repre sented by the equation Y = j ~L~ 0 < x < L. A ray travel
ling y horizontally beco mes vertical after reflection. The coordinates of the p
oint (s) where this ray i s incident is t 2 2 2 s m 1s (A) 1,4' (L -J2L) % Q.31
The origin ofx and y coordinates is the pole of a concave mirror of focal l engt
h 20 cm. The x-axis is the optical axis with x > 0 being the real side of mi rro
r. A point object at the point (25 cm, 1 cm) is moving C with a velocity 10 c m/
s in positive x-direction. The velocity of the image in cm/s is approximately (A
) - 80 i + 8 j (B) 160 i + 8 j (C) - 160 i + 8 j (D) 1 6 0 i - 4 j Q.32 In the f
igure shown ifthe object 'O' moves towards the plane mirror, then the image (f I
(which is formed after successive reflectionsfromMj & M respectively) -- '* w i
ll move: -r* : Mi (A) towards right (B) towards left (C) with zero velocity (D)
cannot be determined 2 M J (B) I ' 3 (L V3L^ 71

J 2L V 3 L " ] (C) ^ 4 ' t t J (D) [ 3 ' t t J r 3L V2L N r Q.33 All ofthe follo
wing statements are correct except (for real object): (A) th e magnification pro
duced by a convex mirror is always less thenor equal to one ( B) a virtual, erec
t, same sized image can be obtained using a plane mirror (C) a virtual, erect, m
agnified image can be formed using a concave mirror (D) a real , inverted, same
sized image can be formed using a convex mirror. Q.34 The dista nce of an object
fromthe pole of a concave mirror is equal to its radius of curva ture. The image
must be : (A) real (B) inverted (C) same sized (D) erect Bansal Classes Questio
n Bank on Geometrical Optics m

r Q.35 A straight line joining the object point and image point is always perpen
di cular to the mirror (A)ifmirrorisplaneonly (B) ifmirror is concave only (C) i
f m irror is convex only (D) irrespective ofthe type of mirror. Q.36 A concave m
irro r forms a real image three times larger than the object on a screen. Object
and ( screen are moved until the image becomes twice the size of object. If the
shif t of object is 6 cm. The - shift of the screen & focal length of mirror ar
e (A) 36 cm, 36cm (B) 36cm, 16cm (C) 72cm, 36cm (D) none of these Q.37 A point s
ource oflight is 60 cmfroma screen and is kept at the focus of a concave mirror
which reflects \ light on the screen. The focal length ofthe mirror is 20 cm. Th
e rati o ofaverage intensities ofthe illumination on the screen when the mirror
is pres ent and when the mirror is removed is : (A) 36:1 (B) 37 : 1 (C)49:l (D)1
0:l Q.38 The distance of a real object from the focus of a convex mirror of radi
us of cu rvature 'a' is 'b'. Then the distance ofthe image from the focus is i2
^ ^2 (A) ( B) - (C) (D) none ofthese 4a b 4b Q.39 Choose the correct statement(s)
related t o the motion of object and its image inthe case ofmirrors (A) Object
and its ima ge always move along normal w.r.t. mirror in opposite directions (B)
Only in the case of convex mirror, it may happen that the object and its image
move in the same direction (C) Only in the case of concave mirror, it may happen
that the ob ject and its image move in the same direction (D) Only in case of p
lane mirrors, object and its image move in opposite directions Q.40 A point sour
ce oflight is placed at a distance h below the surface of a large deep lake. Wha
t is the perc entage oflight energy that escapes directlyfromthe water surface i
s p ofthe wate r=4/3 ? (neglect \\ partial reflection) (A) 50% (B) 25% (C) 20% (
D) 17% Q.41 The x-z plane separates two media Aand B with refractive indices p,j
and P2 respect ively. Aray oflight travels from A to B. Its directions in the t
wo media are giv en by the unit vectors, r = a i + b j & C r = a i + p j respect
ively where i & ] are unit vectors in the x and y directions. Then (A)pja = p a
(B) PjOC ~ p a (C )pjb = p P (D)pjp = p b Q.42 A ray Rj is incident on the plane
surface ofthe gla ss slab (kept in air) ofrefractive index -J2 at angle ofincid
ent equal to the cr itical angle for this air glass system. The refracted ray R2
undergoes partial r eflection & refraction at the other surface. t The angle be
tween reflected ray R and the refracted ray R at that surface is: (A)45 (B)135 (C)
105 (D) 75 Q.43 A ray oflight from a denser medium strike a rarer medium. The ang
le of reflection is r and that of refraction is r'. The reflected and refracted
rays make an angle of 90 with each other. The critical angle will be: (A) sin (ta
n r) (B) tan (sin r) (C) sin" (tan r') (D) tan" (sin r') Q. 44 A tiny air bubble
in a glass slab (p, = 1.5) appears from one side to be 6 cm from the glass surf
ace and 9 from other side, 4 cm. The thickness ofthe glass slab is (A) 10 cm (B)
6.67 cm (C)15cm (D) one of these 2 A B 2 2 2 2 3

4 -1 1 1 1 <!I Bansal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [13]

n,=\3 Q.231 In thefigureshown the angle made by the light ray with the normal in
the n,=v2 medium of refractive index 1 is : n,=l (A)30 (B)60 t (C) 90 (D) None of
these Q.46 A plane glass slab is placed over various coloured letters. The lette
r which appears to be raised the least is (D) green (B) yellow (C) violet a (A)
red Q.47 Bottom face of the glass cube is silvered as shown. Aray of light inci
d ent on top face ofthe cube as shown. Find the deviation of the ray when it com
es out of the glass cube : (A) 0 (B) 90 (C) 180 (D) 270 Q.48 A ray oflight is incid
ent upon an air/water interface (it passes from air i nto water) at an angle of
45. Which ofthe following quantities change as the ligh t enters the water? (I) w
avelength (II) frequency r(IV) direction of propagation 2 (IH) speed of propagat
ion (A) I, III only (B) III, IV only (C) I, II, IV only (D) I, III, IV only Q.49
The figure shows the path of a ray oflight as it passe s through three differen
t materials with refractive indices n,, n and n . The fi gure is drawn to scale.
The refractive indices of the material satisfy relation (A) n < < nj (B) n < nj
< nj (C) n < nj < n (D) n, < n < n Q.50 The critical ang le for glass to air re
fraction is least for which colour ? (B)blue (C) violet (D )red P c (A) orange Q.
51 Along rectangular slab oftransparent medium is placed on a horizontal table w
ith its length parallel to the x-axis and width parallel to the y-axis as shown
in thefigure.Aray oflight travelling in air makes a normal incidence { on the sl
ab. The refractive index p ofthe medium varies as , where p and r (>d) are const
ants. l-(x/r) Y I (A) The incident ray travels in parabolic ally inside the slab
. (B) The incident ray travels in hyperbolic path inside the slab. (C) The incid
ent ray travels in circular path inside the slab. (D) The in cident ray travels
in elliptical path inside the slab. Q.52 A ray oflight travel sfroman optical de
nser medium to rarer medium. The critical angle for the two me dia is C. The max
imum possible deviation ofthe refracted light ray can be : 71 ( A) 7t - C (B)2C
(C) it. - 2C (D)--C Q.53 A microscope is focused on a point obje ct and then its
objective is raised through a height of 2cm. If a glass slab ofr efractive inde
x 1.5 is placed over this point object such that it is focused aga in, the thick
ness of the glass slab is: (A) 6 cm (B) 3 cm (C)2cm (D) 1.5 cm Q.54 Aparaxial be
am oflight is converging towards a point P on the screen. Aplane pa rallel sheet
of glass of thickness t and refractive index p is introduced in the path ofbeam
. The convergence point is shifted by: (A) t (1 - 1/p) away (B) t (1 + 1/p) away
(C) t (1 - 1/p) nearer (D) t (1 + 1/p) nearer Q.55 A bird is flying 3 m above t
he surface ofwater. If the bird is diving vertically down with speed = 6 m/s, r
his apparent velocity as seen by a stationaryfishunderwater is : X, (A) 8 m/s (B
)6m/s (C) 12 m/s (D)4m/s 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 > 0

(feBansal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [12]

Q.56 A flat glass slab of thickness 6 cm and index 1.5 is placed in front of a p
lane mirror. An observer is standing behind the glass slab and looking at the m
i rror. The actual distance of the observer from the mirror is 50 cm. The distan
ce of his image from himself, as seen by the observer is : (A) 94 cm (B) 96 cm (
C) 98cm (D) 100 cm sini Q.57 In the figure shown is equal to: C Vh 1*3 Hi Q.58 A
ra y oflight moving along the unit vector (- i - 2j) undergoes refraction at an
int erface oftwo media, which is the x-z plane. The refractive index for y > 0
is 2 while for y < 0, it is -J5 j2 The unit vector along which the refracted ray
move s is: ( a ) MM) (D) None of these Q. 5 9 An object is placed 20 cm infront
of a 4 cm thick plane mirror. The image ofthe obj ect finally is formed at 45 cm
fromthe obj ect itself. The refractive i ndex of the material ofthe unpolished s
ide of the mirror C is (considering near normal incidence) (A) 1.5 (B) 1.6 (C) 1
.4 (D) none of these Q.60 A ray oflight i s incident on a parallel slab of thick
ness t and refractive index n. If the angl e of incidence 9 is small than the di
splacement in the incident and emergent ray will be : tOCn-1) t9 t9n (A) (B) (C)
(D) none Q.61 A ray oflight is incident at an angle of 75 into a medium having r
efractive index p. The reflected and the re fracted rays are found to suffer equ
al deviations in opposite direction p equals c r?^^' V3+1 V3+1 2V2 (A) ^ 2 ( C )
^ (D) None of these Q.62 A small source ofl ight is 4m below the surface of a l
iquid ofrefractive index 5/3. In order to cut off all the light coming out of li
quid surface, minimum diameter ofthe disc pla ced on the surface of liquid is: (
A) 3m (B)4m (C)6m (D)oo m \ ^ IvT Q. 63 From t he figure shojvn establish a rela
tion between, Pj, p , p . (A)pj<p <p * (B) p < p ; p = pj (C) p > p ; p = Pj (D)
None of these Q.64 The critical angle oflight going from medium A to medium B i
s 9 . The speed oflight in medium A is v. The s peed oflight in medium B is : 1
2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 n ( A )sin0 (B) vsin9 (C) vcot9 (D) vtan9 Q.65 A cubical blo
ck of glass ofrefracti ve index n is in contact with the surface of water of ref
ractive index i^. Abeam oflight is incident on vertical face of the block (see i
nternal reflection at t he base and A refraction atfigure). After refraction, a
totalray emerges out at an angle 9. The \ the oppo site vertical face, the value
of 9 is given by: (A) s in 9 < ^ m - n (B) tan 9 < J ? - n 1 1 (C) sin 9 < , (D
) tan 9 < , Vl ~2 V 1 } 3 : , n 2 2 2 , n 2 n N/ n. 2

2 2: 2 n ~ n 2 <!I Bansal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [13]

Q.66 Theflatbottom of cylinder tank is silvered and water (p = 4/3) isfilledin t

he tank upto a height h. A small bird is hovering at a height 3hfromthe bottom
o fthe tank. When a small hole is opened near the bottom of the tank, the water
le vel falls at the rate of 1 cm/s. The bird will perceive that his image's velo
cit y is : (A) 0.5 cm/s upward , (B) 1 cm/s downwards (C) 0.5 cm/s downwards (D)
non e ofthese Q.67 A vertical pencil of rays comesfrombottom of a tankfilledwit
h a l iquid. When it is accelerated with an acceleration of 7.5 m/s , the ray is
seen to be totally reflected by liquid surface. What is minimum possible refrac
tive i ndex of liquid? s (A) slightly greater than 4/3 (B) slightly greater than
5/3 (C ) slightly greater than 1.5 (D) slightly greater than 1.75 Q.68 Look at
the ray diagram shown, what will be the focal ind length ofthe 1 and the 2 lens,
ifthe i ncident light ray passes without any deviation? ^emergent (A) -5 cm and
-10cm (B )+5 cm and + 10cm gt 5cm 5 cm (C)-5 cm and+5 cm (D) +5 cm and +5 cm Q.
69 A paral lel sided block of glass, of refractive index 1.5 which is 3 6 mm thi
ck rests on the floor of a tank which isfilledwith water (refractive index = 4/3
). The diff erence between apparent depth offloorat A& B when seenfromvertically
above is eq ual to E (A) 2 mm (B)3mm (C)4mm (D) none of these Q.70 A ray ofligh
t is incident on one face of a transparent slab of thickness 15 cm. The angle of
incidence is 60. Ifthe lateral displacement of the ray on emergingfromthe parall
el plane is 5 v3 cm, the refractive index ofthe material of the slab is (A) 1.41
4 (B) 1.532 (C ) 1.732 (D)none Q.71 A beam oflight has a small wavelength spread
5X about a cen tral wavelength X. The beam travels in vaccum until it enters a
glass plate at a n angle 9 relative to the normal to the plate, as shown infigur
e.The index of re fraction ofthe glass is given by n(> ). The angular spread 89'
ofthe refracted b eam is given by 2 st nd v -5X (A) 59' = n (B) 89'= dn(X) -8X
dX tan 9' dn(^,) sin 9 8X (C) 89'= n dX 5X (D) 59' = sin 9' X Q.72 When a pin is
mo ved along the principal axis of a small concave mirror, the image position c
oinc ides with the object at a point 0.5 m from the mirror, refer figure. Ifthe
mirro r is placed depth ofO. min a transparent L phenomenon occurs when the at a
is pla ced 0.42mfromthe mirror. liquid, the same pin The refractive index ofthe
liquid is (A) 6/5 (B) 5/4 (C) 4/3 (D)3/2 Vacuum Glass 0.2 m 0.2 m Q. 73 A light
ray is incident on a transparent sphere ofindex = ^ , at an angle of incidence =
45. What is the deviation ofa tiny fraction ofthe ray, which enter s the sphere,
undergoes two internal reflections, and then refracts out into air ? (B)240 (C)
120 (D)180 A) (A) 270 (feBansal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [12]

Q.74 Two identical thin isosceles prisms ofrefracting angle 'A' and refractive i
ndex p are placed with their bases touching each other. Two parallel rays oflig
h t are incident on this system as shown. The distance ofthe point where the ray
s convergefromthe prism is: h (A) pA 2h <*>X ph (D) ( p - l ) A (C) (p-l)A Q.75
A ray of sunlight enters a spherical water droplet (n=4/3) at an angle of incide
nc e 53 measured with respect to the normal to the surface. It is reflected from
the back surface ofthe droplet and re-enters into air. The angle between the inc
omi ng and outgoing ray is [Take sin 53 = 0.8] (A) 15 (B) 34 (C) 138 (D)30 Q.76 A con
cave spherical surface ofradius of curvature 10cm separates two medium x & y of
refr active index 4/3 & 3/2 respectively. If the object is placed along principa
l axi s in medium X then (A) image is always real (B) image is real ifthe object
dista nce is greater than 90cm (C) image is always virtual (D) image is virtual
if the object distance is less than 90cm Q.77 The correct conclusion that can b
e drawn fromthesefiguresis ih. Al * , \/ \ Q.78 Q.79 e-. Q.80 & Q.81 (b) (A) p,j<
p but p< p (B) pj>p but p< p (C) Pj= p but p< p (D) p, = p, but p < p Afishis ne
ar the centre of a spherical waterfilled( p = 4/3)fishbowl. Achild s tands in ai
r at a distance 2R (R is the radius of curvature of the sphere) from the centre
ofthe bowl. At what distance from the centre would the child nose app ear to the
fishsituated at the centre: (A) 4R (B)2R (C)3R (D)4R A spherical surfa ce of rad
ius of curvature R separates air (refractive index 1.0) from glass (ref ractive
index 1.5). The centre of curvature is in the glass. Apoint object P pla ced in
air is found to have a real image Q in the glass. The lime PQ cuts the su rface
at the point O, and PO = OQ. The distance PO is equal to: (A) 5R (B) 3 R ( C)2R
(D)1.5R A spherical surface of radius of curvature 10 cm separates two medi a X
and Y ofrefractive indices 3/2 and 4/3 respectively. Centre of the spherical sur
face lies in denser medium. An object is placed in medium X. For image to be rea
l, the object distance must be (A) greater than 90 cm (B) less than 90 cm. ( C)
greater than 80 cm (D) less than 80 cm. A beam of diameter' d' is incident on a
glass hemisphere as shown. Ifthe radius of curvature ofthe hemisphere is very la
rge in comparison to d, then the diameter of the beam at the base of the hemi sp
here will be: d (B)d (D)|d <C>3 () 4 2 2 2 2 A d (a) V\ (feBansal Classes Questi
on Bank on Geometrical Optics [12]

Q. 82 A concave spherical refracting surface separates two media glass and air (
p = 1.5). Ifthe image is to be real at what minimum distance u should the objec
t be placed in glass if R is the radius of curvature? (A)u>3R (B) u > 2R (C)u<2R
(D)u<R Q.83 A glass sphere of index 1.5 and radius 40 cm has half its hemispher
i cal surface silvered. The point where a parallel beam oflight, coming along a
di ameter, will focus (or appear to) after coming out of sphere, will be: (A) 10
cm to the left of centre (B) 3 0 cm to the left of centre (C) 50 cm to the left
of centre .(D) 60 cm to the left of centre Q.84 An opaque sphere of radius a is
ju st immersed in a transparent liquid as shown in figure. Apoint source is pla
ced on the vertical diameter ofthe sphere at a distance Point source a/2fromthe
top of the sphere. One ray originatingfromthe point source after f refractionfro
mthe air liquid interface forms tangent to the sphere. The angle of liquid refra
ctio n for that particular ray is 3 0. The refractive index ofthe liquid is glass
<!I Bansal Classes Q.85 A paraxial beam is incident on a glass (n = 1.5) hemisp
here of radius R = 6 cm in air as shown. The distance of point of convergence F
from the plane surfa ce n ofhemisphere is (A) 12 cm (B) 5.4 cm v j (C)18 cm (D)8
cm Question No. 86 t o 89(4 questions) Thefigure,shows a transparent sphere of
radius R and refractiv e index p. An object O is placed at a distance x from the
pole ofthefirstsurface so that a real image is formed at the pole of the exactl
y opposite surface. Q.8 6 If x = 2R, then the value of p. is (A) 1.5 (B) 2 (C) 3
(D) none ofthese Q.87 I fx = oo, then the value of p is (A) 1.5 (B)2 (C) 3 (D)
none ofthese Q.88 If an o bject is placed at a distance R from the pole offirsts
urface, then the real imag e is formed at a distance Rfromthe pole of the second
surface. The refractive in dex p ofthe sphere is given by V (A) 1.5 (B) 2 (C) V
2 (D) none ofthese Q.89 In p revious problem, if the refractive index ofthe sphe
re is varied, then the positi on x of the object and 6 its image from the respec
tive poles will also vary. Ide ntify the correct statement. (A) If the value of
p increases the value ofx decre ases (B) Ifthe value of p becomes equal to unity
, then x tends to infinity (C) T he value of p must not be less than 1 (D) All t
he above 0.90 A point object O mo ves from the principal axis of a converging le
ns in a direction OP. I is the ima ge of O, will move initially in the direction
(A) IQ (B) IR (D) IU Q.91 A thin s ymmetric double - convex lens of power P is
cut into three parts A, B and C as s hown. The power of (A) A is P (B) Ais 2P (C
) B is P (D) B is P/4 ^^ (C) i v Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [13]

i Q. 92 A lens behaves as a converging lens in air but a diverging lens in water

, then the refractive index(p) of its material is (A) ( , > 4/3 J (B) |a. > 3/2
(C ) p < 4/3 (D)p<3/2 Q. 93 The curvature radii of a concavo-convex glass lens a
re 20 cm and 60 cm. The convex surface ofthe lens is silvered. With the lens hor
izo ntal, the concave surface isfilledwith water. The focal length of the effect
ive mirror is (p of glass = 1.5, p ofwater=4/3) (A) 90/13 cm (B) 80/13 cm (C) 20
/3 c m (D) 45/8 cm Q. 94 A parallel beam ofwhite light falls on a convex lens. I
mages ofblue, red and green light are formed on other side of the lens at distan
ces x , y and z respectivelyfromthe pole of the lens. Then: (A) x > y > z (B) x
> z > y (C)y>z>x (D)None Q. 95 Abi-concave glass lens having refractive index 1.
5 has both surfaces of same radius of curvature R. On immersion in a medium of r
efract ive index 1.75, it will behave as a (A) convergent lens of focal length 3
.5 R (B ) convergent lens of focal length 3.0 R (C) divergent lens of focal leng
th 3.5 R (D) divergent lens of focal length 3.0 R Q. 96 The power (in diopters)
of an eq uiconvex lens with radii of curvature of 10 cm and refractive index ofl
,6is: (A) - 1 2 (B) +12 (C) +1.2 (D) -1.2 Q.97 The focal length ofa lens is grea
test for which colour? (A) violet (B)red (C) yellow (D) green Q.98 A converging
lens form s an image of an object on a screen. The image is real and twice the s
ize ofthe object. If the positions of the screen and the object are interchanged
, leaving the lens in the original position, the new image size on the screen is
(A) twice the obj ect size (B) same as the object size (C) halfthe object size
(D) can't say as it depends on the focal length of the lens. Q. 99 An object is
placed inf rontofa symmetrical convex lens with refractive index 1.5 and radius
of curvatur e 40 cm. The surface ofthe lens further awayfromthe object is silver
ed, Under au to-collimation condition, the object distance is (A) 20 cm (B) 10 c
m (C)40cm (D) 5cm Q. 100 When the object is at distances u and u the images form
ed by the same lens are real and virtual respectively and ofthe same size. Then
focal length o f the lens is: ] 2 (B)|(U!+U ) 2 ( O ^ T (D) 2 (u, + u ) 2 Q. 101
A planoconvex lens, when silvered at its plane surface is equivalent to a conca
ve mirror of focal length 28cm. When its curved surface is silvered and th e pla
ne surface not silvered, it is equivalent to a concave mirror of focal leng th 1
0cm, then the refractive index of the material of the lens is: (A) 9/14 (B) 14/9
(C) 17/9 (D)none Q. 102 The height of the image formed by a converging lens on
a screen is 8cm. For the same position ofthe object and screen again an imag e o
f size 12.5cm is formed on the screen by shifting the lens. The height M ofth e
object: (A) 625/32cm (B)64/12.5cm (C) 10cm (D)none <!I Bansal Classes Question B
ank on Geometrical Optics [13]

Q. 103 Parallel beam oflight is incident on a system of two convex lenses of foc
al A lengths fj = 20 cm and f = 10 cm. What should be the distance between the
t wo lenses so that rays after refraction from both the lenses pass undeviated :
V (A) 60 cm (B) 30 cm (C) 90 cm (D) 40 cm ' Q. 104 A bi-concave symmetric lens
ma de of glass has refractive index 1.5. It has both surfaces of same radius of
cur vature R. On immersion in a liquid of refractive index 1.25, it will behave
as a 6 (A) Converging lens of focal length 2.5 R (B) Converging lens offocal len
gth 2.0 R (C) Diverging lens of focal length 4.5 R (D) None of these Q. 105 A la
tera l object of height 0.5 cm is placed on the optical axis of bi-convexlens of
foca l length 80 cm, at an object distance = 60 cm. The image formed is: C (A)
virtua l, erect and 4 cm high (B) virtual, inverted and 2 cm high (C) virtual, e
rect an d 2 cm high (D) real, inverted and 2 cm high. Q.106 A converging lens of
focal l ength 20 cm and diameter 5 cm is cut along the line AB. The part of the
lens sho wn shaded in the diagram is now used to 2 cm form an image of a point
P placed 3 0 cm away from it on the line XY. Which is perpendicular to the plane
of the len s. The image of P will be formed. 30 cm (A) 0.5 cm above XY (B) 1 cm
below XY (C ) on XY (D) 1.5 cm below XY Q.107 A object is placed at a distance
of 15 cm from a convex lens of focal length 10 cm. On the other side of the lens
, a convex mi rror is placed at image formed by a its focus such that thefocal l
ength of the t he combination coincides with the obj ect itself. The convex mirr
or is (A) 20 cm (B)lOcm (C)15cm (D)30cm Q. 108 A thin lens of focal length f and
its aperture h as a diameter d. It forms an image of intensity I Now the centra
l part of the ap erture upto diameter (d/2) is blocked by an opaque paper. The f
ocal length and i mage intensity would change to (A) 172,1/2 (B) f, 1/4 (C) 3f/4
,1/2 (D)f,3I/4 Q. 109 Two planoconvex lenses each of focal length 10 cm & refrac
tive index 3/2 are placed as shown. In the space left, water (R.I = 4/3) is fill
ed. The whole arra ngement is in air. The optical power of the system is (in dio
pters) : P (A) 6.67 (B) - 6.67 (C) 33.3 (D) 20 Q. 110 A concave mirror is placed
on a horizontal su rface and two thin uniform layers of different transparent l
iquids (which do not mix or interact) are formed on the reflecting surface. The
refractive indices o f the upper and lower liquids are and p respectively. The b
right point source at a height 'd' (d is very large in comparison to the thickne
ss ofthe film) above the mirror coincides with its own final image. The radius o
f curvature ofthe ref lecting surface therefore is 11 2 2 (A) (B)p,p d 2 (C)pjd
(D) p d 2 Q. 111 An object is moving towards a converging lens on its axis. The
image is a lso found to be moving towards the lens. Then, the object distance 'u
' must sati fy (A) 2f < u < 4f ' (B) f < u < 2f (C) u > 4f (D)u<f <!I Bansal Cla

Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [13]

0 Q. 112 An object is placed infrontof a thin convex lens of focal length 3 0 cm

a nd a plane mirror is placed 15 cm behind the lens. If the final image ofthe o
bje ct coincides with the object, the distance of the object from the lens is ot
v^ ( A) 60 cm (B) 30 cm (C)15cm (D)25cm Q. 113 Two point sources P and Q are 24
cm ap art. Where should a convex lens of focal length 9 cm be placed in between
them s o that the images of both sources are formed at the same place? (A) 3 cm
from P (B) 15 cm from Q (C) 9 cm from Q (D) 18 cm from P Q. 114 If a concave len
s is pl aced in path of converging rays real image will be produced if the dista
nce ofth e pole from the point of convergence of incident rays lies between (f=
magnitude of focal length of lens) c (A) 0 and f (B)fand2f (C) 2f and infinity (
D) fand i nfinity Q. 115 A point object is kept at thefirstfocus of a convex len
s. If the lens starts moving towards right with a constant velocity, the image w
ill /W (A) always move towards right object (B) always move towards left I (C)fi
rstmove to wards right & then towards left. V p Lr (D)firstmove towards left & t
hen towards right. Q. 116 The diagram shows a silvered equiconvex lens. An objec
t of length 1 cm has been placed in thefrontofthe lens. What will be thefinalima
ge properti es? The ; refractive index ofthe lens is p and the refractive index
ofthe medium in which the lens has been placed is 2p. Both the surface have the
radius R. 30 cm , V ( A ) Half size, erect and virtual (B) same size, erect and
real , ..:<< - l: A (C) same size, erect and virtual . (D) none J Q. 117 In the diag
ram shown, the lens is moving towards the object with a velocity V m/s and the o
bject is also moving towards the lens with the same speed. A What speed of the i
mage with resp ect to earth when the object is at a distance Object 2ffromthe le
ns? (fis the fo cal length.) \J (A) 2 V (B)4V (C)3V (D)V Q. 118 You are given tw
o lenses, a conv erging lens with focal length+10 cm and a diverging lens with f
ocal length - 20 cm. Which ofthe following would produce a virtual image that is
larger than the object? (A) Placing the object 5cmfromthe converging lens. a- (
B) Placing the ob ject 15cmfromthe converging lens. (C) Placing the object 25cmf
romthe converging lens. (D) Placing the obj ect 15 cmfromthe diverging lens. Q.
119 A screen is pl aced 90 cmfroma object. The image of an object on the screen
is formed by a conv ex lens ft at two different locations separated by 20 cm. Th
e focal length ofthe lens is 3 (A) 18 cm (B) 21.4 cm (C)60cm (D) 85.6 cm Q. 120
In the above problem , if the size of the image formed at the positions are 6 cm
and 3 cm, then the f highest ofthe obj ect is (D)none of these & (A) 4.2 cm (B)
4.5 cm (C) 5 cm Q. 1 21 If an object is placed at A(OA>f); Where f is the focal
length of the lens th e image is found to be formed at B. Aperpendicular is ere
cted at o and C is chos en on it such that the angle ZBCA is B a right angle. Th
en the value offwill be (A) AB/OC (B) (AC)(BC)/OC (C) OC /AB (D) (OC)(AB)/AC+BC
3 6 % f> t 2 2 <!I Bansal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics


Q. 122 One ofthe refractive surfaces of a prism of angle 3 0 is silvered. A ray o

flight incident at an angle of 60 retraces it path. The refractive index of the
m aterial ofprism is : (A) V2 (B)^3 (C) 3/2 (D)2 Q. 123 On an equilateral prism,
i t is observed that a ray strikes grazingly at one face and ifrefractive index
of the prism is 2 then the angle of deviation is (A) 60 (B)120 (C) 30 (D) 90 c c
Q. 124 A parallel beam oflight is incident on the upper part of a prism of angle
1.8 and R.1.3/2. The light coming out ofthe prism falls on a concave mirror ofra
dius of curvature 20 cm. The distance of the point (where the rays are focused
a fter reflectionfromthe mirror)fromthe principal axis is: (A) 9 cm (B) 0.157 cm
( C) 0.314 cm (D) None of these Q: 125 The refractive index ofa prism is, cot wh
ere A= angle of prism. The angle ofminimum deviation is (in p degrees) (A) 2A (B
) 9 b - A (C) 180-2A (D)0 Q. 126 A ray oflight strikes a plane mirror at an angl
e o fincidence 45 as shown in thefigure.After reflection, the ray passes through
a pr ism ofrefractive index 1.5, whose apex angle is 4. The angle through which t
he mi rror , should be rotated if the total deviation of the ray is to be 90 is: (
A) 1 c lockwise (B) 1 anticlockwise (C) 2 clockwise (D) 2 anticlockwise 0 0 Q. 127
The refracting angle of prism is 60 and the index ofrefraction is 1 /2 rel ative
to surrounding. The limiting C^ angle ofincidence of a ray that the will b e tr
ansmitted through the prism is : (A) 30 (B) 45 (C) 15 (D) 50 Q. 128 One face of a pr
ism with a refracting angle of 30 is coated with silver. Aray incident on oth er
face at an angle of45 is refracted and reflected from the silvered coated face an
d retraces its path. The refractive index ofthe prism is : (A) 2 (B)VI (C)V3/ 2
(D)V2 1 Q. 129 An equilateral prism deviates a ray through 40 for two angles ofin
cidence differing by 20. The possible angles ofincidences are: (A) 40, 60 (B) 50, 30
(C) 45, 5 5 (D)30,60 Q. 13 0 A beam of monochromatic light is incident at i =5 0 on o
ne face o f an equilat eral prism, the angle of emergence is 40, then the angle o
f minimum deviation is: (A) 30 (B) <30 (D) > 30 (C) < 30 c Q.131 The dispersive pow
ers oftwo lenses are 0.01 and0.02. Iffocai length of one lens is + 10cm, then wh
at should the focal length ofthe second lens, so that th ey form an achromatic c
ombination? (A) Diverging lens having focal length 20 cm. (B) Converging lens ha
ving focal length 20 cm (C) Diverging lens having focal l ength 10 cm. (D) Conve
rging lens having focal length 10 cm <!I Bansal Classes Question Bank on Geometr
ical Optics [13]

Q. 132 A thin prism of angle 5 is placed at a distance of 10 cm from object. What

is the distance of the image from obj ect? (Given p. of prism =1.5) (A)-cm % (B
)-cm [3 71 (C) cm 571 (D) - cm 7T Q. 133 A prism has a refractive index J - and r
efracting angle 90. Find the minim um deviation produced by prism. V2 (A) 40 (B) 4
5 (C) 30 (D)49 Q. 13 4 Two lenses in contact made ofmaterials with dispersive power
s in the ratio 2:1, behaves as an achromatic lens of focal length 10 cm. The ind
ividual focal lengths ofthe lenses are: (A) 5 cm, -10 cm (B) - 5 cm, 10 cm (C) 1
0 cm, - 20 cm (D) - 20 cm, 10 cm Q . 13 5 R. I. of a prism is and the angle of p
rism is 60. The limiting angle of in cidence of a ray that will be j tansmitted t
hrough the prism is: (A) 30 (B) 45 (C) 15 (D) 50 Q. 13 6 A ray oflight strikes a pla
ne mirror at an angle of incidence 4 5 as shown in the figure. After reflection,
the ray passes through a prism of ref ractive index 1.50, whose apex angle is 4.
The angle through which the mirror sho uld be rotated ifthe total deviation ofth
e ray is to be 90 is (A) 1 clockwise (B) 1 anticlockwise (C) 2 clockwise (D) 2 anticl
ockwise ^ Q. 137 For a prism of apex angle 45, it is found that the angle of emer
gence is 4 5 for grazing incidence. Calculate the refractive index of the prism.
(A) (2) (B) (3)" (C) 2 (D)(5)" 1/2 2 2 Q. 13 8 A ray incident at an angle 5 3 on
a prism emerges at an angle at 3 7 as s hown. If the angle ofincidence is made 5
0, which ofthe following is a possible va lue ofthe angle 53 of emergence. (A) 35
(B) 42 (C) 40 (D)38 0 Q. 13 9 The diagram showsfiveisosceles right angled prisms.
Alight ray incident at 90 at thefirstface emerges at same angle with the normalfr
omthe last face. Whi ch ofthe following relations will hold regarding the refrac
tive / \ n / \ ^ indi ces? ' (A) pf + p + p j = p + p (B) p + p + p = 1 + p + p
(C) p + p + p ? = 2 + p + p (D)none 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 <!I Bansal Classes
Q. 140 A beam oflight consisting of red, green and blue and is incident on a ri
g ht angled prism. The refractive index ofthe material ofthe prism for the above
r ed, green and blue wavelengths are 1.39,1.44 and 1.47 respectively. The prism
wi ll: (A) separate part of the red color from the green and blue colors. (B) s
epar ate part of the blue colorfromthe red and green colours. _ (C) separate all
the three colorsfromthe other two colors. 450 (D) not separate even partially a
ny co lorfromthe other two colors. Question Bank on Geometrical Optics


Q. 141 A certain prism is found to produce a minimum deviation of 38. It produces

a deviation of 44 when the angle of incidence is either 42 or 62. What is the angl
e of incidencewhen it is undergoing minimum deviation? E (A) 45 (D) 55 (B) 49 (C)
40 c Q. 142 It is desired to make an achromatic combination of two lenses (Lj &
L ) m ade of materials having dispersive powers C0j and co (<]). Ifthe combinatio
n of l enses is converging then (A) Lj is converging ' , (B) L is converging (C)
Power of Lj is greater than the power ofL (D) None of these 2 2 2 2 Q. 143 A ra
y oflight is incident normally on thefirstrefracting face ofthe prism ofrefracti
ng angle A. The ray of light comes out at grazing emergence. If one h alf ofthe
prism (shaded position) is knocked off, the same ray will i (A) emerge at an ang
le of emergence sin sec A / 2 v^ (B) not emerge out of the prism f1 . . .A (C) e
merge at an angle of emergence sin sec A / 4 (D) None of these 1 1 Q. 144 An ach
romatic convergent cjoublet of two lens in contact has a power of + 2 D. The con
vex lens is power + 5 D. What is the ratio of the dispersive powers of the conve
rgent and divergent lenses? (A) 2 : 5 (B) 3 : 5 (C) 5 : 2 (D) 5 : 3 Q. 145 Light
ray is incident on a prism of angle A = 60 and refractive index p. = V2 . The an
gle of incidence at which the emergent ray grazes the surface is gi ven by (A) s
i n -1 K 2 J (B)Sin -l r i - V a ] I ' J 2 (C) sin1 I J 2 JL^ (D) sin" 'vV3y 1
Q. 146 Two incident monochromatic waves whose wavelengths differ by a small amou
nt dA, are separated angularly at 9 and 9 + d9. The dispersive power is given b
y (A) d9/dX, (B) d9/9 (C)dAA (D)A(dA/d9) Q. 147 A ray oflight is incident normal
l y on a prism of refractive index 1.5, as shown. The prism is immersed in a liq
ui d of refractive index 'p'. The 1 largest value ofthe angle ACB, so that the r
ay is totally reflected at the face AC, is 30. Then the value of p must be: V3 (A
) ( B) (C) (D) 3 V3 ItBansal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics i [19]

Q.l ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Take approx. 3 minutes for answer
ing each question. A man ofheight 170 cm wants to see his complete image in a pl
ane mirror (while s tanding). His eyes are at a height of 160 cm from the ground
. (A) Minimum length of the mirror=80 cm (B) Minimum length of the mirror=85 cm.
(C) Bottom ofthe mi rror should be at a height 80 cm. (D) Bottom of the mirror
should be at a height 85 cm. Two plane mirrors at an angle such that a ray incid
ent on a mirror under goes a total deviation of240 after two reflections. (A) the
angle between the mir ror is 60 (B) the number of images formed by this system w
ill be 5, if an object is placed symmetrically between the mirrors. (C) the no.
ofimageswillbe 5 if an object is kept unsymmetrically between the mirrors. (D) a
ray will retrace its p ath after 2 successive reflections, ifthe angle ofincide
nce on one mirror is 60. W Aflatmirror M is arranged parallel to a wall W at a di
stance I from it. The li ght S 1 Wall produced by a point source S kept on the w
all is reflected by the m irror and produces / a light spot on the wall. The mir
ror moves with velocity v towards the wall. r M minimi* (A) The spot oflight wil
l move with the speed v on the wall, (B) The spot oflight will not move on the w
all. (C) As the mirror com es closer the spot oflight will become larger and shi
ft away from the wall with speed larger then v. (D) The size ofthe light spot on
the wall remains the same. A concave mirror cannot form (A) virtual image ofvir
tual object (C) real image of a real object (B) virtual image of a real object (
D) real image of a virtual object. Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 In thefigureshown consider th
efirstreflection at the plane mirror and second at the convex mirror. AB is obje
ct. (A) the second image is real, inverted of 1/5 m agnification (B) the second
image is virtual and erect with magnificationl/5 (C) the second image moves towa
rds the convex mirror (D) the second image moves awa yfromthe convex mirror. th
^ jI _10cm A B E 50cm > i c ' Xi 10cm i 120cm c Q.6 A ray oflight is incident no
rmally on one face of 30 - 60 - 90 prism \P/ of refract ive index 5/3 immersed in w
ater of refractive index 4/3 as shown in figure. 1 \ (A) The exit angle 0 ofthe
ray is sin (5/8) (B) The exit angle 9 of the ray is s in (5/4J3) (C) Total inter
nal reflection at point P ceases ifthe refractive inde x of water is increased t
o 5/2V3 by dissolving some substance. (D) Total interna l reflection at point P
ceases if the refractive index ofwater is increased to 5 /6 by dissolving some s
ubstance. 2 -1 2 -1

<f Bansal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [23]

Q.7 A ray oflight in a liquid ofrefractive index 1.4, approaches the boundary su
rfac e between the liquid and air at an angle of incidence whose sine is 0.8. Wh
ich o f the following statements is correct about the behaviour ofthe light (A)
It is impossible to predict the behavior of the light ray on the basis of the in
format ion supplied. (B) The sine of the angle of refraction of the emergent ray
will l ess than 0.8. (C) The ray will be internally reflected (D) The sine of t
he angle of refraction of the emergent ray will be greater than 0.8. The figure
shows a ray incident at an angle i = TC/3 . Ifthe plot drawn shown the variation
of | r - i | versus Hi k, (r = angle of refraction) H2 : Q. 8 Mi v (A) the valu
e of kj is (C) the value of 6 = 7t/3 2 (B) the value of0, =7t/6 (D) the value of
k is 1 2 In the diagram shown, a ray oflight is incident on the interface betwee
n 1 and 2 at angle slightly greater than critical angle. The light suffers total
internal reflection at this interface. After that the light ray falls at the in
terface o f 1 and 3, and again it suffers total internal reflection. Which ofthe
following relations should hold true? (B) (A) Pj < p < p (D) p f + p > p (C)P?P >P^ Q.10 In the figure shown a point object O is placed in air on the principa
l axis. Th e radius of curvature of the spherical surface is 60 cm. I is thefina
limage form ed after all the refractions and reflections. (A) If dj = 120 cm, th
en the T ' i s formed on 'O' for any value of d . (B) If dj = 240 cm, then the T
' is formed on 'O' only if d = 360 cm. (C) If dj = 240 cm, then the T ' is form
ed on 'O' for all values of d.2(D) If dj = 240 cm, then the T ' cannot be formed
on 'O'. 2 3 3 2 2 2 f f 2 f 2 f f Q.9 ~n H3 n =3/2 g 2 Q.ll Two refracting medi
a are separated by a spherical interface as shown in the figure. PP' is the prin
cipal axis, Pj and P2 are the refractive indices of medi um of incidence and med
ium of refraction respectively. Then: (A) if P2 > pj, the n there cannot be a re
al image of real obj ect. (B) if pj > pj, then there canno t be a real image ofv
irtual object. (C) if Pj > P2, then there cannot be a virtu al image ofvirtual o
bject. (D) if pj > p , then there cannot be a real image of real object. 2 <f Ban
sal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [23]

A curved surface of radius R separates two medium of refractive indices p, and p

as shown in figures A andB 2 Question No. 12 to 14(3 questions) x Q.12 Choose t
he correct statement(s) related to the real image formed by the obj ect O placed
at a distance x, as shown infigureA (A) Real image is always formed irrespectiv
e of the position of object if p > p, (B) Real image is formed only when x > R (
C) Real image is formed due to the convex nature of the interface ir respective
of Pj and p^ (D) None of these Q.13 Choose the correct statement(s) r elated to
the virtual image formed by obj ect O placed at a distance x, as shown infigureA
(A) Virtual image is formed for any position of O if p < (B) Virtual image can
be formed ifx > R and p < Pj (C) Virtual image is formed if x < R and p > p, (D)
None of these 2 2 2 2 R Fig. A x Fig. B Q.14 Identify the correct statement(s)
related to the formation of images of a r eal obj ect O placed at x from the pol
e ofthe concave surface, as shown infigure B (A) I f p > p j , then virtual imag
e is formed for any value ofx 2 (B)If \u< p., then virtual image is formed if x<
Hi H (C) If p < Pj, then real i mage is formed for any value ofx (D) none ofthe
se 2 2 Q.15 Which of the following can form diminished, virtual and erect image
ofyour face. (A) Converging mirror (B) Diverging mirror (C) Converging lens (D)
Divergi ng lens Q.16 A convex lens forms an image of an object on a screen. The
height o f the image is 9 cm. The lens is now displaced until an image is again
obtained on the screen. The height ofthis image is 4 cm. The distance between th
e object and the screen is 90cm. (A) The distance between the two positions of t
he lens i s 3 0cm. (B) The distance of the obj ect from the lens in itsfirstposi
tion is 3 6cm. (C) The height of the object is 6cm. (D) The focal length of the
lens is 21 .6 cm. Q. 17 A diminished image of an object is to be obtained on a l
arge screen 1 mfromit. This can be achieved by (A) using a convex mirror of foca
l length le ss than 0.25 m (B) using a concave mirror offocal length less than 0
.25 m (C) us ing a convex lens offocal length less than 0.25 m (D) using a conca
ve lens of fo cal length less than 0.25 m <f Bansal Classes Question Bank on Geom
etrical Optics [23]

Q.18 Which of the following quantities related to a lens depend on the wavelengt
h of the incident light ? (A) Refractive index (B) Focal length (C) Power (D) R
a dii of curvature Q.19 A thin lens with focal length f to be used as a magnifyi
ng glass. Which of the following statements regarding the situation is true? (A)
A converging lens may be used, and the object be placed at a distance greater t
ha n 2ffromthe lens. (B) A diverging lens may be used, and the object be placed
bet ween f and 2f from the lens. (C) A converging lens may be used, and the obj
ect be placed at a distance less than f from the lens. (D) Adiverging lens may b
e us ed, and the object be placed at any point other than the focal point. Q.20
An ob ject O is kept infront of a converging lens of focal length 30cm behind wh
ich th ere is a plane mirror at 15 cm from the lens. (A) the final image is form
ed at 6 0cmfromthe lens towards right of it (B) the final image is at 60cmfromle
ns towar ds left of it. (C) the final image is real. (D) thefinalimage is virtua
l. 30cm Q.21 The radius ofcurvature ofthe left andrightsurface ofthe concave len
s are 10 cm and 15cm respectively. The radius of curvature of the mirror is 15cm
. (A) equ ivalent focal length ofthe combination is -18cm. (B) equivalent foca!
length of the combination is +3 6cm. (n= t -5) (C) the system behaves like a con
cave mirro r. (D) the system behaves like a convex mirror. Water (li=4/3) Q. 22
A man wishing to get a picture of a Zebra photographed a white donkey afte r fit
ting a glass with black streaks onto the objective of his camera. (A) the i mage
will look like a white donkey on the photograph. (B) the image will look li ke
a Zebra on the photograph. (C) the image will be more intense compared to the ca
se in which no such glass is used. (D) the image will be less intense compare d
to the case in which no such glass is used. Q.23 For refraction through a smal l
angled prism, the angel of deviation: (A) increases with the increasfe in R.I.
of prism. (B) will decrease with the increase in RL of prism. (C) is directly p
roportional to the angle of prism. (D) will be 2D for a ray of R.I.=2.4 if it is
D for a ray of R.I =1.2 Q. 24 For the refraction oflight through a prism (A) Fo
r every angle of deviation there are two angles of incidence. (B) The light tra
v elling inside an equilateral prism is necessarily parallel to the base when pr
is m is set for minimum deviation. (C) There are two angles of incidence for max
imu m deviation, (for A < 20C) (D) Angle of minimum deviation will increase ifref
ract ive index of prism is increased keeping the outside medium unchanged if Pp
> p . s j 1 I <f Bansal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [23]

Answer Key ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT Q.l D Q.8 C Q.15 C Q.22 A Q.29 D Q.36 A Q.
43 A Q.50 C Q.57 B Q.64 A Q.71 C Q.78 C Q.85 D Q.92 C Q.99 A Q. 106 D Q.113 D Q.
120 A Q.127 A Q.134 A Q. 141 B Q.l Q.5 Q.9 Q.13 Q.17 Q.21 Q2 Q.9 Q.16 Q.23 Q.30
Q.37 Q.44 Q.51 Q.58 Q.65 Q.72 Q.79 Q.86 Q.93 Q.l00 Q.l07 Q .114 Q.121 Q.128 Q. 1
35 Q 142 D A B A D D C C B A D A C A B B A C D A B Q3 Q.10 Q.17 Q.24 Q.31 Q.38 Q
.45 Q.52 Q.59 Q.66 Q.73 Q.80 Q.87 Q.94 Q.101 Q.l08 Q.115 Q.122 Q.129 Q.136 Q.143
Q.2 Q.6 Q.10 Q.14 Q.18 Q.22 C D C A C C B D B C A A B C B D D B A B A Q.4 Q.ll
Q.18 Q.25 Q.32 Q.39 Q.46 Q.53 Q.60 Q.67 Q.74 Q.81 Q.88 Q.95 Q.l02 Q.l09 Q.116 Q.
123 Q.130 Q.137 Q.144 A C A B A A A A A B C D B A C A C B B D D Q5 Q.12 Q.19 Q.2
6 Q.33 Q.40 Q.47 Q.54 Q.61 Q.68 Q.75 Q.82 Q.89 Q.96 Q.103 Q. 110 Q.117 Q.124 Q.1
31 Q. 138 Q.145 C A B D D D C A B C C A D B B D D B A D A Q.6 A Q.13 C Q.20 C Q.
27 A Q.34 A Q.41 A Q.48 D Q.55 A Q.62 C Q.69 B Q.76 C Q.83 D Q.90 C Q.97 B Q.104
D Q.lll D Q.118 A Q.125 C Q.132 C Q.139 C Q.146B Q.4 Q.7 Q.14 Q.21 Q.28 Q.35 Q.
42 Q.49 Q.56 Q.63 Q.70 Q.77 Q.84 Q.91 Q.98 Q.105 Q. 11 2 Q. 119 Q.126 Q.133 Q. 1
Q.19 Q.23 C AC B,D C A,C Q8 Q.12 Q.16 Q.20 Q.24 A B,C,D D B,C,D B,C B,C,D <f Ban
sal Classes Question Bank on Geometrical Optics [23]


KEY CONCEPTS 1. (0 (ii) 2. LAWS OF REFLECTION : The incident ray (AB), the refle
cted ray (BC) and normal (NN') to the surface (SC) ofreflection at the point of
incidence (B) lie in the same plane. This plane is called the plane of incidenc
e (also plane of reflection). The angle of incidence (the angle between normal a
n d the incident ray) and the angle of reflection (the angle between the reflect
ed ray and the normal) are equal Zi = Zr OBJECT: Real: Pointfromwhich rays actua
ll y diverge. Virtual: Point towards which rays appear to converge IMAGE: Image
is decided by reflected or refracted rays only. The point image for a mirror is
tha t point Towards which the rays reflectedfromthe mirror, actually converge (r
eal image). OR From which the reflected rays appear to diverge (virtual image).
ame a s that of the object. For a real object the image is virtual and for a vir
tual o bject the image is real. For a fixed incident light ray, ifthe mirror be
rotated through an angle 6 the reflected ray turns through an angle 20. SPHERICA
L MIRRO RS: (a) 3. (i) (b) (ii) 4. (a) (c) 5. (b) B B Convex Concave 6. PARAXIAL
RAYS: Rays which forms very small angle with axis are called paraxial rays. 7.
SIGN CONVENTION : We follow cartesian co-ordinate system convention according to
which (a) The pole ofthe mirror is the origin. (b ) The direction ofthe inciden
t rays is considered as positive x-axis. (c) Vertic ally up is positive y-axis.
Note According to above convention radius of curvatu re and focus of concave mir
ror is negative and of convex mirror is positive. MIR ROR FORMULA: 1 = 1 + 1 8.
f v u f = x-coordinate of focus u = x-coordinate of ob j ect ; v=x-coordinate of
image Note : Valid only for paraxial rays. &Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics 1

10. 11. = V TRANSVERSE MAGNIFICATION m= h u h, h = y co-ordinate of images h, = y

co-ordi nate of the obj ect (both perpendicular to the principle axis of mirror
) NEWTON' S FORMULA : Applicable to a pair of real object and real image positio
n only. Th ey are called conjugate positions or foci. X, Y are the distance alon
g the princ ipal axis ofthe real object and real image respectively from the pri
ncipal focus . XY = f OPTICAL POWER: Optical power of a mirror (in Diopters)=- f
\ f = focal l ength (in meters) with sign. 2 2 2 REFRACTION -PLANE SURFACE 1. (i
the normal (NN') to the refracting surface (II') a t the point of incidence (B)
and the refracted ray (BC) all lie in the same plan e called the plane of incide
nce or plane of refraction. for any two given media and for light ofa given wave
length. This is known as SNELL'S L a w . Sin i = Constant Sin r Note : Frequenc
y oflight does not change during refraction. 2. DEVIATION OFARAYD UE TO REFRACTI
ON \ | angle of | deviation i |1 5=i-r 3. (i) (ii) REFRACTION THROUGH A PARALLEL
SLAB : Emerged ray is parallel to the incident ray , ifmedium is same on both s
ides. Lateral shift t = thickness of slab t sin(i - r) cosr N J B FRV-.. N' ! \
AIR GLASS(M) Note : Emerged ray will not be parallel to the incident ray ifthe m
edium on both the sides are different. ^Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [3]

4. APPARENT DEPTH OF SUBMERGED OBJECT : II I h h' L x / / / .* // / / '/ \ O (h'<

h) at near normal incidence h ' - ^ h Note : h and h' are always measuredfro msu
ITIONS OF T. I. R. Ray goingfromdenser to rarer medium Angle of incidence sh oul
d be greater than the critical angle (i > c). Critical angle C = sin" n 1 ; REFR
ACTION THROUGH PRISM: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 = (i + i') - (r + r') r + r' = A Variation o
f 8 versus i (shown in diagram). T here is one and only one angle of incidence f
or which the angle ofdeviation is m inimum. When 8 = 8 then i = i' & r = r', the
ray passes symetrically about the p rism, & then m 1 1 i i1 , min i=i' 90 (e=90)
A where n = absolute R.I. of glass. Note : When the prism is dipped in a medium
th en n = R.I. of glass w.r.t. medium. (!%Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [10]

For a thin prism (A <10) ; 8 = ( n - l ) A DISPERSION OF LIGHT : The angular spil

itting of a ray ofwhite light into a number of components when it is refracted
i n a medium other than air is called Dispersion of Light. Angle of Dispersion:
An gle between the rays of the extreme colours in the refracted (dispersed) ligh
t 7 . is called Angle of Dispersion . 6 = 5 - 8 . Dispersive power (oo) ofthe me
dium of the material ofprism. 8. angular dispersion mean ray v deviation of mean
ray (yellow) For small angled prism (A < 10) n +n 8 -8 n -n 00=^- = - ;n = n-1 n , n
& n are R. I. of material for violet, red & yellow colours respectively. 9. COMB
INAT ION OF TWO PRISMS : (i) ACHROMATIC COMBINATION: It is used for deviation wi
thout dispersion. Condition for this (n -n) A = (n' - n' ) A'. n +n n.', + n; 1
1 A'. Net mean deviation = or oo8 + G)'8' = 0 where co, co' are dispersive power
s for the two prisms & 8,8' are the mean deviation. (ii) DIRECT VISION COMBINATI
ON: I t is used for producing disperion without deviation condition n + n n' + n f
or thi s A'. Net angle of dispersion = (n - n) A = (n ' - n') A'. REFRACTION AT
SPERICA L SURFACE l.(a) 2 u V R v, u & R are to be kept with sign + vex 0 p as v
= PI c I u = -PO R = PC (Note radius is with sign) m mV (b) 1^2 2. LENS FORMULA:
+ ve (a ) v u J (b) (H-l) V i 2 y J (c) m = u v r r R v R v R v v r v R D v v 5
. 6. \ : u R R (!%Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [10]

EXERCISE # III Q. 1 Two plane mirrors are inclined at angle 0 as shown in figure
. If a ray para llel to OB strikes the other mirror at P andfinallyemerges paral
lel to OA after two reflection thenfind0. Q. 2 Q. 3 A ray of light falls on a tr
ansparent sphere with centre at C as shown in figure. The ray emerges from the s
phere parallel t o line AB. Find the refractive index ofthe sphere. Face AC of a
right angled pri sm (j4, =1.5) coated with a thinfilmof liquid as ^(yuuuumiii^
shown infigure.Lig ht is allowed to fall normally on the face AB ofthe prism. In
order that the ray oflight gets totally reflected, what can be the maximum refr
active index ofliqu id? B y 0777777777777777777777 B Q. 4 Q.5 Q. 6 j Q. 7 A tiny
air bubble inside a glass slab appears to be 6 cm deep when viewed form o ne si
de and 4 cm deep when viewedfromthe other side. Assuming |i = 3/2. Find the thic
kness of slab. glass A prism ofrefractive index has a refracting angle of 30. One
of the refracting su rfaces of the prism is polished. For the beam of monochrom
atic light to retrace its path,findthe angle of incidence on the refracting surf
ace. A plano-convex le ns, when silvered on the plane side, behaves like a conca
ve mirror of focal leng th 30 cm. When it is silvered on the convex side, it beh
aves like a concave mirr or of focal length 10 cm. Find the refractive index oft
he material ofthe lens. A light ray I is incident on a plane mirror M. The mirro
r is rotated in the 9 dir ection as shown in the figure by an arrow at frequency
rev/sec. 71 The light ref lected by the mirror is received on the wall W at a d
istance 10 m from the axis of rotation. When the angle of incidence becomes 7777
7777jj 37findthe speed of th e spot (a point) on the wall? M Q.8 Two thin convex
lenses of focal lengths f, and f are separated by a horizontal d istance d where
(d<f d<f,)& their centres are displaced by a vertical separation 5 as shown in
the figure.Taking the origin of coordinates O, at the centre ofth efirstlens,fin
dthe x & y coordinates ofthe focal point ofthis lens system, for a parallel beam
ofrays coming from the left. 2 p ^( > y 2 >\ Q.9 A concave mirror of focal leng
th 20 cm is cut into two parts from the _______ J* r 10cm V , middle and the two
parts are moved perpendicularly by a distance 1cm ALLCM~ from the previous prin
cipal axis AB. Find the distance between the images formed by the two parts? - 2

<!\Bansal Classes Q. 10 A balloon is rising up along the axis of a concave mirro

r of radius of cur vature 20 m. A ball is dropped from the balloon at a height 1
5mfromthe mirror wh en the balloon has velocity 20 m/s. Find the speed ofthe ima
ge of the ball forme d by concave mirror after 4 seconds? [Take: g= 10 m/s ] Geo
metrical Optics [6]

Q.ll An obj ect is kept on the principal axis of a convex mirror of focal length
10 cm at a distance of 10 cm \ from the pole. The object starts moving at a vel
ocity 20 mm/sec towards the mirror at angle 30 with the principal axis. What wil
l be the speed of its image and direction with the principal axis at that instan
t ? Q.12 A thin rod of length d/3 is placed along the principal axis ofa concave
m irror of focal length=d such that its image, which is real and elongated, jus
t t ouches the rod. Find the length of the image? Q.13 A point object is placed
33 c m from a convex mirror of curvature radius = 40 cm. A glass plate of thickn
ess 6 cm and index 2.0 is placed between the object and mirror, close to the mir
ror. Find the distance of final imagefromthe object? Q.14 A long solid cylindric
al gl ass rod ofrefractive index 3/2 is immersed in a 3-Jl liquid of refractive
index . The ends ofthe rod are perpendicular to the cent ral axis of the rod. a li
ght enters one end of the rod at the central axis as sh own in thefigure.Find th
e maximum value of angle 0 for which internal reflection occurs inside the rod?
Q.15 A ray of light moving along the unit vector (- i - 2 j) undergoes refractio
n at an interface oftwo media, which is the x-z plane. The refractive index for
y > 0 is 2 while fory<0, itis -Js/'l- Find the unit vector along which the refr
a cted ray moves? Q.16 A slab of glass of thickness 6 cm and index 1.5 is place
so mewhere in between a concave mirror and a point object, perpendicular to the
mir ror's optical axis. The radius of curvature ofthe mirror is 40 cm. If the re
flec tedfinalimage coincides with the object, thenfindthe distance of the object
fromt he mirror? Q.17 A ray of light from a liquid (p = ^3 ) is incident on a sy
stem o f tworight-angledprisms ofrefractive indices V3 and v2 as shown in the fi
gure. T he ray oflight suffers zero net deviation when it emerges into airfromth
e surfac e CD. Find the angle of incidence? liquid Q.18 A ray of light enters a
diamond (n=2) from air and is being internally / re flected near the bottom as s
hown in thefigure.Find maximum value of angle 0 poss ible? 135 Q.19 A parallel be
am oflight is incident on a transparent sphere ofrefractive in dex 'n'. Ifthe be
amfinallygets focussed at a point situated at a distance=2 x (r adius of sphere)
fromthe centre ofthe sphere, thenfindn? Q.20 A uniform, horizont al beam oflight
is incident upon a quarter cylinder of radius R=5 cm, and has a refractive inde
x 2/V3 A patch on the table for a distance 'x'fromthe cylinder is unilluminated.
findthe value of'x'? (!%Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [10]

Q.21 A thin converging lens Lj forms a real image of an object located far away
from the lens as shown in the figure. The image is located at a distance 4/ and
has height h. A diverging lens offocal length I is placed 21fromlens Lj at A. An
other converging lens of focal length 21 is placed 3/fromlens Lj at B. Find the
height offinalimage thus formed? Q.22 An object is placed at a certain distance
f roma screen. A convex lens of focal length 40 cm is placed between the screen
an d the obj ect. A real image is formed on the screen for two positions ofthe l
ens , which differ by a distance of 10 Vl7 cm. Find the distance ofthe obj ectfr
omth e screen? Q.23 A point object is placed at a distance of 25 cmfroma convex
lens of focal length 20 cm. If a glass slab of thickness t and refractive index
1.5 i s inserted between the lens and object. The image is formed at infinity. F
ind th e thickness t ? Q .24 An object is kept at a distance of 16 cmfroma thin
lens an d the image formed is real. Ifthe object is kept at a distance of 6 cmfr
omthe sa me lens the image formed is virtual. Ifthe size ofthe image formed are
equal, th enfindthe focal length ofthe lens? Q.25 A thin convex lens forms a rea
l image of a certain object 'p' times its size. The size of real image becomes '
q' times t hat of object when the lens is moved nearer to the object by a distan
ce 'a'findf ocal length ofthe lens? Q.26 A diverging lens of focal length 10 cm
is placed 10 cm infrontofa plane mirror as shown in thefigure.Lightfroma very fa
r away sourc e falls on the lens. Find the image of source due to plane mirror (
before hittin g lens again) at a distance from mirror? Q.27 In the figure shown,
the focal len gth ofthe two thin convex lenses is the same = f. They are separa
ted by a horizo ntal distance 3f and their optical axes are displaced by a verti
cal separation'd ' (d f ) , as shown. Taking the origin of coordinates O at the
centre ofthe firs t lens,findthe x and y coordinates ofthe point where a paralle
l beam ofrays comi ngfromthe leftfinallyget focussed? Q.28 A point source ofligh
t is kept at a dist ance of 15 cmfroma converging lens, on its optical axis. The
focal length of the lens is 10 cm and its diameter is 3 cm. A screen is placed
on the other side of the lens, perpendicular to the axis of lens, at a distance
20 cmfromit. Thenfin dthe area ofthe illuminated part of the screen? Q.29 Consid
er a "beam expander' which consists oftwo converging lenses of focal lengths 40
cm and 100 cm having a common optical axis. A laser beam of diameter 4 mm is inc
ident on the 40 cm fo cal length lens. The diameter ofthefinalbeam will be (see
figure) Q.30 An equila teral prism deviates a ray through 23 for two angles ofinc
idence differing by 23. Find p ofthe prism? List of recommended questions from I.
E. Irodov. 5.13 to 17,5 .21 to 24,5.26,5.27,5.31,5.34 to 37 f [? (!%Bansal Class
es Geometrical Optics [10]

EXERCISE # III Q. 1 An observer whose least distance of distinct vision is'd', v

iews his own fa ce in a convex mirror of radius r of curvature 'r'. Prove that m
agnification pro duced can not exceed ~ Q. 2 Two identical convex lenses Lj and L
are placed at a distance of20 cmfromeach other on the common principal axis. Th
e focal length of each lens is 15 cm and the lens L is to the right of lens A. A
point object is placed at a distance of 20 cm on the left of lens L on the comm
on axis of two le nses. Find, where a convex mirror ofradius of curvature 5 cm s
hould be placed so that the final image coincides with the object? Q. 3 A thin c
onverging lens is arranged between a small illuminated object & a screen so that
an image ofthe ob ject of linear magnification 3 is formed on a screen. The obj
ect and the screen are then 64 cm apart. A thin biconcave lens is then placed be
tween the convergin g lens & the screen so that the lenses are coaxial & 6 cm ap
art. To restore a sh arply focussed image on the image screen the object was mov
ed awayfromthe conver ging lens through a distance of 14 cm. The biconcave lens
has a surface ofradii of curvature 14 cm & 21 cm. Calculate the focal length of
the biconcave lens. Al so find the R. I. of the biconcave lens. 2 2 p Q. 4 A sur
veyor on one bank of canal observed the image of the 4 inch and 17ftmarks o n a
vertical staff, which is partially immersed in the water and held against th e b
ank directly opposite to him, coincides. If the 17ft mark and the surveyor's eye
are both 6ft above the water level, estimate the width ofthe canal, assuming th
at the refractive index ofthe water is 4/3. Two thin similar watch glass piec es
are joined together,fronttofront,with rear portion silvered and the combinati o
n of glass pieces is placed at a distance a = 60 cm from a screen. A small obje
ct is placed normal to the optical axis of the combination such that its two tim
es magnified image is formed on the screen. If air between the glass pieces is
r eplaced by water (jx = 4/3), calculate the distance through which the object m
us t be displaced so that a sharp image is again formed on the screen. A concave
mi rror has the form of a hemisphere with a radius of R=60 cm. A thin layer of
an u nknown transparent liquid is poured into the mirror. The mirror-liquid syst
em fo rms one real image and another real image is formed by mirror alone, with
the so urce in a certain position. One of them coincides with the source and the
other is at a distance of /=30 cm from source. Find the possible value(s) refra
ctive i ndex ji ofthe liquid. A ray of light refracted through a sphere, whose m
aterial has refractive index (i in such a way that it passes through the extremi
ties of two radii which make an angle 0 with each other. Prove that if a is the
deviatio n of the ray caused by its passage through the sphere 1 cos(0-a) = ( . c
os J 0 In the figure shown, find the relative speed of approach/separation ofthe
two final images formed after the light rays pass through the lens, at the momen
t when u= 30 cm. The speed object = 4 cm/s. The two lens halves are placed symme
trically w .r.t. the moving object. f=40cm Q. 5 Q. 6 Q. 7 Q. 8 u <!\Bansal Class
es Geometrical Optics


Q.9 Three right angled prisms of refractive indices \x2 and |x are j oined toget
her so that the faces ofthe middle prism in are in contact each with one of the
outs ide prisms. If the ray passes through the composite block undeviated, show
that fi, + fx - ja = 1. 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 Q. 10 Two rays are incident on a spherical
mirror ofradius ofR=5 cm parallel to its optical axis at the distance hj = 0.5
cm and h = 3 cm. Determine the distanc e Ax between the points at which these ra
ys intersect the optical axis after bei ng reflected at the mirror. Q. 11 A beam
oflight is incident vertically on a gla ss hemisphere ofradius R lying with its
plane side on a table. The axis ofthe be am coincides with the vertical axis pa
ssing through the centre ofthe base ofthe hemisphere and the radius r of the cro
ss section ofthe beam is smaller than R. F ind the radius ofthe luminous spot fo
rmed on the table. 0 Q. 12 In the figure shown Lisa converging lens of focal len
gth 10cm and M is a c oncave mirror of radius of curvature 20cm. A point object
O is placed infrontoft he lens at a distance 15cm. AB and CD are optical axes of
the lens and mirror re spectively. Find the distance ofthe final image formed b
y this systemfromthe opt ical centre of the lens. The distance between CD & AB i
s 1 cm. 0 -15cmH c 1 { 1cm D J M a -45cmQ.13 A thiefis running away in a car wit
h velocity of20 m/s. A police jeep is fo llowing him, which is sighted by thief
in his rear view mirror which is a convex mirror of focal length 10 m. He observ
es that the image of jeep is moving towar ds him with a velocity of 1 cm/s. Ifth
e magnification ofthe mirror for the jeep at that time is 1/10. Find (a) actual
speed ofjeep (b) rate at which magnificati on is changing. Assume that police je
ep is on axis of the mirror. Q.14 The figur e illustrates an aligned system cons
isting ofthree thin lenses. The system is lo cated in air. Determine: 5cm 5cm o(
a) the position (relative to right most lens) of the point of convergence ofa pa
rallel ray incomingfromthe left after passing through the system; +IO.OD -IO.'DD
+IO.OD (b) The distance between thefirstlens and a point lying on the axis to t
he left ofthe system, at which that point and its image are located symmetricall
y with respect to the lens system? Q.15 A cir cular disc ofdiameter d lies horiz
ontally inside a metallic hemispherical bowl r adius a. The disc is just visible
to an eye looking over the edge. The bowl is n owfilledwith a liquid ofrefracti
ve index j-i. Now, the whole ofthe / 2 IN disc i s just visible to the eye in th
e same position. Show that d = 2a = O +1) Q, 16 A luminous point P is inside a cir
cle. A ray entersfromP and after two ref lections by the circle, return to P. If
0 be the angle of incidence, a the dista nce of Pfromthe centre of the circle a
nd b the distance of the centrefromthe poi nt where the ray in its course crosse
s the diameter through P, prove that tan0= a + b (!%Bansal Classes

Geometrical Optics [10]

Q.17 A glass wedge with a small angle of refraction 9 is placed at a certain dis
tance from a convergent lens with a focal length f, one surface of the wedge be
i ng perpendicular to the optical axis ofthe lens. A point sources S oflight is
on the other side ofthe lens at its focus. The rays reflected from the wedge (no
tf rombase) produce, after refraction in the lens, two images of the source disp
lac ed with respect to each other by d. Find the refractive index ofthe wedge gl
ass. Q.18 An opaque sphere of radius R lies on a horizontal plane. On the perpen
dicu lar through the point of contact there is a point source oflight a distance
R ab ove the sphere. (a) Show that the area of the shadow on the plane is 37iR
. (b) A transparent liquid of refractive index V3 is filled above the plane such
that the sphere is j ust covered with the liquid. Show that the area of shadow
now be comes 2TCR . 2 2 (!%Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [10]

EXERCISE # III Q.l Arayof light travelling in air is incident at grazing angle (
incident AIR P( xi,y,) angle=90) on a long rectangular slab of a transparent medi
um of thickness t = 1.0 (see figure). The point of incidence is the ,-*'B(x,y) o
rigin A (0,0). T he medium has a variable index ofrefraction n(y) given by: n (y
) - [ky + 1 ] , w here k = 1.0 mr . Medium . Air (0,0) The refractive index of a
ir is 1.0. Obtain a relation between the slope ofthe traj ectory oftherayat a po
int B (x, y) in th e medium and the incident angle at that point. Obtain an equa
tion for the trajec tory y (x) ofthe ray in the medium. Determine the coordinate
s (Xj, y,) of the po int P, where the ray the ray intersects the upper surface o
f the slab-air bounda ry. Indicate the path of the ray subsequently. [JEE '95] 3
/2 m vi (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Q.2 E (i) (ii) Q.3 Aright angle prism(45-90-45) of refr
active index n hasaplate ofrefractive index n ( n, < n) cemented to its diagonal
face. The assembly is in air. a ray is incident on AB (see the figure). Calcula
te the angle of incidence at AB for which the ra y strikes the diagonal face at
the critical angle. Assuming n = 1.352. Calculate the angle of incidence at AB f
or which the refracted ray passes through the dia gonal face undeviated. [JEE'96
] t A thin plano-convex. Lens of focal length F is split into two halves, one of
the halves is shifted along the optical axis. The separation between object and
imag e planes is 1.8 m. The magnification ofthe image formed by one of the half
lense s is 2. Find the focal length of the lens and separation between the two h
alves. Draw the ray diagram for image formation. [JEE '96] 1.8 m Q. 4 Q.5 Which
ofthe following form(s) a virtual & erect image for all positions ofthe re al ob
j ect ? (A) Convex lens (B) Concave lens (C) Convex mirror (D) Concave mirr or [
JEE '96] A small fish, 0.4mbelowthe surface ofa lake, is viewed through a si mpl
e converging lens of focal length 3 m. The lens is kept at 0.2m above the wat er
surface such that thefishlies on the optical axis of the lens. Find the image o
f thefishseen by the observer. The refractive index of the water is 4/3. [REE '9
6] Q.6(i)An eye specialist prescribes spectacles having a combination of convex
len s of focal length 40 cm in contact with a concave lens of focal length 25 cm
. Th e power ofthis lens combination in diopters is: (A) + 1.5 (B) - 1.5 (C) + 6
.67 ( D) - 6.67 [JEE'97] <!\Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [6]

(ii) A thin equiconvex lens of glass of refractive index |i=3/2 & of focal lengt
h 0.3 m in air is sealed into an opening at one end of a tank filled with water
(n = 4/3). On the opposite side of the lens, a mirror is placed inside the tank
on th e tank wall perpendicular to the lens axis, as shown in figure. The separa
tion b etween the lens and the mirror is 0.8 m. A small object is placed outside
the ta nk in front of the lens at a distance of 0.9 m from the lens along its a
xis. Fin d the position (relative to the lens) ofthe image ofthe object formed b
y the sys tem. [JEE' 97] 0.9m 0.8m Q. 7 Select the correct alternative(s): [JEE
'98] (i) A concave mirror is placed on a horizontal table, with its axis directe
d vertically upwards. Let O be t th e pole ofthe mirror & C its centre of curvat
ure. A point obj ect is placed at C. It has a real image, also located at C. Ift
he mirror is nowfilledwith water, th e image will be: (A) real, & will remain at
C (B) real, & located at a point bet ween C & co (C) virtual, & located at a po
int between C & O (D) real, & located at a point between C & O. (ii) (iii) A ray
of light travelling in a transparent medium falls on a surface separating the m
edium from air at an angle of incidenc e of 45. The ray undergoes total internal
reflection. Ifn is the refractive index of the medium with respect to air, selec
t the possible value(s) of nfromthe fol lowing : (A) 1.3 (B) 1.4 (C) 1.5 (D) 1.6
A spherical surface of radius of curvat ure R separates air (refractive index 1
.0)fromglass (refractive index 1.5). The centre of curvature is in the glass. A
point object P placed in air is found to have a real image Q in the glass. The l
ine PQ cuts the surface at a point O and PO = OQ. The distance PO is equal to: (
A) 5R (B) 3R (C) 2R (D) 1.5R A prism of r efractive index n, & another prism of
refractive index I , L are stuck together without a gap as shown in thefigure.Th
e angles of the prisms are as shown. n, & n2 depend on X, the wavelength of ligh
t according to n, = 1.20 + 10.8xl0 & n = 1 .45 + 1.80xl0 4 4 2 2 2 Q. 8 where X
is in nm. (l)^ Calculate the wavelength X0 for which rays incident at an y angle
on the interface BC pass through without bending at that interface. (ii) For li
ght ofwavelength X0,findthe angle of incidence i on the face AC such that the de
viation produced by the combination ofprisms is minimum. [JEE'98] Q X X V (!%Bans
al Classes A rod made of glass (fa = 1.5) and of square cross-section is bent in
to the shap e shown infigure.Aparallel beam oflight falls perpendicularly on the
planeflatsu rface A. Referring to the diagram, d is the width of a side & R is
the radius of inner d semicircle. Find the maximum value ofratio so that all lig
ht entering t he glass R through surface A emergefromthe glass through surface B
. [REE '98] *

frx\ semi circle Geometrical Optics [10] M

Q.10 A concave lens of glass, refractive index 1.5, has both surfaces of same ra
dius of curvature R. On immersion in a medium ofrefractive index 1.75, it will
b ehave as a [JEE '99] (A) convergent lens of focal length 3.5R (B) convergent l
en s of focal length 3.0 R. (C) divergent lens of focal length 3.5 R (D) diverge
nt lens of focal length 3.0 R Q.ll The x-y plane is the boundary between two tra
nsp arent media. Medium-1 with z > 0 has refractive index V2 and medium - 2 with
z < 0 has a refractive index V3 .Aray oflight in medium -1 given by the vector
A = 6^3 i + 8^3 j 10k is incident on the plane of separation. Find the unit vect
or i n the direction of refracted ray in medium -2. [JEE '99] Q.12 A quarter cyl
inder of radius R and refractive index 1.5 is placed on a table. A point object
P is kept at a distance ofmRfromit. Find the value ofm for which a ray from P wi
ll em erge parallel to the table as shown in the figure. [JEE '99] 2 T p Q.13 Tw
o symmetric double-convex lenses L, and L with their radii of curvature 0 .2m ea
ch are made from glasses with refractive index 1.2 and 1.6 respectively. T he le
nses with a separation of0.345 m are submerged in a transparent liquid medi um w
ith a refractive index of 1.4. Find the focal lengths of lens L, and L An ob jec
t is placed at a distance of 1.3 mfromL find the location of its image while the
whole system remains inside the liquid. [REE' 99] r p Q. 14 Select the correct
alternative. [JEE '2000 (Scr)] (a) A diverging beam ofl ightfroma point source S
having divergence angle a, falls symmetrically on a gla ss slab as shown. The a
ngles of incidence of the two extreme rays are equal. If the thickness of the gl
ass slab is t and the refractive index n, then the diverg ence angle ofthe emerg
ent beam is (A) zero (B) a (C) sin (l/n) (D) 2sin~ (l/n) s _1 i (b) A rectangula
r glass slab ABCD, of refractive index nj, is immersed in water fractive index n
^n > r^). Aray oflight is incident at the surface AB of the as shown. The maximu
m value ofthe angle of incidence a , such that the ray s out onlyfromthe other s
urface CD is given by -1 n. (B) sin" n, cos sm (A) . -cos sin n ni ) 1y max "2 c
-1 n 2 (C) sin" (c) n, V2 ) n (D) sin -1 n. v iy n A point source oflight B is
placed at a distance L in front ofthe centre ofa mir ror ofwidth d hung vertical
ly on a wall. A man walks infrontof the mirror along a line parallel to the mirr
or at a distance 2Lfromit as shown. The greatest dist ance over which he can see
the image ofthe light source in the mirror is (A)d/2 ofre slab come sm n

(B)d (C) 2d (D) 3d B. i< >1 L 2L (!%Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [10]

(d) A hollow double concave lens is made ofvery thin transparent material. It ca
n be filled with air or either oftwo liquids L, or L having refractive indices n
, an d n, respectively (n >n > 1). The lens will diverge a parallel beam oflight
if i t isfilledwith (A) air and placed in air. (B) air and immersed in L,. (C)
L, and immersed in L (D) L and immersed inL 2 2 ) r 2 r Q.15 A convex lens of fo
cal length 15 cm and a concave mirror of focal length 30 cm are kept with their
optic axes PQ and RS parallel but separated in vertical direction by 0.6 cm as s
hown. The distance between the lens and mirror is 30 cm. An upright object AB of
height 1.2 cm is placed on the optic axis PQ of the lens at a distance of 20 cmf
romthe lens. IfA' B' is the image after refraction from the lens and reflectionf
romthe mirror,findthe distance A' B' from the pole ofthe mirror and obtain its m
agnification. Also locate positions of A' and B' with re spect to the optic axis
RS. [JEE 2000] Q.16 A thin equi biconvex lens ofrefracti ve index 3/2 is placed
on a horizontal plane mirror as shown in thefigure.The sp ace between the lens
and the mirror is then filled with water of refractive inde x 4/3. It is found t
hat when a point object is placed 15cm above the lens on its principal axis, the
object coincides with its own image. On repeating with anot her liquid, the obj
ect and the image again coincide at a distance 25cm from the lens. Calculate the
refractive index ofthe liquid. [JEE 2001 ] viiiiTiiriniirminiiin; Q.17 The refr
active indices ofthe crown glass for blue and red lights are 1.51 a nd 1.49 resp
ectively and those of the flint glass are 1.77 and 1.73 respectively . An isosce
les prism of angle 6 is made of crown glass. A beam of white light is incident at
a small angle on this prism. The other flint glass isosceles prism i s combined
with the crown glass prism such that there is no deviation ofthe inci dent ligh
t. Determine the angle of the flint glass prism. Calculate the net disp ersion o
fthe combined system. [JEE 2001 ] Q.18 An observer can see through a pin -hole t
he top end of a thin rod of height h, placed as shown in thefigure.The be aker h
eight is 3h and its radius h. When the beaker isfilledwith a liquid up to a heig
ht 2h, he can see the lower end of the rod. Then the refractive index ofth e liq
uid is (A) 5/2 (B)V572 (Q JJ/2 (D) 3/2 [JEE 2002 (Scr)] Q.19 Which one of t he f
ollowing spherical lenses does not exhibit dispersion? The radii of curvatur e o
f the surfaces ofthe lenses are as given in the diagrams. [JEE 2002 (Scr)] (A )
R R,*R 2 (B)R (C)R (D) (!%Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [10]

Q.20 Two plane mirrors A and Bare aligned parallel to each other, as shown in th
e figure. A light ray is incident at an angle of 30 at a pointjust inside """uiun
u iiiainiu one end ofA. The plane of incidence coincides with the plane of the 0
.2 m ,0 3 figure. The maximum number oftimes the ray undergoes reflections ,, (i
nc luding thefirstone) before it emerges out is [JEE 2002 (Scr)] (A) 28 (B)30 (C
) 3 2 (D)34 |c Q.21 Aconvex lens of focal length 30 cm forms an image of height
2 cm for an obj ect situated at infinity. If a convcave lens of focal length 20
cm is placed coa xially at a distance of 26 cm in front ofconvex lens then size
image would be [J EE 2003 (Scr)] (A) 2.5 cm (B)5.0 (C) 1.25 (D)None Q.22 A menis
cus lens is made o f a material of refractive index Both its surfaces have radii
of curvature R. It has two different media of refractive indices (ij and |x res
pectively, on its t wo sides (see figure). Calculate its focal length for jx j <
\x2 < |a , when lig ht is incident on it as shown. [JEE 2003] 3 3 HI j R ft ft/
VR / ft<ft<ft Q .23 White light is incident on the interface of glass and air a
s shown in thef igure.If green light is just totally internally reflected then t
he emerging ray in air contains (A) yellow, orange, red (B) violet, indigo, blii
e (C) all colour s (D) all coloure except green [JEE 2004 (Scr)] Green Glass Q.2
4 A ray of light is incident on an equilateral glass prism placed on a horizo nt
al table. For minimum deviation which ofthe following is true ? [JEE 2004 (Scr )
] (A) PQ is horizontal (B)QR is horizontal (C)RS is horizontal (D) Either PQ or
RS is horizontal. Q.25 A point object is placed at the centre of a glass sphere
of radius 6 cm and refractive index 1.5. The distance ofthe virtual imagefromth
e surface of the sphere is [JEE 2004 (Scr)] (A) 2 cm (B) 4 cm (C)6cm (D)12cm Q.
2 6 Figure shows an irregular block of material of refractive index *J~2 . A ray
of light strikes the face AB as shown in the figure. After refraction it is inc
ident on a spherical surface CD of radius of curvature 0.4 m and p enters a med
i um of refractive index 1.514 to meet PQ at E. Find the distance OE upto two pl
ac es of decimal. [JEE 2004] Q.27 An object is approaching a thin convex lens of
fo cal length 0.3 m with a speed of 0.01 m/s. Find the magnitudes of the rates
of c hange ofposition and lateral magnification of image when the obj ect is at
a dis tance of 0.4 mfromthe lens. [JEE 2004] Q. 2 8 The ratio of powers of a thi
n conv ex and thin concave lens is and equivalent focal length of their combinat
ion is 30 cm. Then their focal lengths respectively are [JEE' 2005 (Scr)] (A) 75
,-50 (B ) 75,50 (C)10,-15 (D)-75,50 (!%Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [10]

Q.29 Figure shows obj ect O. Final image I is formed after two refractions and o
ne reflection is also shown in figure. Find the focal length ofmirror, (in cm):
(A) 10 (B) 15 (C) 20 (D) 25 [JEE 2005 (Scr)] Q.30 What will be the minimum angl
e ofincidence such that the total internal reflection occurs on both the surface
s ? [JEE 2005] n=4/3 1 Q.31 Two identical prisms of refractive index V3 are kept
as shown in thefigure. A light ray strikes the first prism at face AB. Find, (a
) the angle of incidence , so that the emergent rayfromthefirstprism has minimum
deviation. (b) through w hat angle the prism DCE should be rotated about C so t
hat thefinalemergent ray a lso has minimum deviation. [JEE 2005] (!%Bansal Class
es Geometrical Optics [10]

ANSWER KEY EXERCISE # / Q.3 Q.7 Q.9 Q.l Q.5 60 45 Q.2 S Q.6 1.5 f f +d(f ~d) 5(f d) f f -d ' ~ f f - d 1 2 1 r 1 + 2 y 1 + 2 1 1.3 1000 m/s 2 cm Q.4 15 cm Q.10 8
0 m/s Q.13 42 cm Q.17 45 Q.21 2h apq Q.25 7 r Q.28 (7i/4) cm , 2 V7 Q.ll tan y- w
ith the principal axis, j- cm/sec Q.12 d/2 4 Q.14 sin" 1 Q.15 ( - 4 i - 3 j) Q.16
42 cm 1 Q.18 sin1 V2 Q.19 4/3 Q.20 5 cm Q.24 11cm Q.27 (5f, 2d) Q.22 1.70 m Q.2
3 15 cm Q.26 20 cm behind the mirror Q.29 1 cm Q.30 V43 2 EXERCISE # II Q.2 5.9
cm,10.9 cm Q.3 f = - 2 1 cm, 1.4 Q.5 15 cm towards the combination Q.6 1 .5 or (
V5-1) Q.10 5/8 0.625 cm Q- = 4 - ( r / R ) } ^ - ( r / R ) } ( r / R ) |' o Q.12
6^26 cm Q.13 (a) 21 m/s, (b) 1 x 10~ /sec Q.14 (a)3.3 cm, (b) / = (50/3) cm Q.17
a/2f9 11 r 0 2 0 2 + 0 2 = i f r 3 < < R Q.4 Q.8 16 feet 8/5 cm/s EXERCISE # II
I |V Q.l (a) tan9 = dx = coti (b) y = k ,4 (c) 4.0, 1 4 2 (d) It will become par
allel to x-axis Q.2 (i) sin" S^G/n -n, ) (ii) r, = sin" (n sin 45) = 72.94 Q.3 f =
0.4m, separatio n = 0.6 m Q.4 B,C Q.5 On the object itself Q.6 (i) B, (ii) 90 c
m from the lens t owards right Q.7 (i) D, (ii) C, D, (iii) A 2 2 _ n i 1 (!%Bans
al Classes Geometrical Optics [10]

Q.8(i) \ = 600nm, n = 1.5 (ii) i = sin" (0.75) = 48.59 1 Q - (~J 9 max Q10 A Q.ll
? = + ^k(angleofincidence=60 ;r=45) Q.12 m = 4/3 5V2 5 V2 Q. 13 f, = -70cm, f = 7
0cm, V= 560 cm to the right of L Q. 14 (a) B (b) A > (c) D (d) D Q. 15 A' B' at
15 cm to the right of mirror. B' is 0.3 cm above RS and A' is 1.5 cm below RS. M
agnif ication is 1.5 Q.16 1.6 Q.17 4 and -0.04 Q.18 B Q.19 C Q.20 B 0 2 2 Q.21 A Q
.25 C Q.27 Magnitude ofthe rate of change of lateral magnification is 0.3 sr . Q
.28 C Q.29 C Q.30 Max (Cj, c ) = 60 Q.31 (a) i = 60, (b) 60 (anticlockwise) 1 2 Q.2
2 f = = - ^ _ Q.23 A Q.24 B 1 514x0 4 Q.26 = 6.06 m correct upto two places of de ci
mal. v (!%Bansal Classes Geometrical Optics [10]



EXERCISE-III Q. 1 Q. 2 Q. 3 A remote sensing satellite is revolving in an orbit

of radius x t he equator of earth. Find the area on earth surface in which satel
lite can not s end message. Four masses (each of m)are placed at the vertices of
a regular pyra mid (triangular base) of side 'a'. Find the work done by the sys
tem while taking them apart so that they form the pyramid of side '2a'. 1 A smal
l mass and a thin uniform rod each of mass' m are positioned along the sam e str
aight line as shown. Find the force of gravitational attraction exerted by the r
od on the. small mass. Q. 4 An object is projected vertically upwardfromthe surf
ace ofthe earth of mass M with a velocity such that the maximum height reac hed
is eight times the radius R ofthe earth. Calculate: (i) the initial speed of pro
jection (ii) the speed at halfthe maximum height. Q. 5 A satellite close to the
earth is in orbit above the equator with a period of rotation of 1.5 hours. If i
t is above a point P on the equator at some time, it will be above P again a fte
r time . Q. 6 A satellite is moving in a circular orbit around the earth. The to
tal energy ofthe satellite is E = - 2 x 10 J. The amount of energy to be impa rt
ed to the satellite to transfer it to a circular orbit where its potential ene r
gy is U= - 2 x 10 J is equal to . Q . 7 A rocket starts vertically upwards with
speed v . Show that its speed v at a height h is given by (2gh) 5 5 0 2 2 V ry w
here Ris the radius of the earth. Hence deduce the maximum height reached by a r
ocket fired with speed equal to 90% of escape velocity. Q. 8 Q. 9 Find the gravi
tationalfieldstrength and potential at the centre of arc of linear mass de nsity
X subtending an angle 2a at the centre. Apoint P lies on the axis of a fix ed r
ing ofmass M and radius a, at a distance afromits centre C. A small particle sta
rtsfromP and reaches C under gravitational attraction only. Its speed at C w ill
be _. v fTM Q. 10 Calculate the distancefromthe surface ofthe earth at which ab
ove and below the surface acceleration due to gravity is the same. Q. 11 Conside
r two satelli tes A and B of equal mass m, moving in the same circular orbit of
radius r aroun d the earth E but in opposite sense of rotation and therefore on
a collision cou rse (see figure). (a) In terms of Q M , m and rfindthe total mec
hanical energy E + E of the two satellite plus earth system before collision. (b
) If the collisi on is completely inelastic so that wreckage remains as one piec
e of tangled mate rial (mass = 2m),findthe total mechanical energy immediately a
fter collision. (c ) Describe the subsequent motion of the wreckage. e A B (!%Ba
nsal Classes Gravitation [2]

Q.12 A particle is fired vertically from the surface of the earth with a velocit
y ku , where u is the escape velocity and k < 1. Neglecting air resistance and
a ssuming earth's radius as R . Calculate the height to which it will risefromth
e surface ofthe earth. Q.13 A satellite of mass m is orbiting the earth in a cir
cu lar orbit of radius r. It starts losing energy due to small air resistance at
th e rate of C J/ s. Then the time taken for the satellite to reach the earth i
s . Q.14 Find the potential energy of a system of eight particles placed at the
vert ices of a cube of side L. Neglect the self energy ofthe particles. Q.15 A h
ypoth etical planet of mass M has three moons each of equal mass 'm' each revolv
ing in the same circular orbit of radius R. The masses are equally spaced and I/
/ / \ \ \\ thus form an equilateral triangle. Find: fy \ ) (i) the total RE. oft
he sys tem (ii) the orbital speed of each moon such that they maintain this conf
igurati on. Q.16 Two small dense stars rotate about their common centre of mass
as a bin ary system with the period e e e 1 year for each. One star is of double
the mass of the other and the mass of the lighter one is - of the mass of the s
un. Find the distance between the stars if distance between the earth & the sun
is R. Q.17 A sphere of radius R has its ce ntre at the origin. It has a uniform
mass density p except that there is a spher ical hole of radius r=R/2 whose cent
re is at x=R/2 as infig.(a) Find gravitation al field at points on the axis for
x > R (ii) Show that the gravitationalfieldin side the hole is uniform,findits m
agnitude and direction. Q.18 A body moving rad ially awayfroma planet ofmass M,
when at distance rfromplanet, explodes in such a way that two ofits manyfragment
smove in mutually perpendicular circular orbits around the planet. What will be
(a) then velocity in circular orbits. (b) maxim um distance between the twofragm
entsbefore collision and (c) magnitude oftheir r elative velocity just before th
ey collide. Q.19 The fastest possible rate ofrota tion of a planet is that for w
hich the gravitational force on material at the eq uator barely provides the cen
tripetal force needed for the rotation. (Why?) (a) Show then that the correspond
ing shortest period ofrotation is given by 0 t' - VGp fWhere p is the density of
the planet, assumed to be homogeneous. (b) E valuate the rotation period assumi
ng a density of 3.0 gm/cm , typical of many pl anets, satellites, and asteroids.
No such object is found to be spinning with a period shorter than found by this
analysis. Q.20 Athin spherical shell of total mass M and radius R is heldfixed.
There is a small hole in the shell. Amass m is released from rest a distance R f
rom the hole along a line that passes through t he hole and also through the cen
tre ofthe shell. This mass subsequently moves un der the gravitational force oft
he shell. How long does the mass take to travelfr omthe hole to the point diamet
rically opposite. 2 List of recommended questions from LE. Irodov. 1.213,1.216 t
o 1.220,1.224 to 1.2 27,1.229 ^Bansal Classes Gravitation [3]

EXERCISE-III Q. 1 A satellite P is revolving around the earth at a height h = ra

dius of earth (R) above equator. Another satellite Q is at a height 2h revolving
in opposite direction. At an instant the two are at same vertical line passing
through centr e of sphere. Find the least time of after which again they are in
this situation . Q.2 A certain triple-star system consists of two stars, each of
mass m, revolv ing about a central star, mass M, in the same circular orbit. Th
e two stars stay at opposite ends ofa diameter ofthe circular orbit, seefigure.D
erive an express ion for the period of revolution of the stars; the radius of th
e orbit is r. Fin d the gravitational force of interaction between the mass m an
d an infinite rod of varying mass density X such that A(x)= X/x, where x is the
distance from mass m. Given that mass m is placed at a distance d from the end o
f the rod on its a xis as shown in figure. Inside an isolatedfixedsphere of radi
us R and uniform de nsity r, there is a spherical cavity of radius R/2 such that
the surface of the cavity passes through the centre ofthe sphere as infigure.Ap
article ofmass m is released from rest at centre B ofthe cavity. Calculate veloc
ity with which parti cle strikes the centre Aof the sphere. In a certain double
star system the two s tars rotate in circular orbits about their common centre o
fmass. The stars are s pherical, they have same density p and their radii arc R
and 2 R. Their centres are 5 R apart. Find the period T of stars in terms of p,
R & G. Aring ofradius R is madefroma thin wire ofradius r. If p is the density o
fthe material ofwire th en what will be the gravitational force exerted by the r
ing on the material part icle ofmass m placed on the axis of ring at a distance
x from its centre. Show t hat the force will be maximum when x = R/V2 and the ma
ximum value of force will be given as 471 Gr pm F max = (3) R 3/2 _1Q Q.3 0< m X
(x)= X x TT Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q7 (a) (b) Q. 8 In a particular double star system, two
stars ofmass 3.22 x 10 kg each revolve a bout their common center of mass, 1.12
x 10 m away. Calculate their common perio d of revolution, in years. Suppose tha
t a meteoroid (small solid particle in spa ce) passes through this centre of mas
s moving at right angles to the orbital pla ne ofthe stars. What must its speed
be ifit is to escapefromthe gravitational fi eld of the double star? 30 11 A man
can jump over b=4m wide trench on earth. Ifmean density of an imaginary pl anet
is twice that of the earth, calculate its maximum possible radius so that h e m
ay escape from it by jumping. Given radius of earth = 6400 km. (!%Bansal Classes
Gravitation [2]

Q.9 A launching pad with a spaceship is moving along a circular orbit of the moo
n, w hose radius R is triple that of moon Rm. The ship leaves the launching pad
with a relative velocity equal to the launching pad's initial orbital velocity v
and the launching pad then falls to the moon. Determine the angle 0 with the ho
rizon tal at which the launching pad crashes into the surface if its mass is twi
ce tha t of the spaceship m. Q Q.10 A small satellite revolves around a heavy pl
anet in a circular orbit. At ce rtain point in its orbit a sharp impulse acts on
it and instantaneously increase s its kinetic energy to' k' (< 2) times without
change in its direction ofmotion . Show that in its subsequent motion the ratio
ofits maximum and minimum distanc es from the planet is k , assuming the mass o
fthe satellite is negligibly small as compared to that ofthe 2 k planet. Q.ll A
satellite of mass m is in an ellipt ical orbit around the earth of mass M ( M m
) The speed of the 6GM satellite at its nearest point to the earth (perigee) is
J ^ where R=its closest distance to the earth. It is desired to transfer this sa
tellite into a circular orbit around the earth of radius equal its largest dista
nce from the earth. Find the increas e in its speed to be imparted at the apogee
(farthest point on the elliptical or bit). Q.12 Abody is launchedfromthe earth'
s surface a an angle a=3 0 to the horiz ontal at a speed v - 1.5GM R Neglecting a
ir resistance and earth's rotation,find (a) the height to which the body will ri
se, (ii) The radius of curvature oftraje ctory at its top point. 0 Q.13 Assume t
hat a tunnel is dug across the earth (radius = R) passing through i ts centre. F
ind the time a particle takes to reach centre of earth if it is proj ected into
the tunnel from surface of earth with speed needed for it to escape t he gravita
tionalfieldof earth. ^Bansal Classes Gravitation [3]

EXERCISE-III Q. 1 If the distance between the earth and the sun were half its pr
esent value, the number of days in a year would have been [JEE 96] (A) 64.5 (B)
129 (C) 182.5 (D)730 Q. 2 Distance between the centres of two stars is 10 a. The
masses of th ese stars are M and 16 M and their radii a and 2a respectively. Ab
ody of mass m isfiredat nightfromthe surface of the larger star towards the smal
ler star. What should be its minimum initial speed to reach the surface ofthe sm
aller star ? O btain the expression in terms of Q M and a. [JEE' 96] An artifici
al satellite mo ving in a circular orbit around the earth has a total (K.E. + P.
E.) E . Its pote ntial energy is [JEE 97] (A)-E (B) 1.5 E (C) 2 E (D)E 0 0 0 0 0
Q. 3 Q.4 A cord of length 64 m is used to connect a 100 kg astronaut to spacesh
ip whose m ass is much larger than that of the astronaut. Estimate the value of
the tension in the cord. Assume that the spaceship is orbiting near earth surfac
e. Assume t hat the spaceship and the astronaut fall on a straight linefromthe e
arth centre. The radius of the earth is 6400 km. [REE 98] In a region of only gr
avitationalf ieldof mass 'M' a particle is shifted from A to B via three differe
nt paths in t hefigure.The work done in different paths are Wj, W , W respective
ly then 2 3 Q.5 (A)W!=W = W3 ( B ) W ! > W > W 3 2 2 (C)Wj=W >W 2 3 (D)W!<W <W [
JEE (Scr.) 2003] 2 3 Q. 6 A body is projected vertically upwards from the bottom
of a crater of moon of de pth R/l 00 where R is the radius of moon with a veloc
ity equal to the escape vel ocity on the surface of moon. Calculate maximum heig
ht attained by the body from the surface ofthe moon. [JEE' 2003 ] A B A B Q. 7 A
system ofbinary stars ofmasses m and m are moving in circular orbits of r adii
r and r respectively. If TA and T are the time periods of masses m and m re spec
tively, then [JEE 2006] ( A ) T > T (ifr >r ) (B)TA>T .(ifm >m ) b A B A b A B B

A B ft N 2 f (C) T !a \ (D)T =T A B (!%Bansal Classes Gravitation [2]

ANSWER KEY EXERCISE-I Q .3 Q.l Q.5 Q.6 R 4ttR2 Q.2 -1 3 L2 ^ " 31 R ^ 3 V

hours if it is rotatingfromwest to east, 24/17 hours ifit is rotating from
to east lxio'j Q.7 - R 81 Q.8 2C5l (sinot), ( GA. 2ot) Q. 10h = V?-l
. l - 1 ^ a v v^y Q.12 R 2 1-k' R \ R Q.ll (a)-GmM/r, (b)-2GmMe/r Q.13 t=
V e 1 x J Q.14 m 3 +

5R 1.6
w est
2 Q.9 \2GM(
GMm 2C

Jl V2 + V3 ' 3Gm f m +M Q.15 (i)R n ,09 R V3 +M Q.16 R R 2 Q.20 ? _ i, g = 27iGpR

i Q.18 (a) GM 1 _ 2GM Q.19 (b) 1.9 h 2xVR 3 /GM EXERCISE-IT Q1 Q5 2tcR3/2(6v/6)
VGM(2-\/2 +3-\/3) T=5. JlL 3Gp 47tr nQ 9 / 2 3 2 V VG(4M + m) Q3 J Gml 2d2

Q.4 J^nGpR2 Q 7 ( a ) T = 4 l ^ > ( b ) v = i ~ Q8 V ^ k m Q.9 cos0: Vio v 2 Q.l

l GM' R 2 _ _8_ 3 V15 Q.13 T = sin" Q.12 (a)h = , R, (b) 1.13R ' N ir T = 3 x io
~2 N Q.l B Q2 Q.5 A vmm .

3 Q.6 2 V a 5GM EXERCISE-III Q3 Q7 C D Q.4 h = 99R ^Bansal Classes Gravitation [



J t v v r v i OMMMIQEIMK ON J L TX T O I V ^ ^

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER Q. 1 .Two satellites move along a circular orbit in t
he same direction at a smal l distance from each other. A container has to be th
rownfromthefirstsatellite on to the second one. When will the container reach th
e second satellite faster: if its is thrown in the direction of motion of the fi
rst satellite or in the oppos ite direction ? The velocity ofthe container with
respect to the satellite u is much less than that ofthe satellite v. Q.2 Because
the Earth bulges near the equ ator, the source ofthe Mississippi River (at abou
t 50N latitude), although high a bove sea level, is about 5 km closer to the cent
re of the Earth than is its mout h (at about 30N latitude). How can the river flo
w "uphill" as it flows south? Q.3 Use qualitative arguments to explain why the f
ollowing four periods are equal ( all are 84 min, assuming a uniform Earth densi
ty): (a)' time of revolution of a satellite just above the Earth's surface (b) p
eriod of oscillation of mail in a tunnel through the Earth (c) period of a simpl
e pendulum having a length equal t o the Earth's radius in a uniformfield9.8 m/s
(d) period of an infinite simple p endulum in the Earth's real gravitational fi
eld. Q. 4 After Sputnik I was put in to orbit, it was said that it would not ret
urn to Earth but would burn up in its descent. Considering the fact that it did
not burn up in its ascent, how is thi s possible ? Q.5 An artificial satellite i
s in a circular orbit about the Earth. How will its orbit change if one ofits ro
ckets is momentarily fired, (a) toward s earth, (b) away from the Earth, (c) in
a forward direction, (d) in a backward direction, and (e) at right angles to the
plane of the orbit? Q.6 A stone is dro pped along the centre of a deep vertical
mine shaft. Assume no air resistance bu t consider the Earth's rotation. Will t
he stone continue along the centre ofthe shaft ? Ifnot, describe its motion. Q.7
An iron cube is placed near an iron sphe re at a location remotefromthe Earth's
gravity. What can you say about the locat ion of the centre of gravity ofthe cu
be? Of the sphere ? In general, does the lo cation ofthe centre of gravity of an
object depend on the nature of the gravitat ionalfieldin which the object is pl
aced? / Q. 8 Figure shows a particle ofmass m that is movedfroman infinite dista
nce to the # centre of a ring of mass M, alon g the central axis of the ring. Fo
r the trip, how | does the magnitude ofthe gra vitational force on the particle
due to the ring \ ' \ change. % i 2 m / X W / M Q.9 (a) (b) (c) (d) Infigure,a p
article ofmass m is initially at point A, at distance dfromthe centr e of one un
iform sphere and distance 4dfromthe centre of another uniform sphere, both of ma
ss M m. State whether, if you moved the particle to point D, the foll owing woul
d be positive, negative, or zero: the change in the gravitational pote ntial ene
rgy of the particle, the work done by the net gravitational force on th e partic
le, the work done by your force. What are the answers if, instead, the m ove wer
e from point B to point C ? B C ^T; D Q.10 Reconsider the situation of above que
stioa Would the work done by you be po sitive, negative, or zero ifyou moved the
particle (a)fromAto B, (b)fromAto C, ( c) from B to D ? (d) Rank those moves ac
croding to the absolute value ofthe work

done by your force, greatest first. 1*1<JjBansalClasses Question Bank on Gravita

tion [2]

ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT. Take approx. 2 minutes for answering each question.
Q.l A large spherical planet of radius R, made of a material of density d, has a
sph erical cavity of radius R/2, with center of cavity a distance R/2 from the
centr e of the planet. Find the gravitational force on a small mass'm' at the ce
nter o f the cavity. (A) 27iRGmd/3 (B) 7iRGmd/3 (C) 27tRGmd (D) 47tRGmd/3 Q.2 At
what a ltitude will the acceleration due to gravity be 25% ofthat at the earth'
s surfac e (given radius of earth is R)? (A)R/4 , (B) R (C) 3R/8 (D)R/2 V Q.3 At
of he se 2 Q.4 Two masses m, & m are initially at rest and are separated by a v
ery large distan ce. If the masses approach each other subsequently, due to grav
itational attract ion between them, their relative velocity of approach at a sep
aration distance o f d is: 2Gd (m, + m ) G (A) t m,+ m )T (B) ^ 2d (C) (m, + m )
2G (D) (m,+m ) 2Gd >' Q.5 Let co be the angular velocity of the earth's rotatio
n about its axis. A ssume that the acceleration due to gravity on the earth's su
rface has the same v alue at the equator and the poles. An object weighed at the
equator gives the sa me reading as a reading taken at a depth d below earth's s
urface at a pole ( d R ) The value of d is co R OR 2O R jRg ,(A) g ( B ) ^2g ~ r
(C) g (D) ^ g 7 1/2 v 7 2 W 2 2 1/2 2 2 2 2 2 2 w W Q.6 A spherical hole of rad
ius R/2 is excavated from the asteroid of mass M as shown in fig. The gravitatio
nal acceleration at a point on the surface ofthe asteroid just above the excavat
ion is (A) GM/R (B) GM/2R (C) GM/8R (D) 7GM/8R 2 2 2 2 Q.7 Q.8 If the radius of
the earth be increased by a factor of 5, by what factor its den sity be changed
to keep the value of g the same? (A) 1/25 (C) 1/V5 (D) 5 A man o f mass m starts
falling towards a planet of mass M and radius R. As he reaches n ear to the sur
face, he realizes that he will pass through a small hole in the pl anet. As he e
nters the hole, he sees that 2M the planet is really made oftwo pie ces a spheri
cal shell of negligible thickness of mass and a point M mass at the c entre. Chan
ge in the force of gravity experienced by the man is 2 GMm (A) 3 - ^ 1 GMm 4 GMm
3l^~ 1*1 <JjBansalClasses (B)0 ( D ) Question Bank on Gravitation what distance
from the centre of the moon is the point at which the strength the resultantfie
ldof earth's and moon's gravitationalfieldis equal to zero. T earth's mass is 81
times that of moon and the distance between centres of the planets is 60R where
R is the radius of the earth (A) 6R (B) 4R (C) 3R (D)5R


Q. 9 An infinite number of masses, each of one kg are placed on the +ve X axis a
t 1 m , 2m, 4m, from the Q. 15 / origin. The magnitude ofthe gravitationalfielda
t orig in due to this distribution ofmasses is: 4G 3G (A)2G (B) (Q (D)oo Q.16 I Q.
10 Wit h what angular velocity the earth should spin in order that a body lying
at 3 0 l atitude may become weightless [R is radius of earth and g is accelerati
on due to gravity on the surface of earth] (A) (B) (C) J V 3R (D) Q.17 M Q. 11 T
wo concentric shells ofuniform density of mass Mj and Mj are situated as shown i
n the figure. The forces experienced by a particle of mass m when placed at posi
tions A, B and C respectively are (given OA= p, OB = q and OC = r) (A)zer o, G a
n d G--. (B) G ( M i + M 2 > Q.18 . , ( M ! + M 2 > and G ^ g 1 + 2 2 f f l a n d
( C ) G M^ (M M ) q p ; G G zero ^ Q. 19 ( d ) ( m 1 + M 2 )

W ; G M ^ zero QO 2 Q. 12 A satellite ofthe earth is revolving in circular orbit

with a uniform velo city V. If the gravitational force suddenly disappears, the
satellite will (A) c ontinue to move with the same velocity in the same orbit.
(B) move tangentially to the original orbit with velocity V. (C) fall down with
increasing velocity. ( D) come to a stop somewhere in its original orbit. Q. 13
A newly discovered plan et has a density eight times the density of the earth an
d a radius twice the rad ius ofthe earth. The time taken by 2 kg mass to fallfre
elythrough a distance S n ear the surface of the earth is 1 second. Then the tim
e taken for a 4 kg mass to fall freely through the same distance S near the surf
ace of the new planet is ( A) 0.25 sec. (B) 0.5 sec (C) 1 sec. (D) 4 sec. Q. 14
Four particles of equal mas ses M move along a circle of radius R under the acti
on of their mutual gravitati onal attraction maintaining a square shape. The spe
ed of each particle is (A)Q \ 2 q 22 GM 2V2+1 R (B) 1 GM V R 4 GM (D) 4GM R(V2+l
) & Bansal Classes Question Bank on Gravitation [4] 4lBan

height from the Q.15 At whatsurface?above the earth's surface does the accelerat
ion due to gravity fall to 1 % of its value at the earth's (A) 9R (B)10R (C) 99
R (D) 100R Q.16 Find the distance between centre of gravity and centre of mass o
f a two particle system attached to the ends ofa light rod. Each particle has sa
m e mass. Length ofthe rod is R, where R is the radius of earth (A) R (B) R/2 (C
) zero (D) R/4 Q.17 The radius of a planet is R. A satellite revolves around it
in a circle of radius r with angular velocity co . The acceleration due to the g
ra vity on planet's surface is 33 rco ra r_3 2 M (D) (B) (C) (A) R R R R 0 3 0 2
Q.18 A solid sphere of uniform density and radius R applies a gravitational forc
e of attraction equal to F on a particle placed at a distance 3R from the centr
e ofthe sphere. A spherical cavity ofradius R/2 is now made in the sphere as sho
w n in the figure. The sphere with cavity now applies a gravitational force F on
t he same particle. The ratio F / F j is: 22 41 (A) 50 (C) (B) 25 <">25 50 t 2
2 Q.19 The mass and diameter of a planet are twice those of earth. What will be
th e period of oscillation ofa pendulum on this planet if it is a seconds pendul
um on earth? 1 1 (A) V2 second (B) 2V2 seconds (C) ^ second (D) ^ ^ second Q.20
A p article of mass M is at a distance afromsurface of a thin spherical shell of
equ al mass and having radius a. (A) Gravitationalfieldand potential both are z
ero a t centre ofthe shell. (B) Gravitational field is zero not only inside the
shell but at a point outside the shell also. (C) Inside the shell, gravitational
fielda lone is zero. (D) Neither gravitationalfieldnor gravitational potential i
s zero inside the shell. Q.21 Three point masses, M each, are moving in a circle
, each with a speed v, under their mutual gravitational attractive force. The di
stance between any two masses must be: (A) 2GM/v (B) 3 G M / V ( C ) GMV3/v (D)
G M / V 2 2 2 2 Q. 22 A cavity of radius R/2 is made inside a solid sphere of ra
dius R. The cent re of the cavity is located at a distance R/2 from the centre o
f the sphere. Fin d the gravitational force on a particle of mass'm' at a distan
ce R/2 from the ce ntre of the sphere on the line joining both the centres of sp
here and cavity (op posite to the centre of cavity). [Here g = GM/R , where M is
the mass of the sph ere] g ^ mg (D) none of these (C) 16 (A) (B) 2 m 3 m 1*1 <J
jBansal Classes Question Bank on Gravitation [5]

Q. 23 How much deep inside the earth should a man go so that his weight becomes
one fourth of that at a point which is at a height R above the surface of earth.
(A)R/4 (B) 15R/16 (C)3R/4 (D) R/2 Y Q. 24 Two identical spherical balls each of
mass m are placed as shown in figure . Plot the variation of g(gravitation inte
nsity) along the x-axis. (A) J ) ( g1 0 A. o V (C) \ g1 0 ) m m e-x B (D) J r Q.
25 A satellite revolves in the geostationary orbit but in a direction east to we
st. The time interval between its successive passing about a point on the equa t
or is: (A) 48 hrs (B)24hrs (C)12hrs (D) never Q.26 A particle startsfromrest at
a distance Rfromthe centre and along the axis of a fixed ring ofradius R & mass
M. Its velocity at the centre ofthe ring is: / i>j (V2GM 2GM (A) (B) R GM GM (C
) <P) R I v2 R M) e Q. 27 Aspherical uniform planet is rotating about its axis.
The velocity of a po int on its equator is V. Due to the rotation of planet abou
t its axis the accele ration due to gravity g at equator is 1/2 of g at poles. T
he escape velocity of a particle on the planet in terms ofV. (A)V = 2V (B)V = V
(C)V =V/2 (D)V =,V Q.28 Two point masses of mass 4m and m respectively separated
by d distance are revo lving under mutual force of attraction. Ratio oftheir kin
etic energies will be: (A) 1 : 4 (B) 1:5 (C) 1 : 1 (D) 1 : 2 e e e Q.29 Two plan
ets Aand B have the same material density. Ifthe radius ofAis twice that of B, t
hen the ratio of v the escape velocity is v 4 D

(A) 2 (B) V2 (C) 1/V2 0 CD) 1/2 Q.30 The escape velocity on the surface ofthe ea
rth is V . If M and R are the ma ss and the radius of the earth respectively, th
en the escape velocity on another planet of mass 2M and radius R/2 will be : (A)
4V (B)2V (C)V . (D)V /2 Q.31 Abal l A' of mass m falls to the surface of the ear
th from infinity. Another ball B' of mass 2m falls to the earth from the height
equal to six times radius of the e arth then ratio of velocities of'A' and 'B' o
n reaching the earth is (A) V(6/5) (B) V(5/6) (C) 1 (D) V(7/6) 0 0 0 0 r & Bansa
l Classes Question Bank on Gravitation [278] 4lBan

Q. 3 2 If an artificial satellite revolves in circular orbit around the earth wi

th a speed equal to halfits escape velocity from the earth. Then its height abo
v e the surface of earth will be: [Radius of earth=6400 km] (A) 3200 km (B) 6400
k m (C) 12800 km (D) 24000 km Q. 3 3 The ratio of gravitational acceleration at
he ight 3R to that at height 4Rfromthe surface ofthe earth is : (where R is the
rad ius ofthe earth) (A) 9/16 (B) 25/16 (C) 16/25 (D) 16/9 Q.34 A small body of
supe rdense material, whose mass is twice the mass ofthe earth but whose size i
s very small compared to the size ofthe earth, startsfromrest at a height H R ab
ove th e earth's surface, and reaches the earth's surface in time t. Then t is e
qual to (A)V2H7^ (B)VHT^ (C) V2H/3g (D) V4H/3g. Q. 3 5 A rocket is launched stra
ight up fromthe surface ofthe earth. When its altitude is one fourth ofthe radiu
s of the earth, its fuel runs out and therefore it coasts. The minimum velocity
which th e rocket must have when it starts to coast if it is to escapefromthe gr
avitation al pull of the earth is [escape velocity on surface of earth is 11,2km
/s] (A) lk m/s (B) 5km/s (C) lOkm/s (D)15km/s Q. 3 6 Gravitational potential dif
ference bet ween a point on surface of planet and another point 10m above is 4J/
kg. Consider ing gravitationalfieldto be uniform, how much work is done in movin
g a mass of 2 .0 kg from the surface to a point 5. 0m above the surface ? (A) 0.
40 J (B) 2.5 J (C) 4.0 J (D)8.0J Q. 3 7 Referring to previous problem, what is t
he gravitation alfieldstrength in this region ? (A) 0.025 N kg(B) 0.40 N kg(C)2.
5Nkg-' (D)4.0Nk g" Q. 3 8 Select the correct choice(s): (A) The gravitationalfie
ldinside a spher ical cavity, within a spherical planet must be nonzero and unif
orm. (B) When a b ody is projected horizontally at an appreciable large height a
bove the earth, wi th a velocity less than for a circular orbit, it will fall to
the earth along a parabolic path. (C) Abody of zero total mechanical energy pla
ced in a gravitatio nalfieldwill escape the field (D) Earth's satellite must be
in equatorial plane. Q.39 The orbital velocity of an artificial satellite in a c
ircular orbit just a bove the earth's surface is V . The value of orbital veloci
ty for another satell ite orbiting at an altitude of half of earth's radius is 1
1 1 0 (A) (B) J h (C)JT O V (D) v / v j 0 4gR Q.40 A particle is projected with
a velocity vertically upward from the surf ace ofthe earth, R being the radius
of the earth & g being the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the ear
th. The velocity of the particle when it is at half the maximum height reached b
y it is (A)Jf (B)Jf (C) VgR <P)ff Bansal Classes Question Bank on Gravitation

Q.41 A satellite is in a circular orbit very close to the surface of a planet. A

t some point it is given an impulse along its direction of motion, causing its
v elocity to increase r| times. It now goes into an elliptical orbit. The maximu
m possible value of ri for this to occur is (A) 2 <B)V2 (C) V2+1 (D)^i^ Q. 42 A
sa tellite ofmass m, initially at rest on the earth, is launched into a circular
or bit at a height equal to the radius ofthe earth. The minimum energy required
is (A) mgR (B)^mgR (C)^mgR (D)^mgR Q. 43 Thefigureshows the variation ofenergy
with the orbit radius of a body in c ircular planetary motion. Find the correct
statement about the curves A, B and C (A) A shows the kinetic energy, B the tota
l energy and C the potential energy o f if the system. s (B) C shows the total e
nergy, B the kinetic energy and Athe p otential energy of the system. (C) C and
A are kinetic and potential energies re spectively and B is the total energy of
the system. (D) A and B are kinetic and potential energies and C is the total en
ergy of the system. Q 44 The ratio of th e. radius of the earth to that of the m
oon is 10 The ratio of the acceleration d ue to gjravirj on the earth to that on
the moon is 6. The ratio ofthe escape vel ocityfromthe earth 's surface to that
from the moon is (A) 6 (B) 1.5 (C) 12 (D)V 60 Q.45 An artificial satellite of t
he earth releases a package. If air resistan ce is neglected, the point where th
e package will hit (with respect to the posit ion at the time of release) will b
e (A) ahead (B) exactly below (C) behind (D) i t will never reach the earth Q. 4
6 A space ship of mass m is in circular orbit o f radius 2R about the earth ofma
ss M and radius R . Energy required to transfer the space ship to circular orbit
of radius 3R is GMm GMm GMm GMm ( ) 8R ( > 24R7 e e e A C Q.47 A particle is pr
ojected from the mid-point of the line joining two fixed pa rticles each of mass
m. If the distance of separation between thefixedparticles is /, the minimum ve
locity of projection of the particle so as to escape is equa l to GM GM , 2GM ,
2GM (A)J (B ) J (C)J (D)2/ V2/ I I v x W Q.48 The escape velocity for a planet is
v . Atunnel is dug along a diameter oft he planet and a small body is dropped i
nto it at the surface. When the body reac hes the centre of the planet, its spee
d will be e (A) v e (B)^ (C) y (D)zero & Bansal Classes Question Bank on Gravita
tion [280] 4lBan

nanimpulse Q.49 A per son brings a mass of 1 kg from infinity to a point A. Init
ially the m ass was at rest but it moves at a speed of 2 m/s as it reaches A. Th
e work done by the person on the mass is -3 J. The potential at Ais: (A) -3 J/kg
(B) -2 J/kg (C) -5 J/kg (D)-7 J/kg Q.50 A small ball of mass'm' is released at
a height'R' above the earth surface, as shown in thefigureabove. Ifthe maximum d
epth ofthe b all to which it goes is R/2 inside the earth through a narrow grove
before comin g to rest momentarily. The grove, contain an ideal spring of sprin
g constant K a nd natural length R, find the value of K if R is radius of earth
and M mass of e arth 3 GMm 6GMm (A) R (B) R 7 GMm 9GMm (C) " R ^ (D) R 3 3 3 equ
al to the iystem. e to gravity o that from where the Q.51 The magnitude of the p
otential energy per unit mass ofthe object at the sur face of earth is E. Then t
he escape velocity ofthe object is: (A)V2E (B)4E (C)VE (D)2E 2 Q.52 Suppose a sm
ooth tunnel is dug along a straight line joining two points on the surface ofthe
earth and a particle is dropped from rest at its one end. Assu me that mass of
earth is uniformly distributed over its Volume. Then (A) the par ticle will emer
ge from the other end with velocity GM where M and R^. are earth' s mass 2R and r
adius respectively, (B) the particle will come to rest at centre o fthe tunnel b
ecause at this position, particle is closest to earth centre. (C) p otential ene
rgy of the particle will be equal to zero at centre oftunnel if it i s along a d
iameter. (D) acceleration of the particle will be proportional to its distancefr
ommidpoint ofthe tunnel. r e 1 e tl . Energy e Q.53 A hollow spherical shell is
compressed to half its radius. The gravitationa l potential at the centre (A)inc
reases (B) decreases (C) remains same (D) during the compression increases then
returns at the previous value. Q.54 A body is pr ojection horizontallyfromthe su
rface of the Earth (radius = R) with a velocity e qual to 'n' times the escape v
elocity. Neglect rotational effects of the earth. The maximum height attained by
the body from the Earth's surface is R/2. Then, ' n' must be (A) V06 (B) (V3J/2
(C)V04 (D)None Q.55 Consider two configurations of a system ofthree particles o
f masses m, 2m and 3m. The work done by external ag ent in changing the configur
ation of the systemfromfigure(i) tofigure(ii) is 6Gm .2 /1 + J J (A)zero (B) (C)
6Gm' , V2, (D)6Gm V2, 2 s m. If the he particle 3M all body is nr a 1

figure(i) 5" 2m m a v>3 figure(ii) A 2m m 1*1 <JjBansal Classes Question Bank on Gra
vitation 72, [9]

Q. 56 Two satellites of mass rrij & m are in same circular orbit around earth bu
t are revolving in opposite sense. When they undergo completely inelastic colli
s ion, the combination (A) continues in same orbit (B) goes to a circular orbit
of lesser radius (C) goes in an elliptical orbit within the original circle (D)
go es in an elliptical orbit outside the original circle 2 Q. 57 A uniform spher
ical planet (Radius R) has acceleration due to gravity at i ts surface g. Points
P and Q located inside and outside the planet have accelera tion due to gravity
. Maximum possible separation between P and Q is 7R 3R 9R (A ) (B) (O (D) none / A
g Q. 5 8 A particle is dropped on Earthfromheight R (radius of Earth) and it bo
unc es back to a height R/2 the coefficient of restitution for collision is (ign
ore air resistance and rotation of Earth) (A)f (B)JI (C)JI (D)j! Q. 5 9 A body o
f ma ss m is lifted upfromthe surface of the earth to a height three times the r
adius of the earth. The change in potential energy of the body is (A) 3mgR (B) 3
/4 mg R (C) 1/3 mgR (D) 2/3 mgR where g is acceleration due to gravity at the su
rface of earth. Q.60 Two satellites S and S describe circular orbits ofradiusr a
nd 2r respectively around a planet. Ifthe orbital angular velocity of S is co, t
hat of S is: (A) <b/(2V2) (B) (GW2)/3 (C) <a/2 (D) cW2 l 2 { 2 c Q ^ Q. 61 When
a satellite moves around the earth in a certain orbit, the quantity w hich remai
ns constant is : (A) angular velocity (B) kinetic energy (C) aerial ve locity (D
) potential energy Q. 6 2 A satellite is launched into a circular orbit ofradius
R around the earth. A second satellite is launched into an orbit ofrad ius 1.02
R. The period of second satellite is larger than thefirstone by approxim ately ^
(A) 1.5% (B)3% (C)l% (D) 2% Q. 63 Asatellite ofmass 5M orbits the earth in a ci
rcular orbit. At one point in its orbit, the satellite explodes into two Q piece
s, one ofmass M and the other of mass 4M. After the explosion the mass M ends up
travelling in the same circular orbit, but in opposite direction. After explosi
on the mass 4M is in (A) bound orbit (B) unbound orbit q (C) partially bo und or
bit (D) data is insufficient to determine the nature of the orbit. Q. 64 A satel
lite can be in a geostationary orbit around a planet at a distance rfromth e cen
tre of the planet. If the angular velocity of the planet about its axis dou bles
, a satellite can now be in a geostationary orbit around the planet if its d ist
ancefromthe centre ofthe planet is (A)^ (B)^ (C)-^TTT (D)-^TJ & Bansal Classes Q
uestion Bank on Gravitation [10] 4lBan

in opposite Q-65 Aplanetofmass mis in an elliptical orbit about the sun ( m M )

with an orbi tal period T. IfA bethe area of orbit, then its angular momentum wo
uld be: 2mA m A (B)mAT (D) 2mAT (A) (C) TT s u n nts P and Q 3 separation Q. 66
The planets with radii Rj, Rj have densities p,, p respectively. Their atm osphe
ric pressures are pj, p respectively. Therefore, the ratio of masses ofthei r at
mospheres, neglecting variation of g within the limits of atmosphere, is (A) p R
p /p R p (B)p,R p /p R p (C)p R p /p R p (D) p R p /p R p 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1
1 ] 1 1 2 2 2 1 ] 2 2 2 1 2 ght R/2 the Q. 67 Suppose the gravitational force v
aries inversely as the n power of distanc e. Then the time period of a planet in
circular orbit of radius R around the sun will be proportional to n-2 n+1 n-1 2
(C)R (D) R' 2 (B) RV 2 (A)R th N >fthe earth. Q. 68 A satellite is seen after e
very 6 hours over the equator. It is known that it rotates opposite to that of e
arth's direction. Then the angular velocity oft he satellite about the centre of
earth will be: (A) 7c/2 rad/hr (B) n/3 rad/hr ( C) n/4 rad/hr (D) 7t/8 rad/hr Q
. 69 A satellite is orbiting round the earth. In a particular orbit its time per
iod is T and orbital speed is V. In another orbit the orbital speed is 2V, then
time period will be (A) 8T (B)2T (C) T/2 (D)T/8 Q . 70 In a double star system,
the masses ofthe two stars are M and 3M. The orbit radius of the lighter star is
R. The time period of each star is (A) 8TC[R3/GM] (B) 1 6 T I [ R / G M ] (C)4T
T[2R3/GM] (D)None 1/2 anet. If the ant is: 3 1/2 1/2 y :hed into an 'ly les into
two elling in the Figure shows the orbit of a planet P round the sun S. AB and
CD are ^ the minor and major axes ofthe ellipse. Q. 71 If t, is the time taken b
y the planet to tra vel along ACB and ^ the time along BDA, then (A)tj=t2 (B)t >
t (C)tj<t (D) nothin g can be concluded h 1 2 2 Question No. 71 to 72 V

Q. 72 If U is the potential energy and K kinetic energy then |U| > |K| at (A) On
ly D (B)OnlyC (C) both D & C (D) neither D nor C Q. 73 If a tunnel is cut at an
y orientation through earth, then a ball released from one end will reach the ot
h er end intime(neglect earth rotation) (A) 84.6 minutes (B) 42.3 minutes (C) 8
mi nutes (D) depends on orientation e planet. If jnary orbit & Ban sal Classes Q
uestion Bank on Gravitation [283] 4lBan

Questions 74 to 79 (6 questions) Two stars bound together by gravity orbit each

other because oftheir mutual attraction. Such a pair of stars is referred to as
a binary star system. One type ofbinary system is that ofa black hole and a comp
anion star. The black hole is a star that has collapsed on itselfand is so mass
i ve that not even light rays can escape its gravitational pull. Therefore, when
d escribing the relative motion of a black hole and a companion star, the motio
n o fthe black hole can be assumed negligible compared to that ofthe companion.
The orbit ofthe companion star is either elliptical with the black hole at one o
fthe foci or circular with the black hole at the centre. The gravitational poten
tial energy is given by U = - GmM/r, where G is the universal gravitational cons
tant , m is the mass of the companion star, M is the mass of the black hole, and
r is the distance between the centre of the companion star and the centre of th
e bla ck hole. Since the gravitational force is conservative, the companion star
's tot al mechanical energy is a constant of the motion. Because ofthe periodic
nature ofthe orbit, there is a simple relation between the average kinetic energ
y <K > ofthe companion star and its average potential energy < U>. In particular
, <K> = -<U/2> Two special points along the orbit are singled out by astronomers
. Perig ee is the point at which the companion star is closest to the black hole
, and ap ogee is the point at which it is furthestfromthe black hole. Q. 74 At w
hich poin t in the elliptical orbit does the companion star attain its maximum k
inetic ene rgy? (A) Apogee (B) Perigee (C) The point midwayfromapogee to perigee
(D) All po ints in the orbit, since the kinetic energy is a constant of the mot
ion. Q.75 Fo r circular orbits, the potential energy ofthe companion star is con
stant through out the orbit. If the radius ofthe orbit doubles, what is the new
value of the v elocity of the companion star? (A) It is 1/2 ofthe old value (B)
It is 1/V2 ofth e old value (C) It is the same as the old value. (D) It is doubl
e the old value Q. 76 Which ofthe following prevents the companion starfromleavi
ng its orbit and falling into the black hole? (A) The centripetal force (B) The
gravitational fo rce (C) The companion star's potential energy (D) the companion
star's kinetic e nergy Q. 77 The work done on the companion star in one complet
e orbit by the gra vitational force ofthe black hole equals (A) the difference i
n the kinetic energ y ofthe companion star between apogee and perigee. (B) the t
otal mechanical ener gy ofthe companion star (C)zero (D) the gravitational force
on the companion sta r times the distance that it travels in one orbit. Q.78 Fo
r a circular orbit, wh ich ofthe following gives the correct expression for the
total energy? (A) - (1/ 2) mv (B)mv (C)-(GmM)/r (D)(GmM)/2r 2 2 Q. 79 What is th
e ratio of the acceleration of the black hole to that ofthe comp anion star? (A)
M / m (B)m/M (C)mM/r (D) 1 /1 1*1 <JjBansalClasses Question Bank on Gravitation

>air of stars ianion star, i escape its on star, the ar with the re G is the c h
ole, and Since the ant of the ige kinetic =-<U/2> .ompanion >le. y? ee -bit. If
t he ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Take approx. 3 minutes for answe
ring each question. Q. 1 Assuming the earth to be a sphere ofuniform density the
acceleration due to gravity (A) at a point outside the earth is inversely propo
rtional to the squar e of its distancefromthe centre (B) at a point outside the
earth is inversely pr oportional to its distancefromthe centre (C) at a point in
side is zero (D) at a point inside is proportional to its distancefromthe centre
. Q2 Mark the correct statement/s (A) Gravitational potential at curvature centr
e of a thin hemispheri cal shell of radius R and mass M is equal to GM R (B) Gra
vitationalfieldstrength at a point lying on the axis of a thin, uniform circular
ring ofradius R and GM x mass M is equal to (K 2+x 2x3/2 where x is distance of
that pointfromcentre of the ring. ,T> ) (C) Nekton's law of gravitation for gra
vitational force between two bodies is applicable only when bodies have spherica
lly symmetric distributi on of mass. (D) None of these. Three particles are proj
ected vertically upward f rom a point on the surface of the earth with velocitie
s V(2gR/3), V(gR), V(4gR/3 ) respectively where R is the radius ofthe earth and
g is the acceleration due t o gravity on the surface ofthe earth. The maximum he
ights attained are respectiv ely h,,!^,!^. (A) hj: h = 2 : 3 (B) h^: h = 3 :4 (C
)h,: 1^=1:4 (D) h ^ R 2 3 Q.3 lack hole? ole equals Q4 A geostationary satellite
is at a height h above the surface of earth. If earth radius is R (A) The minim
um colatitude q on earth upto which the satellite can b e used for communication
is sin- (R/R + h). (B) The maximum colatitudes q on ear th upto which the satel
lite can be used for communication is sin" (R/R + h). (C) The area on earth esca
pedfromthis satellite is given as 2pR (1 + sinq) (D) The area on earth escapedfr
omthis satellite is given as 2pR (1 + cosq) 1 1 2 2 Q5 & Gravitational potential
at the centre of curvature of a hemispherical bowl of ra dius R and mass M is V
. (A) gravitational potential at the centre of curvature o f a thin uniform wire
of mass M, bent into a semicircle of radius R, is also equ al to V. (B) In part
(A) if the same wire is bent into a quarter of a circle the n also the gravitat
ional potential at the centre of curvature will be V. (C) In part (A) if the sam
e wire mass is nonuniformly distributed along its length and it is bent into a s
emicircle of radius R, gravitational potential at the centre is V. (D) none ofth
ese Q.6 In a solid sphere two small symmetrical cavities are created whose centr
es lie on a diameter AB of sphere on opposite sides of the ce ntre. (A) The grav
itationalfieldat the centre of the sphere is zero. (B) The gra vitational potent
ial at the centre remains unaffected if cavitiesare not present (C) A circle at
which all points have same potential is in the plane of diamete r AB. (D) A circ
le at which all points have same potential is in the plane perpe ndicular to the
diameter AB. Ban sal Classes

Question Bank on Gravitation[285]4lBan ~P~31

Q.7 The spherical planets have the same mass but densities in the ratio 1:8. For
the se planets, the (A) acceleration due to gravity will be in the ratio 4:1 (B
) acc eleration due to gravity will be in the ratio 1:4 (C) escape velocitiesfro
mtheir surfaces will be in the ratio V2 : 1 (D) escape velocitiesfromtheir surfa
ces wi ll be in the ratio 1 : V2 When a satellite in a circular orbit around the
earth enters the atmospheric region, it encounters small air resistance to its
motion. Then (A) its kinetic energy increases (B) its kinetic energy decreases (
C) its angular momentum about the earth decreases (D) its period ofrevolution ar
ound th e earth increases A communications Earth satellite (A) goes round the ea
rthfrome ast to west (B) can be in the equatorial plane only (C) can be vertical
ly above any place on the earth (D) goes round the earth from west to east Q. 8
Q.9 Q. 10 An earth satellite is movedfromone stable circular orbit to another la
rger and stable circular orbit. The following quantities increase for the satell
ite as a result ofthis change (A) gravitational potential energy (B) angular vle
ocit y (C) linear orbital velocity (D) centripetal acceleration Q. 11 Two satell
ites of same mass of a planet in circular orbits have periods of revolution 32 d
ays a nd 256 days. If the radius of the orbit of the first isx, then the (A) rad
ius of the orbit of the second is 8x (B) radius ofthe orbit of the second is 4x
(C) to tal mechanical energy ofthe second is greater than that of the first (D)
kinetic energy of the second is greater than that of the first. Q. 12 Two satell
ites Sj & s of equal masses revolve in the same sense around a heavy planet in c
oplanar circular orbit of radii R & 4R (A) the ratio of period of revolution Sj
& s is 1 : 8. (B) their velocities are in the ratio 2 : 1 (C) their angular mome
ntum ab out the planet are in the ratio 2 : 1 (D) the ratio of angular velocitie
s of s w .r.t. s, when all three are in the same line is 9 : 5. 2 2 2 Q. 13 A sa
tellite S is moving in an elliptical orbit around the earth. The mass of the sat
ellite is very small compared to the mass of the earth (A) the acceler ation of
S is always directed towards the centre ofthe earth (B) the angular mom entum of
S about the centre ofthe earth changes in direction, but its magnitude remains
constant (C) the total mechanical energy of S varies periodically with t ime (D)
the linear momentum of S remains constant in magnitude 1*1<JjBansalClasses Ques
tion Bank on Gravitation [114]

the Q. 14 If a satellite orbits as close to the earth's surface as possible, (A)

its speed is maximum (B) time period of its rotation is minimum (C) the total e
nerg y ofthe 'earth plus satellite' system is minimum (D) the total energy of th
e 'ea rth plus satellite'system is maximum Q. 15 For a satellite to orbit around
the e arth, which of the following must be true? (A) It must be above the equat
or at s ome time (B) It cannot pass over the poles at any time (C) Its height ab
ove the surface cannot exceed 36,000 km (D) Its period ofrotation must be > 2tzJ
r / g wh ere R is radius of earth ers small air r orbit. The ys and 256 n coplan
ar very small 1*1 <JjBansal Classes Question Bank on Gravitation [15]

Answer Key Q.l Q.8 Q.15 Q.22 Q.29 Q.36 Q.43 Q.50 Q.57 Q.64 Q.71 Q.78 A A A B A C
D D C C B A ONLY ONE OPTION IS Q.2 Q.9 Q.16 Q.23 Q.30 Q.37 Q.44 Q.51 Q.58 Q.65
Q.72 Q.79 AD AC B,D A B B B B B B D A B A C B Q.3 Q.10 Q.17 Q.24 Q.31 Q.38 Q.45
Q.52 Q.59 Q.66 Q.73 Q.2 Q.6 Q.10 Q.14 CORRECT A D D A D C D D B D B Q.4 Q.ll Q.1
8 Q.25 Q.32 Q.39 Q.46 Q.53 Q.60 Q.67 Q.74 C D B C B C D B A A B Q.5 Q.12 Q.19 Q.
26 Q.33 Q.40 Q.47 Q.54 Q.61 Q.68 Q.75 C,D B,D B,C AD A B B D B B D A C C B Q.6 Q
.13 Q.20 Q.27 Q.34 Q.41 Q.48 Q.55 Q.62 Q.69 Q.76 B A D A C B B C B D A Q.7 Q.14
Q.21 Q.28 Q.35 Q.42 Q.49 Q.56 Q.63 Q.70 Q.77 B A D A C D C C B D C Q.l Q.5 Q.9 Q
.4 A C Q.8 A C Q.12 AB,D & Bansal Classes Question Bank on Gravitation [16] 4lBa



KEY CONCEPTS THINGS TO REMEMBER ds dv dv v = ; a = = v ; s = Jvdt; have their us

ual meaning . The equations line with uniform acceleration, are , 1* - \(m) 2v 2_L1 2as ' v + u^ (iv) s = u v u + V t a t a t 2 n 2. If a body is thrown verti
cally up with a velocity u in the uniform gravitational field then (neglecting a
ir resistance): (i) Maximum height attained H= (ii) Tim e of ascent = time of de
scent = g 2u (iii) Total time of flight (iv) Velocity of fall at the point of pr
ojection=u downwards : KINEMATIC GRAPH: Slope ofthe displacement time graph at a
ny particular time give s the magnitude ofthe instantaneous velocity at that par
ticular time. Slope ofth e v -1 graph will give the magnitude of the instantaneo
us acceleration. The area between the v - t graph, the time axis and the ordinat
es erected at the beginni ng & end oftime interval considered will represent the
total displacement of the body. 5. RELATIVE VELOCITY: (a) Velocity of 'A' relat
ive to 'B' is given by V = V - V V refers to the velocity which 'A' appears to h
ave as seen by B. The abov e idea of 1 dimensional relative motion can be extend
ed to motion in 2 dimension s. (b) Angular velocity of A relative to B i.e. co i
s given by velocityof Arelat ivetoBinadirectionperpendiculartoAB AB AB 6. LEVEL G
ROUND PROJECTILE MOTION: When abody is thrown obliquely (in a vertical plane) in
to the uniform gravitationalf ieldthen the trajectory (actual path of motion) is
a parabola. The horizontal co mponent of velocity ucos a remains unchanged wher
e as vertical component decreas es up to the maximum height and then increases.
(a) Time taken to reach the heig ht point t ^ usina i y (minimum (b) Maximum hei
ght H - u sm a velocity) 2g AB A B AB AB = 2 2 (c) Total time of flight =2t u co
s a H (d) Horizontal range = (ucos a). T= - (ucos a) (usina) v u sin 2 a 2 u c o
s a
= Ja dt ; = Ja ds dt dt ds where the symbols ofmotion for a body moving in strai
ght u + (i) v = u + at (ii) s=|r11 = ut h=v t r + ^ a ( 2 n - l ) (v)

[Figure 1] >x ^Bansal Classes (e) Rm if a = 45 ' Note that for a given velocity o
fprojection & a given horizont al range there are in general two directions of p
roj ection which are complement ofeach other and are equally inclined to the dir
ection ofthe maximum range. Kinematics [2]

dding these 2 equations we will get the velocity of the VsinB =usina-gt projecti
le. Dividing the velocities in y and x directions gives the direction of motion.
V cos 0 =u cos a on adding V = u - 2 gh V sin 0 =u sin a-2gh_ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
O F MOTION IN VECTOR NOTATION : (i) V=u+ gt (ii) S=ut+gt (iii) V = -=u+-gt (V = a
verage velocity vector) 2 2 av t 2. av (i) EQUATION O F TRAJECTORY : gx - x tan
a 2u cos a v Ry dy Note that represent the direction of motion dx 7. PROJECTILE
UP AN INCLINED PLANE : (a) Total time of flight onthe inclined plane 2 / (aT _ 2u
sincosp P ) // \ s g Oblique Proj ection (refer fig-1) y = x tan a 2 2 / (b) Ra
nge PQ on the inclined plane PQ 2u cosa . sin(a-P) g cos p 2 2 (c) (d) (e) W 71
ForMaxmimumrange 2 a - P = =>a= u Z* +p ^ T " Hence the direction for maximum r an
ge bisects the angle between the vertical and the inclined plane. R = u 2 max gc
os (3 [sin (2 a - P) - sinP] kf N Greatest distance ofthe projectile from the in
clined plane; u sin (a-p) 2 2

g(l+sinP) S = 2g cosp when the projectile is at H, its velocity perpendicular to

the plane is zero. 8. PROJECTILE DOWN AN INCLINED PLANE: (a) Time offlight= ' (
P) (b) (c ) (d) gcosp Range OP 2u sin(a + p). cosa g cos p u Maximum range= g(l
-sinp) 2 2 2 u s n a + 7 _p C Angle ofproj ection a for maximum range= 4 2 faBan
sal Classes Kinematics [3]

Q.l Q. 2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 A butterfly is flying with velocity 10 i +12 j m/s and wind
is blowing along x a xis with velocity u. If butterfly starts motionfromA and a
fter some time reaches point B,findthe value of u. EXERCISE - / y B 37 Find the c
hange in velocity of the tip of the minute hand (radius =10 cm) of a c lock in 4
5 minutes. A,B&Care threeobjects each movingwith constant velocity. A's speed is
lOm/sec in a direction pQ. The velocity of B relative to A is 6 m/sec at an ang
le of, cos (15/24) to PQ. The velocity of C relative to B is 12 m/sec i n a dire
ction Qp, thenfindthe magnitude of the velocity of C. Rain is falling ve rticall
y with a speed of 20 ms" relative to air. A person is running in the rain with a
velocity of 5 ms and a wind is also blowing with a speed of 15 ms (both towards
east). Find the angle with the vertical at which the person should hold his umb
rella so that he may not get drenched. -1 1 -1 -1 The velocity-time graph ofthe
particle moving along a straight line is shown. Th e rate of acceleration and de
celeration is constant and it is equal to 5 ms"" . If the s average velocity dur
ing the motion is 20 ms , thenfindthe value of t. 2 -1 25 sec Q.6 The fig. shows
the v-t graph of a particle moving in straight line. Find the tim e when partic
le returns to the starting point. v Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 A particle is proj ected in the
X-Y plane. 2 sec after proj ection the velocity of the particle makes an angle 4
5 with the X - axis. 4 sec after projection, it m oves horizontally. Find the vel
ocity of projection (use g = 10 ms ). -2 A small ball rolls off the top landing
of a staircase. It strikes the mid point of the first step and then mid point of
the second step. The steps are smooth & identical in height & width. Find the c
oefficient of restitution between the bal l & the first step. A stone is dropped
from a height h. Simultaneously another s tone is thrown up from the ground wit
h such a velocity that it can reach a heigh t of 4h. Find the time when two ston
es cross each other. 2 Q.10 A particle is proj ected upwards with a velocity of
100 m/sec at an angle o f 60 with the vertical. Find the time when the particle w
ill move perpendicular t o its initial direction, taking g=10 m/sec . Q.ll A par
ticle is moving on a stra ight line. Its displacementfromthe initial position |sj
is plotted against time i n the graph shown. What will be the velocity of the p
article at 2/3 sec? Assume the graph to be a sine curve. - /

\time T = 2s~ faBansal Classes Kinematics [4]

Q.12 A large number of bullets are fired in all direction with the same speed v.
What is the maximum area on ground on which these bullets can spread? Q.13 A bo
at starts from rest from one end of a bank of a river of width d flowing with v
e locity u. The boat is steered with constant acceleration a in a direction perp
en dicular to the bank. Ifpoint of start is origin, direction ofbank is x axis a
nd perpendicular to bank is y axis. Find the equation oftrajectory ofthe boat. Q
.14 A ball is thrown horizontallyfroma cliff such that it strikes ground after 5
se c. The line of sightfromthe point of projection to the point ofhitting makes
an angle of 37 with the horizontal. What is the initial velocity ofprojection. Q
.15 A ball is proj ected on smooth inclined plane in direction perpendicular to
line of greatest slope with velocity of 8m/s. Find it's speed after 1 sec. Q.16
A gl ass wind screen whose inclination with the vertical can be changed, is moun
ted o n a cart as shown infigure.The cart moves uniformly along the horizontal p
ath wi th a speed of 6 m/s. At what maximum angle a to the vertical can the wind
screen be placed so that the rain drops falling vertically downwards with veloc
ity 2 m /s, do not enter the cart? Q.17 A particle is proj ectedfrompoint P with
velocit y 5 A/2 m/s perpendicular to the surface of a hollowrightangle cone who
se axis i s vertical. It collides at Q normally. Find the time ofthe flight ofth
e particle . Q.18 Find range ofproj ectile on the inclined plane which is proj e
cted perpen dicular to the incline plane with velocity 20m/s as shown in figure.
Q.19 AB and CD are two smooth parallel walls. A child rolls a ball along ground
from A towa rds point P find PD so that ball reaches point B after striking the
wall CD. Giv en coefficient of restitution e = 0.5 0 8 m/s 777777777777777777/7
777777777 mmn o y o t-u = 20ms-' 37X C- PX- -D A; 1.5m -B Q.20 Initial acceleration
of a particle moving in a straight line is a and initi al velocity is zero. The
acceleration reduces continuously to half in every t se conds as a =a . Find th
e terminal velocity of the particle. 2 ta 0 mvuuuuummuwmv Q.21 Find the accelerat
ion of movable pulley P and block B if rH rK acceleration of block A = 1 m/s 4-.
Q 2 El Q.22 The velocities of Aand B are marked inthefigure.Find the velocity o
f blo ck C (assume that the pulleys are ideal and string inextensible). ^7777777
77777777777777777 3m/s lm/s ) m 777777777777777777777777 J3 B

faBansal Classes Kinematics [5]

Q.23 A particle is moving in x-y plane such that x = t + sin(t) meter, y = cos (
t) meter, t is the time in sec. Find the length of the path taken by the partic
l e from t = 0 to t = 2n sec. Q.24 The speed of a particle when it is at its gre
at est height ^2/5 is of its speed when it is at its half the maximum height. Th
e a ngle ofproj ection is and the velocity vector angle at half the maximum heig
ht i s . Q.25 A weightless inextensible rope on a stationary wedge forming angle
a wi th the horizontal. One end of the rope is fixed to the wall at point A. A
small load is attached to the rope at point B. The wedge starts moving to therig
htwith a constant acceleration. Determine the acceleration a, ofthe load when it
is st ill on the wedge. 777777777777/ Q.26 The horizontal range of a projectile
s is R and the maximum height attained by it is H. A strong wind now begins to b
low in the direction of motion of the p rojectile, giving it a constant horizont
al acceleration = g/2. Under the same co nditions ofproj ection, find the horizo
ntal range of the proj ectile. Q .27 Cons ider the acceleration of a particle fo
r a given time't' at 'a' m/s followed imme diately by retardation at the same ra
te of'a' m/s for time 't/2', as one cycle. If the particle startedfromrest,findt
he distance travelled by it after 'n' such cycles in succession. 2 2 Q. 2 8 A pa
rticle is thrown horizontally with relative velocity 10 m/sfroman inc lined plan
e, which is also moving with acceleration 10 m/s vertically upward. Fi nd the ti
me after which it lands on the plane (g = 10 m/s ) ^ 2 2 10m/s 3 0 2 faBansal Cl
asses Kinematics [6]

Q. 1 A steel ball bearing is releasedfromthe roof of a building. An observer sta

nding infrontof a window 120 cm high observes that the ball takes 0.125 sec to
f all from top to the bottom of the window. The ball continutes to fall & makes
a completely elastic collision with side walk & reappears at the bottom of the w
in dow 2 s after passing it on the way down. How tall is the building ? Q. 2 A t
rai n takes 2 minutes to acquire its full speed 60kmphfromrest and 1 minute to c
ome to restfromthe full speed. If somewhere in between two stations 1 km ofthe t
rack be under repair and the limited speed on this part be fixed to 20kmph, find
the late running ofthe train on account of this repair work, assuming otherwise
nor mal at running of the train between the stations. Q. 3 A speeder in an auto
mobil e passes a stationary policeman who is hiding behind a bill board with a m
otorcy cle. After a 2.0 sec delay (reaction time) the policeman accelerates to h
is maxi mum speed of 150 km/hr in 12 sec and catches the speeder 1.5 km beyond t
he billb oard. Find the speed of speeder in km/hr. Q. 4 Q.5 Q. 6 Q.7 Q. 8 (a) (b
) Q. 9 Q. 10 Q. 11 (i) (ii) (iii) Aballoon is ascending vertically with an accel
eration o f 0.2m/s , Two stones are droppedfromit at an interval of 2 sec. Find
the distan ce between them 1.5 sec after the second stone is released.(use g=9.8
m/s ) 2 2 EXERCISE # III A ship steaming north at the rate of 12 km/h observes a
ship due east to itself and distant 10 km, which steaming due west at the rate
of 16 km/h. After what ti me they are at least distancefromone another and what
is this least distance. An aeroplane is observed by two persons travelling at 60
km/hr in two vehicles mov ing in opposite directions on a straight road. To an
observer in one vehicle the plane appears to cross the road track at right angle
s while to the observer in the other vehicle the angle appears to be 45. At what
angle does the plane actual ly cross the road track and what is its speed relati
ve to the ground. A girl can paddle her canoe at 5m/sec. in still water. She wis
hes to cross a straight rive r which is flowing at 3m/sec. At what angle to the
river bank should she steer t o cross, (a) as quickly as possible, (b) by the sh
ortest route. How long will ap lane take to fly around a square with side a with
the wind blowing at a velocity u, in the two cases the direction ofthe wind coi
ncides with one ofthe sides the direction ofthe wind coincides with one diagonal
ofthe square. The velocity oft he plane in still air is v > u. Two ships A and
B originally at a distance d fro m each other depart at the same time from a str
aight coastline. Ship A moves alo ng a straight line perpendicular to the shore
while ship B constantly heads for ship A, having at each moment the same speed a
s the latter. After a sufficiently great interval oftime the second ship will ob
viously follow thefirstone at a ce rtain distance. Find the distance. The slopes
of the wind-screen of two motorcar s are p = 3 0 and p = 15 respectively. The fir
st car is travelling with a velocity of v horizontally. The second car is travel
ling with a velocity v in the same d irection. The hail stones are falling verti
cally. Both the drivers observe that the hail stones rebound vertically after el
astic collision with the wind-screen. Find the ratio of v,/v A rocket is launche
d at an angle 53 to the horizontal wit h an initial speed of 100 ms . It moves al
ong its initial line of motion with an acceleration of 30 ms~ for 3 seconds. At
this time its engine falls & the rocke t proceeds like afreebody. Find : the max
imum altitude reached by the rocket tot al time of flight. the horizontal range
. [ sin 53 = 4/5 ] 2 t 2 r _1 2 ^Bansal Classes Kinematics [7]

Q.12 A small ball is thrown between two vertical walls such that in the absence
of the wall its range would have been 5d. The angle of projection is a. Given th
at all the collisions are perfectly elastic, find (a) Maximum height attained b
y the ball. \u\uu\uuvwu\ (b) Total number of collisions before the ball comes ba
c k to the ground, and d/2 (c) Point at which the ball fallsfinally.The walls ar
e supposed to be very tall. Q.13 A hunter is riding an elephant ofheight 4m movi
ng in straight line with uniform speed of 2m/sec. A deer running with a speed V
in frontat a distance of 4V5m moving perpendicular to the direction of motion of
th e elephant. If hunter can throw his spear with a speed of 1 Om/sec. relative
to the elephant, then at what angle 0 to it's direction of motion must he throw
his spear horizontally for a successful hit. Find also the speed 'V' ofthe deer
. Q. 14 A perfectly elastic ball is thrownfromthe foot of a smooth plane incline
d at an angle a to the horizontal. If after striking the plane at a distance Ifr
omthe point of projection, it rebounds and retraces its former gl (1 + 3 sin a)
path, show that the velocity of projection is 2 sin a Q.15 A particle is proj ec
tedfr omthe foot of an inclined plane at an angle a in the vertical plane throug
h the line of greatest slope & hits the plane at right angles. If p be the angle
the d irection of projection makes with the plane & if the particle returns to
the poi nt of proj ection in two jumps,findthe value ofthe coefficient ofrestitu
tion. Q. 16 A projectile is to be thrown horizontallyfromthe top of a wall of he
ight 1.7 m. Calculate the initial velocity ofprojection if it hits perpendicular
ly an inc line of angle 37 which startsfromthe ground at the bottom of the wall.
The line o f greatest slope of incline lies in the plane ofmotion of projectile.
Q.17 Two i nclined planes OA and OB having inclination (with horizontal) 30 and
60 respective ly, intersect each other at O as shown infig.Aparticle is projected
from point P with velocity u = \ 0^3 m s along a direction perpendicular to pla
ne OA. Ifthe particle strikes plane OB perpendicularly at Q, calculate velocity
with which pa rticle strikes the plane OB, (a) (b) time offlight, (c) vertical h
eight h of Pfr omO, (d) maximum heightfromO attained by the particle and (e) dis
tance PQ Q.18 A particle is projected with a velocity 2 ^/ag so that it just cle
ars two walls o f equal height 'a' which are at a distance '2a' apart. Show that
the time of pas sing between the walls is 2-JaJg Q.19 A stone is projected from
the point of a g round in such a direction so as to hit a bird on the top of a
telegraph post of height h and then attain the maximum height 2h above the groun
d. If at the insta nt of projection, the bird were to fly away horizontally with
a uniform speed, f ind the ratio between the horizontal velocities ofthe bird a
nd the stone, if the stone still hits the bird while descending. Q.20 Two person
s Ram and Shyam are throwing ball at each other as shown in thefigure.The maximu
m horizontal distanc efromthe building where Ram can stand and still throw a bal
l at Shyam is dj. The maximum ^ horizontal distance of Ramfromthe building where
Shyam can throw a ba ll is d . If both of them can throw ball with a velocity o
f ^2gk, find -nn mm' m u u u m m fc m ufl the ratio of dj/d . Neglect the height
of each person. 2 _1 Shyam 2 2 faBansal Classes Kinematics [8]

EXERCISE # III Q. 1 The motion of a body is given by the equation = 6 . 0 - 3 v(

t) ; where v (t ) is the speed in m/s & t in sec., if the body has v = 0 at t =
0 then (A) the t erminal speed is 2.0 m/s (B) the magnitude of the initial accel
eration is 6.0 m/ s (C) the speed varies with time as v(t) = 2(l -e~ )m/s (D) th
e speed is 1.0 m/s when the acceleration is halfthe initial value. [JEE' 1995] 2
3t Q.2 Two guns, situated at the top of a hill of height 10 m, fire one shot ea
ch with the same speed 5 yfs m/s at; some interval oftime. One gun fires horizon
tally an d other fires upwards at an angle of 60 with the horizontal. The shots c
ollide in air at a point P. Find (a) the time interval between thefirings,and (b
) the coo rdinates ofthe point P. Take origin of the coordinates system at the f
oot ofthe hill right below the muzzle and traj ectories in X-Y plane. [JEE' 1996
] The traj ectory ofa proj ectile in a vertical plane is y = ax - bx , where a,
b are cons tants & x and y are respectively the horizontal & vertical distances
ofthe proje ctilefromthe point ofprojection. The maximum height attained is & th
e angle of p rojectionfromthe horizontal is . [JEE' 1997] 2 Q. 3 Q.4 (a) (b) Q.5
(i) (ii) Q.6 Q.7 A large heavy box is sliding without friction down a smooth pl
ane of inclination 9. From a point P on the bottom ofa box, a particle is proj e
cted inside the bo x. The'initial speed ofthe particle with respect to box is u
and the direction o f projection makes an angle a with the bottom as shown in fi
gure. ithe particle lands. (Assume that the particle does not litany other surfa
ce of the box. Negle ct air resistance). , ' Ifthe horizontal displacement ofthe
particle as seen by an observer on the ground is zero,findthe speed of the box
with respect to the g round at the instant when the particle was projected. [JEE
' 1998] A particle of mass 10~ kg is moving slong the positive x-axis under the
influence of a force K F(x)= whereK= 10 Nm .Attimet = 0itisatx-1.0m&itsvelocityis
v = 0. Find: 2x its ti me at when it reaches x = 0.25 m. thevelocitywhich it rea
ches x = 0.5 0 m [JEE' 1998] In 1.0 sec. a particle goesfrompoint Ato point B mo
ving in a semicircle of radius 1.0 m. The magnitude of average velocity is: [JEE
'99] (A) 3.14 m/sec (B) 2.0 m/sec im (C) 1.0 m/sec (D) zero BThe co-ordinates o
f a particle moving in a plane are given by x (t) = a cos (7it) and y (t) = b si
n (rat) where a, b (<a) & n are positive constants of appropriate dimensions. (A
) the path of the partic le is an ellipse (B) the velocity & acceleration of the
particle are normal to e ach other at t = n/(2n) (C) the acceleration ofthe par
ticle is always directed t owards a focus (D) the distance travelled by the part
icle in time interval t = 0 o t = n/(2n) is a. [JEE' 1999] 2 _2 2 2 ^Bansal Clas
ses Kinematics [9]

Q. 8 A ball is dropped verticallyfroma height d above the ground it hits the gro
und a nd bounces up vertically to a height dl2. Neglecting subsequent motion and
air r esistances, its velocity v varies with the height h above the ground as [
JEE'200 0 (Scr)] (A) (B) (C) (D) An object A is kept fixed at the point x = 3 m
and y = 1.25 m on a plank P raise d above the ground. At time t = 0 the plank st
arts moving along the+x direction with an acceleration 1.5 m/s . At the A same i
nstant a stone is projectedfromthe origin with a velocity u as 1.25m shown. A st
ationary person on the ground obse rves the stone hitting the object during its
downward motion at an angle of 45 to the horizontal. All the motions are in x-y p
lane. Find u and the time after Z 3 .0 m o i which the stone hits the object. Ta
ke g = 10 m/s . [JEE 2000] Q. 10 On africtionlesshorizontal surface, assumed to
be the x-y plane, a small trolley A is moving along a straight line parallel to
the y-axis (seefigure)with a constan t velocity of (V3 -1) m/s. At a particular
instant, when the line OA makes an an gle of 45 with the x-axis, a ball is thrown
along the surfacefromthe origin 0. It s velocity makes an angle <j) with the xaxis and it hits the trolley. o /V (a) The motion ofthe ball is observedfromthef
rameof trolley Calculate the angle 0 ma de by the velocity vector of the ball wi
th the x-axis in this frame. - 49 [JEE 2 002] (b) Find the speed of the ball wit
h respect to the surface, if 4> = . 2 2 5 Q.9 Q. 11 A particle startsfromrest. I
ts acceleration (a) versus time (t) is as show n a* in the figure. The maximum s
peed ofthe particle will be 10m/s [JEE 2004 (Sc r)] (A) 110 m/s (B) 55 m/s (C) 5
50 m/s (D) 660 m/s 2 11 t(s) Q. 12 A small block slides withoutfrictiondown an in
clined plane startingfromres t. Let Sn be the distance 2n 2n-l 2n - 1 2n + 1 (C)
2n + l (D) 2n + l (A) 2n (B) 2 n - l Q. 13 The velocity displacement graph of a
particle moving along a stra ight line is shown. The most suitable acceleration
-displacement graph will be v 7 travelledfromtime t = n -1 to t=n. Then 7 is ^nl-l S n [JEE' 2004 (Scr)] TfT-X (A) (B) (C) (D) [JEE 2005 (Scr)] faBansal Classe

Kinematics [10]

ANSWER KEY EXERCISE # I Q.l Q.4 Q.8 Q.12 6m/s tan (1/2) -1 Q.2 Q.5 Q.9 Q.13 1 W2
I 5s v8gy r axi/min Q.6 36.2 sec. Q.3 Q-7 Q.ll 5 m/sec 20V5 S7T 0 3/4 7IV Q.10 2
0 sec Q.14 100/3 m/s Q.18 75m B 2 1 ax Q.15 10 m/s Q.19 lm Q.22 5 m/s Q.25 2asin
(a/2) Q.16 2tan- (l/3) ptp Q.20 /n(2) Q.23 8m a Q.17 1 sec p Q.21 a = l m / s H
, a = 2 m / s t Q.24 60, tan" ( f i f i ) Q.27 n(3n + 4) at , Q.28 ^ sec 1 Q.26 R
+ 2H Q.l Q.4 Q.7 Q.8 Q.10 Q.12 Q.13 Q.16 Q.19 Q.l EXERCISE # 77 Q.2 160 sec 20.
5 m Q.5 24 min, 6 km 50m (a) 90, (b) 127 to the river flow 2 2 v y y 8 Q.3 Q.6 122
.7 km/hr e = tan- 2,v-134.16km/h 1 2afv + V v - u l 2j2i ly2- u2 (a) v 2 2 , ( b
) \ . Q.9 2 ' v -u v -u Q.ll (i) 1 503.2m (ii) 35.54sec (iii) 3970.56 m 3 (a) 5
d/4 tana, (b) 9, (c) point 0 V5-1 Q. 15 e = 0 = 37, v = 6m/s 2 Q.17 (a) 10 ms , (
b) 2 sec, (c) 5 m, (d) 16.25 m, (e) 2 0 m u=3m/s 2 lk-h V2+1 i -1 Q 2 0 EXERCISE
# III +

h A, B, C, D u
al Classes Q.3
- 1 1 m/s ( i
1 sec C Q. 13

sin2a Q.4 (a) gcosQ ,(b)v = Q.7 Q.6 Q.9 Q.8 A Q.12 Q.ll B 2 ^Bans
, tan-'a Q.2 (a) 1 sec, (b) (5 V3 m, 5 m) ucos(a + Q) Q.5 (i) V =
i ) t = | + ^ cosO A, B Q.10 (a) 45, (b) 2 m/sec u = 7.29 m/s, t =
B Kinematics [11]

BA NK ON KINEMATICS Time Limit: 2 Sitting Each of 60 minutes, duration approx.

Q. 1 QUESTION ON There are 54 questions in this question bank. KINEMATICS A part

icle is moving along a curve. Then (A) if its speed is constant it has no accele
ration (B) if its speed is increasing the acceleration of the particle is along
its direction of motion (C) if its speed is constant the magnitude of its accele
ration is proportional to its curvature. (D) the direction of its accelera tion
cannot be along the tangent. Q.2 A boat having a speed of 5 km/hr. in still wate
r, crosses a river of width 1 km along the shortest possible path in 15 minutes.
The speed of the river in Km/hr. (A) 1 (B) 3 '(C) 4 (D) V41 A block is thrown w
ith a velocity of 2 ms~' (relativ e to ground) on a belt, which is moving with v
elocity 4 ms in opposite direction of the initial velocity of block. If the bloc
k stops slipping on the belt after 4 sec of the throwing then choose the correct
statements (s) (A) Displacement w ith respect to ground is zero after 2.66 and
displacement with respect to ground is 12 m after 4 sec. (B) Displacement with r
espect to ground in 4 sec is 4 m. ( C) Displacement with respect to belt in 4 se
c is - 12 m. (D) Displacement with r espect to ground is zero in 8/3 sec. _1 Q.3
Q.4 A particle has initial velocity 10 m/s . It moves due to constant retarding
forc e along the line of velocity which produces a retardation of 5 m/s . Then
(A) th e maximum displacement in the direction of initial velocity is 10 m (B) t
he dist ance travelled in first 3 seconds is 7.5 m (C) the distance travelled in
first 3 seconds is 12.5 m (D) the distance travelled in first 3 seconds is 17.5
m. 2 Q.5 Q.6 The displacement x of a particle depend on time t as x = at - pt a
(A) particle will return to its starting point after time P" 2a (B) the particl
e will come to rest after time ~ (C) the initial velocity of the particle was ze
ro but its ini tial acceleration was not zero. a (D) no net force act on the par
ticle at time 3 P A ball is thrown from a point on ground at some angle of proje
ction. At the sa me time a bird starts from a point directly above this point of
projection at a height h horizontally with speed u. Given that in its flight ba
ll just touches t he bird at one point. Find the distance on ground where ball s
trikes 2 3 (A) 2u Q.7 1 (B)u (C) 2u (D)u

If position time graph of a particle is sine curve as shown, what will be its ve
locity-time graph. (B) (C) <6BansalClasses Question Bank on Kinematics m

Q.8 A truck starting from rest moves with an acceleration of 5 m/s for 1 sec and
the n moves with constant velocity. The velocity w.r.t ground v/s time graph fo
r blo ck in truck is (Assume that block does not fall off the truck) 2 (A) Q.9 5
m/s (B) 3ms (C) 5 m/s H L d i = 0.2 TST i Psewtio (D)None of these <u, If angula
r velocity of a disc depends an angle rotated 0 as co = 0 + 20, then it s angula
r acceleration a at 0 = 1 rad is : (A) 8 rad/sec (B) 10 rad/sec (C) 12 r ad/sec
'' (D) None 2 2 2 2 Q.10 Two particles start simultaneously from the same point
and move along two s traight lines, one with uniform velocity v and other with a
uniform acceleration a. If a is the angle between the lines of motion of two pa
rticles then the leas t value of relative velocity will be at time given by (A)
(v/a) sin a (B)(v/a)co sa (C)(v/a)tana (D)(v/a)cota Q.ll If a particle takes t s
econd less and acquires a velocity of v ms"" more in falling through the same di
stance (starting from r est) on two planets where the accelerations due to gravi
ty are 2 g and 8 g respe ctively then: (A) v = 2gt (B) v = 4gt (C) v = 5 gt (D)
v = 16 gt 1 Q.12 At a given instant, A is moving with velocity of 5m/s upwards.
What is velo city of B at that time : (A) 15 m/s ^ (B) 15 m/s t (C) 5 m/s I (D)
5 m/s t Q.13 It takes one minute for a passenger standing on an escalator to rea
ch .ac top. I f the escalator does not move it takes him 3 minute to walk up . H
ow long will i t take fo. uie passenger to arrive at the top if he walks up the
moving escalato r ? (A) 30 sec (B) 45 sec (C) 40 sec t D) 35 sec Q.14 The co-ord
inates of a movi ng particle at a time t, are give by, x = 5 sin 101, y = 5 cos
1 Ot. The speed o f the particle is : (A) 25 " (B) 50 (G) 10 (D) None Q. 15 Tang
ential acceleration of a particle moving in a circle of radius 1 m var ies with
time t as (initial velocity of particle is zero). Time after which tota l accele
ration oi particle makes and urgl of 30 with radial acceleration is (A) 4 sec (B)
4/3 sec (C) 2 sec (D) ^2 m s e c time (sec) Q.16 A particle is proj ected from
a horizontal plane (x-z plane) such that its velocity vector at time t is given
by V = ai + (b - ct) j Its range on the horiz ontal plane is given by 3ba 2ba ba
(D) None (C) (B) (A) Bansal Classes

Question Bank on Kinematics [3]

Q.17 v-t graph of an obj ect of mass 1 kg is shown (A) net work done on the obje
ct in 30 sec is zero. (B) the average acceleration of the object is zero. (C) t
h e average velocity of the object is zero. (D) the average force on the object
is zero. v (m/s) 20-10-10 20 30 t(sec) Q. 18 A projectile of mass 1 kg is projec
ted with a velocity of V20 m/s such tha t it strikes on the same level as the po
int of projection at a distance of V3 m. Which of the following options are inco
rrect: (A) the maximum height reached by the projectile can be 0.25 m. (B) the m
inimum velocity during its motion can be Vl5 m/s (C) the minimum time taken for
the flight can be sec. (D) maximum poten tial energy during its motion can be 6J
. Q. 19 Velocity-time graph for a car is semicircle as shown here. Which of the
following is correct: (A) Car must move i n circular path. (B) Acceleration of c
ar is never zero, (C) Mean speed ofthe par ticle is n/2 m/s. (D) The car makes a
turn once during its motion. lm/s 2 sec V1 Q.20 A ball is projected from top of
a tower with a velocity of 5 m/s at an angl e of 53 to horizontal. Its speed whe
n it is at a height of 0.45 m from the point of projection is : (A) 2 m/s (B) 3
m/s (C)4m/s (D) data insufficient. Q.21 A par ticle moves along a straight line
in such a way that it's acceleration is increa sing at the rate of 2 m/s . It's
initial acceleration and velocity were 0, the d istance,covered by it in t = 3 s
econd is. (A) 27 m (B) 9 m (C) 3 m (D) 1 m 3 Q.22 A flag is mounted on a car mov
ing due North with velocity of 20 km/hr. Stro ng winds are blowing due East with
velocity of 20 km/hr. The flag will point in direction (A) East (B) North - Eas
t (C) South - East (D) South - West Q.23 A bal l is thrown vertically down with
velocity of 5m/s. With what velocity should ano ther ball be thrown down after 2
seconds so that it can hit the 1 ball in 2 seco nds (A) 40 m/s (B) 55 m/s (C) 1
5 m/s (D) 25 m/s st B Q.24 A man is crossing a river flowing with velocity of 5
m/s. He reaches a po int' directly across at a distance of 60 m in 5 sec. His ve
locity in still water should be \T=5 / 60 m (A) 12 m/s (B) 13 m/s (C) 5 m/s (D)
10 m/s m s Q. 2 5 Average velocity of a particle is proj ectile motion between i
ts starting point and the highest point of its trajectory is: (projection speed
= u, angle of projection from horizontal 0) (A) u cosG (B) ^Vl + 3cos 9 2 (C) ^V'
2 + COS 0 2 (D) U + COS

<6 Bansal Classes Question Bank on Kinematics m

Q.26 Find time of flight of projectile thrown horizontally with speed 50 ms from
a long inclined plane which makes an angle of 6 = 45 from horizontal. (A) 10V2 s
ec (B) 20V2 sec (C) 10 sec (D) 5-Jl sec -1 Q.27 Particle is dropped from the he
ight of 20m from horizontal ground. There is wind blowing due to which horizonta
l acceleration of the particle becomes 6 ms . Find the horizontal displacement o
f the particle till it reaches ground. (A) 6 m (B)10m (C) 12 m (D) 24 m -2 Q.28
A bail is dropped from height 5m. The time after which ball stops reboundin g if
coefficient of restitution between ball and ground e = 1/2, is (A) 1 sec (B ) 2
sec (C) 3 sec (D) infinite Q.29 A ball is hit by a batsman at an angle of 37 as
shown in figure. The man standing at P should run at what minimum velocity so th
at he catches the ball before it strikes the ground. Assume that height of ma n
is negligible in comparison to maximum height of projectile. (A) 3 ms" (B) 5 m s
" (C) 9 ms(D) 12 ms" 1 1 Q.30 Find the velocity of the hanging block if the velo
cities of the free ends o f the rope are as indicated in the figure. (A) 3/2 m/s
t (B) 3/2 m/s I (C) 1/2 m /s T (D) 1/2 m/s 4 2m/s IU.LJJ1I mi."" lm/s Q.31 A ma
n swimming down stream overcome a float at a point M. After travelling distance
D he turned back and passed the float at-a distance of D/2 from the poi nt M, th
en the ratio of speed of swimmer with respect to still water to the spee d of th
e river will be (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 2.5 Q.32 Choose the correct alterna tive (
s) (A) If the greatest height to which a man can throw a stone is h, then the gr
eatest horizontal distance upto which he can throw the stone is 2h-. (B) T he an
gle of projection for a projectile motion whose range R is n times the maxi mum
height is tan (4/n) (C) The time of flight T and the horizontal range R of a pro
jectile are connected by the equation gT = 2Rtan9 v. here 0 is the angle of proj
ection. (D) A ball is thrown vertically up. Another ball is thrown at an ang le
0 with the vertical. Both of them remain in air for the same period of time. The
n the ratio of heights attained by the two balls 1:1. -1 2 Q.33 Acceleration ver
sus velocity graph ofa particle moving in a straight line s tarting from rest is
as shown in figure. The corresponding velocity-time graph w ould be (A) (B) (D)
1*1<JjBansalClasses Question Bank on G r a v i t a t i o n [5]

Q.34 Aparticle is projected vertically upwards from a point Aon the ground. It t
akes t time to reach a point B but it still continues to move up. If it takes f
u rther tj time to reach the ground from point B then height of point Bfromthe g
ro und is 1 (A) | g ( t ! + t ) (C)|g(t,+t y (B) g t, t (D) g t , t . Q.35 Mark
the correct statements for a particle going on a straight line (A) if the veloci
ty is zero a t any instant, the acceleration should also be zero at that instant
(B) if the v elocity is zero for a time interval, the acceleration is zero at a
ny instant wit hin the time interval (C) if the velocity and acceleration have o
pposite sign, t he object is slowing down (D) if the position and velocity have
opposite sign, t he particle is moving towards the origin 2 2 2 2 Q.36 A project
ile is fired with a speed u at an angle 0 with the horizontal. Its speed when it
s direction of motion makes an angle 'a' with the horizontal is (A ) u sec0 cosa
(B) u sec0 sina (C) u cos0 seca (D) u sin 0 seca Q.37 Balls are th rown vertica
lly upward in such a way that the next ball is thrown when the previ ous one is
at the maximum height. If the maximum height is 5m, the number of bal ls thrown
per minute will be (A) 40 (B) 50 (C) 60 (D) 120 Q.38 A projectile is f ired with
a velocity at right angle to the slope which is inclined at an angle 0 with the
horizontal. The expression for the range R along the incline is 2v 2v 2v sec (B)
- t a n 0 (C) tan0 sec 0 (D) -tan 0 (A) 2 : i : 2 Q.39 A bead is free to slide d
own a smooth wire tightly stretched between points A and B on a vertical circle.
If the bead starts from rest at A, the highest po int on the Gircle (A) its vel
ocity v on arriving at B is proportional to cos0 (B ) its velocity v on arriving
at B is proportional to tan0 (C) time to arrive at B is proportional to cos0 (D
) time to arrive at B is independent of 0 Q.40 The v elocity- time graph of a bo
dy falling from rest under gravity and rebounding fro m a solid surface is repre
sented by which ofthe following graphs? v v (D) (C) (B ). (A) -t -> t Q.41 A disc
arranged in a vertical plane has two groves of same le ngth directed along the
vertical chord AB and CD as shown inthefig.The same part icles slide down along
AB and CD. The ratio of the time t /t is (A) 1 : 2 (B) 1 : V2 (C) 2 : 1 (D) 4 l
1 AB CD Q.42 The magnitude of displacement of a particle moving in a circle of r
adius a with constant angular speed co varies with time t as cot (D) 2a cos cot
(C) 2a c os cot (B) 2a sin(A) 2 a sincot 1*1<JjBansalClasses Question Bank on G
r a v i t a t i o n [6]

Q.43 A glass wind screen whose inclination with the vertical can be changed is m
ounted on a car. The car moves horizontally with a speed of 2m/s. At what angle
a with the vertical should the wind screen be placed so that the rain drops fal
l ing vertically downwards with velocity 6 m/s strike the wind screen perpendicu
la rly. (A) tan-'(3) (B) tan- (l/3) (C) cos-'P) (D) s u r ^ l ^ ) Q.44 A particl
e i s projected vertically upwards from O with velocity v and a second particle
is p rojected at the same instant from P (at a height h above O) with velocity v
at a n angle of projection 0. The time when the distance between them is minimu
m is h (C) h/v (D) h/2v (A) 2vsin0 (B) 2vcos0 Q.45 A body moves with velocity v
= / n x m/s where x is its position. The net force acting on body is zero at: (A
) 0 m (B) x = e m (C) x = e m (D) x = 1 m Q.46 Wind is blowing in the north dire
ction at speed of 2 m/s which causes the rain to fall at some angle with the ver
tical. With what velocity should a cyclist drive so that the rain appears vertic
al to him : (A) 2 m/s south (B) 2 m/s north (C) 4 m/s west (D) 4 m/s south Q.47
A body A is thrown vertically upwards with such a velocity that it reaches a max
imum h eight of h. Simultaneously another body B is dropped from height h. It st
rikes t he ground and does not rebound. The velocity of A relative to B v/s time
graph i s best represented by : (upward direction is positive) ! 2 (A) V a b (B
) V a b (C) ' AB (D) VAB t! Q.48 A body of mass 1 kg is acted upon by a force F
= 2 sin 37rt i + 3 cos 3 ret j find its position at t = 1 sec if at t = 0 it is
at rest at origin. f 3 2^ r2 2 ^ f 2 2 ) (D) none of these (A) L37t ' 9TT J (B)
L 37r ' 3n ) (C) L3TT ' 3tc J 2 2 2 2 2 Q.49 A force F = Be acts on a particle w
hose mass is m and whose velocity is 0 a t t = 0. It's terminal velocity is: C.
B BC B (A) mB (B) mC ( D ) - mC (Q m y Q. 50 A man moves in x-y plane along the
path shown. At what point is c his average velocity vector in the same direction
as his instantaneous velocity vector. The man starts from point P. A (A) A (B)B
(C)C (D) D Ct <6 Bansal Classes Q.51 From the velocity time garph of a particle
moving in straight line decide w hich of the following is incorrect statement.
(A) the particle crosses its initi al position (B) the speed ofthe particle incr
eases continuously (C) the force on the particle is constant (D) the acceleratio
n of the particle is constant. t v

Question Bank on Kinematics m

Q. 5 2 If T is the total time of flight, h is the maximum height & R is the rang
e for horizontal motion, the x & y co-ordinates of projectile motion and time t
are related as: (A) y - 4 h ( i ) ( . - i ) ( O y = 4h ( ! ) ( , - ! ) (B)y = 4
h ( ! ) <b> -4h(|)(.-| y Q.53 A particle initially at rest is subjected to two
forces . One is constant, the other is a retarding force proportional to the par
ticle velocity . In the su bsequent motion of the particle : (A) the acceleratio
n will increase from zero t o a constant value (B) the acceleration will decreas
e from its initial value to zero (C) the velocity will increase from zero to max
imum & then decrease (D) the velocity will increase from zero to a constant valu
e. Q.54 A ball is projected from ground with a velocity V at an angle 9 to the v
ertical. On its path it make s an elastic collison with a vertical wall and retu
rns to ground. The total time of flight ofthe ball is 2vsin9 2vcos9 vsin29 vcos9
(A) - y (B) - 7 (C) ( ) Q.l Q.5 Q.9 C, D A, B, C, D C Q.2 Q.6 B C ANSWERKEY Q.3
Q-7 C Q.ll B Q.15 C Q.19 C Q.23 A Q.27 C Q.31 B B, C, D Q.4 Q.8 A, C C Q.10 B Q
.14 B Q.l 8 D Q.22 C Q.26 C Q.30 A Q.34 D Q.38 C Q.42 B Q.46 B Q.50 C Q. 54 B Q.
12 A Q.16 B Q.20 C Q.24 B Q.28 C Q.32 A, B, C, D Q.36 C Q.40 A Q.44 D Q.48 C Q .
52 A,B Q.13 B Q.17 A, B, D Q.21 B Q.25 B Q.29 B Q.33 D Q.37 C Q.41 B Q.45 D Q.49
B Q.53 B,D Q.35 B,C,D Q.39 A, D Q.43 A Q.47 C Q.51 B 1*1 <JjBansal Classes Ques
tion Bank on G r a v i t a t i o n [8]


A static charge produces only electric field and only electricfieldcan exert a f
orce on it A moving charge produces both electricfieldans magneticfieldand both
electricfieldand magnetic field can exert force on it. A current carrying condu
c tor produces only magneticfieldand only magneticfieldcan exert a force on it.
Ma gnetic charge (i.e. current), produces a magnetic field . It can not produce
ele ctric field as net charge on a current carrying conductor is zero. A magneti
c fi eld is detected by its action on current carrying conductors (or moving cha
rges) and magnetic needles (compass) needles. The vector quantity B known as MAG
NETIC INDUCTION is introduced to characterise a magnetic field . It is a vector
quant ity which may be defined in terms of the force it produces on electric cur
rents . Lines of magnetic induction may be drawn in the same way as lines of ele
ctric field. The number of lines per unit area crossing a small area perpendicul
ar to the direction of the induction bring numerically equal to B . The number o
f line s of b crossing a given area is referred to as the MAGNETIC FLUX linked w
i th th at area. For this reason B is also called MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY . The ma
gnetic i nduction dB produced by an element d/ carrying a current I at a distanc
e r is gi ven by > l(dlxr) Ho M Id^sinB or dB= dB 4ti r " here the quantity Id/ i
s called a s current element strength. \i = permeability of the medium = u p, ,
\x(. = perm eability of free space = relative permeability of the medium (Dimens
ionless quan tity). Unit of M-o & n is NA" or Hrrr ; |i = 4 % x 10" Hm~ r z 0 r
W ) : MAGNETIC INDUCTION DUE TO A MOVING CHARGE dB =-M-qv sin 9 47tr" 0 p In ve
ctor form it can be written as HI B 27ir 0 47U r W MAGNETIC INDUCTION DUE TO AN
DUCTOR HI B = (cos 9, + cos 9,) 4tcR n 5 v 1 27 If the wire is very long 9, = 9 =
0 then, B = 27tR 7 ^Bansal Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [2]


NI At its centre B = 2R , direction Where N = total number of turns in the coi
l I = current in the coil R = Radius of the coil On the axis ( ) N i R 2 2 + R 2
o 10. MAGNETIC INDUCTION DUE TO SOLENOID 0 B= ^ (x f Where x = distance of the
point from the centre . It is maximum at the centre I MAGNETIC INDUCTION DUE TO
FLAT CIRCULAR A R C p ie B 4TTR vi (ii) 0 B = p nl, direction along axis, where
n -> no. of turns per m. I -> current 0 11. MAGNETIC INDUCTION DUE TO TOROID B =
p nl N where n = (no. of turns per m) 2tcR N = total turns Rr 12. MAGNETIC INDUCT
ION DUE TO CURRENT CARRYING SHEET where I = Linear current density (A/m) 13. MAG
NETIC INDUCTION DUE TO THICK SHEET At point P At point P j 2 1 B = ~ u ld B = p
Jx out f) in 0 V ;2 p ' * JA/ni

2 x 14. MAGNETIZATION INTENSITY ( H ) : B The magnetic intensity (H) at any poin

t in a magnetic field is defined as H = , where M B = magnetic induction at the
point ; p = permeability of the medium ( a) The line of earth's magnetic inducti
on lies in a vetical plane coinciding wit h the magnetic North South direction a
t that place. This plane is called the MAG NETIC MERIDIAN. Earth's magnetic axis
is slightly inclined to the geometric axis of earth and this angle varies from
10.5 to 20. The Earth's Magnetic poles are op posite to the geometric poles i. e.
at earth's north pole, its magnetic south po le is situated and vice versa. Magn
etics Effect of Current ^Bansal Classes [3] 15. GILBERT'S MAGNETISM ( E A R T H

(b) On the magnetic meridian plane , the magnetic induction vector of the earth
at any point, generally inclined to the horizontal at an angle called the MAGNET
IC DIP at that place , such that B = total magnetic induction of the earth at t
h at point. B = the vertical component of B in the magnetic meridian plane = B s
in 9 . B = the horizontal component of B in the magnetic meridian plane = B cos
9 . = tan 9 . B (c) At a given place on the surface of the earth, the magnetic m
er idian and the geographic meridian may not coincide. The angle between them is
ca lled "DECLINATION AT THAT PLACE" . (d) Lines drawn on earth at different pla
ces having same declination angle are called as "isogonic lines" and line ofzero
dec lination is called as "agonic lines". (e) Lines drawn on earth at different
plac es having same dip angle are called as "isoclinic lines" and line of zero
dip is called as "aclinic lines". v H H 16. When more than one magnetic fields a
re suspended at a point and the vector sum o f the magnetic inductions due to di
fferent fields , equal to zero, the point is a magnetic neutral point. AMPERES L
um of all the currents . 18. LORENTZ FORCE : An electric charge 'q' moving with
a velocity V through a magnetic field of magn etic induction B experiences a for
ce F, given by F = qVxB There fore, if the cha rge moves in a space where both e
lectric and magnetic fields are superposed . F = nett electromagnetic force on t
he charge = q E + q V x B This force is called the LORENTZ FORCE . 19. MOTION OF
A CHARGE IN UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD : (a) When v is || to B : Motion will be in
a st. line and F = 0 (b) When v is to B : Motion will be in circular path with r
adius R = velocity co = and F = qvB. m mv and angular (c)When v is atZG to B : M
otion will be helical with radius R, = - -------- and pitch qB P = 27tmv cos 6 q
I R E : F = I (L x B) I = current in the straight conductor L - length of the c
onductor in the direction of the current in it B = magnetic induction. (Uniform
throughou t the length of conduction) Note : In general force is F = JI (d x B) ^
Bansal Classes Magnetics Effect of Current


21. (i) (ii) When two long straight linear conductors are parallel and carry a c
urrent in eac h , they magnetically interact with each other, one experiences a
force. This fo rce is of : Repulsion if the currents are anti-parallel (i.e. in
opposite direct ion) or Attraction if the currents are parallel (i.e. in the sam
e direction) Thi s force per unit length on either conductor is given by F = . W
here r - perpendi cular r distance between the parallel conductors When a plane
closed current cir cuit of'N' turns and of area 'A' per turn carrying a current
I is placed in unif orm magnetic field , it experience a zero nett force , but e
xperience a torque g iven b y i = N I A x B = MxB = BINA sin 9 When A = area vec
tor outward from the face of the circuit where the current is anticlockwise, B =
magnetic induction o fthe uniform magnetic feild. M = magnetic moment of the cu
rrent circuit = IN A N ote : This expression can be used only if B is uniform ot
herwise calculus will b e used. It consists of a plane coil of many turns suspen
ded in a radial magnetic feild. when a current is passed in the coil it experien
ces a torque which produ ces a twist in the suspension. This deflection is direc
tly proportional to the t orque .'. NIAB = KG I= ( ( K \ MOVING COIL GALVANOMETE
TWEEN T w o PARALLEL LONG STRAIGHT CURRENTS : 22. 23. 9 K = elastic torsional co
nstant of the suspension I=C 0 C = -7 = GALVANOMETER CONST ANT. NAB 24. FORCE EXPE
= M dr where M = Magnetic dipole moment. 25. FORCE ON A RANDOM SHAPED CONDUCTOR
IN MAGNETIC FIELD , 1. 2. 26. Magnetic force on a loop in a uniform B is zero b*
Force experienced by a wire o f any shape is equivalent to force on a wire join
ing points A & B in a uniform m agnetic field . If a charge q is rotating at an
angular velocity co, . qco its e quivalent current is given as I 271 & its magne
tic moment is M = l7tR - ~qcoR . 2 2 __ J MAGNETIC MOMENT OF A ROTATING CHARGE:
A NOTE: The rate of magnetic moment to Angular momentum of a uniform rotating ob
ject whi ch is charged M 2m uniformly is always a constant. Irrespective of the
shape of conductor - L q

f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

1 Q.2 Figure shows a straight wire of length / carrying a current i. Find the ma
gnitud e of magneticfieldproduced by the current at point P. - . 5 5 Two circula
r coils A and B of radius cm and 5 cm respectively carry current 5 Amp and ^ Amp
respec tively. The plane ofB is perpendicular to plane ofAand their centres coi
ncide. F ind the magnetic field at the centre. Find the magneti cfieldat the cen
tre P of square of side a shown in figure / EXERCISE # I Q.4 What is the magnitu
de ofmagneticfieldat the centre 'O' ofloop ofradius V2 m made of uniform wire wh
en a current of 1 amp enters in the loop and taken out of it by two long wires a
s shown in the figure. Find the magnetic induction at the ori gin in thefiguresh
own. Find the magnetic induction at point 0, ifthe current car rying wire is in
the shape shown in the figure. Find the magnitude ofthe magneti c induction B of
a magneticfieldgenerated by a system of thin conductors along w hich a current
/' is flowing at a point A (0, R, O), that is the centre of a cir cular conducto
r of radius R. The ring is in yz plane. ^ f 00 1 amp\ 0 H--' yT I 90 00 Ti airip
v/ -X 5 /.I Q. 6 Q. 7 /<5.8 (i) (ii) Q; 9 w Two circular coils of wire each hav
ing a radius of 4 cm and 10 turns have a comm on axis and are 6 cm apart. If a c
urrent of 1 Apasses through each coil in the o pposite directionfindthe magnetic
induction. At the centre of either coil ; At a point on the axis, midway betwee
n them. Six wires of current Ij = 1 A, I = 2A, I = 3 A, I = 1 A, I = 5A and I =
4A cut the page perpendicularly at the points 1 ,2,3,4,5 and 6 respectively as s
hown in thefigure.Find the value ofthe integral j> B.d l around the closed path.
2 3 4 5 6 ^ 5 f, Bansa! Classes

Q. 10 Electric charge q is uniformly distributed over a rod oflength /. The rod

is placed parallel to along wire carrying a current i. The separation between th
e rod and the wire is a. Find the force needed to move the rod along its length
with a uniform velocity v. Q/i 1 An electron moving with a velocity 5 x 10 ms"
i in the uniform electricfieldof 5 x 10 Vm j . Find the magnitude and direction
o f a minimum uniform magneticfieldin tesla that will cause the electron to move
u ndeviated along its original path. 6 1 7 1 Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

(X I2 A charged particle (charge q, mass m) has velocity v at origin in +x direc

tion. In space there is a uniform magnetic field B in - z direction. Find the y
coordinate of particle when is crosses y axis. 0 Q. 13/ A conducting circular l
oop of radius r carries a constant current i. It i s placed in a uniform magneti
c field B o such that B is perpendicular to the pla ne ofthe loop. Find the magn
etic force acting on the loop is 0 Q . \ y A rectangular loop ofwire is oriented
with the left corner at the origin , one edge along X-axis and the other edge a
long Y-axis as shown in thefigure.A magnetic field is into the page and has a ma
gnitude that is given by (3 = ay whe re a is contant. Find the total magnetic fo
rce on the loop if it carries current i. <8>B -x Q.15 Two coils each of 100 turns
are held such that one lies in the vertical pla ne with their centres coincidin
g. The radius ofthe vertical coil is 20 cm and th at ofthe horizontal coil is 3
0 cm. How would you neutralize the magneticfieldof the earth at their common cen
tre ? What is the current to be passed through eac h coil ? Horizontal component
of earth's magnetic induction-3.49 x 10" T and ang le of dip = 30. 5 Q.16 Find t
he ratio of magneticfieldmagnitudes at a distance 10 m along the axis and at 60 f
rom the axis, from the centre of a coil of radius 1 cm, carrying a cu rrent 1 am
p. Q.17 A particle of charge +q and mass m moving under the influence of a unifo
rm electricfieldE i and a magneticfieldB k enters in I quadrant of a c oordinate
system at a point (0, a) with initial velocity v i and leaves the quad rant at
a point (2a, 0) with velocity - 2v j. Find (a) Magnitude of electric fie ld (b)
Rate ofwork done by the electricfieldat point (0, a) (c) Rate of work don e by b
oth the fields at (2a, 0). Q.18 A system of long four parallel conductors whose
sections with the plane of the drawing lie at the vertices of a square the re fl
ow four equal currents. The directions of these currents are as follows : t hose
marked point away from the reader, while those marked with a dot point towa rds
the reader. How is the vector of magnetic induction directed at the centre o f
the square? Ij l 2 Q.19 A cylindrical conductor ofradius R carries a current alon
g its length. The current density J, however, it is not uniform over the cross s
ection of the cond uctor but is a function ofthe radius according to J = br, whe
re b is a constant. Find an expression for the magneticfieldB. r^ (a) at T j < R
& (b) at distance r > R, mesured from the axis l[ ( I 2 R Q . 20 A square curre
nt carrying loop made of thin wire and having a mass m =1 O g can rotate without
frictionwith respect to the vertical axis 0 0 , passing thro ugh the centre of t
he loop at right angles to two opposite sides of the loop. Th e loop is placed i
n a homogeneous magneticfieldwith an induction B = 10" T direc ted at right angl
es to the plane of the drawing. Acurrent I = 2Ais flowing in th e loop. Find the
period of small oscillations that the loop performs about its p osition of stab
le equilibrium. } 1

O^B O, [11] f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current

Q.21 A charged particle having mass m and charge q is accelerated by a potential

difference V, it flies through a uniform transverse magneticfieldB. Thefieldocc
upies a region of space d. Find the time interval for which it remains inside t
h e magnetic field. Q. 22 A proton beam passes without deviation through a regio
n of space where there are uniform transverse mutually perpendicular electric an
d magneticfieldwith E and B. Then the beam strikes a grounded target. Find the f
or ce imparted by the beam on the target ifthe beam current is equal to I. Q.23
An infinitely long straight wire carries a conventional current I as shown in th
e f igure. The rectangular loop carries a conventional current I in the clockwis
e di rection. Find the net force on the rectangular loop. 1 Q.24 An arc of a cir
cular loop of radius R is kept in the horizontal plane and a constant magneticfi
eldB is applied in the vertical direction as shown in the fi gure. If the arc ca
rries current I thenfindthe force on the arc. Q.25 Two long s traight parallel c
onductors are separated by a distance of r = 5cm and carry cur rents i = 10A&i =
20A. What work per unit length of a conductor must be done to increase the sepa
ration between the conductors to r = 10 cm if, currents flow in the same directio
n? 1 1 2 List of recommended questions from I.E. Irodov. 3.220, 3.223, 3.224, 3.
225, 3.226, 3.227, 3.228, 3.229, 3.230, 3.234, 3.236, 3.2 37, 3.242 3.243, 3.244
, 3.245, 3.251, 3.252, 3.253,3.254,3.257, 3.258, 3.269, 3. 372, 3.373, 3.383, 3.
384, 3.386, 3.389, 3.390, 3.391, 3.396 f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Curren
t [11]

Q. 1 Three infinitely long conductors R, S and T are lying in a horizontal plane

as shown in thefigure.The currents in the respective conductors are R S T T 2-K
I = I Sin(Qt+y) I = I sin (t) I = I sin (t ) Find the amplitude of the vertical co
mponent of the magneticfieldat a point P, distance 'a' away from the central co
n ductor S. x R 0 s 0 T 0 EXERCISE # II Q. 2 Four long wires each carrying curre
nt I as shown in the figure are placed at the points A, B, C and D. Find the mag
nitude and direction of (i) magnetic field at the centre of the square. (ii) for
ce per metre acting on wire at point D. 2 D(-a,a) C(-a,-a)0 ffi A(a, a) B(a.-a) Q
. 3 Q.4 An infinite wire, placed along z-axis, has current I, inpositive z-direc
tion. Ac onducting rod placed in xy plane parallel to y-axis has current I in po
sitive ydirection. The ends of the rod subtend + 30 and - 60 at the origin with po
sitive x -direction. The rod is at a distance afromthe origin. Find net force on
the rod. A square cardboard of side / and mass m is suspendedfroma horizontal a
xis XY as shown infigure.A single wire is wound along the periphery of board and
carrying a clockwise current I. At t = 0, a vertical downward magneticfieldof i
nductionB is switched on. Find the minimum value ofB so that the board will be a
ble to ro tate up to horizontal level. A straight segment OC (of length L meter)
of a circ uit carrying a current I amp is placed along the x-axis. Two infinite
ly ling str aight wires A and B ,each extending form z = - oo to + oo, are fixed
at y = - a metre and y = +a metre respectively, as shown in the figure. If the
wires A and B each carry a current I amp into plane of the paper. Obtain the exp
ression for the force acting on the segment OC. What will be the force OC if cur
rent in the wire B is reversed? A very long straight conductor has a circular cr
oss-section of radius R and carries a current density J. Inside the conductor th
ere is a cyl indrical hole of radius a whose axis is parallel to the axis of the
conductor an d a distance bfromit. Let the z-axis be the axis of the conductor,
and let the a xis of the hole be at x=b. Find the magnetic field on the x = axi
s at x = 2R on the y = axis at y = 2R. Q charge is uniformly distributed over th
e same surface of a right circular cone of semi-vertical angle 9 and height h. T
he cone is unif ormly rotated about its axis at angular velocity co. Calculated
associated magne tic dipole moment. *y &B O C Q.5 Q. 6 y f 'in (a) (b) Q.7 I

WfH b / , \Lf> f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

Q.8 A wire loop carrying current I is placed in the X-Y plane as shown in the fi
gure (a) If a particle with charge +Q and mass m is placed at the centre P and g
iven a velocity along NP (fig). Find its instantaneous acceleration (b) If an ex
tern al uniform magnetic induction field B = B f is applied, find the torque act
ing o n the loop due to the field. A long straight wire carries a current of 10
A dire cted along the negative y-axis as shown infigure.Auniform magneticfieldB
ofmagni tude 10~ T is directed parallel to the x-axis. What is the resultant mag
neticfie ldat the following points? (a) x = 0 , z-2m; (b)x=2m, z = 0; (c)x = 0 ,
z = - 0 . 5 m 0 6 Q.9 Q.10 A stationary, circular wall clock has a face with a
radius of 15 cm. Six tu rns of wire are wound around its perimeter, the wire car
ries a current 2.0 A in the clockwise direction. The clock is located, where the
re is a constant, unifor m external magneticfieldof 70 mT (but the clock still k
eeps perfect time) at exa ctly 1:00 pm, the hour hand of the clock points in the
direction of the external magnetic field (a) After how many minutes will the mi
nute hand point in the dir ection of the torque on the winding due to the magnet
icfield? (b) What is the ma gnitude of this torque. Q.ll A U-shaped wire ofmass
m turn length / is immersed with its two ends in mercury (seefigure).The wire is
in a homogeneousfieldofmagn etic B' X X X the wire, the wire will jump up. Calc
ulate, from the height h that the wire reac hes, the size of the charge or curre
nt pulse, assuming that the time of the curr ent pulse is very small in comparis
ion with the time of flight. Make use of the fact that impulse of force equals j
F dt,which equals mv. Evaluate q for B = 0.1 Wb/m , m = 1 Ogm, t = 20cm & h = 3
meters, [g = 10 m/s ] 1 1 2 2 / X X Q.l 2 A current i, indicated by the crosses established in a strip of c opper X of height h and width w. Auniformf
ieldof magnetic induction B is applied m at right angles to the strip. B X (a) C
alculate the drift speed v for the ele ctrons. : X.(b) What are the magnitude an
d dirction of the magnetic force F acti ng on the electrons? (c) What would the
magnitude & direction of homogeneous ele ctricfieldE have to be in order to coun
ter balance the effect of the magnetic fi eld ? (d) What is the voltage V necess
ary between two sides of the conductor in order to create thisfieldE? Between wh
ich sides of the conductor would this volt age have to be applied ? (e) If no el
ectricfieldis applied form the outside the electrons will be pushed somewhat to
one side & thereforce will give rise to a u niform electricfieldE across the con
ductor untill the force ofthis electrostatic field E balanace the magnetic force
s encountered in part (b). What will be the magnitude and direction of thefieldE
H? Assume that n, the number of conduction e lectrons per unit volume, is 1. Ixl
0 /m & that h = 0.02 meter, w = 0.1cm , i = 5 0 amp, & B = 2 webers/meter . d H
h 29 3 2

f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

Q. 13(a) A rigid circular loop of radius r & mass m lies in the xy plane on a fl
at table and has a current I flowing in it. At this particular place, the earth
' s magneticfieldis B = B 1 + B j . How large must I be before one edge of the l
oo p will lift from table ? (b) Repeat if, B = B 1 + B k. x y x z Q. 14 Zeeman e
ffect. In Bohr's theory of the hydrogen atom the electron can be t hought of as
moving in a circular orbit of radius r about the proton . Suppose t hat such an
atom is placed in a magnetic field, with the plane of the orbit at r ight angle
to B. (a) If the electron is circulating clockwise, as viewed by an o bserver si
ghting along B, will the angular frequency increase or decrease? (b) W hat if th
e electron is circulating counterclockwise? Assume that the orbit radiu s does n
ot change. Q.15 In above problem show that the change in frequency of ro tation
caused by the magnetefieldis given Be approximately by Av = . Such freque ncy sh
ifts were actually observed by Zeeman in 1896. 4um A Q.16 A square loop ofwire o
f edge a carries a current i. (a) Show that B for a p oint on the axis of the lo
op and a distance xfromits centre is given by, ia B= 7 1 (4x + a ) (4x + 2a\ )1/
2 (b) Can the result of the above problem be reduced to givefieldat x = 0 ? (c)
Does the square loop behave like a dipole for points su ch that x a ? If so, wha
t is its dipole moment? 2 2 2 2 2 1 Q.17 A conductor carrying a current i is pla
ced parallel to a current per unit w idth j and width d, as shown in the figure.
Find the force per unit lenght on th e coductor. 0 z. / / \Z 0 /' r y; A il "B
Q. 18 Find the work and power required to move the conductor of length / shown i
n full turn in the anticlockwise direction at a rotational frequency
of n revolutions per second ifthe magneticfieldis of magnitude B everywhere and
points radially outwards from Z-axis. The figure shows the surface traced by th
e wire AB. Q.19 The figure shows a conductor of weight 1.0 N and length L = 0.5
m placed on a roughinclined plane making an angle 30 with the horizontal so that
c onductor is perpendicular to a uniform horizontal magneticfieldof induction B
= 0.10 T. The coefficient of staticfrictionbetween the conductor and the plane i
s 0.1. A current of I = 10 A flows through the conductor inside the plane of thi
s paper as shown. What is the force needed to be the applied parallel'to the inc
li ned plane to sustaining the conductor at rest? Q.20 An electron gun G emits e
lec tron of energy 2kev traveling in the (+)ve x-direction. The electron are req
uire d to hit the spot S where GS = 0. lm & the line GS makes an angle of 60 with
the x-axis, as shown in the fig. Auniform magnetic field B parallel to GS exist
s in the region outsiees to electron gun. Find the minimum value of B needed to
make the electron hit S . f ^

/)60 Gun X , Bansa! Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

Q. 1 Abattery is connected between two points Aand B the circumference of a unif

orm conducting ring of radius r and resistance R. One of the arcs AB of the rin
g subtends an angle 0 at the centre. The value of the magnetic induction at the
c entre due to the current in the ring is : [ JEE '95, 2] (A) zero, only if 9 =
18 0 (B) zero for all values of 0 (C) proportional to 2(180-0) (D) inversely propo
rti onal to r Q. 2 Two insulated rings, one slightly smaller diameter than the o
ther , are suspended along their diameter as shown, initially the planes of the
rings are mutually' perpendicular when a steady current is set up in each of the
m: [I IT '95, 1] (A) The two rings rotate to come into a common plane (B) The in
ner ri ng oscillates about its initially position (C) The outer ring stays stati
onary w hile the inner one moves into the plane of the outer ring (D) The inner
ring sta ys stationary while the outer one moves into the plane of the inner rin
g An elec tron in the ground state of hydrogen atom is revolving in anticlock-wi
se directi on in a circular orbit of radius R . Obtain an expression for the orb
ital magnet ic dipole moment of the electron The atom is placed in a uniform mag
netic. Induc tion B such that the plane normal of the electron orbit makes an an
gle of 30 with the magnetic induction. Find the torque experienced by the orbitin
g electron. [ JEE'96, 5] A proton, a deuteron and an a-particle having the same
kinetic energy are moving in circular trajectories in a constant magnetic field
. If r r & r d enote respectively the radii of the trajectories of these particl
es then: " [JEE '97, 1] rP < r, (B) r a > rd > rp (C) ra = rd > rp (D)P r = rd =
a r (A) ' ' d 3 infinitely long thin wires each carrying current /' in the same
direction , are in the x-y plane of a gravity free space . The central wire is
along the y-axis while the other two are along x = d. Find the locus of the point
s for which the magnetic field B is zero . If the central wire is displaced alon
g the z-directio n by a small amount & released, show that it will execute simpl
e harmonic motion . If the linear density ofthe wires is X,findthefrequencyof os
cillation. [JEE '9 7, 5] d a r a v v V / EXERCISE # III Q. 3 (i) (ii) Q.4 Q.5 (i
) Cii) Q.6 C O (ii) Select the correct alternative(s). [ JEE '98, 2 + 2 + 2 ] Tw
o very long, straigh t, parallel wires carry steady currents I & - I respectivel
y. The distance betwe en the wires is d. At a certain instant of time, a point c
harge q is at a point equidistant from the two wires, in the plane of the wires.
Its instantaneous vel ocity v is perpendicular to this plane. The magnitude of
the force due to the ma gnetic field acting on the charge at this instant is : (
D) 0 (A) ^o iqv (B) Ho I qv (C) 2^0 2nd 7td rcd Let [ e ] denote the dimensional
formula ofthe permittivi ty ofthe vaccum and [|i ] that ofthe permeability of t
he vacuum . If M = mass, L = length, T = time and I = electric current, (A) [e ]
= M L T 1 (B) [ e j = M" L" T I (C) [^ ] = M E T ! (D) [ n j = ML T-'I 0 0 _1 3 2 1 3 4 2 0 2 2 2 f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

(iii) Q.7 Two particles, each of mass m & charge q, are attached to the two ends
of a ligh t rigid rod of length 2 R. The rod is rotated at constant angular spe
ed about a perpendicular axis passing through its centre. The ratio of the magni
tudes of th e magnetic moment of the system & its angular momentum about the cen
tre of the r od is : ( A )2m f (B) ( C )m ^ (D) ran m w w 0 A particle of mass m
& charge q is moving in a region where uniform, constant el ectric and magnetic
fields E & B are present, E & B are parallel to each other. At time t = 0 the v
elocity v of the particle is perpendicular to E . (assume tha t its speed is alw
ays c, the speed oflight in vacuum). Find the velocity v of th e particle at tim
e t. You must express your answer in terms of t, q, m, the vect ors v , E & B an
d their magnitudes v , E & B. [JEE '98, 8] 0 0 Q.8 (a) (b) A uniform, constant m
agneticfieldB is directed at an angle of 45 to the x-axis 'V lo in the xy-plane,
PQRS is a rigid square wire frame carrying a steady current y I (clockwise), wit
h its centre at the origin O. At time t = 0, the frame is a t rest in the positi
on shown in thefigure,with its sides parallel to the x & y a xes. Each side of t
he frame is of mass M & length L. What is the torque t about 0 acting on the fra
me due to the magnetic field ? Find the angle by which the fr ame rotates under
the action of this torque in a short interval of time At, & th e axis about whic
h this rotation occurs (At is so short that any variation in th e torque during
this interval may be neglected) Given the moment of inertia of t he frame about
an axis through its centre perpendicular to its plane is 4/3 ML . [JEE '98, 2 +
6] 0 / / / 2 Q9 A charged particle is released from rest in a region of steady a
nd uniform elect ric and magnetic fields which are parallel to each other. The p
article will move in a (A) straight line (B) circle (C) helix (D) cycloid [JEE'9
9,2] 0 rj Q.10 The region between x = 0 and x=L isfilledwith uniform, steady mag
neticfield B k. Aparticle of mass m, positive charge q and velocity v T travels
along x-axi s and enters the region ofthe magnetic field. Neglect the gravity th
roughout the question. (a) Find the value of L ifthe particle emergesfromthe reg
ion of magne ticfieldwith itsfinalvelocity at an angle 30 to its initial velocity
. (b) Find th efinalvelocity of the particle and the time spent by it in the mag
neticfield,if the magnetic field now extendsupto2.IL. [JEE '99, 6 + 4] Q. 11 (i)
Aparticle of c harge q and mass m moves in a circular orbit of radius r with ang
ular speed co. The ratio of the magnitude ofits magnetic moment to that of its a
ngular momentum depends on (A) co and q (B) co, q and m (C) q and m (D) co and m
(ii) Two long parallel wires are at a distance 2d apart. They carry steady equa
l currentsflowi ngout of the plane of the paper, as shown. The variation of the
magneticfieldB a long the XX' is given by

(A) (B) (C) (D) f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

(iii) An infinitely long conductor PQR is bent to form a right angle as shown. A
M cur rent I flows through PQR. The magneticfielddue to this current at the poi
nt M is H Now, another infinitely long straight conductor QS is P Qn o connected
at Q s o that the current in PQ remainingunchanged. The magnetic field at M is
now H Th e ratio H /H is given by R (A) 1/2 (B)l ~ (C) 2/3 (D) 2 (iv) An ionized
gas cont ains both positive and negative ions. If it is subjected simultaneousl
y to an el ectric field along the +x direction and a magneticfieldalong the +z d
irection, t hen (A) positive ions deflect towards +y direction and negative ions
towards -y direction (B) all ions deflect towards +y direction. (C) all ions de
flect toward s -y direction (D) positive ions deflect towards -y direction and n
egative ions towards +y direction. [JEE 2000 (Scr)] Q.12 A circular loop of radi
us R is bent along a diameter and given a shape as shown in the figure. One of t
he semicircle s (KNM) lies in the x - z plane and the other one (KLM) in the y-z
plane with th eir centers at the origin. Current I is flowing through each ofth
e semicircles a s shown in figure. (i) A particle of charge q is released at the
origin with a v elocity v ^ o Find the instantaneous force f on the particle. A
ssume that space is gravity free. (ii) If an external uniform magneticfieldB j i
s applied, determ ine the forces F and F on the semicircles KLM and KNM due to t
hisfieldand the ne t force F on the loop . [JEE 2000 Mains, 4 + 6] r 9 0 r ] 2 :
1 : 2 Q.13 A current of 1 OA flows around a closed path in a circuit which is i
n the h orizontal plane as shown in thefigure.The circuit consists of eight alte
rnating arcs ofradii ^ = 0.08 m and r = 0.12 m. Each arc subtends the same angle
at the centre. (a) Find the magneticfieldproduced by this circuit at the centre
. (b) An infinitely long straight wire carrying a current of 1 OA is passing thr
ough the centre of the above circuit vertically with the direction of the curren
t being into the plane of the circuit. What is the force acting on the wire at t
he centr e due to the current in the circuit? What is the force acting on the ar
c AC and the straight segment CD due to the current at the centre? [JEE 2001, 5
+ 5] Q.14 Two particles A and B of masses m and m respectively and having the sa
me charge are moving in a plane. Auniform magneticfieldexists perpendicular to t
his plane . The speeds of the particles are v and v respectively and the traject
ories are as shown in the figure. Then (A) m v < m v (B) m v > m v (C) m < m and
v < v (D) m = n^ and v = v [JEE, 2001 (Scr)] A B A B A A B B A A B B A B A B A
A B Q.15 A non-planar loop of conducting wire carrying a current I is placed as
show n inthefigure.Each ofthe straight sections ofthe loop is oflength2a. The ma
gneti c field due to this loop at the point P (a, 0, a) points in the direction
1 - ,H 1+ k) Ts 1 H+k+i) < A

> 7 T (i + j + k) (i+k) [JEE, 2001 (Scr)] f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Cur

rent [11]

Q . 16 A coil having N turns is wound tightly in the form of a spiral with inner
and outer radii a and b respectively. When a current 1 passes through the coil,
the magneticfieldat the centre is [JEE, 2001 Screening] N H NI 2^i NI IV , b (C
) In(A) (B) (D) /n2(b - a) a > 2(b - a) a 0 n T [ ) 0 K Q.17 A particle of mass
m and charge q moves with a constant velocity v along th e positive x direction
. It enters a region containing a uniform magneticfieldB d irected along the neg
ative z direction, extending from x = a to x = b. The minim um value ofv require
d so that the particle can just enter the region x > b is (A ) q b B./m (B)q(b-a
)B/m (C)qaB/m (D) q(b + a) B/2m [JEE 2002 (screening), 3] Q. 18 A long straight
wire along the z-axis carries a current I in the negative z d irection. The magn
etic vector field B at a point having coordinates (x, y) in th e z = 0 plane is
[JEE 2002 (screening), 3] n i (xj-yi) ji I (yi - xj) (xi+yj) ( y (A) 2n (x +y )
(B) M (x + y ) ( Q 2n (x +y ) (D) M (x -+yj )) 2n 2n 0 0 X1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q. 1
9 The magneticfieldlines due to a bar magnet are correctly shown in N V. ^. N [JE
E 2002 (screening), 3 ] ^ N , Q.20 A rectangular loop PQRS madefroma uniform wir
e has length a, width b and ma ss m. It isfreeto rotate about the arm PQ, which
remains.hinged along a horizont al line taken as the y-axis (seefigure).Take the
vertically upward direction as the z-axis. Auniform magneticfieldB = (3 i + 4 k
) B exists in the region. The lo op is held in the x-y plane and a current I is
passed through it. The loop is no w released and is found to stay in the horizon
tal position in equilibrium. R Wha t is the direction of the current I in PQ? (a
) (b) Find the magnetic force on th e arm RS. [JEE 2002, 1+1+3] (c) Find the exp
ression for I in terms of B a, b and m. 0 Q. 21 A circular coil carrying current
I is placed in a region of uniform magnet icfieldacting perpendicular to a coil
as shown in the figure. Mark correct optio n [JEE 2003 (Scr)] * (A) coil expand
s (B) coil contracts x (C) coil moves left ( D) coil moves right x x Q.22 Figure
represents four positions ofa current carrying coil is a magneticfie lddirected
towards right, h represent the direction of area ofvector of the coil . The cor
rect order ofpotential energy is: [JEE 2003 (Scr)] (A) I > III > II > I V (B) I
< III < II < IV (C) IV < I < II < II (D) II > II > IV > I f,Bansa!Classes Magneti
cs Effect of Current [11]

Q.23 A wheel of radius R having charge Q, uniformly distributed on the rim of th

e wheel is free to rotate about a light horizontal rod. The rod is suspended by
light inextensible stringe and a magneticfieldB is applied as shown inthe figur
e . The 3Tn initial tensions in the strings are T . Ifthe breaking tension ofthe
s trings are find the maximum angular velocity co with which the wheel can be r
ota te. [JEE 2003] 0 0 Q.24 A proton and an alpha particle, after being accelera
ted through same potent ial difference, enter a uniform magneticfieldthe directi
on ofwhich is perpendicu lar to their velocities. Find the ratio of radii ofthe
circular paths ofthe two particles. [JEE 2004] Q.25 In a moving coil galvanomete
r, torque on the coil can be expressed as T = ki, where i is current through the
wire and k is constant. The rectangular coil of the galvanometer having numbers
of turns N, area A and m oment of inertia I is placed in magneticfieldB. Find (
a) k in terms of given par ameters N, I, Aand B. (b) the torsional constant of t
he spring, if a current i p roduces a deflection of %!2 in the coil in reaching
equilibrium position. (c) th e maximum angle through which coil is deflected, id
charge Q is passed through t he coil almost instantaneously. (Ignore the dampin
g in mechanical oscillations) [JEE 2005] 0 Q.26 An infinite current carrying wir
e passes through point O and in perpendicul ar to the plane containing a current
carrying loop ABCD as shown in thefigure.Ch oose the correct option (s). (A) Ne
t force on the loop is zero. (B) Net torque o n the loop is zero. (C) As seen fr
om O, the loop rotates clockwise. (D) As seen from O, the loop rotates anticlock
wise f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

ANSWER KEY EXERCISE # I x 10-5 T Q.l Q.4 8 Til Q.2 JL M 2V2 3 Q.3 (2V2-l)jl /' 7
ta 3 1 ^o 7t +1 47tr 2 1 zero 05 ^ 4RU f rk + "1 1 k J Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 (i) 1.3 x 10 4
T, (ii)zero Q.9 ^ weber.nr1 Q. 10 Q.14 1W 2na Q 11 Q.15 10k Q. 12 2mvc Q. 13 Q.1

zero 4/^ F = aa2ij

~ , ( c ) z e r o
= Hobrf 3 fl = 2 H
Be v V2mV y HoII'C

/' =
Q 18
bR 0
0 2%

0.1110A, i2 = 0.096A Q 1 ? (a) 3mv2 3mv3 4qa ' ( b ) - ^

In the plane of the drawing from right to left Q.19 B I
3 Q 20 3r2 ' 0.57 s Q.21 a t - m~ , wherea = shr qB m EI
Q.22 \ Q.23 a b to the left

I I Q.24 V2IRB n Q 2 5 _ W - Ml 2 J / n r 2 Q.l Mo 2* (a +b 2 ) 2 V3b EXERCISE #

IT Q 2 471^ a y along Y-axis, <u> 4n v 2 a y Jfo fr 2 ^ V10 tan + 7t with posit
ive axis f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]

Q.3 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.9 Q.ll Li I I " T ^ /n(3) along-vez direction F 'Ml 2n 0 Q.4 m
in rj2 + a* L , 2 V a-2 j , zero \l-k), ' 2 'l a ^ R p J ( a ) B = ~ y 2R - b 2
, (b) B = M R 4 4R + b 2 2 p J' 0 v ab ^ 4R + b 2 2 2 y -^h tan e 2 2 Qs 8 rz QV
p i /_3^3 - 1 \ 71 , (b) x=BI v y v 0 3 -6 a 2J (a) 0 (b) 1.41 x 10~ T, 45 in xz-p
lane, (c) 5 x 10 T, +x-direction] 2 Q. 10 (a) 20 min. (b) 5.94 x 10" Nm Vl5 C 4
23 4 6 Q. 12 (a) 1.4 x 10~ m/s (b) 4.5 x 10~ N (down) (c) 2.8 x 10" V/m (down) (
d) 5.7 x 10~ V (top +, bottom-) (e) same as (c) Q.13 (a) I = Q.17 7tr ( x 4- Ry)
\ + B B 2 7 m g (h\

(b)T I mg 7crB v Q. 14 (a) increase, (b) decrease Q.18 - 2 re r B / / , - 2 7t r

B z / 0 0 ^-tan 2hy H O 7t 1 V r a \ Q.19 0.62 N < F < 0.88 N Q-20 B eh ehB Q.3
(i)m=^;N min = 4.7X10- T 3 EXERCISE # III Q.l B Q.5 Q 7 Q.2 A z = 0,x = ^ , d t
a Q.4 A ^ ^ (iO^fe 1 Q.6 (i) D (ii) B, C (iii) A - (v x g ) / | v x g 0 0 v=^ E
l + v o coscot + [v sin rat] k, where co = 0 f,Bansa!Classes 4i Magnetics Effect
of Current 3 BIo At 4 M 2

Q.9 A [11]

mv 7im Q 10 ( ) 2qB^ (b)velocity=-v, time= 0 a Q.ll (i) C (ii) B (iii) C (iv) C

(V Q.12 (i) q v j; (ii) F = 2 I R B F , = 2 I R B , Net force = F , + F = 4 I R
B 1 0 5 2 5 6 Q. 13 (a) 6.6 x 10~ T, (b) 0, 0, 8 x io~ Nt Q.14B Q. 15 D Q.16 C Q
.17 B Q.18 A Q.19 D 6bB a 1 Q.20 (a) current in loop PQRS is clockwise from P to
QRS., (b) p = BI b (3k-4i), (c) I = Q.21 A Q.22 A Q.23 = dT P p q 0 QR B 2 Q.24
J a y a q V2 r m = a p 2iNAB NAB 71 Q.25 (a) k = NAB, (b) C = 7C , (c) Q x V 0 Z11
Q.26 A,C f,Bansa!Classes Magnetics Effect of Current [11]


QUESTION FOR SHORT ANSWER Q. 1 Consider a magneticfieldline. Is the magnitude of

B constant or variable al ong such a line? Can you give an example of each case
? Q. 2 Q. 3 A current is se nt through a vertical springfromwhose lower end a we
ight is hanging. What will h appen? B= fx i/ 2nd suggets that a strong magneticf
ieldis set up at points near a long wire carrying a current. Since there is a cu
rrent i and magneticfieldB, w hy is there not a force on the wire in accord with
the equation F = iL x B ? 0 0 Q.4 Twofixedwires cross each other perpendicularl
y so that they do not actually touc h but are close to each other, as shown infi
gure.Equal currents i exist in each wire in the directions indicated. In what re
gion(s) will there be some points of zero net magnetic field? II III I- I IV 3 Q
.5 A messy loop of limp wire is placed on a frictionless table and anchored at p
oin ts a and b as shown infigure.If a current i is now ' passed through the wire
, wi ll it try to form a circular lo op i or will it try to bunch up further? Q.
.L A v ery long conductor has a square cross section and contains a coaxial cavit
y also with a square cross section. Current is distributed uniformly over the ma
terial cross section ofthe conductor. Is the magnetic field in the cavity equal
to zer o? Justify you answer. Two long solenoids are nested on the same axis, as
infigure.They carry identical currents but in opposite directions, Ifthere is n
o magnetic field inside the in ner solenoid, what can you say about n, the numbe
r ofturns per unit length, for the two solenoids? Which one, if either, has the
larger value? Q. 8 The magnetic fieldat the center of a circular current loop ha
s the value B = M-i / 2R . Howev er, the electricfieldat the center of a ring of
charge is zero. Why this differe nce? 0 Q. 7 Q. 9 A steady current is set up in
a cubical network of resistive wires, as in figure . Use symmetry arguments to
show that the magneticfieldat the v'J center of the cube is zero J A

P Q. 10 A copper pipefilledwith an electrolyte. When a voltage is applied, the c

ur rent in the electrolyte is constituted by the movement of positive and negati
ve ions in opposite directions. Will such a pipe experience a force when placed
in a magnetic field perpendicular to the current. Q. 11 Magnetic moments arise d
ue to charges. Can a system have magnetic moments even though it has no charge.
Q. 12 Imagine that the room in which you are seated is fillie with a uniform mag
net icfieldwith B pointing vertically upward. A circular loop of wire has its pl
ane horizontal. For what direction of current in the loop, as viewed from above,
wil l the loop be in stable eqiulibrium with respect to forces & torques of mag
netic origin ? (SS Bansal Classes Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current [1

Q .13 Two current-carrying wires may attract each other. In absence of other for
ces, the wires will move towards each other increasing the kinetic energy. From
where does this energy come? Q.14 In order to have a current in a long wire, it
should be connected to a battery or some such device. Can we obtain the magneti
c fielddue to a straight, long wire by using Ampere's law without mentioning thi
s other part ofthe circuit. Q.15 A uniform magnetic field fills a certian cubica
l region of space. Can an electron be fired into this cube from the outside in s
uc h a way that it will travel in a closed circular path inside the cube? Q. 16
In Ampere's law | B.dl - \i0 i the current outside the curve is not included on
the right hand side. Does it mean that the magnetic field B calculated by using
Amp ere's law, gives the contribution of only the currents crossing the area bou
nded by the curve ? Q.17 A magnetic field that varies in magnitude form point to
poi nt, but has constant direction (East to West) is set up in a chamber . A ch
arged particle enters the chamber and travels undeflected along a straight path
with constant speed . What can you say about the initial velocity of the particl
e? Q. 18 A charged particle enters an environment ofa strong & non-uniform magne
ticfie ldvarying from point to point both in magnitude and direction and comes o
ut of i t following a complicated trajectory. Would its final speed equal the in
itial sp eed , if it suffered no collisions with the environment. Q.19 A straigh
t wire ca rrying on electric current is placed along the axis of a uniformly cha
rged ring. Will there be a magnetic force on the wire ifthe ring starts rotating
about the wire ? If yes, in which direction ? Q.20 An electron travelling West
to East en ters a chamber having a uniform electrostatic field in North to South
direction . Specify the direction in which a uniform magnetic field should be s
et up to pr event the electron from deflecting from its straight line path . Q.2
1 The magnet ic field inside a tightly wound, long solenoid is B = ju0 ni. It su
ggests that t hefielddoes not depend on the total length of the solenoid, and he
nce if we add more loops at the ends ofa solenoid the field should not increase.
Explain quali tatively why the extra-added loops do not have a considerable eff
ect on the fiel d inside the solenoid. Q . 22 A lightening conductor is connecte
d to the earth b y a circular copper pipe. After lightning strikes, it is discov
ered that the pip e has turned into a circular rod. Explain the cause of this ph
enomenon. Q.23 We know that the work required to turn a current loop end for end
in an external ma gnetic field is 2pB. Does this hold no matter what the origin
al orientaion of th e loop was ? (SS Bansal Classes Question Bank on Magnetic Ef
fect of Current [12]

Q.l ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT. Take approx. 2 minutes for answering each questi
on. A current of i ampere is flowing through each ofthe bent wires as shown the
magn itude and direction of magneticfieldat 0 is 1 3^ Poi_fj_ _2_ (B) fV R R' (A
) 4 ^ R R' \ l^o 1 M-oM (C) v.R 2R' j (D) 8 l R R' y + + 1 1 + Q. 2 Net magnetic
fieldat the centre ofthe circle O due to a current carrying loop as shown infigu
reis (9 < 180) /k \ (A) zero il>i 8^>0 ; (B) perpendicular to paper i nwards V' J
(C) perpendicular to paper outwards (D) is perpendicular to paper in wards if 9
< 90 and perpendicular to paper outwards if 90<9<180 The magneticfieldd ue to a c
urrent carrying square loop of side a at a point located symmetrically at a dist
ance of a/2 from its centre (as shown is) V2p i M-o i 2p i 0 0 c Q. 3 Q.4 A char
ge particle A of charge q = 2 C has velocity v = 100 m/s. When it passes t hroug
h point Aand has velocity inthe direction shown. The strength of magneticfi elda
t point B due to this moving charge is (r = 2 m). (A) 2.5 uT (B) 5.0 pT ' (C )2.
0pT (D)None Three rings, each having equal radius R, are placed mutually perp en
dicular to each other and each having its centre at the origin of co-ordinate sy
stem. If current I is flowing thriugh each ring then the magnitude of the magn e
ticfieldat the common centre is (B)zero ( Q ( M g f ( D ) ^ - ^ . (A) ^3 2R Two c
oncentric coils X and Y of radii 16 cm and 10 cm lie in the same vertical plane
containing N-S direction. X has 20 turns and carries 16 A. Yhas 25 turns & carr
ies 18A. X has current in anticlockwise direction and Yhas current in clockwise
direction for an observer, looking at. the coils facing the west. The magnitude
of net magneticfieldat their common centre is (A) 5?t x 10 T towards west (B) 13
% * 10- T towards east (C) 137t x 10" T towards west (D) 5,x * 10 T towards eas
t A uniform beam of positively charged particles is moving with a constant veloc
i ty parallel to another beam ofnegatively charged particles moving with the sam
e velocity in opposite direction separated by a distance d. The variation of mag
ne ticfieldB along a perpendicular line draw between the two beams is best repre
sen ted by 4 4 4 4 Q.6 Q.7 (A) d/2 (D) Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Curre
nt d/2 (SS Bansal Classes


Q. 8 Q. 9 The dimension of where |i is permeability & s is permittivity is same

as : (B) I nductance (C) Capacitance (A) Resistance (D) None of these A current
I flows aro und a closed path in the horizontal plane of the circle as shown in
thefigure.Th e path consists of eight arcs with alternating radii r and 2r. Each
segment ofar c subtends equal angle at the common centre P. The magnetic field
produced by cu rrent path at point P is 3 |j, I (A) 8 r ; perpendicular to the p
lane of the pap er and directed inward. 0 (B) -8 ; perpendicular to the plane of
the paper and directed outward. r 0 3 JLT I (C) 1 Upl ; perpendicular to the pl
ane of the paper and directed inward. 8 r 1 (D) 8 Upl ; perpendicular to the pla
ne of the paper and directed outward.. r Q. 10 Infinite number ofstraight wires
each carrying current I are equally place d as shown in the figure. Adjacent wir
es have current in opposite direction. Net magneticfieldat point P is /n4 k P" H
o (A) f 4n V3a H0I In 4 (D) Zero (C) 471 V ia (-k) 1 / n 2 k Q. 11 A direct curr
ent is passing through a wire. It is bent to form a coil of o ne turn. Now it is
further bent to form a coil oftwo turns but at smaller radius . The ratio ofthe
magnetic induction at the centre ofthis coil L and at the cent re of the coil o
f one turn is (A) 1 : 4 (B) 4: 1 (C) 2 : 1 (D) 1 : 1 Q. 12 Two m utually perpend
icular conductors carrying currents Ij and I lie in one plane. Lo cus ofthe poin
t at which the magnetic induction is zero, is a (A) circle with ce ntre as the p
oint of intersection ofthe conductor. (B) parabola with vertex as t he point of
intersection ofthe conductors (C) straight line passing through the point ofinte
rsection ofthe conductors. (D) rectangular hyperbola 2 Q. 13 Find the magneticfi
eldat P due to the arrangement shown 2|i i Ho Ho 1 0 1 Ho 1 1+ ,/45i Q. 14 Equal
current i is flowing in three infinitely long wires along positive x , y and z d
irections. The magnitude "field at a point (0,0, -a) would be: M (C)i ^(i-i) ( D
)27ta0 + J + k) ^[12] (SS Bansal Classes Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Cu

Q.15 A thin, straight conductor lies along the axis ofa hollow conductor of radi
us R. The two carry equal currents in the same direction. The magneticfieldB is
plotted against the distance rfromthe axis. Which ofthe following best represen
t s the resulting curve? Q.16 A long thin walled pipe of radius R carries a curr
ent I along its length. T he current density is uniform over the circumference o
fthe pipe. The magneticfie ldat the center of the pipe due to quarter portion of
the pipe shown, is 2p rV2 M-QIA/2 pI (D) None (C) 7t R (A) 4ti R 71 K Q.17 Two
very long straight parallel wires, parallel to y-axis, cany currents 41 and I, a
long +y direction and -y di rection, respectively. The wires are passes through
the x-axis at the points (d, 0,0) and (- d, 0,0) respectively. The graph ofmagne
ticfieldz-comp onent as one moves along the x-axisfromx = - d to x=+d, is best g
iven by 0 0 2 2 (A) (B) j (C) LJ (D) Q.18 A long straight wire, carrying current
I, is bent at i ts midpoint tofroman angle of p 45 . Induction of magneticfield
at point P, dista nt R from point of bending is " R , , X45 equal to: (V2-l)p I (
V2+l)p I (V2-1 VqI (V2 lKl (A) (D) 4V271R 4V2UR 4TTR ' 4tcR 4V2TTR ' Q.19 A holl
ow cylinder having infinite length and carrying uniform current per unit length
X along the circum ference as shown. Magneticfieldinside the cylinder is pX (C)2
pA (D) none (A) (B) Po^ 0 0 ( D ) + Il f u 0 v( _C / ) v 0 Q.20 A long straight
metal rod has a very long hole ofradius' a' drilled paralle l to the rod axis as
shown in the figure. Ifthe rod carries a current 'i' find t he value of magneti
c induction on the axis of the hole, where OC = c p rc (B) 2T C(V - a ) 7r(b -a
) p ic (D) 27iaV ( O ^ 2TCC' Q.21 Two long conductors are arra nged as shown abo
ve to form overlapping cylinders, each of raidus r, whose cente rs are separated
by a distance d. Current of density J flows into the plane ofth e page along th
e shaded | part of one conductor and an equal currentflowsout of the plane ofthe
page along the shaded portion ofthe other, as shown. What are th e magnitude an
d direction ofthe magneticfieldat point A? Vacuum (A) (p /27r)7tdJ , in the +y-d
irection (B) (p /27t)d /r, in the +y-direction (C) (p /27t)4d .T/r, in the -y-di
rection (D) (p /27t)Jr /d, in the -y-direction (E) There is no magn eticfieldat
A. 0 ( A ) 2 2 0 l ( b 2 a 2 ) V f r 0 0 2

0 2 0 2 (SS Bansal Classes Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current [12]

Q. 22 An electron is moving along positive x-axis. Auniform electric field exist

s towards negative y-axis. What should be the direction of magneticfieldof suit
a ble magnitude so that net force of electron is zero (A) positive z-axis (B) ne
ga tive z-axis (C) positive y-axis (D) negative y-axis Q.23 A particle of charge
q and mass m starts moving from the origin under the action of an electric fiel
d / V ^ E = E i and B = B i with velocity v = v j. The speed of the particle wil
l be come 2v after a time 2Bq V3Bq 2mv V3 mv (C)t = mv (A)t = qE (D)t E (B)t = m
v " " Q. 24 An electron is projected with velocity v in auniform electricfieldE
perpe ndicular to thefield.Again it is projetced with velocity v perpendicular t
o a un iform magneticfieldB/ If r is initial radius of curvature just after ente
ring in the electricfieldand r is initial radius of curvature just after enterin
g in ma gnetic field then the ratio ^ /r is equal to EVN B Bv (C) B (A) E (D) Bv
E ' E Q .25 Auniform magnetic field B = B j exists in a space. Aparticle of mas
s m and c harge q is projected towards negative x-axis with speed v from the a p
oint (d, 0 , 0). The maximum value v for which the particle does not hit y-z pla
ne is 2Bq B qd Bq Bqd (A) (B) (C) - T (D) dm m 2dm 2m Q.26 Two protons move para
llel to each other, keeping distance r between them, both moving with same veloc
ity y . Then the ratio of the electric and magnetic force of interaction between
them is (D) None (A) / V (C) / 2 V (B) 2 c / V Q.27 A charged particle of speci
fic charge a is released from origin at timet = 0 with velocity V = V i + V j in
magneticfie ldB = B i. The coordinates ofthe particle at time t % are (specific
charge a= q/ m) 0 0 0 0 n n v 7 0 0 v y q 0 0 t 2 2 0 v _ / v 0 w w w v y C 2 2
2 2 c 2 2 o /V 0 V n V2V n - Vn * * (A) 2B a aB Ba v w T n -V. (B) 2B a , 0 , 0 o
Ba Q.28 Three ions H , He and 0 having same kinetic energy pass through a region
in which there is a uniform magneticfieldperpendicular to their velocity, then:
(A ) H will be least deflected. (B) He and 0 will be deflected equally. (C) 0 w
ill be deflected most. (D) all will be deflected equally. + + + 2 + + + 2 + 2 2V
V7C (C) 0, B a 2B a J 0 y^ (D) B a ' 0,- B a Q.29 An electron having kinetic ene
rgy T is moving in a circular orbit of radius R perpendicular to a uniform magne
tic induction B . If kinetic energy is double d and magnetic induction tripled,
the radius will become 3R (3 (2 [4 (A) (B) R ( C) R (D) y - R Q.30 An electron (
mass = 9.1 x 10" ; charge = - 1.6 x 10" C) expe riences no deflection if subject
ed to an electricfieldof 3.2 x 10 V/m and a magn eticfieldof 2. Ox 10" Wb/m . Bo
th thefieldsare normal to the path of electron an d to each Other. Ifthe electri
cfieldis removed, then the electron will revolve i n an orbit of radius : (A) 45
m (B) 4.5 m (C) 0.45 m (D) 0.045 m 31 19 5 3 2

(SS Bansal Classes Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current [12]

Q 31 A charged particle moves in a magneticfieldB = 10 i with initial velocity u

= 5i + 4 j. The path ofthe particle will be (A) straight line (B) circle (C) he
lical (D)none Q.32 A electron experiences a force (4.0 i + 3.0 j) 10" N in a un
i form magnetic field when its velocity is 2.5 k x 10 ms . When the velocity is
re directed and becomes (l. 51 - 2.0 j)x 10 ms , the magnetic force of the elect
ron is zero. The magnetic field vector 3 is: (A)-o.075i + 0.1 j (B) 0.11 + 0.075
j ( C) 0.075i-0.1 j +k (D) 0.0751 0.1 j Q.33 A mass spectrometer is a device whi
ch s elect particle of equal mass. An iron with electric charge q > 0 and mass m
star ts at rest from a source S and is accelerated through a potential differen
ce V I t passes through a hole into a region of constant magnetic field B perpen
dicular to the plane of the paper as shown in thefigure.The particle is deflecte
d by th e magneticfieldand emerges through the bottom hole at a distance d from
the top hole. The mass ofthe particle is 0 0 0 qBd qBd qB d qB d 'U M '0 (A) m
B) 4V C) 8V (D) 2mV i x 13 7 1 7 1 2 2 2 2 B 0 Q. 3 4 Electrons moving with diffe
ent speeds enter a uniform magneticfieldin a direction perpendicular to the fiel
d. They will move along circular paths. (A) o f same radius (B) with larger radi
i for the faster electrons (C) with smaller ra dii for the faster electrons (D)
either (B) or (C) depending on the magnitude of the magnetic field Q.35 In the p
revious question, time periods ofrotation will be : (A) same for all electrons (
B) greater for the faster electrons (C) smaller for the faster electrons (D) eit
her (B) or (C) depending on the magnitude ofthe magnetic field Q.36 OABC is a cu
rrent carrying square loop an electron is proje cted from the centre ofloop alon
g its diagonal AC as shown. Unit vector in the d irection of initial acceleratio
n will be (A) k (B) i+J V2 1+ (D J (C)-k > VT Q.37 A particle having charge of 1
C, mass 1 kg and speed 1 m/s ent ers a uniform magneticfield,having magnetic in
duction of 1T, at an angle 9 = 30 b etween velocity vector and magnetic induction
. The pitch of its helical path is (in meters) ~ (C) * (D) 71 (A) 2 (B)V3tt "" 2
Q.38 A charged particle is released from rest in a region ofuniform electric an
d magneticfields,which are parallel to each oth er. The locus of the particle wi
ll be (A) helix of constant pitch (B) straight l ine (C) helix ofvarying pitch (
D) cycloid v v v _ / (SS Bansal Classes Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Curr
ent [12]

Q.39 A particle of specific charge (charge/mass) a starts movingfromthe origin u

nder the action ofan electric field E = E i and magnetic field B = B k. Its vel
o city at (x , y ,0) is (4i + 3 j). The value of x is: 25 5a 16aB 13 aE (C) 2aE
(B ) (A) 2 B Q.40 A particle of specific charge (q/m) is projected from the orig
in of coordinates with initial velocity [ui - vj ]. Uniform electric magneticfie
lds exist in the region along the +y direction, ofmagnitude E and B. The particl
e wi ll definitely return to the origin once if (A) [VB/2TCE] is an integer (B)
(u + v ) [B/7tE] is an integer (C) [VB/' TIE] in an integer (D) [uB/TTE] is an i
ntege r Q.41 An electron moving with a velocity V, = 2i m/s at a point in a magn
eticfi eldexperiences a force F, = - 2 j N. 0 0 0 0 0 c f r r 2 2 1/2 _ 2 A 2 A
Ifthe electron is moving with a velocity V = 2 j m/s at the same point, it exper
iences a force F = +2i N. The force the electron would experience ifitweremovin
g withavelocity V = 2k m/s at the same point is (A) zero (B) 2kN (C) - 2 k N (D)
i nformation is insufficient Q. 42 Two particles of charges +Q and -Q are proj
ect edfromthe same point with a velocity v in a region of uniform magneticfieldB
suc h that the velocity vector makes an angle q with the magneticfield.Their ma
sses are M and 2M, respectively. Then, they will meet again for the first time a
t a p oint whose distance from the point of projection is (A) 2:tMvcos9/QB (B) 8
TIMVCO S0/QB (C) 7tMvcos0/QB (D) 4TIMVCOS9/QB Q.43 A particle of charge Q and ma
ss M mo ves in a circular path of radius R in a uniform magneticfieldof magnitud
e B. The same particle now moves with the same speed in a circular path of same
radius R in the space between the cylindrical electrodes ofthe cylindrical capac
itor. Th e radius ofthe inner electrode is R/2 while that of the outer electrode
is 3R/2. Then the potential difference between the capacitor electrodes must be
(A) QBR( /n3)/M (B) QB R (/n3)/2M (C) QB R (/n3)/M (D)None Y Q. 44 A particle w
ith charge +Q and mass m enters a magneticfieldof magnitude B, B existing only t
o theright ofthe boundary YZ. The direction ofthe motion ofthe m particle is per
pendicular to the direction of B. Let T = 2 T . The time spent T by the particle
in thefiel dwill be 71-29 'tc + 29^ (A)T0 (B) 2T9 (C)T ( D ) T 271 2n 3 2 2 2 2
X Q.45 In the previous question, ifthe particle has -Q charge, the time spend b
y t he particle in thefieldwill be tc-29 tt + 29 (C)T ( D ) T 2TZ (B)2T9 (A) TO
27C Q.46 The direction of magnetic force on the electron as shown in the diagram
is along (A) y-axis (B) -y-axis (C) z-axis (D) -z-axis ' IL Y (SS Bansal Classe
s Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current [12]

Q.47 A particle having charge q enters a region ofuniform magnetic field B (dire
cted inwards) and is deflected a distance x after travelling a distance y. The
m agnitude of the momentum ofthe particle is: qB qBy qBy (B) x ( C ) y X +x (A) (
D) qBy' 2x Q.48 A block of mass m & charge q is released on a long smooth inclin
ed plane magnetic field B is constant, uniform, horizontal and parallel to surfa
ce as shown. Find the time from start when block loses contact with the surface.
m cosecG mcosB (B) qB (A) qB mcotQ (D)none (C) qB Q. 49 A particle moving with
velocity v having specific cha rge (q/m) enters a region of B 3mv P' 53>" magnet
icfieldB having width d = "^rj^ at angle 53 to the boundary ofmagnetic X field. F
ind the angle 9 in the60 diagram . (A) 37 (B) (C) 90 (D) none Q. 5 0 A charged part
icle enters a uriferm magneticfi eldperpendicular to its initial direction trave
lling in air. The path of the par ticle is seen to follow the path infigure.Whic
h of statements 1-3 is/are correct ? [1] The magneticfieldstrength may have been
increased while the particle was t ravelling in air [2] The particle lost energ
y by ionising the air entry* [3] The particle lost charge by ionising the air (A
) 1, 2, 3 are correct (B) 1,2 only a re correct (C) 2, 3 only are correct (D) 1
only Q. 51 A straight rod of mass m a nd length L is suspended from the identica
l spring as shown in thefigure.The spr ing stretched by a distance of x due to t
he weight of the wire. The circuit has total resistance RQ. When the magneticfie
ldperpendicular to the plane ofthe pape r is switched on, springs are observed t
o extend further by the same distance. T he magneticfieldstrength is mgR (A) 8 7
~; directed outward from the plane of the paper L mgR (B) 2ex ; directed outward
fromthe plane of the paper mgR (C) sL ; d irected into the plane of the paper (D
) ; directed into the plane of the paper 0 0 X Q. 52 A conducting wire bent in the
form of a parabola y = 2x carries a current i = 2 A as shown in figure. This wi
re is placed in a uniform magnetic field B = -4 k Tesla. The magnetic force on t
he wire is (in newton) (A) 16i (B) 321 (C)-32 i (D) 16i 2 y (m) (SS Bansal Class
es Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current [12]

Q.53 A semi circular current carrying wire having radius R is placed in Y x-y pl
ane with its centre at origin' O'. There is non-uniform magnetic Bxfield B = ^
k (here B is +ve constant) is existing inthe region. The (-R,0,0) / I+RXOT X 2R
m agnetic force acting on semi circular wire will be along (A) - x-axis (B) + yax is (C) - y-axis (D) + x-axis Q.54 A circular current loop of radius a is plac
ed in a radialfieldB as shown. The net force acting on the loop is (A) zero (B)
27i BaIcos9 (C) 27taBsinG (D)None Q.55 A conductor of length I and mass m is pla
ced along the east-west line on a table. Suddenly a certain amount of charge is
pass ed throughit and it is found to jump to a height h. The earth's magnetic in
ducti on is B. The charge passed through the conductor is: 1 V2gh gh (A) Bmgh (B
) g/m (C) B/m (D) mV2gh B/ Q.56 In thefigureshown a current Ij is established in
the l ong straight wire AB. Another B wire CD carrying current I is placed in t
he plan e of the paper. The line joining the ends ofthis wire is perpendicular t
o the wi re AB. The force on the wire CD is: I, (A) zero (B) towards left (C) di
rected up wards (D) none of these D o v y 2 Q.57 A square loop ABCD, carrying a
current i, is placed near and coplanar with a long straight conductor XY carryin
g a current I, the net force on the loop wil l be 2ppli/ 2poIi (A) 3tt (B) Poli
(C) 371 (D) M A 2tc 271 M L/2 Q.58 A metal ri ng of radius r = 0.5 m with its pl
ane normal to a uniform magneticfieldB of indu ction 0.2 T carries a current I =
100 A. The tension in newtons developed in the ring is: (A) 100 (B) 50 (C) 25 (
D)10 X Q.59 In givenfigure,X and Y are two long straight parallel conductors eac
h carrying 2A a current of 2 A. The force on ea ch conductor is F newtons. When
the current 2A in each is changed to 1A and reve rsed in direction, the force on
each is now (A) F/4 and unchanged in direction ( B) F/2 and reversed in directi
on (C) F/2 and unchanged in direction (D) F/4 and reversed in direction Q.60 A c
onducting ring ofmass 2 kg and radius 0.5 m is pla ced on a smooth horizontal pl
ane. The ring carries a current i = 4A. A horizonta l magneticfieldB = 10T is sw
itched on at time t = 0 as shown infigure.The initia l angular acceleration of t
he ring will be IJIIIIlMWllllll (A) 40 7i rad/s (B) 2 0 % rad/s (C)5 7trad/s (D)
15 tc rad/s Q.61 In thefigureshown a coil of single t urn is wound on a sphere
of radius R and mass | m. The plane of the coil is para llel to the plane and li
es in the equatorial plane of e>\ the sphere. Current in the coil is i. The valu
e of B ifthe sphere is in equilibrium is wwwwwwwwwwulww mg cos 8 mg sin 9 mg tan
9 mg (D) 7tiR (C) TtiR (A) 7UR (B) 7UR Y B 7 2 2 2 2 B A (SS Bansal Classes Que
stion Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current [12]

Q. 62 The magnetic moment of a circular orbit ofradius 'r' carrying a charge' q'
and rotating with velocity v is given by qvr qvr (C) qv7rr (D) qv7ir (B) (A) 27
1 E |j. S Q. 63 The dimensional formula for the physical quantity 5 is B (E = el
e ctricfieldand B = magnetic field) (D) L MT- 1/2 (A)LMT (B)L MT~ (C) L~ MT Q. 64 A th
in non conducting disc of radius R is rotating clockwise (seefigure)with an angu
la r velocity w about its central axis, which is perpendicular to its plane. Bot
h i ts surfaces carry +ve charges ofuniform surface density. Halfthe disc is in
a re gion of a uniform, unidirectional magneticfieldB parallel to the plane ofth
e dis c, as shown. Then, (A) The net torque on the disc is zero. (B) The net tor
que ve ctor on the disc is directed leftwards. (C) The net torque vector on the
disc is directed rightwards. (D) The net torque vector on the disc is parallel t
o B. Q. 65 A rectangular coil PQ has 2n turns, an area 2a and carries a current
2/, (re fer figure). The plane of the coil is at 60 to a horizontal uniform magne
ticfield of flux density B. The torque on the coil due to magnetic force is (A)
Bna/ sin6 0 (B) 8Bna/cos60 (C)4na/Bsin60 (D)none Q. 6 6 A straight current carrying
conductor is placed in such a way that the current in the conductorflowsin the
direction out of the plane ofthe paper. The P R S N conductor is placed between t
wo poles o f two magnets, as shown. Q The conductor will experience a force in t
he directio n towards (A) P (B)Q (C)R (D)S Q.67 Figure shows a square current ca
rrying loop ABCD of side lOcmand current i = 1 OA. The magnetic moment M ofthe l
oop is C (A) (0.05) (I - V3k)A - m (B) (0.05) (j + k)A - m ,i= 10 (C) (0.05) (V3
i + k)A - m (D) (i + k)A - m 2 2 0 0 1 1 1 I 1/2 2 2 2 2 ^Q. 1 In the following
hexagons, made up oftwo different material P and Q, curre nt enters and leaves f
rom points X and Y respectively. In which case the magneti cfieldat its centre i
s not zero. 0 ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Take approx. 3 minutes
for answering each question. -vp/ ? 0 p/ Q x^ . v ^V (D) P Qjy Consider the magn
eticfieldproduced by afinitelylong current carrying wire. j A ) the lines offiel
dwill be concentric circles with centres on the wire. : The re can be two points
in the same plane where magneticfieldsare same. (JJ&) There can be large number
of points where the magneticfieldis same. > (D) The magneti cfieldat a point is
inversally proportional to the distance ofthe pointfromthe w ire. x (SS Bansal
Classes Question Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current


Q.3/ Consider three quantities x = E/B, y = J l / p e andz= -. Here, I is the le

ngth of a wire, Ciis a CR capacitance and R is a resistance. All other symbols
h ave standard meanings. (A) x, y have the same dimensions (Wfy, z have the same
d imensions (P*z, x have the same dimensions (D) none ofthe three pairs have th
e s ame dimensions. 0 0 Two long thin, parallel conductors carrying equal curren
ts in the same direction arefixedparallel to the x-axis, one passing through y =
a and the other through y = -a. The resultant magnetic field due to the two con
ductors at any point is B. Which of the following are correct? JA) B = 0 for all
points on the x-axis 4B ) At all points on the y-axis, excluding the origin, B
has only a z-component. " fC) At all points on the z-axis, excluding the origin,
B has only a y-component. ^(D) B cannot have anx-component. T Q..5 / Currentflo
wsthrough uniform, square frames as shown. In which case is the magneticfieldat
the centre of the frame no t zero? (A) (B) V (C) (D) Qj}/' A wire carrying I is
shaped as shown. Section AB is a quarter circle ofrad ius r. The magneticfieldat
C is directed i (A) along the bisector of the angle A CB, away from AB ' (B) al
ong the bisector ofthe angle ACB, towards AB perpendicu lar to the plane of the
paper, directed into the paper (D) at an angle T 4 to th e plane of the paper C
/ Along straight wire carries a current along the x-axis. Consider the points A(
0, 1, 0), B(0, 1,1), C(1, 0,1) and D(1, 1, 1). Which of t he following pairs of
points will have magnetic fields of the same magnitude (A) A andB .(B) A and C (
C)BandC B and D In the previous question, if the current i s i and the magneticf
ieldat D has magnitude B, Ho !V B 1 9 1 (C) B is parallel to the x-axis >SB) B m
akes an angle of 45 with the xy plane Which ofthe following statement is correct:
JjA) A charged particle enters a reg ion ofuniform magneticfieldat an angle 8 5
to magnetic lines of force. The path o f the particle is a circle. (B) An electr
on and proton are movingwith the same k inetic energy along the same direction.
When they pass through uniform magneticf ieldperpendicular to their direction of
motion, they describe circular path. -^(C ) There is no change in the energy ofa
charged particle moving in a magneticfiel dalthough magnetic force acts on it.
Two electrons enter with the same speed but in opposite direction in a uniform t
ransverse magnetic field. Then the two desc ribe circle of the same radius and t
hese move in the same direction. (SS Bansal Classes Question Bank on Magnetic Ef
fect of Current [12]

Qyl 0 Two identical charged particles enter a uniform magneticfieldwith same spe
ed but at angles 3 0 and 60 withfield.Let a, b and c be the ratio oftheir time pe
r iods, radii and pitches ofthe helical paths than j/k) abc = 1 (B) abc > 1 (C)
ab c < 1 0 ) a = be i Consider thefollowingstatements regarding a charged partic
le in amagneticfield.Which ofthe statements are true: (A) Starting with zero vel
oci ty, it accelerates in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. (B) W
hile deflecting in magneticfieldits energy gradually increases. (Q) Only the com
pone nt of magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion of the charge
d ^pa rticle is effective in deflecting it. \(0) Direction of deflecting force o
n the moving charged particle is perpendicular to its velocity. v QA 2 A particl
e of charge q and velocity v passes undeflected through a space wi th non-zero e
lectricfieldE and magneticfieldB. The undeflecting conditions will hold if. (A)
signs of both q and E are reversed. (B) signs of both q and B are r eversed. (C)
both B and E are changed in magnitude, but keeping the product of | B| and |E|
fixed, both B and E are doubled in magnitude. . Two charged particle A and B eac
h of charge +e and masses G X \x 12amuand 13 amu respectively follow a circular
trajectory in chamber X after the velocity selector as shown in the f igure. Bot
h particles enter the velocity selector with speed 1.5 x 10 ms . A uni form magn
eticfieldof strength 1.0 T is maintained within the chamber X and in th e veloci
ty selector. (A) Electricfieldacross the conducting plate of the velocit y selec
tor is - 10 NC i . (B) Electricfieldacross the conducting plate of the ve locity
selector is 10 NC" i . si) The ratio r /r ofthe radii of the circular path s for
the two particles is 12/13. (D) The ratio r / r ofthe radii ofthe circular path
s for the two particles is 13/12. Q.j/4 An electron is moving along the pos itiv
e X-axis. You want to apply a magneticfieldfor a short time so that the elec tro
n may reverse its direction and move parallel to the negative X-axis. This ca n
be done by applying the magneticfieldalong .AX) Y-axis ^(B) Z-axis (C) Y-axis on
ly (D) Z-axis only y X rrcioeity * >' X X X X 6 -1 X y y X X X y y x X X X

X X y X B y y X X y 6 -1 6 1 A B A B In a region of space, a uniform magneticfie

ldB exists in the y-direction. A prot on isfiredfromthe origin, with its initial
velocity v making a small angle a wit h the y-direction in the yz plane. In the
subsequent motion ofthe proton, JA) it s x-coordinate can never be positive (B)
its x- and z-coordinates cannot both be zero at the same time (C) its z-coordin
ate can never be negative (D) its y-coor dinate will be proportional to the squa
re of its time of flight Q.16 Arod AB mov es with a unifonn velocity v in a unif
orm magneticfieldas shown in figure. (A) T he rod becomes electrically charged.
(B) The end Abecomes positively charged. (C ) The end B becomes positively charg
ed. (D) The rod becomes hot because of Joule heating. (SS Bansal Classes ,A B Qu
estion Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current [12]

The following experiment was performed by J.J.Thomson in order to measure the ra

tio of the charge e to the mass m of an electron. Figure shows a modern version
ofThomson's apparatus. Electrons emittedfroma hotfilamentare accelerated by a p
o tential difference V. As the electrons pass through the deflector plates, they
e ncounter both electric and magneticfields.When the electrons leave the plates
th ey enter a field-free region that extends to the fluorescent screen. The bea
m of electrons can be observed as a spot of light on the screen. The entire regi
on i n which the electrons travel is evacuated with a vacuum pump. Thomson's pro
cedur e was to first set both the electric and magneticfieldsto zero, note the p
ositio n ofthe undefiected electron beam on the screen, then turn on only the el
ectricf ieldand measure the resulting deflection. The deflection of an electron
in an el ectric field of magnitude E is given by dj=eEL /2mv , where L is the le
ngth of t he deflecting plates, and v is the speed of the electron. The deflecti
on d can a lso be calculated from the total deflection of the spot on the screen
, d. + d an d the geometry ofthe apparatus. In the second part ofthe experiment,
Thomson adj usted the magneticfieldso as to exactly cancel the force applied by
the electric field,leaving the electron beam undefiected. This gives eE = evB.
By combining t his relation with the expression for d , one can calculate the ch
arge to mass ra tio ofthe electron as a function ofthe known quantities. The res
ult is: e _ 2d,E m BL Qyl 7 Why was it important for Thomson to evacuate the air
from the appara tus? (A) Electrons travel faster in a vacuum, making the deflec
tion d, smaller. (B) Electromagnetic waves propagate in a vacuum. (C) The electr
on collisions wit h the air molecules cause V them to be scattered, and a focuse
d beam will not be produced. (D) It was not important and could have been avoide
d. Q.slS"' One mig ht have considered a different experiment in which no magneti
cfieldis needed. Th e ratio e/m can then be calculated directlyfromthe expressio
n for d,. Why might Thomson have introduced the magneticfieldB in his experiment
? (A) To verify the correctness of the equation for the magnetic force. ^ (B) To
avoid having to mea sure the electron speed v. (C) To cancel unwanted effects o
fthe electricfieldE. (D) To make sure that the electricfielddoes not exert a for
ce on the electron. Q I f the electron speed were doubled by increasing the pote
ntial difference V, w hich ofthe following would have to be true in order to cor
rectly measure e/m? Kk ) The magneticfieldwould have to be cut in halfin order t
o cancel the force appl ied by the electric field. (B) The magneticfieldwould ha
ve to be doubled in orde r to cancel the force applied by the electric field. (C
) The length of the plate s, L, would have to be doubled to keep the deflection,
dj,fromchanging. (D) Noth ing needs to be changed. Q . 2ty The potential differ
ence V which accelerates th e electrons, also creates an electricfield.Why did T
homson NOT consider the defl ection caused this electricfieldin his experiment?
(A) This electricfieldis much weaker than the one between the deflecting plates
and can be neglected. (B) Onl y the deflection, d, + d caused by the deflecting
plates is measured in the expe riment. ..(C) There is no deflectionfromthis elec
tric field (D) The magneticfiel dcancels the force caused by this electric field
. 2 2 t 2 } 2 2 2 Question No. 17 to 21 (5 questions) (SS Bansal Classes Questio
n Bank on Magnetic Effect of Current [12]

k Q.21 Ifthe electron is deflected downward when only the electri c field is tur
ne d on (as shown in figure) then in what directions do the electric and magneti
cfi eldspoint in the second part ofthe experiment? (A) The electricfieldpoints t
o th e bottom, while the magneticfieldpoints into the page. / (B) The electricfi
eldpo ints to the bottom, while the magneticfieldpoints out ofthe page. (C) The
electr icfieldpoints to the top, while the magneticfieldpoints into the page. i(
D)The e lectricfieldpoints to the top, while the magneticfieldpoints out of the
page. Q/ L2 A conductor ABCDE, shaped as shown, carries a current i. It is place
d in the xy plane with the ends A and E on the x-axis. Auniform magnetic field o
fmagnitud e B exists in the region. The force acting on it will be Y 4JA) zero,
if B is in the x-direction -(B) XQi in the z-direction, if B is in the y-directi
on JJ2) AB /' in the negative y-direction, if B is in the z-direction (D)2aB/',.
ifB is in t he x-direction . / Q.23 A square loop of side i is placed in the nei
ghbourhood o fan infinitely long straight wire carrying a current I j. The loop
carries a cur rent I as shown in figure (A) The magnetic moment of the loop is p
(B) The magne tic moment ofthe loop is p = / Lk (C) The potential energy of the
loop is minimu m- / % k : (D) The torque experienced by the loop is maximum Q.2
4 The magnetic d ipole p is placed parallel to an infinitely long straight wire
as shown in figur e (A) the potential energy of the dipole is minimum (B) the to
rque acting on the dipole is zero (C) the force acting on the dipole is zero (D)
none of these z 2 u m m ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT. ANSWER Q4 Q.ll Q.18 Q.25 Q.
32 Q.39 Q.46 Q.53 Q.60 Q.67 KEY Qi Q8 Q.15 Q.22 Q.29 Q.36 Q.43 Q.50 Q.57 Q.64 D
A B B C B C B A B Q.l Q.5 Q.9 Q 13 Q.17 Q.21 Q.2 Q.9 Q.16 Q.23 Q.30 Q.37 Q.44 Q.
51 Q.58 Q.65 A C B,C C C D C A A D C B C A D B Q.3 Q.10 Q.17 Q.24 Q.31 Q.38 Q.45
Q.52 Q.59 Q.66 Q.2 Q.6 Q.10 Q.14 Q.18 Q.22 C B C D C B D B A B A,B,C C AD A,B B
AB,C A B A B A C A A A A Q.3 Q.7 Q.ll Q.15 Q.19 Q.23 Q.5 Q.12 Q.19 Q.26 Q.33 Q.
40 Q.47 Q.54 Q.61 A C B A C C C C B Q.6 Q.13 Q.20 Q.27 Q.34 Q.41 Q.48 Q.55 Q.62
A A B D B A C D B Q.7 Q.14 Q.21 Q.28 Q.35 Q.42 Q.49 Q.56 Q.63

Q.4 Q8 Q.12 Q.16 Q.20 Q.24 AB,C,D AD D B C C (SS Bansal Classes Question Bank o
n Magnetic Effect of Current [12]

Sitting Each of 90 minutes, duration approx. Q UESTION BANK ON

There are 76 questions in this question Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Wa

ves bank. Q.l Q.2 An open organ pipe oflength L vibrates in second harmonic mode
. The pressure vib ration is maximum (A) at the two ends (B) at a distance L/4 f
rom either end insi de the tube (C) at the mid-point of the tube (D) none ofthes
e Figure shown the s hape of part of a long string in which transverse waves are
produced by attachin g one end of the string to tuning fork offrequency250 Hz.
What is the velocity o f the waves? (A) 1.0 ms (B) 1.5 ms(C) 2.0 ms" (D) 2.5 ms1 1 1 1 5cm - 5cm ' \ 0.3cm O.lcrnV / 0.5cm Q.3 A sinusoidal progressive wave is
generated in a string. It's equation is given b y y = (2 mm) sin (2%x 100 7tt +
7t/3). The time when particle at x = 4 m first p asses through mean position, w
ill be 1 1 1 sec 1 (A) 150 sec (D) .100 sec (C) (B ) 12 sec ' 300 v Q.4 A block
of mass 1 kg is hanging vertically from a string of length 1 m and mass/ length
= 0.001 Kg/m. A small pulse is generated at its lower end. The pulse reac hes th
e top end in approximately (A) 0.2 sec (B) 0.1 sec (C) 0.02 sec (D) 0.01 s ec Fi
nd the resultant of 2 wave progressing along x-axis. Yj = 3 sin (3t - 6x) y = 4 cos(3t - 6x) (A) 5 sin (3t- 6 x - 37) (B) 5 sin (3t - 6x + 53) (C) 5 sin (3 t 6x - 53) (D) None 2 ///////// ^^ il Q. 5 Q. 6 A pulse shown here is reflected fro
m the rigid wall A and then fromfreeend B. Th e shape of the string after these
2 reflection will be (A) OB (C) Q)B (B)<>B (D)<> B B Q.7 An open organ pipe of l
ength I is sounded together with another organ pipe of le

ngth I + x in their fundamental tones (x / ) . The beat frequency heard will be

(speed of sound is v) : vx vx vx (C)JJ2 (D) ~2l (B) 2x (A) 4/ 1 4 Q. 8 Ataut str
ing at both ends vibrates in its n overtone. The distance between adjac ent Node
and Antinode is found to be'd'. If the length of the string is L, then (A) L =
2d (n +1) (B)L = d ( n + l ) (C)L = 2dn (D)L = 2 d ( n - l ) [10] s&Bans al Clas
ses Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Waves

Q. 9 Two waves are propagating along a taut string that coincides with the x-axi
s. Th efirstwave has the wave function y = Acos [k(x - vt)] and the second has t
he wav e function y = A cos [k(x + vt) + (j)]. (A) For constructive interference
at x = 0, cj) = %. (B) For constructive interference atx = 0, () = 3 T J T. (C)
For de structive interference at x = 0, <j) = %. (D) For destructive interferen
ce at x - 0, cj) = 2n. } Q. 10 The second overtone of an open organ pipe A and a
closed pipe B have the s ame frequency at a given temperature. It follows that
the ratio of the (A) lengt h of A and B is 4 : 3 (B) fundamentalfrequenciesof A
& B is 5 : 6 (C) lengths of B to that of A is 5 : 6 (D) frequencies offirstovert
one ofA & B is 10 : 9 Q.ll The length, tension, diameter and density of a wire B
are double than the corres ponding quantities for another stretched wire A. The
n. 1 (A) Fundamentalfrequenc yof B is times that of A. 1 (B) The velocity ofwave
in B is times that ofvelocit y in A. (C) The fundamentalfrequencyofA is equal t
o the third overtone of B. CD) The velocity of wave in B is half that ofvelocity
in A. Q.12 A tuning fork offr equency280 Hz produces 10 beats per sec when soun
ded with a vibrating sonometer string. When the tension in the string increases
slightly, it produces 11 beats per sec. The original frequency ofthe vibrating s
onometer string is : (A) 269 Hz (B) 291 Hz (C) 270 Hz (D) 290 Hz Q.13 Two whistl
es Aand B each have afrequencyo f500Hz. Ais stationary and B is moving towards t
he right (awayfromA) at a speed of 5 0 m/s. An observer is between the two whist
les moving towards the right wit h a speed of 25 m/s. The velocity of sound in a
ir is 350 m/s. Assume there is no wind. Then which of the following statements a
re true: (A) The apparent frequen cy ofwhistle B as heard by Ais 444Hz approxima
tely (B) The apparent frequency of whistle B as heard by the observer is 469Hz a
pproximately (C) The difference in the apparent frequencies ofA and B as heard b
y the observer is 4.5 Hz. (D) The apparent frequencies of the whistles of each o
ther as heard by A and Bare the sa me. Q. 14 A string lm long is drawn by a 300H
z vibrator attached to its end. The string vibrates in 3 segments. The speed of
transverse waves in the string is e qual to (A) 100 m/s (B) 200 m/s (C) 3 00 m/s
(D) 400 m/s Q.15 A string vibrates in 5 segments to a frequency of480 Hz. The f
requency that v/ill cause it to vibr ate in 2 segments will be (A) 96 Hz (B) 192
Hz (C) 1200 Hz (D) 2400 Hz Q.16 Two tuning forks A & B produce notes offrequenc
ies256Hz&262Hz respectively. An unkno wn note sounded at the same time as A prod
uces beats. When the same note is soun ded with B, beat frequency is twice as la
rge. The unknown frequency could be: (A ) 268 Hz (B) 260 Hz " (C) 250 Hz (D) 242
Hz * s&Bansal Classes Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Waves [10]

Q.17 Atransverse wave is described by the equation y=A sin [2% (ft - x/X) ]. The
maxi mum particle velocity is equal to four times the wave velocity if: ( A ) X
= 7iA/4 ( B ) X = 7tA/2 2 Q.18 A wave is propagating along x-axis. The displace
ment of particles of the me dium in z-direction at t = 0 is given by: z=exp[ -(x
+2) ], where 'x' is in meter s. At t = 1 s, the same wave disturbance is given b
y: z = exp[ - (2 - x) ]. Then , the wave propagation velocity is (A) 4 m/s in+x
direction (B) 4 m/s in -x dire ction (C) 2 m/s in + x direction (D) 2 m/s in-x d
irection Q.19 Which of the foll owing graphs is/are correct. 2 ( C ) X = %A (D)X
= 2%A (A) > ^ 3c Tr=constant) fParabola Temperature (C) Tension t ^ 3 XP)U g 55
eo Length of organ pipe Q.20 In a situation, wind is blowingfromsource to obser
ver. The wavelength of so und heard by stationary observer in the medium due to
sound produced by the fixe d source. (A) increases (B) decreases (C) remains sam
e (D) can't be determine Q. 21 In a test of subsonic Jet flies over head at an a
ltitude of 100 m. The sound intensity on the ground as the Jet passes overhead i
s 160 dB. At what altitude s hould the plane fly so that the ground noise is not
greater than 120 dB. (A) abo ve 10 kmfromground (B) above 1 kmfromground (C) ab
ove 5 km from ground (D) above 8 kmfromground Q.22 The frequency changes by 10%
as a sound source approaches a stationary observer with constant speed v . What
would be the percentage change infrequencyas the source recedes the observer wit
h the same speed. Given that v < v. (v = speed of sound in air) (A) 14.3% (B) 20
% (C)10.0% (D)8.5% Q.23 Four o pen organ pipes of different lengths and differen
t gases H at same temperature a s shown in figure. Let f , f , f and f be N O, th
eir fundamentalfrequenciesthen: [Take Y co = 7/5] CO, 2113 1/3 (A) f /f = 42 (B)
f /f =V72/28 I i (A) (B) (C) (D) (C) fc/f = VTT/28 (D) y f = V W n Q.24 A suffic
iently long close organ pipe has a small hole at its bottom. Initially the pipe
is empty. Water is poured into t he pipe at a constant rate. The fundamental fre
quency of the air column in the p ipe (A) continuously increasing (B) first incr
eases and them becomes constant (C ) continuously decreases (D)firstdecreases an
d them become constant Q.25 Atuning fork offrequency 340 Hz is vibrated just abo
ve a cylindrical tube of length 120 cm. Water is slowly poured in the tube. Ifth
e speed of sound is 340 ms then the

minimum height ofwater required for resonance is: (A) 95 cm (B) 75 cm (C)45cm (
D)25cm Q.26 A metallic wire oflength L isfixedbetween two rigid supports. Ifthe
wire is cooled through a temperature difference AT (Y=young's modulus, p = densi
ty, a = coefficient oflinear expansion) then the frequency oftransverse vibrati
o n is proportional to: a [Ya (C) (B) V 7 F s 2 A B c D 2 f A B B c D A -1 < A )
s&Bansal Classes Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Waves [10]

Q.27 A source of sound moves towards an observer (A) thefrequencyof the source i
s increased. (B) the velocity of sound in the medium is increased. (C) the wave
l ength of sound in the medium towards the observer is decreased. (D) the amplit
ud e of vibration ofthe particles is increased. Q.28 A string isfixedat both end
s v ibrates in a resonant mode with a separation 2.0 cm between the consecutive
node s. For the next higher resonantfrequency,this separation is reduced to 1.6
cm. T he length ofthe string is (A) 4.0 cm (B) 8.0 cm (C) 12.0 ctn (D) 16.0 cm Q
.29 A car moves towards a Kill with speed v . It blows a horn offrequencyfwhich
is hea red by an observer following the car with speed v . The speed of sound in
air is v. (A) the wavelength of sound reaching the hill is j v-v (B) the wavele
ngth of sound reaching the hill is r v + v. \ , (C) the beat frequency observed
by the observer is v - V v. c y c 0 c f (D) the beat frequency observed by the o
bserver .is vc 2 - v,2o c Q.30 A gas is filled in an organ pipe and it is sounde
d with an organ pipe in fundamental mode . Choose the correct statement(s): (T =
constant) . (A) If gas is changed from t o 0 , the resonantfrequencywill increa
se (B) If gas is changed from 0 to N , the resonant frequency will increase (C)
If gas is changedfromN to He, the resonant frequency will decrease (D) If gas is
changed from He to CH , the resonant freq uency will decrease 2 V ( V + V ) f 2
2 2 2 4 Q.31 A composition string is made up byjoining two strings of different
masses p er unit length p and 4p. The composite string is under the same tensio
n. A trans verse wave pulse: Y = (6 mm) sin(5t + 40x), where't' is in seconds an
d 'x' in me ters, is sent along the lighter string towards the joint. The joint
is at x = 0. The equation of the wave pulse reflected from the joint is (A) (2 m
m) sin(5t 40x) (B)(4mm)sin(40x-5t) (C) - (2 mm) sin(5t - 40x) (D)(2mm)sin(5t- lO
x) Q.32 In theprevious question, the percentage ofpower transmitted to the heavi
er string t hrough the joint is approximately (A) 33% (B) 89% (C) 67% (D)75% Q.3
3 A wave tra vels uniformly in all directionsfroma point source in an isotropic
medium. The d isplacement of the medium at any point at a distance r from the so
urce may be re presented by (A is a constant representing strength of source) (A
) [A/ 4~ ] sin (kr - cot) (B) [A/r] sin (kr - cot) (C) [Ar] sin (kr - at) (D) [A
/r ] sin (kr-co t) x 2 Q.34 Three coherent waves of equalfrequencieshaving ampli
tude 10 pm, 4 pm and 7 pm respectively, arrive at a given point with successive
phase difference of 7t/ 2. The amplitude of the resulting wave in mm is given by
(A) 5 (B)6 (C)3 (D)4 s&Bansal Classes Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Wav
es [10]

Q.35 An organ pipe P, closed at one end vibrating in itsfirstovertone. Another p

ipe P open at both ends is vibrating in its third overtone. They are in a reson
a nce with a given tuning fork. The ratio ofthe length of Pj to that ofP is : (A
) 8/3 (B) 3/8 (C) 1/2 (D) 1/3 2 2 Q.36 In a closed end pipe oflength 105 cm, sta
nding waves are set up correspondi ng to the third overtone. What distance from
the closed end, amongst the followi ng, is a pressure Node? (A) 20 cm (B) 60 cm
(C)85cm (D)45em Q.37 A pipe's lower end is immersed in water such that the lengt
h of air columnfromthe top open end has a certain length 25 cm. The speed of sou
nd in air is 350 m/s. The air column is found to resonate with a tuning fork off
requency1750 Hz. By what minimum dis tance should the pipe be rai sed in order t
o make the air column resonate again with the same tuning fork? (A) 7 cm (B) 5 c
m (C)35 cm (D)10cm Q.38 The vibration of a stringfixedat both ends are described
by Y= 2 sin(rcx) sin( 1 007rt) where Y is in mm,x is in cm,t in sec then (A)Max
imum displacement of the particle atx = 1/6 cm would be 1 mm. (B) velocity ofthe
particle at x = 1/6 cm at time t = 1 /600 sec will be 157 V3 mm/s (C) If the le
ngth of the string be 10 cm, number of loop in it would be 5 (D) None of these Q
.39 A perfectly elastic uniform string is suspended vertically with its upper en
dfixedto the ceiling and the lower end loaded with the weight. If a transverse w
ave is imparted to the lower end of th e string, the pulse will (A) not travel a
long the length ofthe string (B) travel upwards with increasing speed (C) travel
upwards with decreasing speed (D) trav elled upwards with constant acceleration
Q.40 A wave is represented by the equat ion y = 10 sin27i(100t-0.02x)+ 10 sin27
t(100t+0.02x). The maximum amplitude and loop length are respectively (A) 20 uni
ts and 3 0 units (B) 20 units and 25 unit s (C) 3 0 units and 20 units (D) 25 un
its and 20 units Q.41 The length, tension, diameter and density of a wire B are
double than the corresponding quantities f or another stretched wire A. Then (A)
fundamental frequency of B is 1/2^2 times that of A. (B) the velocity of wave i
n B is 1/V2 times that ofvelocity in A. (C) the fundamentalfrequencyof A is equa
l to the third overtone ofB. (D) the veloci ty ofwave in B is half that ofveloci
ty in A. Q.42 A standing wave y = A sin 71xj cos (1000;ct) is maintained in a ta
ut string where y and x are expressed in met ers. The distance between the succe
ssive points oscillating with the amplitude A /2 across a node is equal to (A) 2
.5cm (B) 25 cm (C)5cm (D) 10cm 1 2 f 20 ) A . Q.43 A plane wave y=A sin co( ~ ~J
undergo a normal incidence on a plane bou ndary separating medium Mj and M, and
splits into a reflected and transmitted wa ve having speeds v and v then (A) fo
r all values ofv j and v the phase of transm itted wave is same as that of incid
ent wave (B) for all values ofv and v the pha se of reflected wave is same as th
at of incident wave (C) the phase of transmitt ed wave depends upon v. and v (D)
the phase of reflected wave depends upon v and v 2 l 2 2 s&Bansal Classes Objec
tive Question Bank On Mechanical Waves } 2 [10]

Q. 44 A Wire under tension between twofixedpoints A and B, executes transverse v

ibrations in lowest mode so that the mid point O of AB is a node. Then (A) all
p oints of the wire between A and B are in the same phase (B) all points between
A and O are in the same phase (C) any point between A and O and any point betwe
en O and B have a phase difference of %12 (D) any point between A and O and any
po int between O and B have a phase difference of'rc. Q. 45 In case of closed or
gan pipe which harmonic the p" overtone will be (A) 2p +1 (B) 2 p - l (C) p + i
(D) p - 1 Q.46 A wave equation is given as v = cos(500t - 7Gx), where y is in mm
, x inm adn t is in sec. (A) the wave must be a transverse porpagating wave. (B)
Th e speed of the wave is 50/7 m/s (C) The frequency of oscillations 1000n Hz (
D) T wo closest points which are in same phase have separation 207t/7 cm. Q. 47
Which ofthe following statements are wrong about the velocity of sound in air: (
A) de creases with increases in temperature (B) increases with decrease in tempe
rature (C) decreases as humidity increases (D) independent of density of air. Q.
4 8 A clamped string is oscillating in nth harmonic, then (A) total energy of o
scilla tions will be n times that offundamental frequency (B) total energy of os
cillati ons will be (n-1) times that offundamental frequency (C) average kinetic
energy ofthe string over a complete oscillations is half of that of the total e
nergy of the string. (D) none ofthese Q.49 A string of length 1m and linear mass
density O.Glkgnr is stretched to a tension of 100N. When both ends of the strin
g arefix ed,the three lowestfrequenciesfor standing wave are f,, f, and f . When
only one end ofthe string isfixed,the three lowestfrequenciesfor standing wave
are n., a , and n3. Then (A) n = 5n, = f = 125 Hz (B) f = 5f, = r^ = 125 Hz 5 2
2 1 3 3 3 3 (C)f = n = 3f =150Hz 3 2 1 2 (D) = = 75 Hz Q. 5 0 Consider two sound
sources S, and S having same frequency 100Hz and the o bserver 0 located betwee
n them, as shown in thefig.All the three are moving with same velocity in same d
irection. The beat frequency *, ofthe observer is s, 30m s- 030ms- s30ms~ (A) 50
Hz (B) 5 Hz (C)zero (D) 2.5 Hz Q.51 A 2.0m long string wi th a linear mass densi
ty of 5.2 x lO^kgnv and tension 52N has both of its ends f ixed. It vibrates in
a standing wave pattern with four antinoaes. Frequency of t he vibration is (A)
75 Hz (B) 150 Hz ' (C) 100 Hz (D)50Hz 1 1 2 ! 1 Q. 52 An isotropic point source
emits sound of a single frequency. The amplitude of the sound wave at a distance
rfromthe source is proportional to r . The valu e ofn is (A) 2 . (B) V2 (C) 1 (
D) 1/2 Q.53 An engine whistling at a constantfreq uencyn and moving with a const
ant velocity goes past a stationary observer. As t he engine crosses him, thefre
quencyof the sound heard by him changes by a factor f. The actual difference in
thefrequenciesofthe sound heard by him before and a fter the engine crosses him
is 1 1 1 1-f (A)-n (l-P) (B) 2 oj^ f (C) n0 1 (D) n. 1 + f n 0 2 0 n s&Bansal Cl
asses Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Waves [10]

Q.54 A closed organ pipe oflength 1.2 m vibrates initsfirstovertone mode. The pr
essure variation is maximum at: (A) 0.8 m from the open end (B) 0.4 mfromthe op
e n end (C) at the open end (D) 1.0 mfromthe open end Q.55 Thefigureshows four p
ro gressive waves A, B, C & D. It can be concludedfromthe figure that with respe
ct to wave A: (A) the wave C is ahead by a phase angle of 7t/2 & the wave B lags
be hind by a phase angle 7t/2 (B; the wave C lags behind by a phase angle of 7t
/2 & the wave B is ahead by a phase angle of nil (C) the wave C is ahead by a ph
ase angle of 7t & the wave B lags behind by the phase angle of % the wave D lags
beh ind by a phase angle (D) of re & the wave B is ahead by a phase angle of n,
Q.56 The resultant amplitude due to superposition of two waves y = 5sin (wt - k
x) an d y, = -5 c o s ( w t - k x - 150) (A) 5 (B)5V3 (C)5^V3 (0)5^2 + ^3 Q.57 A
closed organ pipe and an open pipe of same length produce 4 beats when they are
set in to vibrations simultaneously. Ifthe length of each ofthem were twice thei
r initi al lengths, the number ofbeats produced will be (A) 2 (B)4 (C)l (D)8 Q.5
8 Source and observer both start moving simultaneouslyfromorigin, one along x-ax
is and t he other along y-axis with speed of source=twice the speed of observer.
The grap h between the apparent frequency observed by observer f and time t wou
ld approxi mately be: l f (A)/ (B) (C)* 2 (D) * Q. 5 9 A closed organ pipe of rad
ius r, and an organ pipe of radius r and having same length 'L' resonate when ex
cited with a given tunning fork. Closed organ p ipe resonates in its fundamental
mode where as open organ pipe resonates in itsf irstovertone, then (A) i - r ,
= L (B) r,- r = L/2 (C) r -2r, = 2.5 L (D) 2r -r, = 2.5 L x 2 2 Q.60 A stationar
y sound source's' of frequency 334 Hz and a stationary observer 'O' are placed n
ear a reflecting surface moving away from the source with veloci ty 2 m/sec as s
hown in the figure. Ifthe velocity of the sound waves is air is V = 330 m/sec, t
he apparent frequency ofthe echo is (A) 332 Hz (B) 326 Hz 2 m/s ( C) 334 Hz (D)
330 Hz -H 0 g ; s&Bansal Classes Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Waves [10

Q.61 A person standing at a distance of 6 mfroma source of sound receives sound

wave in two ways, one directly from the source and other after reflectionfroma r
igid boundary as shown in thefigure.The maximum wavelength for which, the perso
n will receive maximum sound intensity, is 6m 16 (B) m (C)2m (A) 4 m ff3 s T Q. 62
Alistender is at rest w.r.t. the source of sound. A wind starts blowing al ong
the line joining the source and the observer. Then (A)frequencyand wavelengt h w
ill not change. (B)frequencyand velocity of sound will not change. (C) freque nc
y and time period will not change. (D)frequency,time period and wavelength wil l
not change. Q. 63 A source S offrequencyf and an observer O, moving with speed
s Vj and v, respectively, are movinng awayfromeach other. When they are separate
d by distance a (t =0), a pulse is emitted by the source. This pulse is receive
d by O at time t. then t., is equal to Q (A) s + 2 v v 0 3 (B) Vl+V s (C) s - 2
V V (D) V, + V? + VQ. 64 A detector is released from rest over a source of sound
of frequency 1 (Hz ) f = 10 Hz. The frequency observed by the detector at time
t is plotted 2000 in the graph. The speed of sound in air is (g = 10 m/s ) (A) 3
30 m/s (B) 350 m/s ( C) 300 m/s (D) 310 m/s 2 1000 t(s) Q.65 The frequency of a
sonometer wire is f, but when the weights producing the tensions are completely
immersed in water the frequency becomes f/2 and on immersing the weights in a ce
rtain liquid the frequency becomes f/3. The specifi c gravity ofthe liquid is: 1
5 32 16 (A) (C) 12 (B) (D) 27 30 Q.66 First overtonefrequencyof a closed organ p
ipe is equal to thefirstovertonef requencyof an open organ pipe. Further nth har
monic of closed organ pipe is also equal to the mth harmonic of open pipe, where
n and m are: (A) 5, 4 (B) 7. 5 (C ) 9, 6 (D) 7, 3 Q. 67 A uniform rope having s
ome mass hanges vertically from a r igid support. Atransverse wave pulse is prod
uced at the lower end. The speed (v) ofthe wave pulse varies with height (h)from
the lower end as: v (A) (C) (D) s&Bansal Classes Objective Question Bank On Mech
anical Waves [10]

Q.68 If lj and f, are the lengths of air column for the first and second resonan
ce when a tuning fork of frequency n is sounded on a resonance tube, then the d
i stance ofthe displacement antinodefromthe top end of the resonance tube is: 1
1 -1 l "31i (A) 2(1,-1,) (B)-(21,-1,) (C) 2 2 V - 1 -2/ V - / 2 Q. 69 How many t
imes more intense is 90 dB sound than 40 dB sound? (A) 5 (B) 50 (C) 500 (D) 2 (D
) 10 5 Q. 70 Sound wave is travelling along positive x-direction. Displacement (
y) of p articles at any time t is as shown infigure.Select the wrong statement:
(A) Part icle located at E has its velocity in negative x-direction (B) Particle
located at D has zero velocity (C) Particles located between B and C are under
compressi on ~ (D) None of the above Af Q. 71 The ratio of intensities between t
wo coherent soud sources is 4 :1. The di fferenmce ofloudness in D B between max
imum and minimum intensities when they in terfere in space is: (A) 10 log 2 (B)
20 log 3 (C) 10 log 3 (D) 20 log 2 + Q.72 The equation of a wave disturbance is g
iven as: y = 0.02 cos v2 507rt cos (IOTTX), where x and y are in meters and t in
seconds. Choose the wrong statemen t: (A) Antinode occurs at x = 0.3 m (B) The
wavelength is 0.2 m (C) The speed of teh constituent waves is 4 m/s (D) Node occ
urs at x = 0.15 m Q. 73 The speed of sound in a gas, in which two waves ofwavele
ngth 1.0m and 1.02 m produce 6 beats per second, is approximately: (A) 350 m/s (
B) 300 m/s (C) 380 m/s (D) 410 m/s Q.74 For a certain organ pipe three successiv
e resonance freque ncies are observed at 425 Hz, 595 Hz and 765 Hz respectively.
If the speed of so und in air is 3 40 m/s, then the length of the pipe is: (A)
2.0 m (B) 0.4 m (C)1 .0m (D)0.2m Q. 75 An observer starts moving with uniform ac
celeration 'a' toward s a stationary sound source of frequency f. As the observe
r approaches the sourc e, the apparent frequency f heard by the observer varies
with timet as: (A) (B) (Q (D) Q. 76 A wave represented by the equation y = Acos
(kx - cot) is superimposed wit h another wave to form a statioary wave such that
the point x =0 is a node. The equation ofthe other wave is: (A) -A sin (kx + co
t) (B)-Acos (kx + cot) (C) A si n (kx + cot) (D) A cos (kx + cot) s&Bansal Class
es Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Waves


ANSWER Qi Q.5 Q.9 B C C Q.2 Q.6 A A Q3 Q7 KEY C C Q.4 Q.8 D A Q.10 C,D Q.14 B Q.
18 A Q.22 D Q.26 B Q.30 B,D Q.34 A Q.38 A,B Q.42 C Q.46 A,B,D Q.50 C Q.54 B Q.58
B Q.62 C Q.66 C Q.70 D Q.74 C Q.ll C,D Q.15 B Q.19 B, C Q.23 C Q.27 C Q.31 C Q.
35 B Q.39 B, D Q.43 A, D Q.47 A ,B, C,D Q.51 C Q.55 B Q.59 C Q.63 C Q.67 C Q.71
B Q.75 A Q.12 D Q.16 C Q.20 A Q.24 B Q.28 B Q.32 B Q.36 D Q.40 B Q.44 B,D Q.48 A
, C Q.52 C Q.56 A Q.60 D Q.64 C Q.68 C Q.72 C Q.76 B Q.13 B,C Q.17 B Q.21 A Q.25
C Q.29 B,D Q.33 B Q.37 D Q.41 C, D Q.45 A Q.49 D Q.5 3 B Q.57 A Q.61 A Q.65 D Q
.69 D Q.73 B s&Bansal Classes Objective Question Bank On Mechanical Waves [10]


KEY CONCEPTS 1. (i) Wave Equation : The equation for a progressive wave travelli
ng in the positive x -direction is f t x^ y= sin2 7t ~ ~ ~ , V1 KJ where y is th
e displacemnet at poi nt x, at time t, Ais the amplitude, T is the period and X
is the wavelength. The frequency is ~ and the velocity of the wave is \:v. The e
quation for a stationa ry wave is 27tx^ 27rt y v 2Acos ^ J sin Pitch, loudness a
nd quality are the char acteristics of a musical note. Pitch depends on the freq
uency. Loudness depends on intensity and quality depends on the waveform ofthe c
onstituent overtones. Re sonance occurs when the forcingfrequencyis equal to the
naturalfrequencyof a vib rating body. [yP Velocity ofpropagation of sound in a
gas = J , where D is the d ensity ofthe gas and y is the ratio of specific heats
. Vibrating air columns: ca A r\rica or\r\ tVm fi-mam^ntal Vi fmmipnrv v In a pi
pe of length L closed at one end, the funamental note hasaea afrequency f f= = ,
where v is the f 1 X (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. (i) (ii) 3. (i) = : t velocity of so
und in air. 2 4L' v Thefirstovertone f = = 2fj JL/ Propagation of sound in solid
s : The velocity o fpropagation of a longitudinal wave in a rod ofYoung's modulu
s Y and density p i s given by v =- P The velocity of propagation of a transvers
e wave in a streched string Vm where T is the tension in the string and m is the
mass per unit lengt h of the string. In a sonometer wire oflength L and mass pe
r unit length m under tension T vibrating in n loops n 2 L Vm f f l = IY (ii) [.
1 (iii) tilBansal Classes Mechanical Waves [6]

(iv) Propagation of sound in gases fyP Laplace formula - J ~ where y is the rati
o of specific heats, P is the pressure and p is the density. v T _ 1273 + t v V
T i 2 73 V = 1 = = 0 0 4, (i) Doppler ection, source. s s g f Effects: When a so
urce of sound moves with a velocity v in a certain dir the wavelength decreases
in front ofthe source and increases behind the v-v v v A,' (in front) = >
r behind)^;f'=^~f Here v is the velocity of sound in air. ( s (ii) (a) (b) (c) (
d) The apparent frequency = - f When the source is moving towards the observer and
th e observer is moving awayfromthe source, the apparent frequency V-Vp t s o v
. vv When the source and the observer are moving towards each other. s a s 5. 6
tilBansal Classes l^f . _ a V-V When the source and observer are moving awayfrome
ach other, ~ o fs v+v When the source is moving awayfromthe observer and the obs
erver is moving to wards the source v+ v a V + V,. o v s v Here all velocities a
re relation to the medium. Loudness of sound : The loudness level B of sound is
expressed in decibe ls, I B = 10 log T where I is the intensity, I is a referenc
e intensity. Beats : When two tuning forks of close but differentfrequenciesf an
d f are vibrating si multaneously at nearby places, a listener observes afluctua
tionin the intensity of sound, called beats. The number of beats heard per secon
d is fj - f . f = s S 0 v Vs s f = v y a s 0 * c 0 s 0 s 2 2 Mechanical Waves


Q. 1 Two stationary sources Aand B are sounding notes offrequency680 Hz. An obse
rver movesfromAto B with a constant velocity u. If the speed of sound is 340 ms
, what must be the value ofu so that he hears 10 beats per second? Q. 2 Find th
e intensity of sound wave whosefrequencyis 250 Hz. The displacement amplitude of
p articles of the medium at this position is 1 10 ^ m. The density of the medium
i s 1 kg/m , bulk modulus of elasticity of the medium is 400 N/m . Q. 3 Two str
ing s A and B with |i = 2 kg/m and u = 8 kg/m respectively are joined in series
and kept on a horizontal table with both the endsfixed.The tension in the string
is 200 N. If a pulse of amplitude 1 cm travels in Atowards the junction, thenfi
ndth e amplitude of reflected and transmitted pulse. Q.4 A parabolic pulse given
by e quation y (in cm) = 0.3 - 0. l(x- 5t) (y > 0) x in meter and t in second t
ravell ing in a uniform string. The pulse passes through a boundary beyond which
its ve locity becomes 2.5 m/s. What will be the amplitude ofpulse in this mediu
m after transmission? Q.5 A car moving towards a vertical wall sounds a horn. Th
e driver hears that the sound ofthe horn reflected from the cliff has a pitch ha
lf-octav e higher than the actual sound. Find the ratio ofthe velocity ofthe car
and the velocity of sound. Q. 6 Thefirstovertone of a pipe closed at one end re
sonates w ith the third harmonic of a stringfixedat its ends. The ratio ofthe sp
eed of sou nd to the speed of transverse wave travelling on the string is 2:1. F
ind the rat io ofthe length ofpipe to the length of string. Q.7 A stretched unif
orm wire of a sonometer between two fixed knife edges, when vibrates in its seco
nd harmonic gives 1 beat per second with a vibrating tuning fork of frequency 20
0 Hz. Find t he percentage change in the tension of the wire to be in unison wit
h the tuning fork. Q. 8 A train blowing its whistle moves with a constant veloci
ty v awayfrom an observer on the ground. The ratio of the naturalfrequencyofthe
whistle to tha t measured by the observer is found to be 1.2. Ifthe train is at
rest and the ob server moves awayfromit at the same velocity, thenfindthe ratio.
-1 x 3 2 2 EXERCISE-I Q. 9 Q. 10 Q. 11 Q. 12 Q. 13 Tuning fork A when sounded w
ith a tuning fork B of frequency 480 Hz gives 5 beat s per second. When the pron
gs of A are loaded with wax, it gives 3 beats per sec ond. Find the original fre
quency ofA. A sound wave offrequencyf propagating thro ugh air with a velocity C
, is reflectedfroma surface whi h is moving awayfromthe fixedsource with a const
ant speed n. Find thefrequencyofthe reflected wave, meas ured by the observer at
the position of the source. The loudness level at a dist ance Rfrom a long line
ar source of sound is found to be 40dB. At this point, the amplitude of oscillat
ions of air molecules is 0.01 cm. Thenfindthe loudness lev el & amplitude at a p
oint located at a distance' 1 OR' from the source. A sonome ter wires resonates
with a given tuning fork forming standing waves withfiveanti nodes between the t
wo bridges when a mass of 9 kg is suspendedfromthe wire. When this mass is repla
ced by M, the wire resonates with the same tuning fork formin g three antinodes
for the same position ofbridges. Find the value of M. A car is moving towards a
huge wall with a speed = d 10, where c = speed of sound in sti ll air. A wind is
also blowing parallel to the velocity of the car in the same d irection and wit
h the same speed. If the car sounds a horn of frequency f, then what is the freq
uency of the reflected sound of the horn heared by driver ofthe car? tilBansal C
lasses Mechanical Waves [6]

Q.14 A 40 cm long wire having a mass 3.2 gm and area of c.s. 1 mm is stretched b
etween the support 40.05 cm apart. In its fundamental mode. It vibrate with a f
r equency 1000/64 Hz. Find the young's modulus ofthe wire. 2 Q.l5 A steel rod ha
ving a length of 1 m is fastened at its middle. Assuming youn g's modulus to be
2 x 10 Pa. and density to be 8 gm/cm findthe fundamentalfreque ncyofthe longitud
inal vibration and frequency offirst overtone. 11 3 Q. 16 A sound source of smal
l size produces a spherical sound wave with a freque ncy of 3 kHz in air. At a d
istance r, = 100 m from the source, the sound loudnes s level is L, = 60 dB. Fin
d the sound loudness level at a distance of r,, = 200 m dB and the distance at w
hich the sound stops being heard km. Q.17 Two identica l sounds Aand B reach a p
oint in the same phase. The resultant sound is C. The l oudness of C is n dB hig
her than the loudness ofA. Find the value of n, Q. 18 So und ofwavelength A, pas
ses through a Quincke's tube, which is adjusted to give a maximum intensity I .
Find the distance through the sliding tube should be move d to give an intensity
I /2. 0 0 Q. 19 In a resonance-column experiment, a long tube, open at the top,
is clamped vertically. By a separate device, water level inside the tube can be
moved up o r down. The section of the tubefromthe open end to the water level a
ct as a clos ed organ pipe. A vibrating tuning fork is held above the open end,
and the secon d resonances occur when the water level is 24.1 cm and 74.1 cm rep
sectively belo w the open end. Find the diameter of the tube. [Hint: end correct
ion is 0.3 d] Q . 20 In a mixture of gases, the average number of degrees offree
domper molecule is 6. The mis speed of the molecules of the gas is c. Find the v
elocity of sound in the gas. Q. 21 A sonometer wire of length 114 cm is stretche
d between twofix edpoints. Two bridges, that should be mounted to divide the wir
e into three segm ents, such that their fundamental frequencies are in the ratio
1 : 3 : 4 must be mounted at distance and from onefixedend of the wire. Q. 22 A
fixedsource of sou nd emitting a certainfrequencyappears as f when the observer
is approaching the source with speed v and frequency f when the observer recedes
from the source wi th the same speed. Find the frequency of the source. Q.23 A,
B and C are three t uning forks. Frequency of A is 350Hz. Beats produced by A a
nd B are 5 per second and by B and C are 4 per second. When a wax is put on A be
at frequency between A and B is 2Hz and between A and C is 6Hz. Then,findthe fre
quency of B and C res pectively. tilBansal Classes Mechanical Waves [6]

Q, 1 Thefigureshows a snap photograph ofa vibrating string at t = 0. The particl

e P is observed moving \ up with velocity 2071 cm/s. The angle made by string w
i th x-axis at P is 6. (a) Find the direction in which the wave is moving V^(inio
~ m) (b) the equation ofthe wave (c) the total energy carried by the wave per cy
cl e ofthe string, assuming that p, the mass per unit length of the string = 50
gm/ m, Q.2 A uniform rope oflength L and mass m is held at one end and whirled i
n a horizontal circle with angular velocity . Ignore gravity. Find the time requi
red for a transverse wave to travelfromone end ofthe rope to the other. Q.3 A sy
mmet rical triangular pulse of maximum height 0.4 m and total length 1 m is movi
ng in the positive x-direction on a string on which the wave speed is 24 m/s. At
t = 0 the pulse is entirely located between x = 0 and x = 1 m. Draw a graph of
the t ransverse velocity of particle of string versus time at x =+1 m. 3 (in 10
m 2 EXERCISE-II Q.4 A uniform string240 cm long maintains a standing wave, with
the points on the st ring at which displacements of the amplitude equalling 3 V2
mm occur at 20 cm in terval along the length of the string. Find: (a) the order
ofthe overtone which these oscillations represent (b) the maximum amplitude on
the wire. Q.5 A steel wire 8 x 10" m in diameter isfixedto a support at one end
and is wrapped round a cylindrical tuning peg 5 mm in diameter at the other end.
The length ofthe wire between the peg and the support is 0.06 m. The wire is in
itially kept taut but without any tension. What will be the fundamentalfrequency
of vibration ofthe wir e if it is tightened by giving the peg a quarter of a tur
n? Density of steel = 7 800 kg/m ,Y of steel = 20 x 10 N/m . Q. 6 The displaceme
nt ofthe medium in a sou nd wave is given by the equation ;y = Acos(ax + bt) whe
re A a&b are positive con stants. The wave is reflected by an obstacle situated
at x = 0. The intensity of the reflected wave is 0.64 times that of the incident
wave. (a) what are the wa velength &frequencyofthe incident wave, (b) write the
equation for the reflected wave. (c) in the resultant wave formed after reflect
ion,findthe maximum & minim um values of the particle speeds in the medium. 4 3
10 2 1 Q.7 The harmonic wave y = (2.0 x 1Q- ) cos7C (2.Ox - 50t) travels along a
string tow ard a boundary it x=0 with a second string. The wave speed on the se
cond string is 50 m/s. Write expresions for reflected and transmitted waves. Ass
ume SI units . Q 8 In a stationary wave pattern that forms as a result of reflec
tion ofwavesf roman obstacle the ratio ofthe amplitude at an antinode and a node
is (3= 1.5. W hat percentage ofthe energy passes across the obstacle? Q.9(a) As
tanding wave in second overtone is maintained in a open organ pipe of length /.
The distance be tween consecutive displacement node and pressure node is . (b) T
wo consecutive o vertones produced by a narrow air column closed at one end and
open at the other are 750Hz and 1050Hz. Then the fundamental frequency from the
column is . (c) A standing wave of frequency 1100Hz in a column of methane at 20C
produces nodes t hat are 20 cm apart. What is the ratio ofthe heat capacity at
constant pressure to that at constant volume. Q.10 An open organ pipefilledwith
air has a fundamen tal frequency 500Hz. Thefirstharmonic of another organ pipe c
losed at one end an d filled with carbon dioxide has the same frequency as that
of the first harmoni c of the open organ pipe. Calculate the length of each pipe
. Assume that the vel ocity of sound in air and in carbondioxide to be 330 and 2
64 m/s respectively. i 3 tilBansal Classes Mechanical Waves


Q. 11 A string, 25cm long, having amass of 0.25 gm/cm, is under tension. Apipe c
losed at one end is 40cm long. When the string is set vibrating in its first ov
e rtone, and the air in the pipe in its fundamental frequency, 8 beats/sec are h
ea rd. It is observed that decreasing the tension in the string, decreases the b
eat frequency. Ifthe speed of sound in air is 320 m/s,findthe tension in the str
ing . Q.12 A metal rod of length I - 100 cmis clamped at two points. Distance of
eac h clampfromnearer end is a=30cm. If density and Young's modulus ofelasticit
y ofr od material are p = 9000 kg m" and Y= 144 GPa respectively, calculate mini
mum an d next higherfrequencyofnatural longitudinal oscillations ofthe rod. Q.13
Two sp eakers are driven by the same oscillator with frequency of 200 Hz. They
are loca ted 4 m apart on a vertical pole. A man walks straight towards the lowe
r speaker in a direction perpendicular to the pole, as shown in figure. (a) Ho w
many tim es will he hear a minimum in sound intensity, and (b) how far is hefro
mthe pole at these moments? Take the speed of sound to be 330 m/s, and ignore an
y sound re flections coming off the ground. Q.14 A cylinder ABC consists of two
chambers 1 and 2 which contains A B C two different gases. The wall C is rigid b
ut the wall s Aand B are thin diaphragms. A vibrating tuning fork approaches the
wall A with velocity u=30 m/s and air columns in chamber 1 and 2 vibrates with
v,=1100m/s . . , . ,v,=300Vse minimum frequency such that there is node (displa
ement) at B and , . * *, * o antinode (displacement) at A. Find (i) the fundament
alfrequencyo f air column, 0.5 m 1.0 m (ii) Find thefrequencyoftuning fork. Assu
me velocity o f sound in the first and second chamber be 1100 m/s and 300 m/s re
spectively. Ve locity of sound in air 330 m/s. Q.15 A source emits sound waves o
f frequency 100 0 Hz. The source moves to the right with a speed of 32 m/s relat
ive to ground. O n the right a reflecting surface moves towards left with a spee
d of 64 m/s relat ive to the ground. The speed of sound in air is 332 m/s. Find
(a) the wavelength of sound in air by source (b) the number ofwaves arriving per
second which meet the reflecting surface, (c) the speed of reflected waves. (d)
the wavelength of reflected waves. Q.16 A supersonic jet plane moves parallel t
o the ground at sp eed v=0.75 mach (1 mach = speed of sound). The frequency of i
ts engine sound is v = 2 kHz and the height of the jat plane is h = 1.5 km. At s
ome instant an obse rver on the ground hears a sound offrequencyv=2 v , Find the
instant prior to th e instant of hearing when the sound wave received by the ob
server was emitted by the jet plane. Velocity of sound wave in the condition of
observer=340 m/s. Q. 1 7 A train oflength/is moving with'a constant speed v alon
g a circular track ofra dius R, The engine ofthe train emits a whistle offrequen
cyf. Find the frequency heard by a guard at the rear end of the train, Q.18 A bu
llet travels horizontall y at 660 m/s at a height of 5 mfroma man. How far is th
e bulletfromthe man when he hears its whistle? Velocity of sound in air = 340 m/
s. 3 . : . 0 0 tilBansal Classes Mechanical Waves [6]

EXERCISE-III Q.l A metallic rod of length 1 m is rigidly clamped at its mid-poin

t. Longitudin al stationary waves are set up in the rod in such a way that there
are two nodes on either side of the mid-point. The amplitude of an antinode is
2* 10 m. Write the equation of motion at a point 2 cmfromthe mid-point and those
of the consti tuent waves in the rod. [Young's modulus = 2 x 10 Nm" , density =
8000 Kg m~ ]. ' [JEE'94, 6] Q. 2 A whistle emitting a sound offrequency440 Hz i
s tied to a str ing of 1.5 m length and rotated with an angular velocity of20 ra
d s in the horiz ontal plane . Calculate the range of frequencies heard by an ob
server stationed at a large distancefromthe whistle. [JEE '96,3 ] Q. 3 Select th
e correct alterna tive: [JEE ' 9 6 , 2 x 2 - 4 ] (i) The extension in a string,
obeying Hooke's la w is x. The speed ofwave in the stretched string is v. If the
extension in the s tring is increased to 1.5 x, the speed ofwave will be _6 11
2 3 _1 (ii) An open pipe is suddenly closed at one end with the result that the
frequency of third harmonic ofthe closed pipe is found to be higher by 100 Hz th
an the funda mentalfrequencyofthe open pipe. The fundamentalfrequencyof the open
pipe is: (A) 200 Hz (B) 300 Hz (C) 240 Hz (D) 480 Hz Q.4 A whistle giving out 4
50 Hz approac hes a stationary observer at a speed of 33 m/s. Thefrequencyheard
by the observe r in Hz is : [JEE '97,1 ] (A) 409 (B) 429 (C) 517 (D) 500 Q. 5 Th
e first overton e of an open organ pipe beats with the first overtone of a close
d organ pipe wit h a beat frequency of 2.2 Hz. The fundamentalfrequencyofthe clo
sed organ pipe is 110 Hz. Find the lengths of the pipes. [JEE'97, 5] Q.6 A place
progressive wave offrequency 25 Hz, amplitude 2.5 * 10~ m&initial phase zero pr
opagates along th e (-ve) x-direction with a velocity of300 m/s. At any instant,
the phase differe nce between the oscillations at two points 6 m apart along th
e line ofpropagatio n is & the corresponding amplitude difference is m. [JEE '97
, 2] Q.7 A band play ing music at afrequency/ is moving towards a wall at a spee
d v . A motorist is f ollowing the band with a speed v . Ifv is the speed of sou
nd, obtain an expressi on for the beat frequency hear. by the motorist. [JEE '97
,5] Q. 8 A travelling i n a stretched string is described by the equation y = A
sin (kx - cot). The maxi mum particle velocity is: [JEE '97,1] (A) A (B) <n/k (C)
dffl/dk (D) x/t Q. 9 Sel ect the correct alternative(s). [JEE 98, 2 + 2 + 2] (i
) The (x, y) co-ordinates of the corners of a square plate are (0, 0) (L, 0) (L,
L) & (0, L). The edges of the plate are clamped & transverse standing waves are
set up in it Ifu (x, y) de notes t he displacement ofthe plate at the point (x,