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Aug 21, 2015

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material science

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14 tayangan

material science

© All Rights Reserved

- Inverter
- ME PED LAB
- power electronics
- Unit 4
- Analysis, Simulation &Comparison of Various Multilevel Inverters Using Different PWM Strategies
- Hopfield Neural Network Based Selective Harmonic Elimination for H-bridge
- Power Electronics Unit 4 Ppt
- Carrier PWM Algorithm With Optimised Switching Loss for Three-phase Four-leg Multilevel Inverters
- BLDC
- 34i9-Dynamic Voltage Restorer
- Basic Svpwm
- svpwm
- Emtp Based Simultor
- Operation of a Medium-Voltage Drive Under Faulty Condition
- 74-libre
- Chen 2016
- Multi Level Inverter for Railway Traction
- ACS712-1
- Cascaded Multilevel Inverter With PV System
- IEEE paper on control logics

Anda di halaman 1dari 34

Lecture 14: DC-AC Inverter for EV and HEV Applications

DC-AC Inverter for EV and HEV Applications

Introduction

The topics covered in this chapter are as follows:

DC-AC Converters

DC-AC Converters

In Figure 1 a configuration of an EV. In this figure it can be seen that the traction motor

requires AC input. The main source of electrical power is the battery which is a DC

source. The DC output of the battery is bucked or bossted according to the requirement

and then converted into AC using a DC-AC inverter. The function of an inverter is to

change a dc input voltage to a symmetric ac output voltage of desired magnitude and

frequency. The output voltage waveforms of ideal inverters should be sinusoidal.

However, the waveforms of practical inverters are non-sinusoidal and contain certain

harmonics.

AC

DC

DC

3~ AC

Traction

motor

Mech.

Trans.

DC

DC

Battery

pack

Ultra

Capacitor

Figure 1: Configuration of electric vehicle [1]

Page 1 of 34

A single phase inverter is shown in Figure 2. The analysis of the DC-AC inverters is

done taking into account the following assumptions and conventions:

The switches S1 and S 2 are unidirectional, i.e. they conduct current in one

direction.

The switching sequence is so design (Figure 3) that switch S1 is on for the time duration

0 t T1 and the switch S 2 is on for the time duration T1 t T2 . When switch S1 is turned

V

vo in

2

When the switch S 2 is only turned on, the voltage across the load is

(1)

Vin

(2)

2

The waveform of the output voltage and the switch currents for a resistive load is shown

in (Figure 3).

vo

i1

D1

Vin

S1

V0

i2

D2

S2

Page 2 of 34

T1

T2

Signal for S1

t

Signal for S 2

Vo

Vin

2

V

in

2

i1

Vin

2R

i2

Current through S1

Vin

2R

0 t T1

T1 t T2

Current through S 2

Vo,rms

1 T1 Vin2 Vin

dt

T1 0 4 2

(3)

instantaneous value of vo can be expressed in Fourier series as:

vo

ao

an cos(nt ) bn sin(nt )

2 n1

(4)

Due to the quarter wave symmetry along the time axis (Figure 3), the values of a0 and an

are zero. The value of bn is given by

bn

2V

V

1 0 Vin

2 in

d

(

t

)

d (t ) in

0 2

2 2

n

(5)

vo

2Vin

sin(nt )

n 1,3,5,... n

(6)

Page 3 of 34

iL

1 2Vin

sin(nt )

n 1,3,5,... R n

(7)

2V

Vo1 in 0.45Vin

2

(8)

The DC-AC converter with inductive load is shown in Figure 4. For an inductive load,

the load current cannot change immediately with the output voltage. The working of the

Dc-AC inverter with inductive load is as follow is:

Case 1: In the time interval 0 t T1 the switch S1 is on and the current flows through the

inductor from points a to b. When the switch S1 is turned off (case 1) at t T1 , the load

current would continue to flow through the capacitor C2 and diode D2 until the current

falls to zero, as shown in Figure 5. Case 2: Similarly, when S 2 is turned off at t T2 , the

load current flows through the diode D1 and the capacitor C1 until the current falls to

zero, as shown in Figure 6.

When diodes D1 and D2 conduct, energy is fed back to the dc source and these diodes are

known as feedback diodes. These diodes are also known ad freewheeling diodes. The

current for purely inductive load is given by

iL

1 2Vin

sin nt

2

n 1,3,5,... nL n

(9)

iL

2Vin

n 1,3,5,...

n R n L

2

sin nt n

(10)

where

n L

n tan 1

Page 4 of 34

through it are shown in Figure 7.

i1

D1

C1

Vin

D1

C1

S1

Vin

V0

V0

i2

D2

C2

S1

iL

S2

D2

C2

S2

iL

D1

C1

Vin

S1

vo

Voltage (vo)

iL

Current (iL)

V0

C2

D2

S2

load

Page 5 of 34

A single phase bridge DC-AC inverter is shown in Figure 8. The analysis of the single

phase DC-AC inverters is done taking into account following assumptions and

conventions:

The switches S1 , S2 , S3 and S 4 are unidirectional, i.e. they conduct current in one

direction.

When the switches S1 and S 2 are turned on simultaneously for a duration 0 t T1 , the

input voltage Vin appears across the load and the current flows from point a to b. If the

switches S3 and S 4 are turned on for a duration T1 t T2 , the voltage across the load is

reversed and the current through the load flows from point b to a. The voltage and current

waveforms across the resistive load are shown in Figure 9. The instantaneous output

voltage can be expressed in Fourier series as

vo

ao

an cos(nt ) bn sin(nt )

2 n1

(11)

Due to the square wave symmetry along the x-axis (as seen in Figure 9), both ao and an

are zero, and bn is obtained as

bn

4V

V

1 0 Vin

2 in

d

(

t

)

d (t ) in

0 2

2 2

n

(12)

vo

4Vin

sin(nt )

n 1,3,5,... n

(13)

iL

1 4Vin

sin(nt )

n 1,3,5,... R n

(14)

Page 6 of 34

S1

S3

D1

C1

i3

i1

Vin

D3

v0

C2

S2

D4

i2

S4

D2

i2

i4

The function of the inverter in case of R L load can be explained as follows:

Case 1: At time t T1 , the switches S1 and S 2 are turned off and the pair of switches S3

and S 4 are turned on. Due to the inductive load, the current through the load ( iL ) will not

change its direction at t T1 and will continue to flow through the load from point a to b,

through the diodes D3 and D4 , till it becomes zero as shown in Figure 10a. Once,

iL 0 , S3 and S 4 start conducting and the load current iL builds up in opposite direction

(point b to a).

Case 2: At time t T2 , the switches S1 and S 2 are turned on and the pair of switches S3

and S 4 are turned off. Just as in case 1, the current takes time to become zero and diodes

D1 and D2 conduct as long as its non-zero. This condition is shown in Figure 10b.

The instantaneous current through the R L load is given by

iL

n 1,3,...

4Vin

n R L

2

sin nt n

(15)

where

n L

n tan 1

Page 7 of 34

The current and voltage waveforms for R L load are shown in Figure 11.In this figure

the conduction is divided into 4 distinct zones. In Zone I the diode D1 and D2 conduct

until iL becomes zero. Once, iL equals zero, the switches S1 and S 2 conduct and it is

marked as Zone II. At time t T2 , the diodes D3 and D4 conduct and this is marked as

Zone III in Figure 11. Finally, in Zone IV the switches S3 and S 4 conduct.

T1

T2

Signal for S1

Vo

Signal for S 2

Signal for S3

Signal for S 4

Vin

Vin

i1

Vin

R

i2

Current through S1

Vin

R

Current through S 2

Vin

R

t

Vin

R

0 t T1

T1 t T2

Current through S3

Current through S 4

Figure 9: Instantaneous voltage and current waveforms for full bridge DC-AC inverter

Page 8 of 34

S1

S3

D1

C1

Vin

D3

L

S1

S3

D1

C1

Vin

D3

L

b

i2

C2

S2

D4

D2

S4

C2

S2

D4

D2

vo

iL

II

III

IV

Page 9 of 34

S4

References:

[1] M. Ehsani, Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals,

Theory and Design, CRC Press, 2005

Suggested Reading:

[1] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications, 3rd edition,

Pearson, 2004

[2] V. R. Moorthi, Power Electronics: Devices, Circuits and Industrial Applications,

Oxford University Press, 2007

Page 10 of 34

Three Phase DC-AC Inverters

Introduction

The topics covered in this chapter are as follows:

Three Phase DC-AC Converters

Three phase inverters are normally used for high power applications. The advantages of a

three phase inverter are:

The frequency of the output voltage waveform depends on the switching rate of

the switches and hence can be varied over a wide range.

The direction of rotation of the motor can be reversed by changing the output

phase sequence of the inverter.

The general configuration of a three phase DC-AC inverter is shown in Figure 1. Two

types of control signals can be applied to the switches:

180o conduction

120o conduction

C1

S1

D1

S3

D3

Vin

S5

D5

C2

S4

D4

S6

D6

S2

D2

Page 11 of 34

The configuration of the three phase inverter with star connected resistive load is shown

in Figure 2. The following convention is followed:

assumed to be positive.

In this mode of operation each switch conducts for 180o. Hence, at any instant of time

three switches remain on. When S1 is on, the terminal a gets connected to the positive

terminal of input DC source. Similarly, when S 4 is on, terminal a gets connected to the

negative terminal of input DC source. There are six possible modes of operation in a

cycle and each mode is of 60o duration and the explanation of each mode is as follows:

C1

S1

D1

S3

D3

S5

Vin

D5

C2

S4

D4

Ra

S6

D6

D2

S2

Rb

Rc

n

Figure 2: Three-Phase DC-AC Inverter with star connect resistive load

Page 12 of 34

Mode 1: In this mode the switches S5 , S6 and S1 are turned on for time interval 0 t .

3

As a result of this the terminals a and c are connected to the positive terminal of the input

DC source and the terminal b is connected to the negative terminal of the DC source. The

current flow through Ra , Rb and Rc is shown in Figure 3a and the equivalent circuit is

shown in Figure 3b. The equivalent resistance of the circuit shown in Figure 3b is

R 3R

Req R

2

2

The current i delivered by the DC input source is

V

2 Vin

i in

Req 3 R

(1)

(2)

ia ic

1 Vin

3 R

(3)

2 Vin

(4)

3 R

Having determined the currents through each branch, the voltage across each branch is

V

2V

van vcn ia R in ; vbn ib R in

(5)

3

3

ib i

Page 13 of 34

C1

D1

S1

S3

D3

S5

Vin

S4

D4

ia

C2

D5

ib

S6

D6

Ra

ic

D2

S2

Rb

Rc

n

Figure 3a: Current through the load in Mode 1

i

Ra

ic

ia

Vin

Rc

ib

Rb

b

Figure 3b: Equivalent circuit in Mode 1

Page 14 of 34

Mode 2: In this mode the switches S6 , S1 and S 2 are turned on for time interval t 2 .

3

The current flow and the equivalent circuits are shown in Figure 4a and Figure 4b

respectively. Following the reasoning given for mode 1, the currents through each branch

and the voltage drops are given by

1V

2V

ib ic in ; ia in

(6)

3 R

3 R

V

2V

vbn vcn in ; van in

(7)

3

3

C1

S1

D1

S3

D3

S5

Vin

S4

D4

Ra

ia

C2

D5

ib

S6

D6

ic

D2

S2

Rb

Rc

n

Figure 4a: Current through the load in Mode 2

Page 15 of 34

Rb

Vin

Rc

ic

ib

i

ia

Ra

a

Figure 4b: Equivalent circuit in Mode 2

Mode 3: In this mode the switches S1 , S 2 and S3 are on for 2 t . The current flow

3

and the equivalent circuits are shown in Figure 5a and figure 5b respectively. The

magnitudes of currents and voltages are:

1V

2V

ia ib in ; ic in

(8)

3 R

3 R

V

2V

van vbn in ; vcn in

(9)

3

3

Page 16 of 34

C1

D1

S1

S3

D3

S5

Vin

S4

ia

C2

D5

ib

D4

S6

D6

Ra

ic

D2

S2

Rb

Rc

i

Ra

ib

ia

Vin

Rb

ic

Rc

c

Figure 5b: Equivalent circuit in Mode 3

Page 17 of 34

For modes 4, 5 and 6 the equivalent circuits will be same as modes 1, 2 and 3

respectively. The voltages and currents for each mode are:

1 Vin

2 Vin

; ib

3 R

3 R

for mode 4

Vin

2Vin

van vcn ;Vbn

3

3

(10)

1 Vin

2 Vin

; ia

3 R

3 R

for mode5

Vin

2Vin

vbn vcn ;Van

3

3

(11)

1 Vin

2 Vin

; ic

3 R

3 R

for mode 6

Vin

2Vin

van vbn ;Vcn

3

3

(12)

ia ic

ib ic

ia ib

The plots of the phase voltages ( van , vbn and vcn ) and the currents ( ia , ib and ic ) are shown

in Figure 6. Having known the phase voltages, the line voltages can also be determined

as:

vbc vbn vcn

(13)

The plots of line voltages are also shown in Figure 6 and the phase and line voltages can

be expressed in terms of Fourier series as:

n

n

n

n

2n

van

4Vin

n 1,3,5,... 3n

vbn

4Vin

n 1,3,5,... 3n

vcn

4Vin

n 1,3,5,... 3n

n

n

4n

4Vin

n

n

n

sin

sin

sin nt

2

3

6

n 1,3,5,... n

4Vin

n

n

n

sin

sin

sin nt

2

3

2

n 1,3,5,... n

vab van vbn

(14)

(15)

4Vin

n

n

7n

sin

sin

sin nt

2

3

6

n 1,3,5,... n

Page 18 of 34

Signal for S1

t

Signal for S 2

3

2

3

Signal for S3

Signal for S 4

Signal for S5

t

Signal for S 6

2Vin / 3

Vin / 3

Vin / 3

2Vin / 3

Voltage van

2Vin / 3

Vin / 3

Voltage vbn

Vin / 3

2Vin / 3

2Vin / 3

Vin / 3

Vin / 3

2Vin / 3

Voltage vcn

Vin

Voltage vab

Vin

Vin

Voltage vbc

Vin

Vin

Voltage vca

Vin

Page 19 of 34

In mode 1 the switches S5 , S6 and S1 are turned on. The mode previous to mode1 was

mode 6 and the in mode 6 the switches S 4 , S5 and S6 were on. In the transition from mode 6

to mode 1 the switch S 4 is turned off and S1 turned on and the current ia changes its

direction (outgoing phase). When the switch S 4 was on, the direction of current was from

point n to point a, the circuit configuration is shown in Figure 7a and the equivalent

circuit is shown in Figure 7b. When S1 is turned on the direction of current should be

from point a to point n. However, due to the presence of inductance, the current cannot

change its direction instantaneously and continues to flow in the previous direction

through diode D1 (Figure 7c) and the equivalent circuit of the configuration is shown in

Figure 7d. Once ia 0 , the diode D1 ceases to conduct and the current starts flowing

through S1 as shown already in Figure 3a and Figure 3b. When ever one mode gets over

and the next mode starts, the current of the outgoing phase cannot change its direction

immediately due to presence of the inductance and hence completes its path through the

freewheeling diode.

C1

S1

D1

S3

D3

S5

Vin

S4

D4

ia

C2

D5

ib

S6

Ra

La

D6

ic

D2

S2

Rb

Rc

Lb

Lc

Page 20 of 34

ia

ib

ic

n 1,3,5,...

R 2 n L

n 1,3,5,...

R 2 n L

n 1,3,5,...

R 2 n L

4Vin

3n

n

n

4Vin

3n

n

n

2n

4Vin

3n

n

n

4n

(16)

where

n L

n tan 1

c

Rc

ic

Lc

Vin

n

Ra

Rb

ia

La

ib

Lb

Page 21 of 34

C1

S1

D1

S3

D3

S5

Vin

S4

D4

ia

C2

D5

ib

S6

Ra

La

D6

ic

D2

S2

Rb

Rc

Lb

Lc

n

Figure 7d: Current through the load during transition from Mode 6 to Mode 1

Page 22 of 34

Ra

Rc

ia

Vin

ic

Lc

La

n

Rb

ib

Lb

b

Figure 7e: Equivalent circuit during transition from Mode 6 to Mode 1

Suggested Reading:

[1] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications, 3rd edition,

Pearson, 2004

[2] V. R. Moorthi, Power Electronics: Devices, Circuits and Industrial Applications,

Oxford University Press, 2007

Page 23 of 34

Voltage Control of DC-AC Inverters Using PWM

Introduction

The topics covered in this chapter are as follows:

Need for PWM in Voltage Source Inverters

The electric motors used in EV applications are required to have large speed ranges as

shown in Figure 1. Large speed ranges can be achieved by feeding the motor with

voltages of different frequencies and also different voltage magnitudes. One of the most

convenient voltage control technique to generate variable frequency and magnitude

voltages is Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).

Torque

Powe r

Speed

Figure 1: Ideal performance characteristics for a traction motor

Modified Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation

Some of the important voltage control techniques for three phase inverters are:

Sinusoidal PWM

Space vector modulation

In this lecture, the techniques marked bold are discussed.

Joint initiative of IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD

Page 24 of 34

The single phase DC-AC inverter considered in this section is shown in Figure 2.

Single Pulse Width Modulation

In this modulation only one pulse per half cycle exists and the width of the pulse is varied

to control the inverter output voltage. The generation of the gating signals and the output

voltage of single phase full-bridge inverters are shown in Figure 3. The gating signals are

generated by comparing a rectangular reference signal of amplitude Ar with a triangular

carrier wave of amplitude Ac . The frequency of the reference signal determines the

fundamental frequency of the output voltage. The ratio of Ar to Ac is the control variable

and defined as the amplitude modulation index or modulation index and is given by

Ar

Ac

(1)

vo

4Vin

n

n

sin

sin

sin nt

2

2

n 1,3,5,... n

(2)

Vo,rms

1/2

2

Vin d (t )

2

2

Vin

(3)

A

M r

Ac

(4)

Vo,rms Vin M

(5)

iL

4Vin

n

n

sin

sin

sin nt

2

2

n 1,3,5,... n R

(6)

4Vin

n

n

iL

n 1,3,5,...

n R 2 n L

sin

sin

sin nt n

(7)

where

L

n tan 1

Page 25 of 34

The currents for both R and R-L loads are also shown in Figure 3.

By varying Ar from 0 to Ac , the pulse width can be modified from 0o to 180o and the rms

voltage Vo,rms from 0 to Vin . The harmonic content for different harmonics for different

modulation indices is shown in Figure 4.

S1

S3

D1

C1

i3

i1

Vin

D3

v0

S4

D4

C2

b

i2

S2

D2

i4

i2

Page 26 of 34

Ac

Ar

Vin

Vin

iL

iL

Figure 3: Currents and voltages in single phase DC-AC inverter for single PWM

Harmonic Magnitude

1.4

1.2

1st Harmonic

3rdHarmonic

0.8

5th Harmonic

0.6

7th Harmonic

0.4

8th harmonic

0.2

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Harmonic Number

Figure 4: Harmonic content for single pulse width modulation

Page 27 of 34

The harmonic content in the voltage vo can be reduced by using several pulses in each

half cycle. The generation of the gating signal is done by comparing a reference signal

with a triangular carrier waveform (Figure 5). The generated gate signals are shown in

Figure 5. The frequency of the reference signal f r and the carrier signal f c determine the

number of pulses per half cycle ( n p ) as

mf

fc

2 fr

2

np

(8)

where

fc

is frequency modulation ration

fr

mf

The instantaneous output voltage ( vo ) and the current for resistive and inductive loads are

shown in Figure 5. The output voltage in terms of Fourier series is given by

vo

n 1,3,5,...

Bn sin(nt )

where

2n p 1 n

4Vin

n

n

sin

sin

sin nt n m

2

2

2

m 1 n

where

n p is number of pulses in the half cycle

2np

Bn

M is modulation index

is width of each pulse

M

180

np

180(1 M )

2n p

m 2m 1 m 1

(9)

Page 28 of 34

iL

n 1,3,5,...

An sin(nt )

where

2n p 1 n

4Vin 1

n

n

sin

sin

sin nt n m

n

2

2

2

m 1 n Z n

where

2np

An

Z n R 2 n L

(10)

n L

n tan 1

Vo,rms

2n p

1/2

2

Vin d (t )

/2

2

/2

2

Vin

n p

(11)

Page 29 of 34

Ac

Ar

Vin

Vin

iL

iL

Figure 5: Currents and voltages in single phase DC-AC inverter for Multi-PWM

Page 30 of 34

In sinusoidal PWM, also called sine-PWM, the resulting pulse widths are varied

throughout the half cycle in such a way that they are proportional to the instantaneous

value of the reference sine wave at the centre of the pulses. The distance between the

centres of the pulses is kept constant as in multi-PWM. Voltage control is achieved by

varying the widths of all pulses without disturbing the sinusoidal relationship. The

generation of the gating signals for sinusoidal PWM and the output voltage and currents

is shown in Figure 6.

Ac

Ar

vo

4Vin

n 1,3,5... n

np

k 1,2,...

sin

n k

2

n k

cos nt 2 n k

where

n p is the number of pulses in the half cycle

(12)

k is the starting angle of the kth pulse

Page 31 of 34

np

where

ma

ma sin k

(13)

Ar

is the modulation index

Ac

The value of the starting angle of the kth pulse ( k ) is given by numerically solving the

following equation

ma sin k

mf

k 2k 1

(14)

where

m f =2n p

The angles and for a sine PWM with 6 pulses per half cycle are calculated using

equations 13 and 14 and listed in Table 1. The waveforms of the voltage and current are

shown in Figure 7.

The r.m.s value of the output voltage is

vo Vin

2np

(15)

m 1

iL

np

4Vin

n 1,3,5... n Z n

k 1,2,...

sin

n k

2

n k

cos nt 2 n k n

where

(16)

Z n R n L

2

n tan 1

Table 1: The starting angle and pulse width for Sine PWM with 6 pulses per half cycle

o

o

Pulse Number

1

Starting angle [ ]

12.98

Pulse Width [ ]

4.04

39.30

11.40

66.73

16.54

96.05

17.90

127.90

14.20

162.26

5.49

Page 32 of 34

vo

iL

Figure 7: Voltage and Current waveforms for Sinusoidal PWM with 6 pulses per half cycle

The generation of gating signals for a three phase DC-AC inverter with sine PWM are

shown in Figure 8. There are three sinusoidal reference waves ( vra , vrb , vrc ) each shifted by

120o. A triangular carrier wave is compared with the reference signals to produce the

gating signals. Comparing the carrier signal vcr with the reference phases vra , vrb , vrc

produces the signals for gates 1, 2 and 3 ( g1 , g2 , g3 ). The instantaneous line-to-line output

voltage is

vab Vin g1 g3

(12)

Page 33 of 34

The output voltage is generated by eliminating the condition that two switching devices

in the same arm cannot conduct at the same time.

Ac

Ar

Figure 8: Voltage and Current waveforms for three phase Sinusoidal PWM

Suggested Reading:

[1] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications, 3rd edition,

Pearson, 2004

[2] V. R. Moorthi, Power Electronics: Devices, Circuits and Industrial Applications,

Oxford University Press, 2007

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