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INTEGRATING BIOMASS ENERGY IN SMARTGRID

DEVELOPMENT FOR REMOTE AND ISOLATED ELECTRICITY


SYSTEM
Ignatius Rendroyoko

Djoko Rahardjo Abumanan

PT. PLN (PERSERO)


Jl. Trunojoyo Blok M I / 135 Jakarta 12160, INDONESIA
Phone: 62-21-7221234, Fax: 62-21-7221234
ignatius.rendroyoko@pln.co.id; djoko_r@pln.co.id

Abstract: In the effort to provide electricity, PLN always pay attention to energy efficiency initiatives.
These efficiency measures have been done by reducing the use of oil-fired power plants, and replace it
with a gas-powered power plants and renewable energy. The implementation of the policy, has made the
development of smartgrid become one of the options in the implementation of the electricity supply.
Moreover, smartgrid technology also involves the development of local renewable energy sources that
can be utilized for power generation.
In smartgrid technology development, PLN always consider business needs and empowerment of local
energy sources in the electricity supply. Biomass energy resources, is one of the renewable energy sources
that exist throughout the Indonesian archipelago, from densely populated large island to the small islands
with isolated electricity system. Smart grid development which emphasizes on providing sufficient energy
to an electricity system by empowering the local energy source for power generation and energy
efficiency initiatives, may become an appropriate strategy in the provision of electric power. Indonesia
has developed several techniques for converting biomass from different sources, and for the supply of
biomass-based fuels, the complex problems faced so far is the factor of geographical distribution of each
type of raw material and climatic influences that affect the continuity of supply.
This paper presents the analysis of smart grid technologies development by involving the supply of
electricity from renewable energy, particularly biomass energy, to meet the electricity demand in isolated
electricity system. The main purpose of this program is to get the right model in an efficient electricity
supply in a small electricity system is small. The methods has given good results at several locations PLN
pilot project where smart grid system can work well, balancing the supply of the generation system,
distribution automation system and the response from customers to the condition of the electrical system.
Keywords: smart grid technology, renewable energy resources, biomass, and energy efficiency
Introduction

extent the spreading of the electric power system on each


major island in Indonesia.

Indonesia, whose territory is archipelago with over 17,000


islands, is in the running to build huge amount of electric
power supply to meet the electricity needs for the population
and to support economic growth. Electricity infrastructure
development projects of 35,000 MW have been started in
2015, to build the 377 projects of power generation,
transmission and substations, to increase the capacity of
electricity supply for the community. Power plants and
electricity infrastructure will be constructed in all regions of
Indonesia, increasing the capacity of supply of electricity in
existing electrical system, and increase the number and

Electricity power generation development is also conducted


for areas that are still isolated or separated from the main
electrical system. Many isolated electrical system, still have
limited power supplies, with the majority of types of power
plants is dominated by diesel engines. The construction of
new power plants in those isolated areas, in principle, is
conducted by giving priority to local renewable energy
resources. With the utilization of local renewable energy
resources, it is expected that the area can provide electricity
supply independent and sustainable
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The power system development using renewable energy is


carried out simultaneously with the development of smart
grid technology in PLN. However, technology development
for isolated electrical system also includes energy efficiency
technologies and other technologies that support energy
productivity with customer participation, also the distribution
system automation to improve the reliability of electric
power supply
This paper presents the analysis of strategies or methods, to
develop smart grid technologies involving the supply of
electricity from renewable energy generation particularly
biomass energy, to meet the electricity demand in isolated
electricity system. The methods has given good results at
several locations PLN pilot project where smartgrid system
can work well, balancing the supply of the power generation
system and electricity demand of customers.

PLN Electricity System Development Plan


Indonesia's economic growth has reached a satisfactory level
with a growth rate of over 6% since 2010. The achievement
may supported by the achievement of electrification growth
rate of more than 8% during the same period. The
electrification growth rate is expected to continue as planned
and is expected to fit the general plan of electricity supply
(RUPTL) 2015-2024 which states that the growth rate of
electricity in Indonesia will reach 8.7% per year.

Figure 1 Concept of Smartgrid


Figure 1 shows a power supply system with one step down
transformer and number of feeders or radial distribution
lines. Here, the incomer has the function to supply electricity
power and the feeders distribute power to the loads. Prime
protection system coordination on this arrangement shall
provide common service continuity to supply electricity to
end users.

Namun bertolak belakang dari perencanaan seperti tersebut


diatas, penyediaan infrastruktu ketenagalistrikan Indonesia
masih belum mencukupi. Beberapa sistem kelistrikan di
wilayah dan daerah di Indonesia masih mengalami
keterbatasan suplai tenaga listrik dan pemadaman.

PLN Smartgrid Development


Smartgrid is an integration of conventional power
transmission and distribution technology with electronic
monitoring and control systems and digital data networks
(Fig. 1). It integrates innovative tools and technologies from
generation, transmission and distribution all the way to
consumer appliances and equipment. This concept integrates
energy infrastructure, processes, devices, information and
markets into a coordinated and collaborative process that
allows energy to be generated, distributed and consumed
more effectively and efficiently

Figure 2 Elements of Smartgrid


The objective is to set protection system to operate as fast as
possible to clear up faults in the protected zone [2]. By using
protection zone taken into consideration, it can be defined
the primary protection and the back-up protection scheme.
Figure 2 shows the protection zone of transformer, incomer
and feeder protection system.
The descriptions of the protection scheme in figure 2 are
presented below:
1. Zone 1 is the differential protection relay which operates
as primary protection for power transformer.
2. Zone 2 is the over current relay for transformer, operates
as transformers local back-up protection
3. Zone 3 is the over current and ground fault relay, used to
provide primary protection for MV bus bar and back-up
for line feeders
4. Zone 4 is the over current and ground fault relay used
for feeders primary protection
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In the arrangement, if a short circuit fault occurs on a feeder,


the protection system of the faulted feeder shall immediately
start to sense the fault and send a trip order to open the
circuit breaker within the protection setting period. At the
time when the fault occurs, the protection on incomer also
senses the fault, but it will only operate if the feeder circuit
breaker fails to clear up the short circuit fault. The setting
must ensure that the incomer does not operate in this
overlapping area until the feeder protection assigned to that
area has the opportunity to clear the fault. The selective
setting of the protection system makes the protection system
coordination and this setting scheme is commonly known as
the cascade over current protection scheme.

The Role of Biomass Renewable Energy


Resources in PLN
The term "biomass" refers to organic matter that has stored
energy through the process of photosynthesis which can be
used as a source of fuel or for industrial production. Biomass
may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as
fuel. Indonesia has the potential of biomass with abundant
quantities that can be used as an energy source. Energy
potential of biomass, can be found easily in all areas and
islands in Indonesia, each with its own type and unique
characteristics, which can be used as energy source for
power generation. This protection scheme is presented on
figure 3.

Table 1 Renewable Energy Development in PLN

This cascade protection system is implemented for most of


all distribution feeders in West Java and Banten area. The
protective strategy is simple to perceive and to some extend
able to provide adequate continuity of power supply.

Integration of Biomass Power Plant in Smart


Grid
However the setting of the protection system strategy has
been organized in detail by applying the cascade protection
scheme, numbers of failures are still happened. The
overlapping of the protection operations between incomer
and feeder are still occurs in the system. As the protective
devices are not perfect, the demands of the protective
strategy can never be fulfilled completely [4]. In numbers of
occasions, at the same time the incomer and the feeder
operate to trip caused by faults on distribution feeders. This
failure gives total shut down to the electricity supply on all
distribution feeders on the transformer bus bar concerned.
This accident is normally called transformer trip caused by
faults on distribution feeder.
Numbers of transformer trip events occur on distribution
system every year. Not only causing effect on customer
satisfaction index, the trip also caused millions kWh of
energy not sales (ENS) that gives significant effect to energy
sales. It is shown in Figure 4, the trend of energy not sales
(ENS) caused by transformer trip events shows an increase
during 2002 2006. The average of

Figure 3 Indonesia Biomass Renewable Resources


The cascade protection system is actually over current and
ground fault protection system for setting coordination
between incoming and outgoing in radial distribution
feeders. The method maintains time discrimination between
the incoming and outgoing feeder protection by using
inverse-time relaying to effect a reduction in tripping time.
For all fault current on distribution feeder, the incoming
feeder should be slower than the outgoing feeder curve by
suitable time grading margin. By using the scheme, a
combination of time grading principles can be applied on
upstream and downstream configuration.

In order to identify the likely cause of nuisance transformer


trip caused by faults on distribution feeder, review and
inspection were conducted. The inspection and review results
characterize several important aspects of transformer trips.
The results include the following:
1.
2.
3.

The failures of transformer trip caused by uncleared


faults on distribution feeders are mainly caused by
inaccurate coordination in protection system setting.
The event of the transformer trip might also be
generated by the difference of technology between
relays on the incoming and the outgoing feeders.
The fails of operation on the outgoing might also be
caused by circuit breaker mechanic malfunction. This
failure is often categorized as failure of the
disconnecting element. Causes that may contribute to
breaker failure are:
i. Open/ short- circuited trip coil
ii. Mechanical failure of tripping
mechanism
iii. Failure of main contacts to
interrupt
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Based on the analysis, the main reason of the transformer trip


accidents is failures on protection system coordination.
Refer to this reason; another protection system is needed to
be applied on the protection coordination between incomer
and feeder. The protection system should be able to ensure
trip order on feeders as the primary protection while
providing back-up protection on the incomer. Selectivity,
back-up relaying and speed should also be taken into
consideration in the protection system. The new protection
system shall provide high speed specification to disconnect a
faulty system as quickly as possible to minimize amount of
damage, cost and downtime.
Another important consideration on the problem is to ensure
breaker operation. Numbers of activities such as
comprehensive maintenance of circuit breaker, replacing
parts and retrofit while enabling monitoring system to detect
status of tripping operation can be applied in order to ensure
breaker operation.
From the discussion above, it is clear that strategic solutions
should be implemented on protection system coordination
and circuit breaker tripping scheme. Numbers of innovative
protective strategy and solution are needed to be
implemented to eliminate the problems and provide some
new advantages on protection coordination system.

Non-cascade Protection Scheme


Non-cascade protection scheme is a modern protection
scheme which enables the use of the programmable scheme
logic of modern digital over current relay. Developments in
over current relay technology have resulted in
comprehensive and multi functional relays. Modern relays
provide many advantages and options on protective
capability. This devices combine protection, control and
monitoring function and offer number of facilities for faster
fault clearance, data transfer and communication between
relays.
One programmable logic function on digital over current
relays is blocking logic. Blocking logic is a programmable
function that able to prevent or delay a trip order for a period
of time / cycles using. If a short circuit fault on a feeder, the
protection system of the start concerned shall immediately
send a blocking order to the incoming protection. After
opening of the start feeders circuit breaker concerned, the
blocking order is withdrawn and the incoming protection is
unblocked. If the fault still persist on the distribution feeder,
the fault current widely exceeds the level of the over current
threshold. As this threshold is not affected by the logic
blocking of the incoming protection, the order of trip
triggering is sent to incoming relay in less than 2 cycles and
the incoming circuit breaker is tripped. The blocking scheme
logic is shown on figure 5.
Figure 5 shows the over current and ground fault relay
(OCR/GFR relay) A is installed as incoming protection relay
and OCR/GFR relay B is applied on outgoing feeder to
function as feeder protection relay. If a fault occur on feeder,
relay B start detects the fault and send blocking signal to
relay A. The feeder fault would be cleared by over current
protection tripping from relay B to its breaker. But if the fault

still exists, relay B would give fast tripping signal to relay A


to de-energized incoming breaker.
This blocking protection scheme is applicable for radial
distribution feeders. The scheme depends on the up-stream
inverse relay being blocked by the start output from a down
stream relay that detect the presence of fault current above its
setting threshold [3].
On the non-cascade protection scheme, the use of digital /
numerical over current relays is applied on incomer and
feeders. The scheme uses the start contacts from down
stream relays to block operation of upstream relays.
In case of selective over current logic (SOL), the start
contacts are used to increase the time delay of upstream
relays instead of blocking. This scheme provides a specific
non-cascade type of over current protection scheme. The
SOL function increases the time delay setting for a period of
time. This logic scheme is initiated using programmable
logic of the numerical relay.
By utilizing the logic scheme, the non-cascade protection
could provide more selective protection system with high
speed relay characteristic.

Solutions to the Problems


From the description above, consecutive plans to implement
the non-cascade protection scheme has been designed and
developed in order to have efficient and effective program. It
was explained before that most of the protection coordination
between incomer and outgoing feeder, use conventional
cascade protection scheme. In order to apply the non-cascade
protection, relays on both incoming and outgoing feeder
should provide special characteristic. Modern digital over
current relay has multi functional characteristics such as trip
blocking signal, programmable logic, data gathering and
fault recording. This specification enables development of
non-cascade protection scheme.
For trial purposes the non-cascade protection scheme has
been applied on one incomer and outgoing feeder protection
scheme. The single line diagram for relay setting
coordination is shown on Figure 7. First scenario means: If a
fault occurs on distribution feeder (location F1) with fault
current 1200 A, relay on outgoing feeder will sense the fault
and send the trip signal to its circuit breaker in 0.28 s. In this
situation, the relay on outgoing feeder does not sent a block
order to relay on incoming because the fault current still
below the threshold setting of 1800 A (moment threshold
setting).
The second scenario : If a fault happened at point closer to
bus bar 20kV with fault current rated 3000 A, the relay on
outgoing feeders sense the fault with OCR TD and OCR
Moment and fault will be cleared in 0.01 s. At the same time,
the relay on feeder sent a block signal to incoming to prevent
the incoming breaker from tripping. If the blocking fail,
clearance of the fault will still be executed by outgoing
feeder considering that the incoming breaker need more time
to open.
The third scenario: If the blocking scheme success but the
outgoing breaker fail to trip then the incoming relay sense
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the existing fault as OCR TD and OCR Moment. The breaker


on incoming will trip in 0.03 s
The forth scenario: If the blocking scheme success but the
outgoing and incoming breaker fail to trip then the relay on
High Voltage (HV) side sense the existing fault as OCR TD.
The HV breaker on incoming will trip in 1.65 s. But if the
Circuit Breaker Failure Protection successes to detect the
existing fault, it will send a trip signal directly to HV breaker
and de-energized the transformer in 0.9 s
Those entire specific scenarios are provided in modern
digital / numerical over current relay which can be used to
develop the non-cascade protection scheme.
Implementation of non-cascade protection scheme to all
incoming and outgoing feeder protection coordination has
been commenced since early October 2005. So far, the
performance of protection system coordination shows some
improvements in reliability. The number of transformer trips
in 2006 (up to June 2006) only records 16 trips with amount
of energy not sales only 155.762 kWh. This reliability
performance in 2006 shows better achievements compare to
reliability performance in the preceding years.
Out from the discussion of protection system coordination
above, numbers of activities are organized to improve the
performance of circuit breaker. Since circuit breakers also
give significant effects to reliability performance of
protection system, an effective strategy in circuit breaker
improvement programs are also important.

2.

3.

Ha, Bok Nam, Experience and progress of Smart Grid


Project in Asia, Smart Grid Working Group Technical
Committee of AESIEAP, October 2014
Abumanan, Djoko R, Overview Kondur Smart Island
Riau Kepulauan Indonesia, ALSTOM Technical Guide,
June 2001

Biography
Ignatius Rendroyoko was born in Semarang, Indonesia in
1970. He graduated from the Institute Technology of
Bandung, Indonesia in 1994 and served as an electrical
engineer in PLN since 1995. After completing his Master of
Engineering Science Degree in Monash University Australia in 2002, he is currently working as Senior Manager
for Strategic Programs in PT PLN (Persero) Head Office.
Djoko Rahardjo Abumanan was born in Semarang,
Indonesia in 1970. He graduated from the Institute
Technology of Bandung, Indonesia in 1994 and served as an
electrical engineer in PLN since 1995. After completing his
Master of Engineering Science Degree in Monash University
- Australia in 2002, he is currently working as Assistant
Manager for Substation Operation & Maintenance in PLN
APD BANDUNG

Conclusions
Accidents of transformer trip caused by faults on distribution
feeder are one of the most important reliability problems
affecting utility and its electricity customers. Industrial
processes are particularly sensitive to voltage dips. The
failures are mainly caused by failures in protection
coordination system setting
Identification of the causes of transformer trip disturbances
requires the aggregation of the power system and protection
coordination knowledge held by the utility.
1.

2.

3.

Non-cascade protection scheme enables the use of the


programmable blocking scheme logic of modern digital /
numerical relay to control the fault clearance in a more
selective way and with a short time.
In order to implement the non-cascade protective
scheme, relays on both incoming and outgoing feeder
should have special characteristic of programmable
logic such as blocking signal and communication output.
The cascade protection system may be a conventional
protection scheme but to some extend still be able to
provide protection system with adequate level of
reliability.

References:
1.

Phool Singh Chauhan, Anurag Tewari Using Smart


Grid for Efficient Utilization of Biomass based Fuels:
Scope and Challengesdevices, International Journal of
Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN :
2278-0181, Vol 3 Issue 7, July - 2014
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