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Tuesday,

December 4, 2007

Part II

Department of
Transportation
National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration

49 CFR Parts 564 and 571


Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards;
Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated
Equipment; Final Rule
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68234 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION submitted to: Administrator, National regulatory text, and incorporating the
Highway Traffic Safety Administration, substance of several additional
National Highway Traffic Safety 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West interpretations into the standard. In
Administration Building, Ground Floor, Docket Room addition, three SAE documents that the
W12–140, Washington, DC 20590. agency had proposed to continue to be
49 CFR Parts 564 and 571 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For incorporated by reference in the NPRM
Docket No. NHTSA–2007–28322 technical issues: David Hines, Office of have now been integrated into the
Crash Avoidance Standards (NVS–121), regulatory text, and the location of
RIN 2127–AJ75 NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., marking requirements within the
West Building, Washington, DC 20590 standard has been further consolidated.
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Consistent with the NPRM, the final
(Telephone: (202) 493–0245) (Fax: (202)
Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, rule also establishes an Appendix C in
366–7002).
and Associated Equipment 49 CFR Part 564, Replaceable Light
For legal issues: Ari Scott, Office of
AGENCY: National Highway Traffic the Chief Counsel (NCC–112), NHTSA, Source Information, as a repository for
Safety Administration (NHTSA), 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West dimensional and electrical information
Department of Transportation. Building, Washington, DC 20590 associated with standardized sealed
(Telephone: (202) 366–2992) (Fax: (202) beam headlamps that currently resides
ACTION: Final Rule.
366–3820). in figures in FMVSS No. 108.
SUMMARY: This document amends the These modifications have furthered
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard the objective of this rewrite by
Table of Contents increasing clarity as follows: (1) Making
(FMVSS) No. 108 on lamps, reflective
devices, and associated equipment by I. Executive Summary requirements easier to find and
reorganizing the regulatory text so that II. Background comprehend; (2) presenting
A. Historical Overview of the Standard performance requirements and test
it provides a more straightforward and
B. The Need for an Administrative Rewrite procedures together through the
logical presentation of the applicable of the Standard
regulatory requirements, which includes inclusion of relevant provisions of third-
III. December 2005 Notice of Proposed
the agency’s interpretation of the party documents (previously
Rulemaking (NPRM) and Public
existing requirements. It also greatly Comments incorporated by reference) directly into
reduces the need to consult relevant A. The NPRM the regulatory text of the standard; and
third-party standards by including B. Discussion of Public Comments (3) updating Standard No. 108 to reflect
applicable requirements directly into Received in Response to the NPRM and significant letters of interpretation. The
the main body of Standard No. 108, Their Impact on the Final Rule rewrite of FMVSS No. 108 is considered
(a) 49 CFR Part 564 administrative in nature because the
rather than incorporating such (b) 49 CFR Part 571.108
provisions by reference. This final rule standard’s existing requirements and
1. Administrative Considerations obligations are not being increased,
does not impose any new substantive 2. Omissions, Typographical Errors, and
requirements on manufacturers. decreased, or substantively modified.
Inconsistent Language
In addition, this document amends 49 3. Organization of the Standard Accordingly, costs associated with
CFR Part 564, Replaceable Light Source 4. Suggestions Beyond the Scope of the manufacturer compliance with Standard
Information, by adding a newly created Rewrite No. 108 are not expected to change as
Appendix C, which relocates figures 5. Suggestions Within the Scope of the a result of this regulatory action.
Rewrite
addressing sealed beam headlamps that IV. The Final Rule II. Background
currently reside in FMVSS No. 108 and A. 49 CFR Part 564 A. Historical Overview of the Standard
a relevant Society of Automotive B. 49 CFR Part 571.108
Engineers (SAE) standard there. We V. Benefits and Costs On December 30, 2005, NHTSA
believe few lighting manufacturers still VI. Rulemaking Analyses and Notices published a notice of proposed
produce sealed beam headlamps, and Appendix A: FMVSS No. 108 Rewrite Cross rulemaking 1 (NPRM) to amend FMVSS
their diminishing use is unlikely to Reference No. 108, Lamps, Reflective Devices, and
draw new manufacturers of this type of Appendix B: FMVSS No. 108 Rewrite Cross Associated Equipment, by reorganizing
Reference the regulatory text so that it provides a
lamp. Accordingly, we see no
Appendix C: List of figures more straight-forward and logical
drawbacks to consolidating the
information regarding sealed beam light I. Executive Summary presentation of the applicable regulatory
sources with other light source requirements. The initial version of
After carefully considering the public
information currently located in 49 CFR FMVSS No. 108 was adopted almost 40
comments on its December 2005
Part 564. years ago to increase motor vehicle
proposal, the agency has decided to safety by establishing minimum
DATES: Effective date: The final rule is adopt a final rule amending Federal
effective September 1, 2008 with requirements for vehicle lighting,
Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) reflective devices, and associated
voluntary early compliance permitted No. 108, Lamps, Reflective Devices, and
immediately. The incorporation by equipment. In developing the standard,
Associated Equipment, by reorganizing NHTSA incorporated requirements from
reference of certain publications listed the regulatory text and directly a number of industry consensus
in the rule is approved by the Director importing requirements from applicable standards, in particular SAE standards.
of the Federal Register as of September SAE standards currently incorporated At that time, motor vehicle technologies
1, 2008. Petitions for reconsideration: by reference into the regulatory text. In were relatively simple, as compared to
Petitions for reconsideration of this final doing so, the agency has decided to today’s designs. For example, motor
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rule must be received not later than make some changes from the NPRM, vehicle headlighting systems were
January 18, 2008. including modifying the organizational limited to ones consisting of either two
ADDRESSES: Any petitions for structure of the standard, relocating test
reconsideration should refer to the procedures and performance 1 70 Fr 77454, (Dec. 30, 2005) (Docket No.

docket number of this document and be requirements from attached tables to the NHTSA–2006–23634–3).

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Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations 68235

7-inch or four 53⁄4-inch round sealed FMVSS No. 108 are no longer readily Part 564, Replaceable Light Source
beam units. During the ensuing years, a available from SAE International. Information, as a newly created
number of rectangular sealed beam Throughout the past few decades, Appendix C. This modification would
units, replaceable bulb headlamps, and SAE has published revised, successor be consistent with the current practice
integral beam headlamps were versions, with differing requirements, of placing replaceable light source
developed, and FMVSS No. 108 was for many of their standards incorporated information in Part 564. The title of Part
amended to permit the use of these new by reference into FMVSS No. 108. This 564 would also be changed to
technologies. Later, the standard was appears to sometimes cause confusion ‘‘Replaceable Light Source and Sealed
further amended to add requirements on the part of regulated parties who, Beam Headlamp Information’’ to reflect
for high-mounted stop lamps, side mistakenly, may believe that the most the addition of the sealed beam
marker lamps, and side reflex reflectors, recent version of a SAE standard headlamp content.
to allow for daytime running lamps, and represents the regulatory requirement. Whereas Standard No. 108 currently
to address the conspicuity needs of large The agency believes that interested references approximately 35 different
vehicles. parties should have easy access to the SAE documents in nearly 100 separate
However, such amendments were requirements of the standard, and, instances, the NPRM proposed reducing
made on an ad hoc basis, which, over therefore, we believe there is value in that number to eight documents, which
time, resulted in a patchwork publishing, without substantive change, were ones believed not to be routinely
organization for FMVSS No. 108. applicable requirements that are used by regulated parties. Accordingly,
Furthermore, when regulated parties currently contained in third-party the NPRM proposed to incorporate the
had questions regarding how FMVSS documents directly within FMVSS No. content of these frequently used SAE
No. 108 should be interpreted (in many 108 itself. The same logic applies to our documents directly into the regulatory
instances due to rapid advances in decision to include the results of text and/or attached tables of Standard
lighting technology not fully anticipated relevant legal interpretations in the No. 108.
or addressed by the existing regulatory standard. Furthermore, several The proposed tables included Table I,
text), they submitted requests for provisions currently in Standard No. which listed the required lamps and
interpretation to the agency on specific 108 refer to regulatory inception dates reflective devices for the various
issues. Since its promulgation, a large that are several years in the past, so the vehicles regulated by FMVSS No. 108.
number of interpretation letters have agency is eliminating text citing such The number of required lamps and
been issued pertaining to Standard No. past dates. reflective devices, their color, their
108. Thus, in its current state, FMVSS For these reasons, we believe that the mounting locations and height above
No. 108 has requirements that are benefits of an administrative rewrite of the road surface, and their manner of
located directly in its regulatory text, FMVSS No. 108 (e.g., making the activation were included in Table I,
located in referenced and sub- standard more navigable and thereby which resembles an expanded version
referenced SAE standards, and facilitating compliance with existing of Tables I through IV of the current
elaborated upon in various agency requirements) justify the necessary FMVSS No. 108. Table II detailed the
interpretations. Since its inception, commitment of agency resources to requirements for the four different kinds
NHTSA has never completed a thorough accomplish this reorganization of the of headlighting systems permitted by
reorganization of the entire standard. standard. the standard. Table III contained the
conspicuity system requirements for
B. The Need for an Administrative III. December 2005 Notice of Proposed large trucks and trailers, while Tables IV
Rewrite of the Standard Rulemaking (NPRM) and Public and V provided, respectively, effective
Due to concerns about being able to Comments projected luminous lens area
locate requirements efficiently and the requirements and visibility
apparent lack of clarity associated with A. The NPRM
requirements. Tables VI through XII and
the standard (as demonstrated by an As noted above, NHTSA published a XIV through XX listed photometric
abundance of letters of interpretation), NPRM on December 30, 2005 that requirements for individual lamp types.
we decided to undertake an proposed to reorganize FMVSS No. 108 Table XIII detailed the target locations
administrative rewrite of FMVSS No. to improve the clarity of the standard’s for license plate lamp photometry. Table
108. The agency has also received requirements, thereby increasing its XXI contained test procedures and
complaints that the current text of utility for interested parties. This performance requirements for all
FMVSS No. 108 sometimes results in administrative rewrite attempted to associated devices. Finally Tables XXII
confusion, in part due to the way it is make the standard more understandable and XXIII contained non-photometry
organized. Regulated parties have stated by adopting a simplified numbering test procedures and performance
that the current organization of FMVSS scheme, to improve organization by requirements for all lamps, reflective
No. 108 makes it difficult for them, at grouping related materials in a more devices, replaceable light sources, and
times, to be fully confident that all logical and consistent sequence, and to vehicle headlamp aiming devices
applicable requirements have been reduce reliance on references to third- (VHAD). In addition, several new
identified and satisfied prior to party documents. As proposed, the figures were included to clarify some of
certification to the standard. Also, reorganized standard progressed from the application requirements for
numerous interested parties have stated vehicle-level requirements to device- conspicuity systems.
that the large number of interpretations level requirements, beginning with the From a regulatory perspective, it was
that have been issued by the agency most common requirements and then the agency’s intention, as expressed in
regarding Standard No. 108 make it proceeding to exceptions. the NPRM, that the administrative
difficult to locate and identify the The NPRM also proposed to move rewrite of Standard No. 108 would
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agency’s position on relevant issues. In figures addressing sealed beam neither result in any current obligation
addition, regulated parties have headlamps that are currently included being diminished, nor any new
conveyed to the agency in recent years in FMVSS No. 108 and SAE J1383 obligation being imposed. In other
that some of the older versions of SAE APR85, Performance Requirements for words, the substantive requirements are
standards incorporated by reference into Motor Vehicle Headlamps, into 49 CFR identical to those of the current version

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of FMVSS No. 108, including Scope of the Rewrite. A summary and reflect the legal opinion of the agency
incorporated documents. Therefore, we analysis of each issue identified is unless they contradict the explicit
do not believe that vehicle provided below. regulatory text of the standard or were
manufacturers and lighting (a) 49 CFR Part 564 overturned by subsequent
manufacturers would have to make any We received only one substantive interpretations.
changes to their respective products or comment concerning the relocation of AAM suggested that the final rule
production processes if the NPRM were the sealed beam headlamp figures into should not be mandatory until
made final. a new Appendix C of Part 564 of this September 1st, one year after
B. Public Comments Received in chapter. GE requested a separate NPRM publication of the final rule. We have
Response to the NPRM for this purpose and that the drawings established September 1, 2008 as the
The agency received comments from that would be filed in Appendix C be mandatory compliance date, with
twenty seven entities in response to the made available for review. voluntary early compliance permitted
We stated in Summary of the Proposal immediately.
December 2005 NPRM, which were
in the NPRM that the final rule adopting ATA, OOIDA, and TMA all expressed
submitted by 11 lamp or lamp
the rewrite of Standard No. 108 would concern about conflicts between FMVSS
component manufacturers, 11
occur concurrently with the relocation No. 108 and the regulations of the
manufacturer or user associations, three
vehicle manufacturers, and two test of the sealed beam figures to Appendix Federal Motor Carrier Safety
organizations. Commenters included: C of Part 564. We also provided, at the Administration (FMCSA). They
Truck Manufacturers Association end of that notice, a complete listing of requested that the rewrite of Standard
(TMA), Motorcycle Industry Council all the figures and where they currently No. 108 reconcile the differences that
(MIC), Koito Manufacturing Co., Ltd., reside in FMVSS No. 108 or SAE J1383 they perceive between it and the
(Koito), Truck Trailer Manufacturers APR85, which is incorporated by regulations of the FMCSA.
Association (TTMA), General Electric reference in the current version of
FMVSS No. 108, but we did not provide The FMCSA has established
Automotive Plastics (GE-Plastics), regulations for lamps, reflective devices,
General Motors North America (GM), specific regulatory text for Appendix C
in the NPRM. Ample opportunity was and associated equipment for
Specialty Equipment Market commercial vehicles in use and a few
Association (SEMA), Grote Industries, provided for public comment on this
issue, so we are making the specialized types of commercial
L.L.C., (Grote), Innovative Lighting, Inc., vehicles at time of manufacture. The
Calcoast Industrial Testing Laboratory establishment of Appendix C of Part 564
of this chapter and the transfer of the FMCSA made significant revisions to its
(Calcoast), General Electric Automotive lighting regulations in 2005 2 and some
Lighting (GE), Valeo Sylvania, L.L.C. identified figures to it part of the final
rule. We believe that it would be substantive differences do exist between
(VS), Guide Corporation (Guide), the lighting regulations of FMCSA and
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers beneficial for the sealed beam drawings
to be relocated as part of this FMVSS No. 108. These differences may
(AAM), 3M Traffic Safety Systems (3M), have the potential to cause
Valeo Lighting Systems (Valeo), reorganization so that applicable
requirements are transferred in an manufacturers of lamps and reflective
Association of International Automobile devices that fall under the jurisdiction
Manufacturers (AIAM), Owner-Operator accurate manner, thereby satisfying our
commitment not to change the existing of both NHTSA and FMCSA to pursue
Independent Drivers Association, Inc. different design, manufacturing, and
(OOIDA), Atlas Material Testing requirements of the standard.
compliance processes to satisfy the
Solutions (Atlas), American Trucking (b) 49 CFR 571.108
regulations of both agencies. However,
Associations, Inc. (ATA), Honda Motor 1. Administrative Considerations any attempt at reconciliation here
Co., LTD. (Honda), Nissan North
Some of the comments submitted in would be outside the scope of the
America, Inc., (Nissan), and Bayer
response to the NPRM were not focused rewrite process. Recently, FMCSA
Material Science, L.L.C., (Bayer). A joint
upon the substance of the rewrite but issued a final rule 3 in response to a
response was submitted by Motor and
rather addressed administrative petition for reconsideration to its
Equipment Manufacturers Association
concerns. Several commenters requested August 15, 2005 final rule, which
(MEMA), Transportation Safety
statements of reassurance that ‘‘* * * resolved the differences between its
Equipment Institute (TSEI), and Motor
Vehicle Lighting Council (MVLC), no substantive changes from existing regulations and FMVSS No. 108, as
collectively the Associations (ASSN). requirements are intended,’’ and ‘‘* * * interpreted in NHTSA’s July 28, 2005
Several months after the comment state that the existing body of interpretation to Mr. Clarke,4
closing date the Associations submitted interpretations is still valid.’’ On these concerning auxiliary lamps mounted
a supplementary response which was points, we clarify as follows. First we near identification lamps. Regulated
shortly followed by another reiterate that the administrative rewrite, parties may want to consider other
supplementary response in conjunction as expressed in this final rule, does not approaches to address the remaining
with the Alliance (AAM/ASSN). All make any substantive changes to the differences between FMVSS No. 108
comments are available in Docket No. requirements of Standard No. 108. and 49 CFR Part 393. One such
NHTSA–2006–23634 and were Furthermore, as stated in the NPRM, not approach could be to submit rulemaking
considered in the promulgation of this all letters of interpretation were petitions to NHTSA and FMSCA
final rule. appropriate for inclusion into the requesting reconciliation of the
The comments about the NPRM that regulatory language of FMVSS No. 108. differences between FMVSS No. 108
we received can be divided into five Generally, we excluded those that we and 49 CFR Part 393.
general categories: (1) Administrative concluded did not add value to the
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2 See 49 CFR Part 393, as last revised by 70 FR


Considerations; (2) Omissions, regulatory text (i.e., one without broad
48008 August 15, 2005 (Docket No. FMCSA–1997–
Typographical Errors, and Inconsistent applicability). However, all existing 2364–44).
Language; (3) Organizational Structure; letters of interpretation, whether or not 3 72 CFR 32011 (June 11, 2007) (Docket No.
(4) Suggestions Beyond the Scope of the they are specifically integrated into the FMCSA 1997–2364).
Rewrite; and (5) Suggestions Within the FMVSS No. 108 final rule, continue to 4 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/GF002551.3.html.

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2. Omissions, Typographical Errors, and the NPRM, progressed from vehicle- procedures of Tables XXI, XXII, and
Inconsistent Language level requirements to device-level XXIII.
requirements, beginning with the most ASSN/AAM also suggested dividing
Given the complexity of the proposed
common requirements and then Table I into five separate tables: one for
administrative rewrite of FMVSS No.
proceeding to exceptions. Requirements vehicles less than 80 in (2032 mm) in
108, including the integration of the
in the rewrite of FMVSS No. 108 are overall width, another for vehicles 80 in
content of numerous SAE standards
consolidated into dedicated paragraphs. (2032 mm) or more in overall width, one
incorporated by reference into the
Paragraphs S1 through S4 were for trailers, one for motorcycles, and one
regulatory text, some omissions and
organized in the same manner as the for school buses. The activation
typographical errors occurred.
present standard. S4, Definitions, was requirements would be removed from
Numerous comments were received these tables and located in a new
identifying such occurrences. expanded to incorporate relevant
definitions from the applicable SAE paragraph titled ‘‘Electrical.’’ Tables IV
Accordingly, we have amended the and V covering projected luminous lens
regulatory text of the final rule to correct standards previously incorporated as
part of Standard No. 108. Paragraph S5 area and visibility would be eliminated
these errors. and their requirements dispersed to the
Some respondents have noted addressed the remaining references to
SAE standards. Vehicle-level applicable individual lamp sections.
instances where they believe that the These individual lamp sections would
language of the regulatory text used in requirements were located in paragraph
S6, including requirements by vehicle have a common format divided into 14
the NPRM was not faithful to the subsections representing specific
language and intent of the current type. Following that, requirements were
organized with dedicated sections for requirements. An additional table
FMVSS No. 108. In many instances would be created that would contain all
where a claim of unfaithful language each type of lamp and reflective device,
beginning with signal lamps, reflective marking requirements.
was made in the comments, the agency In consideration of the comments
adopted a conservative approach, devices and associated equipment under
paragraph S7, and headlamp and submitted by ASSN/AAM, we have
choosing to revise the language of the decided to make significant changes to
NPRM back to that of the original headlighting requirements under
paragraphs S8 through S13, and S16 the structure of the standard presented
document in the final rule. Where such in the NPRM. These structural changes
a revision was not made, we have stated through S18. Paragraph S14 addressed
aimability performance requirements, include: (1) Relocating test procedures
our reasons for that decision. and performance requirements that were
Two rather significant instances while paragraph S15 contained
requirements for replaceable light primarily contained in paragraph S6.8
where contradictory regulatory language and Tables XXI, XXII, and XXIII of the
was found to exist in the current version sources (including references to Part
proposal, to paragraph S14 of the final
of FMVSS No. 108 and its incorporated 564). In order to make requirements
rule; (2) expanding and standardizing
documents are discussed here. One has easier to find, a Table of Contents was
the presentation of requirements in
to do with the appropriate photometric added as an appendix to the standard.
individual lamp and reflective device
requirement for a specific type of The most detailed comments about sections of the final rule beyond that of
replaceable bulb headlamp and is the organizational structure of the the proposal; (3) including the
discussed in detail in the section standard were those in the provisions from additional SAE
devoted to Table II. The other concerns supplementary response from the documents, incorporated by reference in
the ratio between the stop lamp function ASSN/AAM, which recommended a the proposal, in the regulatory text of
and the taillamp function in a lamp significantly different organizational the final rule; and (4) further
where those functions are optically structure that would divide the content consolidating the location of marking
combined. The discussion related to of FMVSS No. 108 into four sections. requirements in the final rule beyond
Table IX contains an explanation of this Under the ASSN/AAM structure, the that of the proposal.
issue. Both instances bolster our first section would contain general and We believe there is value in adopting
opinion that regulatory requirements specific lamp requirements, and the a structure in the final rule that is easy
should be stated once and only once in second section would consist of Tables for regulated parties to navigate. There
a document. Neither instance has ever I, II, III, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIV, were some aspects of the ASSN/AAM
generated an interpretation request nor XV, XVI (split into three separate recommended structure that we did not
did many respondents raise either issue tables), XVII, XVIII, XIX, and XX. adopt due to our effort to avoid
in their comments to the docket. This However, there would be some format redundancies, streamline the standard,
reinforces our belief that, changes to lamp photometry tables and and avoid adding new material not
notwithstanding the existence of the addition of graphical illustrations of currently contained in Standard No.
ambiguous regulatory language, the photometric test points. These 108, including graphs, which could
intent of the specific requirements was commenters similarly suggested three cause confusion. We believe that our
clear. new tables that would graphically approach in modifying the structure of
Because correction of either situation illustrate the required photometric test the NPRM will collectively provide the
would require a substantive change to points, lines, and areas associated with most value to all end-users.
FMVSS No. 108, we have decided to upper beam headlamps, lower beam We have decided to adopt the ASSN/
refrain from addressing these examples mechanically aimed headlamps, and AAM recommendation regarding
now. However, we may issue a notice of lower beam visually/optically aimed reorganization of the layout of several
correction in the near future to address headlamps. The third section would photometry requirement tables for
what we believe are mistakes and contain all the figures of the NPRM as reasons that follow. Standard No. 108
inconsistencies that have existed for well as Table XIII, License Plate Lamp provides two alternative methods for
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some time in Standard No. 108. Target Locations, redesigned as Figure demonstrating the photometric
19. The fourth section would be compliance of turn signal lamps,
3. Organization of the Standard subdivided into five annexes which taillamps, stop lamps, backup lamps,
The organizational structure of the would contain photometric test parking lamps, and high-mounted stop
reorganized standard, as presented in procedures and the physical test lamps. For these lamps compliance can

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68238 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

be demonstrated by achieving a we have decided to retain the format of Commenters generally favored the use
minimum photometric intensity at each the photometric tables as presented in of tables in the NPRM for presenting
of 18 to 22 discrete test points the NPRM with one simplification, performance requirements. However,
distributed within a pattern about 20° which was to locate the horizontal and Nissan, Grote, and TTMA all
high and 40° wide centered about the vertical test point positions in the same commented that Table I was too lengthy
H–V axis.5 Alternatively, FMVSS No. relative positions in each table. and should be separated into several
108 also permits these specific lamps to Calcoast suggested, and we agree, that sections based on common content. The
demonstrate compliance by meeting a the horizontal test point positions and Alliance suggested splitting Table XXIII
minimum photometric intensity for the vertical test point positions should into three separate tables because it
groups of these test points. Individual always appear in the same columns. In contains tests for three distinctive items:
test points in proximity to each other our earlier proposal, this was not the (1) Headlamps, (2) vehicle headlamp
are organized into groups consisting of case, and we have made modifications aiming devices (VHAD), and (3)
from two to six points. The minimum consistent with Calcoast’s suggestion. replaceable light sources. The
photometric intensity requirement of The final rule designates the horizontal differentiation of content in Table II of
each group is approximately (but not test point positions in a column to the the NPRM was mentioned as being a
always exactly) the arithmetic sum of left of a column that designates the particularly appropriate method of
the minimum photometric intensities of corresponding vertical test point providing distinction.
all included points. This allows a lamp positions. Several commenters, including
where one or more test point(s) in a Nissan suggested that those lamps ASSN/AAM and Grote, noted that tables
group do not meet their individual that are permitted to demonstrate containing significant amounts of text,
minimum values to be compliant photometric compliance by either the such as the test requirements in Tables
provided the remaining test points in individual test point method or the XXI, XXII, and XXIII, would be difficult
the group exceed their minimum values grouped test point method have the to use because of lengthy passages that
by enough to allow the group total to required photometric intensity values contain several sentences and express
exceed the group requirement.6 Turn for each individual test point reduced to several unique test conditions or
signal lamps, taillamps, stop lamps, and 60 percent of the current requirement requirements. We agree with these
parking lamps have five groups of test and only allow use of the grouped test comments. The tabular format is best
points; while backup lamps have six point method. We did not adopt this suited to displaying quantitative values
groups, and high-mounted stop lamps suggestion because it would have or short textual requirements. In the
have four groups. reduced the number of compliance final rule, we moved virtually all test
Tables VI, VII, VIII, IX, XII, XV, which methods available to manufacturers, a procedures and performance
detail photometry requirements for substantive change beyond the scope of requirements to S14, the last section of
those lamps permitted to use both the this administrative rewrite. the standard. Specifically, the content of
individual test point and the grouped The original response from the ASSN, Table XXI of the NPRM has been moved
test point compliance methods, are as well as the comments from Guide, to S14.9, Associated Equipment
formatted such that test points are suggested abandoning Tables XVIII and Physical Test Procedures and
organized in group order. Progressing XIX and incorporating headlamp Performance Requirements, the content
from left to right horizontally, each test photometry requirements in a series of of Table XXII of the NPRM has been
point group is identified by number, tables similar to the current FMVSS No. moved to S14.3, Motorcycle Headlamp
and then the individual test points 108. We were not persuaded that more Out of Focus Test Procedures and
included within that group are headlamp photometric tables would add Performance Requirements, S14.4,
identified by their vertical and value to the standard. Upper beam General Test Procedures and
horizontal positions. Next, the headlamp requirements are not related Performance Requirements (consisting
minimum photometric intensity for to whether a headlamp is mechanically of the color test and plastic optical
each individual test point is shown, and or visually/optically aimed and six materials test), and S14.5, Signal Lamp
finally, at the right end, the group beam patterns adequately cover all and Reflective Device Test Procedures
minimum photometric intensity is headlamps. Many photometric test and Performance Requirements. In
shown. points are common to all lower beam addition, the content of Table XXIII of
In contrast, the photometry headlamps. Tables XVIII and XIX the NPRM has been moved to S14.6,
requirements tables suggested by the present all required beam patterns Headlamp Physical Test Procedures and
ASSN/AAM, and endorsed by Calcoast, (except for certain motorcycle Performance Requirements, S14.7,
organize the lamp test points in a headlamps) in a clear and concise Replaceable Light Source Physical Test
vertical, then horizontal, manner that format. Table II directs the user to the Procedures and Performance
requires the user to search for each appropriate beam pattern in Tables Requirements, and S14.8, Vehicle
point to include in a group and then XVIII and XIX. We retained this format Headlamp Aiming Devices (VHAD)
consult a sub-table to find out the for headlamp photometry requirements Physical Test Procedures and
minimum photometric requirement for in the final rule. Performance Requirements.
that group. We find this suggested Several commenters mentioned General test procedures and
approach unnecessarily complex and inconsistent use of a ‘‘no requirement’’ performance requirements that were
prone to increasing, not decreasing, the indicator where a test point appears in located in S6.8 of the NPRM have been
possibility of error in determining a photometry requirements table but placed in S14.1 of the final rule.
photometric requirements. Therefore, there is no value required at that point. Similarly, the photometric test
Our proposal used both a blank space procedures of S6.8 of the NPRM are now
5 The pattern is wider for backup lamps and and a N.R. notation. In the final rule, we in S14.2 of the final rule.
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tighter for high mounted stop lamps. have adopted a consistent indicator that In the final rule, we decided to split
6 No individual test point photometric intensity
there is no requirement for a test point. several of the tables into shorter, more
can fall below 60% of the point requirement when
the group photometric method is used. In addition,
A dashed line (-) is used exclusively for distinctive, sections and we completely
photometric values between adjacent test points are this purpose in photometry revised the content of Table III and
regulated. requirements tables. Table XIII. Table I, Required Lamps and

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Reflective Devices, is divided into three Requirements of Installed Lighting suggested to be listed in individual
parts: (1) Table I-a for passenger cars, Devices, now include: (1) Table V–a for lamp sections are already stated in parts
multipurpose passenger vehicles, backup lamps, high-mounted stop of Table I, Table IV, and Table V. Table
trucks, and buses of all widths; (2) Table lamps, and school bus signal lamps; (2) I of the NPRM is an expansion of Tables
I-b for trailers, and (3) Table I-c for Table V–b which contains the lens area I, II, III, and IV of the current version of
motorcycles. We decided upon option for turn signal lamps, stop lamps, Standard No. 108, tables which have
sectioning Table I in this manner for taillamps, and parking lamps; (3) Table been part of the standard for decades.
several reasons. One is user diversity. V–c which has the luminous intensity The agency rarely receives questions or
Organizations that manufacture vehicles option for turn signal lamps, stop lamps, complaints about regulatory content
such as passenger cars, multipurpose taillamps, and parking lamps; and (4) contained in Tables I through IV, but
passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses Table V–d that has older alternative instead, they are often considered the
typically do not also manufacture requirements for turn signal lamps, stop most useful feature of the current
trailers or motorcycles. Likewise, lamps, and taillamps. version. We received no comments,
organizations that manufacture trailers Table VI, Front Turn Signal Lamp including the ASSN/AAM submission,
typically do not manufacture self Photometry Requirements, was split into which suggested elimination of Table I.
propelled vehicles, and those that two sections in the final rule. Table VI– We also believe that the suggestion of
manufacture motorcycles do not a contains the base front turn signal ASSN/AAM to remove the activation
produce cars, trucks, or trailers. Some lamp photometry requirements and also requirements from Table I and place
commenters suggested separate sections the values for 21⁄2 times the base them all in a new section titled
for narrow vehicles (less than 2032 mm photometry requirements while Table ‘‘Electrical’’ was without merit. The
in width) and wide vehicles (those 2032 IV–b contains values for 2 times the activation requirements of the various
mm or wider). However, several base photometry requirements and 1 the types of lamps, like the other categories
manufacturers produce both narrow and base photometry requirements listed in Table I, are primarily vehicle-
wide vehicles, sometimes as different New Table XIII consisting of: (1) Table level requirements rather than device-
optional versions of the same vehicle, XIII–a, Motorcycle Turn Signal Lamp level requirements, and are best
such as pickup trucks. Alternative Photometry Requirements, presented along with those other
Another consideration was and (2) Table XIII–b, Motor Driven Cycle requirements.
commonality. Both narrow and wide Alternative Photometry Requirements, Table V of the NPRM is a restatement
vehicles are required to be equipped includes the stop lamp requirements for of Figures 19 and 20 of the current
with a headlighting system, turn signal certain motor driven cycles previously version of Standard No. 108, which
lamps, taillamps, stop lamps, side part of Table IX in the NPRM, as well were added in a final rule 7 published
marker lamps, side and rear reflex as alternative turn signal requirements on August 11, 2004 which promulgated
reflectors, backup lamps and license for motorcycles noted in paragraph the current visibility requirements. The
plate lamps. Narrow vehicles are S7.1.1.1 and S7.1.2.1 of the NPRM but agency decided that it would not be
required to have parking lamps and not previously tabularized. The three appropriate to disperse the visibility
high-mounted stop lamps while wide sections of Table XVI are now: (1) Table requirements of Table V (and likewise
vehicles are not. Similarly, wide XVI–a, Reflex Reflector Photometry the effective projected luminous lens
vehicles must have clearance and Requirements, (2) Table XVI–b, area requirements of Table IV) into
identification lamps which are not Additional Photometry Requirements individual lamp sections. The primary
required on narrow vehicles. This same for Conspicuity Reflex Reflectors, and reason was that in real world situations,
distinction occurs between narrow and (3) Table XVI–c, Retroreflective Sheeting many lamp functions are combined with
wide trailers, for which common Photometry Requirements. other lamp functions, very often
content significantly surpasses Table XIX has been split into Tables optically combined. It is not unusual for
differentiated content. Therefore, we XIX–a, containing photometric a vehicle to have a combination rear
have concluded that it is unnecessary to requirements for lower beam patterns lamp where the taillamp, stop lamp, and
section Table I by vehicle width. LB1M, LB1V, LB2M, and LB2V. Table rear turn signal lamp functions are
We are retaining the title of the three XIX–b contains requirements for lower optically combined. The same holds
sections of Table I as Required Lamps beam patterns LB3M, LB3V, LB4M, and true for front turn signal lamps and
and Reflective Devices, even though one LB5M while Table XIX–c contains parking lamps. The presentation of
of the lamps listed in Table I–a, Daytime requirements for lower beam pattern visibility requirements for all regulated
Running Lamp (DRL), is not a required LB4V. lamp functions together in Table IV
lamp. The heading above the DRL As mentioned previously, the ASSN/ allows regulated parties to quickly
listing clearly describes it as being AAM response proposed a common, determine the appropriate requirements
permitted but not required. However, templated organizational format for the for such combination lamps and
because the DRL, when installed, is individual lamp sections and expansion perhaps aid the decision about which
regulated in all attributes listed in Table of their content to include 14 visibility alternative to use for
I, Number and Color, Mounting subsections representing specific certification.
Location, Mounting Height, and Device requirements. The requirements that The decision to leave Tables I, IV, and
Activation (unlike other non-required they suggested be included in each V intact in the final rule means that
lamps), the agency decided that Table I section include: (1) Number, (2) color of adopting the ASSN/AAM template for
is the appropriate location for it. light, (3) arrangement, (4) position, (5) individual lamp sections would result
The three sections of Table IV, geometric visibility, (6) orientation, (7) in large scale duplication of
Effective Projected Luminous Lens Area effective projected luminous lens area, requirements in Standard No. 108.
Requirements, are now identified as: (1) (8) electrical, (9) tell tale, (10) marking Duplication of the same requirement in
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Table IV–a covering turn signal and stop requirements, (11) other provisions, (12) more than one location in a regulatory
lamps; (2) Table IV–b for high-mounted plastic materials, (13) photometry, and document has the potential for
stop lamps; and (3) Table IV–c for (14) physical tests. Implementing this
school bus signal lamps. The four request presents a dilemma for several 7 69 FR 48805 (Aug. 11, 2004) (Docket No. 2004–

sections of Table V, Visibility reasons. First, most of the requirements 18794–1).

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unintended consequences. We intended S6.5.3.3, S6.5.3.4, S6.6, S7.1.1.11, Another such situation involves the
to avoid those consequences by having S7.1.1.12, S7.1.2.11, S7.1.2.12, S7.1.3, presentation of the requirements for
each discrete requirement only stated S7.2.11, S7.3.11, S7.3.12, S7.3.15, conspicuity systems. The content of
once in Standard No. 108.8 S7.7.13, S7.7.15, S7.9.14, S8.2.1, Table III of the NPRM was moved to
Therefore, to be responsive to the S8.2.2.3, S9.3.4, S9.8, S10.14.2, paragraph S8.2 of the regulatory text to
request of ASSN/AAM concerning the S10.17.1.1, S10.17.1.2, S10.17.1.3, S13, provide a more comprehensible
format of individual lamp sections S14.1.4, S14.2.1, S14.2.3, S14.2.4, presentation format. An argument could
while still maintaining the integrity of S14.2.5, S14.4.1, S14.4.2, S14.5, S14.6, be made that this content should be
the standard by having only a single S14.7, and S14.9. We have included the split into two portions, one portion
statement of each requirement, we have term ‘‘split for clarity’’ or similar describing how conspicuity material is
adopted the use of pointing statements. language, often parenthetically, spaced and arranged and another
These pointing statements appear in numerous places in the discussion of portion describing where conspicuity
those subsections of each lamp section revisions to note where a section of text material is to be placed on applicable
where a requirement does exist but is from the NPRM was divided into several vehicles. If this apportionment were
stated in another location of the smaller sub-sections in the final rule but made, the first portion could be
standard. For instance, in paragraph not otherwise revised. considered a device-level requirement
S7.4 pertaining to side marker lamps, Guide submitted numerous and the second portion a vehicle-level
subsections 7.4.1 Number, 7.4.2 Color of suggestions for reorganizing the NPRM requirement. Dispersing conspicuity
light, 7.4.3 Mounting location, 7.4.4 by the reassignment of certain system content in this way may seem
Mounting height, and 7.4.5 Activation, paragraphs within the organizational correct from an organizational
all conclude with the pointing statement framework of the NPRM. In several perspective, but would be in conflict
‘‘See Tables I–a, I–b, and I–c.’’ instances, the agency concluded that the with the goals of the rewrite of Standard
Similarly, S7.4.9 Markings points to Guide suggestion proved to be a more No. 108 to present the requirements in
S6.5 for details of the applicable appropriate location for a paragraph a straight forward and logical manner.
marking requirements. S7.4.6 Effective than the location proposed in the Our guiding principle in organizing
projected luminous lens area, S7.4.7 NPRM. We have noted these the structure of the FMVSS No. 108
Visibility, S7.4.8 Indicator, S7.4.10 reassignments in our discussion (but final rule was to attempt to locate each
Spacing to other lamps, S7.4.11 without attribution to a Guide requirement in the place where a user
Multiple compartment and multiple suggestion in some cases). This has would be most likely to look for it.
lamps, and S7.4.12 Ratio all conclude caused numerous changes in the Accordingly, the final rule has been
with the term ‘‘No requirement’’ paragraph numbers throughout the organized with the following major
indicating a requirement for those regulatory text. Where a requirement in sections:
specific items of lamp performance does the final rule was identified differently S1 Scope.
not exist in Standard No. 108. in the NPRM, we have indicated the S2 Purpose.
The entire content of Table III of the previous paragraph number in the S3 Application.
NPRM, dealing with conspicuity revision summary. S4 Definitions.
systems, was moved to paragraph S8.2 S5 References to SAE publications.
A number of Guide’s suggested
of the final rule. A new Table III was S6 Vehicle requirements.
reassignments were not adopted,
created to serve as a compilation of S7 Signal lamp requirements.
because we decided that the applicable
pointing statements directed to the S8 Reflective device requirements.
textual provisions were already situated S9 Associated equipment requirements.
locations within the final rule where
in the most appropriate location. Again, S10 Headlighting system requirements.
marking requirements reside. While
we did not mention every such rejection S11 Replaceable light source requirements.
some headlamp marking requirements
of Guide’s suggested ordering or our S12 Headlamp concealment device
were relocated to paragraph S6.5 in the
reasoning for such decisions. While we requirements.
final rule, a number of other marking S13 Replaceable headlamp lens
believe that the final rule’s
requirements continue to be dispersed requirements.
organizational structure is the optimal
within the document. In these cases, we S14 Physical and photometry test
choice, we recognize that it is not the
have decided that the marking procedures and performance
only choice. Often, some of the
requirements are best located near the requirements.
requirements of Standard No. 108
specific items to which they apply. Tables
intermix several attributes of lamps.
However, these locations are all Table I Required Lamps and Reflective
Such an example is paragraph S7.11.2.1
identified in Table III and consultation Devices.
which contains requirements for a DRL
with this table should lead the user to Table II Headlighting Systems.
spaced near a turn signal lamp (e.g.,
all applicable marking requirements. Table III Marking Requirements Location.
considerations for the actual separation
Grote suggested that lengthy Table IV Effective Projected Luminous
distance, the luminous intensity of both
paragraphs of regulatory text be Lens Area Requirements.
the DRL and the turn signal lamp, Table V Visibility Requirements of
simplified by splitting them into
whether the DRL is optically combined Installed Lighting Devices.
separately numbered sub-paragraphs,
with a lower beam headlamp, and the Table VI Front Turn Signal Lamps
particularly where the requirements
activation properties of both the DRL Photometry Requirements.
were diverse. In a number of instances,
and turn signal lamp). Requirements Table VII Rear Turn Signal Lamps
we have been able to create such Photometry Requirements.
such as these do not fit neatly into a
separation. Regulatory provisions Table VIII Taillamp Photometry
Mounting Location section or an
(including renumbered paragraphs) Requirements.
Activation section, and their essence
where this has been done include: Table IX Stop Lamp Photometry
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would not survive dispersion of the


S6.1.3, S6.1.4.2, S6.1.5.2, S6.2.6, Requirements.
component requirements into these Table X Side Marker Lamp Photometry
8 See the discussions of Table II and Table IX for sections because of their Requirements.
explanations of existing duplicated requirements in interdependence on several diverse Table XI Clearance and Identification
the current version of FMVSS No. 108. attributes. Lamps Photometry Requirements.

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Table XII Backup Lamp Photometry perceived inconsistencies in the final replaceable light source pressure test is
Requirements. rule are the result of the agency’s expressed as 70 KPa (10 psig). However,
Table XIII–a Motorcycle Turn Signal decision to make no substantive changes the English equivalent of 70 KPa is
Lamp Alternative Photometry to Standard No. 108 during the rewrite 10.152641661 psig and the metric
Requirements.
Table XIII–b Motor Driven Cycle Stop process. This means stating equivalent of 10 psig is 68.9475728 KPa.
Lamp Alternative Photometry measurements in their original form Thus, a user may conclude that a
Requirements. consistent with their original source replaceable light source may be
Table XIV Parking Lamp Photometry documents, instead of attempting to compliant with the standard if it
Requirements. convert and standardize the units. withstands a pressure of 68.9475728
Table XV High-Mounted Stop Lamp ASSN preferred dual English/metric KPa and not 70 KPa.
Photometry Requirements. measurements for every quantity and Additionally, the comments received
Table XVI Reflex Reflector and requested that both be provided in the in response to the NPRM show that
Retroreflective Sheeting Photometry final rule. The commenter also preferred users of FMVSS No. 108 do not have a
Requirements.
that linear measurements be expressed consistent preference for a particular
Table XVII School Bus Signal Lamp
Photometry Requirements. in both inches and centimeters. AAM approach regarding units of
Table XVIII Headlamp Upper Beam requested dual units with metric units measurement. In consideration of our
Photometry Requirements. followed by English units and the use of principle not to change any existing
Table XIX Headlamp Lower Beam direct conversions to establish those requirements, as well as the wide range
Photometry Requirements. measurements that were only stated in of opinions on the best approach for
Table XX Motorcycle Headlamp one unit in the NPRM. Nissan argued dual-dimensioning, the agency decided
Photometry Requirements. that in recent rulemakings, the agency to present values consistent with the
Figures has consistently listed measurements current standard instead of choosing
Figure 1 Chromaticity Diagram. using metric units with English units one of the suggested options.
Figure 2 Flasher Performance Chart. referenced parenthetically. Nissan
Photometric Maps
Figure 3 Replaceable Bulb Headlamp preferred linear measurements that were
Aim Pads. in millimeters, except for photometric As previously mentioned, the AAM/
Figure 4 Headlamp Connector Setup. test distances which should remain ASSN supplementary comments, the
Figure 5 Headlamp Abrasion Test dimensioned in meters. Conversely, ASSN initial comments, and the NAL
Fixture. comments recommend inclusion of a
Figure 6 Thermal Cycle Test Profile.
Grote recommended that measurements
be expressed in inches followed by number of new graphical maps that
Figure 7 Dirt/Ambient Test Setup.
Figure 8 Replaceable Light Source centimeters in parentheses, believing would show details of the requirements
Deflection Test Setup. that the vast majority of current users for the various photometric test
Figure 9 Environmental Test Profile. continue to use English measurements. patterns. The signal lamp maps would
Figure 10 Headlamp Replaceable Light SEMA also supported dual units of show the position of each individual
Source Pressure Test Setup. measurements with a preference for test point and how those points are
Figure 11 Trailer Conspicuity Treatment centimeters rather than millimeters. In combined into groups. The headlamp
Examples. supplemental comments, AAM/ASSN maps would show individual test
Figure 12–1 Trailer Conspicuity Detail I. points, linear test elements, and zonal
Figure 12–2 Trailer Conspicuity Detail II.
requested all quantities in FMVSS No.
108 that are not now metric be test elements.
Figure 13 Tractor Conspicuity Examples.
converted to metric pursuant to In reviewing the suggested graphical
Figure 14 92x150 Headlamp Aim
Deflection Test Setup. Executive Order 12770 (Metric Usage in maps, it was unclear which test points
Figure 15 Types G and H Headlamp Aim Federal Government Programs). were part of which zone. Furthermore,
Deflection Test Setup. The FMVSS No. 108 rewrite is such maps are beyond the scope of the
Figure 16 Types A and E Headlamp Aim considered an administrative action administrative rewrite. In addition,
Deflection Test Setup. because existing requirements and there were no compelling arguments
Figure 17 Type B Headlamp Aim obligations are not being increased, presented addressing how their
Deflection Test Setup. decreased, or substantively modified. inclusion would advance the goals of
Figure 18 Types C and D Headlamp Aim the rewrite. Adding such graphical
The agency has decided that converting
Deflection Test Setup. maps would provide redundant
Figure 19 License Plate Lamp Target
values and providing dual-dimensions
Locations. is outside the scope of this final rule. information, significantly increasing the
Figure 20 License Plate Lamp The conversion process, in some cases, risk of potentially conflicting
Measurement of Incident Light Angle. would result in substantive change in requirements, and likely generate
Figure 21 Vibration Test Machine. the current requirements of the numerous interpretation requests,
Figure 22 Flasher Test Standard Circuit. standard. This is because such especially if users were confused by the
4. Suggestions Beyond the Scope of the conversions rarely result in a whole new graphs.
Rewrite number equivalent, but more likely in That is not to say that these types of
an unwieldy value with more digits illustrations have no value. They seem
Units of Measurements than the value it was converted from. particularly well suited for use by
Several comments were received The converted unit may have a non- design and manufacturing organizations
concerning the way quantities in the exact value requiring it to be truncated use in their internal design standards or
NPRM were measured, in terms of units. after several digits. Such rounding may photometric test procedures documents.
In some cases, measurements were only have little effect on some attributes but Standard No. 108, like all Federal Motor
in metric units, others in only English significant effect on others. An Vehicle Safety Standards, strives to
units, and still others dual-dimensioned additional complication is that some present regulatory requirements in the
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with both metric and English units. We currently dual-dimensioned values in clearest way possible. It is not intended
note that this situation currently exists FMVSS No. 108 are not exact to serve as an all-inclusive working
within Standard No. 108 and the SAE equivalents. For instance, the air guide for designing, testing, or
standards and Recommended Practices pressure required to be applied to the manufacturing lamps, reflective devices,
incorporated by reference. Such replaceable light source in the or associated equipment. NHTSA

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anticipates that user organizations will document directly into the regulatory remaining portion of paragraph 3.9.1
carefully incorporate the requirements language, resulting in only eight SAE was incorporated in Table VII, Rear
of FMVSS No. 108 into their internal documents continuing to be Turn Signal Lamp Photometry
working documents. incorporated by reference. Requirements, of the NPRM by revision
Generally commenters supported this to Footnote 6.
Requests for New or Revised Definitions action. SEMA requested that all The revised paragraph S6.1.1.3 now
Commenters requested inclusion in referenced and sub-referenced SAE reads, ‘‘ * * * A truck tractor need not
the final rule of numerous definitions documents be included in the regulatory be equipped with turn signal lamps
for specific terms. These include: text of the final rule. While total mounted on the rear if the turn signal
‘‘center (of item),’’ ‘‘fixed body panel,’’ elimination of documents incorporated lamps at or near the front are of double-
‘‘four lamp type headlamp,’’ ‘‘hazard by reference proved to be impractical, face construction and are located such
warning lamps,’’ ‘‘obstruction,’’ ‘‘rigid we did eliminate references to three that they meet the photometric
part of vehicle,’’ ‘‘separately lighted additional SAE documents in the final requirements for double-faced turn
areas,’’ ‘‘two lamp type headlamp,’’ rule as discussed below. We also signal lamps specified in Footnote 6 of
‘‘special tools,’’ ‘‘tools ordinarily restored a reference to SAE J567b, Bulb Table VII.’’ Continuing, paragraph
available,’’ ‘‘supplemental lamp,’’ and Sockets, in S14.2.1.6.2 of the final rule S6.1.1.3.1 states, ‘‘The flashing signal
‘‘auxiliary lamp.’’ There was also a based upon comments by Calcoast. This from a double-faced signal lamp must
suggestion for a revised definition for reference exists in Footnotes 2 and 3, not be obliterated when subjected to
the term ‘‘color bleeding,’’ alleging it which follow Table IV, of the current external light rays from either in front
could be mistaken for the term ‘‘light version of FMVSS No. 108, but was or behind, at any and all angles.’’ The
bleed.’’ A suggestion was also submitted eliminated in the NPRM. We agree with revised Footnote 6 to Table VII now
for addition of definitions of all lamp Calcoast that the exemption permitted states, ‘‘A double-faced turn signal lamp
types mentioned in the current version in these footnotes stating that bulbs not installed as described in paragraph
of FMVSS No. 108, with the specific listed in SAE J573d, Lamp Bulbs and S6.1.1.3 on a truck tractor need only
example of fog lamp. Sealed Units, December 1968, are not meet the photometric requirements for a
In its initial submission, AAM required to use a socket that conforms left side lamp where the lamp is
suggested the final rule use the term to the requirements of SAE J567b, Bulb mounted on the left side of the vehicle,
‘‘* * * light source optical centers Sockets, April 1964, is needed in the and for a right side lamp where the
* * *’’ in place of the term ‘‘* * * light final rule. lamp is mounted on the right side of the
sources * * *’’ and the term ‘‘* * * SAE J577, Vibration Test Machine, vehicle.’’
optical centers * * *’’ in place of the April 1964, has been replicated as This same SAE standard, J588e, Turn
term ‘‘* * * optical axes * * *’’ as Figure 21, and all references to SAE Signal Lamps, September 1970, is cited
revisions that would be technology- J577 have been removed from the final in the current version of FMVSS No.
neutral in the specific case of a series rule. SAE J823b, Flasher Test 108 as containing the requirements for
wired array of LEDs being considered a Equipment, April 1968, describes a the illuminated pilot indicator for turn
single light source per the January 5, standard test circuit to be used in the signal lamp failure. The NPRM had
2006 letter of interpretation to AMECA.9 performance testing of vehicular hazard erroneously stated the requirements
There were also suggestions that the warning signal flashers and turn signal from SAE J588 NOV84, Turn Signal
term ‘‘lighted section’’ be used flashers. This SAE standard also has Lamps. Paragraph S9.3 of the final rule
exclusively and in place of ‘‘multiple specifications for power supplies used now correctly states the illuminated
compartment’’ and ‘‘multiple lighted in these tests and describes the circuit area of the indicator and the acceptable
area.’’ Adopting any of these suggestions adjustments necessary to perform valid modes of indication. Consistent with
would have been a substantive action tests. We have chosen to incorporate the these changes, all references to SAE
which would be beyond the defined content of SAE J823b into the final rule. J588e have been removed from the
scope of this rewrite. For this reason we New Figure 22, Flasher Standard Test standard.
have not adopted any of these suggested Circuit, provides the test circuit We undertook the effort to eliminate
modifications in the final rule. schematic diagram from Figure 1 of SAE these additional SAE references in the
5. Suggestions Within the Scope of the J823b. Paragraph S14.9.3.1 of the final final rule in part because the nature of
Rewrite rule states requirements for circuit some comments suggested that the
adjustments applicable to flasher tests, relationship between FMVSS No. 108
SAE Documents and paragraph S14.9.3.2 provides and its incorporated SAE documents
A significant initiative of the FMVSS separate power supply specifications for causes significant confusion.
No. 108 rewrite was the incorporation of the various flasher performance tests. One example of such confusion is
requirements contained in SAE With the inclusion of paragraph S14.9.3 found in the comments of Grote and
Standards and Recommended Practices and Figure 22 in the final rule, all Koito in reference to the limitations in
(currently incorporated by reference or references to SAE J823b have been applying reduced photometric
sub-reference) directly into the body of deleted. requirements to adjacent front and rear
the standard. The current version of SAE J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, side marker lamps. This section is based
Standard No. 108 relies heavily on the September 1970, incorporated by upon paragraph S5.1.1.8 of the current
content of numerous SAE documents. It reference in FMVSS No. 108, is version of Standard No. 108 which
contains over 100 references to some 35 referenced in paragraph S5.1.1.1 of the states, ‘‘For each motor vehicle less than
different SAE documents, many of current version of the standard solely to 30 feet in overall length, the
which were issued in the 1960s. Some establish requirements for double-sided photometric minimum candlepower 10
of these documents are incorporated in turn signal lamps installed on truck
requirements for side marker lamps
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their entirety, whereas only portions of tractors. It was eliminated from the final
specified in SAE Standard J592e,
others are cited. The NPRM integrated rule by incorporating the content of
much of the content of these SAE paragraph 3.4 and a portion of 10 The term ‘‘candlepower’’ used in this context
paragraph 3.9.1 of SAE J588e into means the contemporary unit of measurement used
9 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/Wolford.2.html. paragraph S6.1.1.3 of the NPRM. The to express the luminous intensity attribute.

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Clearance, Side Marker, and it is possible for a turn signal lamp not position to evaluate this performance.
Identification Lamps, July 1972, may be to be required to have increased To alleviate AAM’s concern with
met for all inboard test points at a intensity based upon paragraph S5.3.1.7 application of the requirement to a front
distance of 15 feet from the vehicle and of current FMVSS No. 108 but still be license plate holder, we have revised
on a vertical plane that is perpendicular required to have increased intensity the text of paragraph S6.6.3 of the final
to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle because of its construction or proximity rule (paragraph S6.1.1 of the NPRM) to
and located midway between the front to another front lamp, such as a fog state, ‘‘Each rear license plate holder
and rear side marker lamps.’’ In this lamp. This is an example where an must be designed and constructed to
case, the limitation of vehicles less than incorporated SAE document imposes provide a substantial plane surface on
30 feet in overall length recognizes that requirements beyond those explicitly which to mount the plate. The plane of
those vehicles are ones where stated in the regulatory text of Standard the license plate mounting surface and
intermediate side marker lamps (and No. 108.11 the plane on which the vehicle stands
intermediate side reflex reflectors) are In its comments, AAM stated that must be perpendicular within ± 15° ’’
not required to be installed. Table 1 of FMVSS No. 108 has never contained a (emphasis added).
SAE J592e, detailing the photometric requirement for a vehicular hazard Grote commented that lamps designed
requirements of side marker lamps, also warning signal pilot indicator as to conform to SAE J1395 APR85, Turn
contains a footnote ‘‘b’’ further limiting contained in paragraph S6.6 of the Signal Lamps for use on Motor Vehicles
the vehicles where reduced photometric NPRM (paragraph S9.8 of the final rule). 2032 mm or more in Overall Width, and
requirements can be applied. Footnote We note that this requirement came SAE J1398 MAY85, Stop Lamps for use
‘‘b’’ states that, ‘‘The requirements for from SAE J910, Vehicular Hazard on Motor Vehicles 2032 mm or more in
side markers used on vehicles less than Warning Signal Operating Unit, January Overall Width, incorporated by
80 inches (2 meters) wide may be met 1966, and SAE J945, Vehicular Hazard reference in Table I of the current
for inboard test points * * * ’’ This Warning Flasher, February 1966, both version of FMVSS No. 108 for use on
vehicle width limitation is reflected in incorporated by reference in Tables I multipurpose passenger vehicles,
Footnote 1 of Table X. This is an and III of the current version of FMVSS trucks, trailers, and buses, of 80 or more
example where the text of an No. 108. The requirements from SAE inches in overall width, could also be
incorporated SAE document applies J910 contained in paragraph 5 detail used on vehicles less than 80 inches
limitations beyond those contained in how the pilot indicator is to operate, (2032 mm) overall width, without
the text of FMVSS No. 108. how it can be combined with the turn meeting the requirements listed in Table
signal indicator, and the size and color III for these lamps. Grote based its
Another example is illustrated in the comment on a statement in the Scope of
comments by AAM and Koito about the of a dedicated vehicular hazard warning
signal pilot indicator. The requirements SAE J1395 stating that, ‘‘Turn signal
spatial relationship between front turn lamps conforming to this report may
signal lamps and certain other front- from SAE J945 describe how the means
of providing the indication can be also be used on vehicles less than 2032
mounted lamps and the photometric mm in overall width.’’ The Scope of
requirements the relationship imposes incorporated into the flasher if it
functions under all test conditions SAE J1398 has a similar statement
on the front turn signal lamp as stated concerning stop lamps. This assertion is
in paragraph S7.1.1.2 of the NPRM applied to the flasher and how an
audible indication can be used in simply not correct. Table III of the
(S7.1.1.10 of the final rule). Current existing version of Standard No. 108
FMVSS No. 108, at paragraph S5.3.1.7, conjunction with the visible indication.
This is an example where incorporated applies to all passenger cars and
imposes a multiplier of 2.5 on minimum motorcycles, and multipurpose
photometric intensity requirements for a SAE documents contain a requirement
that is not expressly stated in the text of passenger vehicles, trucks, buses and
front turn signal lamp mounted less trailers of less than 80 inches (2032 mm)
than 100 mm from the lighted edge of FMVSS No. 108.
AAM also stated in its comments that in overall width. Table III clearly
a lower beam headlamp. Turn signal requires turn signal lamps to comply
lamps are also required to be designed only the lighting equipment
requirements of SAE J587 OCT81, with SAE J588 NOV84 and stop lamps
to conform to referenced standards SAE to comply with SAE J586 FEB84.
J588 NOV84 for vehicles less than 2032 License Plate Lamps (Rear Registration
Plate Lamps), are incorporated by Therefore, manufacturers may choose to
mm in overall width and SAE J1395 design their lamps to also comply,
APR85 for vehicles 2032 mm or more in reference in Standard No. 108 (i.e., in
paragraph S5.1.1 of the current version). respectively, with SAE J1395 APR85
overall width. These documents and SAE J1398 MAY85, but they also
provide, in paragraph 5.1.5.4 of SAE AAM argued that a license plate holder
is not an item of lighting equipment and must be designed to comply,
J588 and paragraphs 5.1.5.4, 5.1.5.5, and respectively, with SAE J588 NOV84 and
5.1.5.6 of SAE J1395, additional that requirements for the holder would
SAE J586 FEB84. We do not agree with
photometric requirements for turn also apply to a front license plate
the argument that compliance with only
signal lamps based upon their holder. In response, we note that SAE
SAE J1395 APR85 and SAE J1398
construction. The method the turn J587 OCT81 does contain specific
MAY85, respectively, is permitted,
signal lamp uses to project light (i.e., requirements for a license plate holder
because this clearly contradicts the
whether it primarily uses a reflector to and its relationship with the license
language in the existing regulatory text.
direct light or not) determines how the plate, the surface the vehicle stands on, Table III of the current version of
relationship is measured between the and the license plate lamp. The FMVSS No. 108 requires that all
turn signal lamp and the lower beam performance of a license plate lamp is passenger cars and motorcycles, and
headlamp, or a surrogate lower beam dependent upon its physical multipurpose passenger vehicles,
headlamp such as an auxiliary lower relationship with the license plate. The trucks, trailers, and buses, of less than
license plate must be secured in
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beam headlamp or a fog lamp. Based 80 inches (2032 mm) in overall width
upon this measurement, the turn signal 11 The subject of turn signal lamp photometric
must be equipped with lamps designed
lamp may be required to have a requirements based upon spacing to other front
to conform to the requirements of SAE
multiplier of 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 times the lamps is discussed in several interpretations such J588 NOV84, Turn Signal Lamps for use
minimum photometric intensity. Thus, as Matsui (9/20/95). on Motor Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm

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68244 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

in Overall Width, and SAE J586 FEB84, standard to specific design applicable, long-referenced, SAE
Stop Lamps for use on Motor Vehicles configurations. However, influential standards whose content we have
Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width. interpretations that clarified provisions included in both the proposal and final
Thus, if a turn signal lamp or stop lamp of the standard, and continue to provide rule text. These mounting and spacing
is not designed to conform with SAE guidance to various parties beyond the criteria serve to clarify the spatial
J588 NOV84 or SAE J586 FEB84 original requestor, were believed to be function of the lamps and are
respectively, it cannot be used on any particularly useful additions to the appropriate parts of the definitions.
passenger car or motorcycle or on any regulatory text. In the NPRM, the agency Therefore, we are keeping these criteria
multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, solicited public comment about in the final rule.
trailer, or bus of less than 80 inches in additional interpretations that might be We removed the third sentence from
overall width, no matter whether it also included in the final rule. the definition of ‘‘effective projected
is designed to conform to SAE J1395 In their submissions, several luminous lens area,’’ stating the term
APR85 or SAE J1398 MAY85. The commenters mentioned specific ‘‘functional lighted lens area’’ appearing
explicit requirements of FMVSS No. 108 interpretations of FMVSS No. 108 as in any SAE document had an identical
prevail over any seemingly candidates for incorporation in the meaning. The single instance of the term
contradictory language of an regulatory text of the final rule. In two ‘‘functional lighted (lens) area’’
incorporated third-party document. instances, we decided that the cited appearing in the NPRM was in
Observing the confusion that exists interpretations would make the paragraph S7.1.1.2.2 (S7.1.1.10.3 in the
because the current version of Standard standard more precise and added them final rule) in reference to the procedure
No. 108 relies so heavily upon reference to the final rule. The two interpretations to determine the measurement point for
to third-party documents, we are are discussed below. Several a front turn signal lamp with a reflector.
convinced that our action to remove commenters suggested other potential We replaced ‘‘functional lighted (lens)
those references to the maximum extent interpretations for inclusion into the area’’ in paragraph S7.1.1.10.3 with
possible was a correct decision. final rule; however the agency decided ‘‘effective projected luminous lens area’’
Remaining references to SAE documents that none of these provided enough and were thereby able to remove any
in the final rule include: value in clarifying the provisions of reference to ‘‘functional lighted lens
S6.4.5 SAE J602, Headlamp Aiming Device FMVSS No. 108. area’’ in the standard.
for Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam Nissan suggested that inclusion of the
Nissan observed that the definitions
Headlamp Units, August 1963 June 18, 1985 interpretation to Mr.
for ‘‘mechanically aimable headlamp’’
S9.3.5 SAE J941b, Motor Vehicle Driver’s Nakaya 12 would more precisely define
and ‘‘material’’ were not in alphabetical
Eye Range, February 1969 where the measurement of the height of
S10.14.7.7 SAE J602 OCT80, Headlamp order in the NPRM. We have corrected
a high-mounted stop lamp should be
Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable this in the final rule.
made with respect to the rear window
Sealed Beam Headlamp Units GE commented that the definition of
of a passenger car. A more detailed
S10.15.7.6 SAE J602 OCT80, Headlamp ‘‘replaceable light source’’ in the NPRM
Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable description of this interpretation is
was not identical to that of the current
Sealed Beam Headlamp Units found in the discussion of revised
version of FMVSS No. 108. As stated in
S10.16.3.6 SAE J602 OCT80, Headlamp paragraph S6.1.3.2.1 of the final rule.
A suggestion of TTMA was to the NPRM ‘‘replaceable light source,’’
Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable
Sealed Beam Headlamp Units incorporate an interpretative rule 13 means an assembly of a capsule, base,
S10.18.7 SAE J602 OCT80, Headlamp published in 1999 into the standard. and terminals manufactured as a light
Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable This interpretative rule quantifies the source for an upper and/or lower beam
Sealed Beam Headlamp Units ‘‘as near the top as practicable’’ of a replaceable bulb headlamp that is
S10.18.7.2 SAE J602 OCT80, Headlamp designed to conform to the requirements
Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable mounting requirement that applies to
clearance lamps and identification of Appendix A or Appendix B of 49 CFR
Sealed Beam Headlamp Units part 564, Replaceable Light Source
S11.3 SAE J2009 FEB93, Discharge Forward lamps mounted on a vehicle with cargo
Lighting Systems doors. That rule states that NHTSA will Information. The italicized text was
S14.2.1.6 SAE J573d, Lamp Bulbs and presume it practical to mount these added to the definition included in the
Sealed Units, December 1968 lamps above the cargo doors when the current version of FMVSS No. 108 as
S14.2.1.6.1 SAE J573d, Lamp Bulbs and header above those doors extends at part of an attempt to clarify that integral
Sealed Units, December 1968 beam and replaceable bulb headlamps
S14.2.1.6.2 SAE J573d, Lamp Bulbs and
least 25 mm (1 inch) above them. A
more detailed discussion of this issue is are allowed to incorporate ‘‘replaceable
Sealed Units, December 1968 light sources’’ that are used for purposes
S14.2.1.6.2 SAE J567b, Bulb Sockets, April found in the discussion of Table I.
1964
other than headlighting. However these
Revisions to the Proposal ‘‘replaceable light sources’’ are not those
S14.7.3.1.2 SAE J2009 FEB93, Discharge
Forward Lighting Systems S1 Through S3 defined in S4, but rather ones typically
used for non-headlighting functions
Cited Interpretations There were no comments submitted such as turn signal lamps, parking
that related to S1, S2, or S3.
In the rewrite proposal, the agency lamps, and front side marker lamps. In
integrated the clarifications provided by S4 Definitions the final rule, as explained later in the
key letters of interpretation into the AAM objected to mounting and discussion of S10 Headlighting system
regulatory text of the standard. The spacing criteria being part of the requirements, we have decided to
criteria used in determining whether an definitions of a clearance lamp, address this issue by revising how these
interpretation was significant focused identification lamp, and side marker non-headlighting light sources were
on whether it provided value in lamp. In response, we note that all three described. Because the revisions in
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clarifying the provisions in the of these definitions are faithful to the language in S10 should eliminate
standard. In the vast majority of cases, confusion between headlighting and
past requests for interpretation have 12 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/gm/85/1985– non-headlighting replaceable light
identified questions regarding 02.42.html sources, there is no need to change the
applicability of certain provisions of the 13 64 FR 16358, (April 5, 1999). definition in S4 and it is identical in the

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final rule to that of the current version Standards and Recommended Practices. requirement deals with how to consider,
of FMVSS No. 108. We agree and have revised the final for photometry purposes, the individual
Nissan commented that the rule. compartments or lamps of an array that
definitions for ‘‘vehicular hazard consists of portions on both rigid and
warning signal flasher’’ from SAE J945, S6 Vehicle Requirements
non-rigid parts of the vehicle as
Vehicular Hazard Warning Signal Proposed paragraph S6.1.1.1.1, described in the July 12, 2000, letter of
Flasher, February 1966, and for allowing conspicuity material on a interpretation to Mr. King.15 Because
‘‘vehicular hazard warning signal trailer to also serve as the required this provision establishes photometric
operating unit’’ from SAE J910, reflex reflectors if the conspicuity performance requirements based upon
Vehicular Hazard Warning Signal material was placed at the required what kind of surface a lamp is mounted
Operating Unit, January 1966, described locations of the reflex reflectors, has upon, its inclusion in the Mounting
the function of the hazard warning been relocated into the Reflex Reflectors location section is appropriate. We have
signal system in slightly different ways. portion of Table I-b of the final rule. added a pointing statement in
Nissan contended, and we agree, that Paragraph S6.1.1.3 was modified as paragraphs S7.1.1.11.1 (front turn signal
the description of the operation of the stated in the SAE Documents section lamps), S7.1.2.11.1 (rear turn signal
hazard warning signal system should be above to fully integrate the requirements lamps), S7.2.11.1 (taillamps), and
consistent. Therefore, we have revised of SAE J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, S7.3.11.1 (stop lamps) in the final rule
the definition of ‘‘vehicular hazard September 1970, relating to the use of to direct users to this requirement.
warning signal flasher’’ from ‘‘ * * * double-faced turn signal lamps on truck Guide also stated that this section
means a device which, as long as it is tractors. This amendment also required should also apply to the rear reflex
turned on, causes all the required a revision to Table XII and its Footnote reflector. However, as stated in several
hazard warning lamps to flash’’ to ‘‘ 6 as well as the addition of paragraph interpretations, reflex reflector
* * * means a device which, as long as 3.9.1 of SAE J588e as paragraph S6.1.1.3
requirements must be met by single
it is turned on, causes all the required of FMVSS No. 108 and paragraph 3.4 of
reflectors, not a combination of separate
turn signal lamps to flash.’’ Similarly SAE J588e as paragraph S6.1.1.3.1 of
reflectors. Supporting this position is
the definition of the ‘‘vehicular hazard FMVSS No. 108.
Paragraph S6.1.1.4 of the final rule, the May 23, 2003 letter of interpretation
warning signal operating unit’’ was to Mr. Babcock 16 as well as the April
revised from ‘‘ * * * means a driver (paragraph S6.2.4 of the NPRM), was
moved into the Vehicle requirements 14, 2004 letter of interpretation to Mr.
controlled device which causes all turn Strassburger.17
signal lamps, or other hazard warning section based upon the Guide comment
that it was a more appropriate location Paragraph S6.1.4, License plate lamp,
lamps, to flash simultaneously to of the NPRM has been relocated to
indicate to approaching drivers the than the Impairment section. A
typographical correction was also made paragraph S6.1.3.3 of the final rule in
presence of a vehicular hazard’’ to ‘‘ recognition that it states a requirement
* * * means a driver controlled device to clarify that a parking lamp or a fog
lamp may not be used as a DRL. This for mounting location.
which causes all required turn signal
correction now results in language that Paragraphs S7.9.1, Accessibility, and
lamps to flash simultaneously to
is faithful to the current version of S7.9.2 Interior mounting, (duplication at
indicate to approaching drivers the
FMVSS No. 108 at paragraph S5.5.11(a). S6.1.3.2.2 deleted) of the NPRM
presence of a vehicular hazard’’. This
Paragraph S6.1.1.4, Hazard warning referring to high-mounted stop lamps
revision recognizes that the hazard
lamps, of the NPRM describing (HMSL) were relocated in the final rule
warning signal of paragraph S6.1.5.1
activation provisions for hazard warning to be paragraphs S6.1.3.4.2 and
only requires simultaneous flashing of
lamps was moved to the Activation S6.1.3.4.1 respectively. These
sufficient turn signal lamps to meet the
section where it became paragraph requirements relate primarily to how the
turn signal photometric requirements of
S6.1.5.1 in the final rule. HMSL is mounted to the vehicle, so
Standard No. 108.
The phrase ‘‘fixed body panel’’ in paragraph S6.1.3 is the most appropriate
S5 References to SAE Publications proposed paragraph S6.1.3.1 was location in Standard No. 108 for them.
In paragraph S5.2 of the NPRM we objected to by Koito as being more Guide commented that the content of
stated that ‘‘A complete list of all SAE restrictive than the phrase ‘‘rigid part’’ paragraphs S8.1.3 and S8.1.4 of the
publications incorporated by reference which is used in the current version of NPRM, dealing with headlamp beam
in this standard are indexed at 49 CFR FMVSS No. 108 at paragraph S5.3. We mounting, belonged in that part of
571.5(j)’’. This inclusion was in have decided to retain ‘‘rigid part’’ in Standard No. 108 related to lamp
anticipation of a final rule based upon the final rule to be faithful to the mounting location. We agree and have
a NPRM 14 that would have established original language and meaning. The moved them intact to become paragraph
49 CFR 571(j) to contain this list. This phrase ‘‘ * * * the mounting location S6.1.3.5 of the final rule.
final rule has not been issued. and * * * ’’ has been added to Grote, Guide, Innovative, TMA, and
Therefore, we have deleted this paragraph S6.1.3.1 ahead of ‘‘height’’ to TTMA all noted the typographical error
reference from the final rule. be consistent with the references to in paragraph S6.2.5 of the NPRM. Both
AAM requested that the word Tables I, II, III, and IV of the current the title and text of this section
‘‘required’’ be inserted into the first version of FMVSS No. 108 as referenced contained the phrase ‘‘* * * auxiliary
sentence of paragraph S5.1 between the at paragraph S5.3 of that document. identification lamp * * *’’ which
words ‘‘Each’’ and ‘‘lamp’’ to be faithful This clarification was recommended by should be ‘‘* * * auxiliary lamp* * *’’
to paragraph S5.1.1 of the current Guide. The correction has been made in the
version of FMVSS No. 108 containing Guide also suggested that the final rule, and this requirement has been
provisions for lamps, reflective devices, requirements of the second sentence of relocated to the Mounting location
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

and associated equipment to be paragraph S6.1.3 of the NPRM, which


designed to comply with specific SAE becomes paragraph S6.1.3.2 of the final 15 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/21605.ztv.html.
rule, deal more with photometry than 16 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/babcock.ztv.html.
14 70
FR 36094, (June 22, 2005)(Docket No. 2005– lamp mounting location. We do not 17 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/GF007569–

21600–1). agree with this suggestion. This 2.html.

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68246 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

section as paragraph S6.1.3.6, as it states section in a way that was inconsistent AAM and Koito noted that the
a mounting limitation. with the current version of Standard No. regulatory requirement identified in
Paragraph S6.1.3.2.1 of the NPRM 108 by allowing obstructions if some paragraph S6.5.1 of the NPRM for the
becomes paragraph S6.1.4.1, High- undefined visibility requirement were ‘‘DOT’’ marking was stated as ‘‘the
mounted stop lamp, in the final rule. met. This suggestion would be a standard’’ rather than ‘‘49 U.S.C. 30115’’
Nissan suggested that the term substantive change outside the scope of as stated in paragraph S7.2(a) of the
‘‘window’’ in the text had been defined this rewrite project, and, as such, was current version of FMVSS No. 108. We
more precisely in the June 18, 1985 not adopted in the final rule. have revised the text of this section in
letter of interpretation to Mr. Nakaya 18 As previously mentioned, paragraph the final rule to be faithful to the
as ‘‘glazing’’ and suggested use of that S6.2.4 of the NPRM stating the existing language.
term in the final rule. We agree and requirements for DRLs was relocated to Paragraph S6.5.2, DRL marking, has
revised the text accordingly. be paragraph S6.1.1.4 of the final rule. been revised in the final rule to include
Guide commented that paragraph The text of paragraph S6.3, the phrase ‘‘* * * on its lens * * *’’
S6.1.5.1 of the NPRM, concerning Equipment combinations, of the final after ‘‘DRL’’ to be faithful to the marking
optional activation of stop lamps by rule remains identical to that of the requirement as stated in paragraph
vehicle retarders, duplicated Table I. NPRM. S5.5.11(a)(2) of the current version of
Upon review, we believe it is a Paragraph S6.4, titled Visibility and FMVSS No. 108.
duplication, and we have decided that aiming in the NPRM, was re-titled Lens Several sections of the NPRM
Table I is the appropriate location for it. containing marking requirements for
area, visibility and aiming in the final
Therefore, in the final rule this headlamps have been relocated in their
rule, recognizing the lens area
allowance is included in the Stop lamp- entirety and without revision to
requirements of paragraph S6.4.1.
Device Activation portion of Tables I-a, paragraph S6.5.3 of the final rule. These
References in paragraph S6.4 to Table IV
I-b, and I-c. include: (1) Proposed paragraph S17.1
were revised in the final rule to
We have relocated to paragraph which becomes S6.5.3.1; (2) S17.2
reference Table IV-a, Table IV-b, or
S6.1.5.1 of the final rule the content of which becomes S6.5.3.2; (3) S17.3
Table IV-c, as appropriate.
paragraph S6.1.1.4 of the NPRM stating which becomes S6.5.3.3 (split into
AAM and Koito commented that the several sections for clarity); and (4)
requirements of the hazard warning
requirement of a manufacturer to S17.4 which becomes S6.5.3.4 (split for
signal. This is appropriate since, as we
irrevocably certify compliance to one of clarity and updated section references).
noted in our discussion of the
the visibility options of paragraph Similarly, proposed paragraph S17.5
definitions of vehicular hazard warning
S6.4.3 was on a ‘‘lamp function’’ basis summarizing the location of other
signal flasher and vehicular hazard
rather than a ‘‘lamp’’ basis as stated in headlamp marking requirements
warning signal operating unit, the only
the NPRM. We agree and have revised becomes paragraph S6.5.3.5.
requirement of this system is
the text of paragraph S6.4.3 accordingly Proposed paragraph S6.6 stating
simultaneous flashing of sufficient turn
to bring it in conformity to the final requirements for associated equipment
signal lamps to meet the turn signal
rule 19 establishing these visibility on regulated vehicles has been updated
photometric requirements of Standard
requirements. to indicate that the specific
No. 108.
Another section relocated to S6.1.5, Nissan objected to the title of requirements for associated equipment
Activation, is paragraph S6.1.5.2 of the paragraph S6.4.4, SAE visibility are located in paragraph S9 of the final
final rule, which details the alternative, of the NPRM stating they rule.
requirements for simultaneous did not like the use of the term SAE as Proposed paragraph S6.6.1, License
activation of lower beam and upper part of that title. Considering one of the plate holder, has been redesignated as
beam headlamps. These requirements goals of the FMVSS No. 108 rewrite was paragraph S6.6.3 in the final rule due to
had been included as paragraph S8.2 of to reduce reliance upon third party renumbering of portions of paragraph
the NPRM. We agree with the comment documents, particularly SAE documents S6.6 for clarity. AAM objected to this
of Guide that this content was most incorporated by reference, we have provision as stated previously in our
appropriately located in the Activation eliminated ‘‘SAE’’ from the paragraph discussion of SAE documents. The
section. S6.4.4 title in the final rule. The title of clarification that this section applied to
We removed paragraph S6.2.3 of the this section in the final rule is Legacy rear license plate holders appears in the
NPRM, which addressed specific visibility alternative recognizing that it final rule (emphasis added).
requirements for auxiliary lamps contains requirements that have long Paragraph 6.7, Replacement
performing the function of a required been a part of Standard No. 108. equipment, of the NPRM continues as
lamp, from the final rule. Grote, Guide, Nissan also commented that that paragraph in the final rule. AAM,
SEMA, and TMA persuaded us that the paragraph S6.4.5, Low-mounted lamps, ASSN, and SEMA noted a typographic
proposed S6.2.3 contained language that duplicated requirements stated in error in paragraph S6.7.1.2 where the
was not faithful to the current version footnotes to Tables V-b, V-c, VI, VII, word ‘‘to’’ inadvertently appears in the
of FMVSS No. 108 and did not add to VIII, IX, XI, XIV, XVI-a, and XVII. We phrase ‘‘* * * designed so that it does
the understanding of impairment. agree with Nissan that these footnotes not to take the vehicle * * *’’
Paragraph S14.2 of the NPRM was are the appropriate location for these (emphasis added). This error was
relocated to be paragraph S6.2.6 of the requirements and have eliminated this corrected by removing that word from
final rule. This section states the subparagraph from the final rule. paragraph S6.7.1.2 of the final rule.
restrictions that apply to equipment in The addition of a new Table III to the SEMA commented that the language of
front of a headlamp lens. Paragraph final rule as a repository for listing the paragraph S6.7 ‘‘* * * infers that the
S6.2, Impairment, was judged the most location in the regulatory text of each standard would not preclude the
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appropriate location for it. SEMA marking requirement of Standard No. installation of newer technologies on
suggested revising the language of this 108 is noted in paragraph S6.5. older vehicles and there is no suggestion
that the introduction of lighting
18 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/gm/85/1985– 19 69 FR 48805 (August 11, 2004) (Docket No. equipment into the marketplace is tied
02.42.html 2004–18794). to vehicle manufacturer certification,’’

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and requested confirmation of this designed per S6.7.1.2 so that it does not manufacturer could not have certified
assumption by a response to its letter of take the vehicle out of compliance with the vehicle using that lighting
December 16, 2005 requesting an this standard when the individual equipment instead of the lighting
interpretation by the Chief Counsel. device is installed on the vehicle. Grote equipment it actually used.’’ We did not
SEMA’s comment sought clarification of suggested that in the heavy vehicle suggest in this interpretation that when
a notice of interpretation published in market that it primarily serves, an we spoke of a ‘‘more limited
the Federal Register on November 1, owner of a fleet of heavy vehicles may application’’ in reference to heavy
2005 20 rather than addressing the elect to remove the original equipment vehicles, we intended to treat
substance of the rewrite of Standard No. lamps and reflective devices and replace replacement lamps and reflective
108, and, thus, was beyond the scope of them with equally compliant lamps and devices for heavy vehicles significantly
the rewrite. We note that SEMA’s devices but in different functional different than those for light vehicles.
concern was addressed by the agency in combinations. That means, for example, We were merely pointing out that we
an August 24, 2006 letter of one of a set of original equipment lamps did not consider manufacturers of
clarification.21 installed on a particular vehicle may generic lighting equipment responsible
In its comments, ASSN objected to the contain the stop lamp, taillamp, and for ensuring the correct selection and
inclusion of the second sentence of side marker lamp function, while the installation of their equipment.
paragraph S6.7.1.2 of the NPRM which other separate lamp contains the turn Therefore, with the exception of the
states in part, ‘‘* * * the determination signal lamp, backup lamp, and reflex previously mentioned typographical
of whether a vehicle would be taken out reflectors. Grote would like to be able to error correction, paragraph S6.7 in the
of compliance with this standard when recommend a set of replacement lamps final rule is identical to that of the
an individual device is installed on the for this vehicle where the individual NPRM.
vehicle is made without regard to lamps of the set do not have the Proposed paragraph S6.8 of the NPRM
whether additional devices, including required functions grouped in exactly has been relocated to be part of
separate lamps or reflective devices sold the same combinations as those of the paragraph S14 of the final rule.
together with the device, would also be original equipment set. Substantive issues raised in the public
installed.’’ Its contention is that this Grote believes that it should be comments to the NPRM will be
language which ‘‘converts its informal permissible to do this because the discussed in paragraph S14.
interpretation into a formal rule’’ was agency stated in the interpretation 22
included in the rewrite of FMVSS No. published in the Federal Register on S7 Signal Lamp Requirements
108 without ‘‘the required cost benefit November 1, 2005 that, ‘‘* * * while Paragraph S7 of the NPRM contained
analysis’’ and would limit the our interpretation of S5.8.1 [of the specific requirements for signal lamps,
‘‘opportunities for vehicle current version of FMVSS No. 108] is reflective devices, and associated
personalization.’’ The incorporation of not dependent on the size of the vehicle equipment. With the reorganization of
the replacement equipment for which a lamp is intended, it has a
the final rule, only the signal lamp
interpretation of 70 FR at 65972, or any more limited application to aftermarket
requirements remain in S7. In some
interpretation, does not constitute a lighting equipment for heavy vehicles
cases, the order of appearance of
change in the requirements of the than to light vehicles.’’ However, the
specific lamp types in S7 has changed
standard. An interpretation simply agency continued the discussion by
from the NPRM.
clarifies the existing requirements of the stating, ‘‘The specific context of the
questions asked by Calcoast was As previously mentioned, we have
standard and as such does not require
aftermarket combination lamps for light partially adopted the request of ASSN/
the cost-benefit analysis or other
vehicles, such as passenger cars. These AAM concerning the format of
rulemaking formalities as ASSN
lamps are typically designed for specific individual lamp sections. We have
suggested. Regulated parties are bound
models and can only be installed on modified the individual signal lamp
by the regulatory requirements
those models in the same location as the sections so that a series of specific types
regardless of whether they are expressed
lamps they replace. However, for heavy of requirements are listed for each lamp
in the regulatory text or in
vehicles, lighting equipment is often in the same order in a ‘‘template’’
interpretations either by letter or
generic and not designed for specific format. These requirements, in order,
publication. A vehicle owner can
models. Truck-Lite, for example, are: (1) Number, (2) Color of light, (3)
continue to modify the lighting on his
commented on our notice of draft Mounting location, (4) Mounting height,
vehicle, including obtaining devices for
interpretation that it sells many kinds of (5) Activation, (6) Markings, (7) Effective
that purpose from regulated parties such
lighting devices through catalog sales to projected luminous lens area, (8)
as vehicle dealers, so long as the vehicle
hundreds of vehicle manufacturers Visibility, (9) Indicator, (10) Spacing to
continues to meet the requirements of
whose equipment it has no way of other lamps, (11) Multiple compartment
FMVSS No. 108 and the replacement
knowing about. Consistent with our and multiple lamps, and (12) Ratio.
lighting equipment provides all
discussion in the October 2004 notice of These are followed by sections on
regulated functions of the device being
interpretation, we note that our Photometry and Physical tests. In many
replaced in a single unit.
Grote also commented on paragraph interpretation does not mean that the cases, the text following one of these
S6.7, requesting that the provisions of manufacturer of generic lighting types of requirements will ‘‘point’’ to a
paragraph S6.7.1.2 not be applicable to equipment has the responsibility for table or another section of the standard.
heavy vehicles. Grote was concerned ensuring correct selection and Also, there are numerous instances
that a replacement lamp, reflective installation of its equipment. On the where the specific lamp has no
device, or item of associated equipment other hand, under our interpretation, a performance requirement for a category,
which is designed or recommended for manufacturer of aftermarket lighting and the text states ‘‘No requirement.’’
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particular vehicle models must be equipment could not design or References to physical tests applicable
recommend lighting equipment for a to signal lamps contained in Table XXII
20 70 FR 65972 (Nov. 1, 2005) (Docket No. specific vehicle if the vehicle of the NPRM have been revised in the
NHTSA 03–15651). final rule to refer to paragraphs S14.4
21 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/SEMA.htm 22 70 FR 65972 (Nov. 1, 2005). and S14.5.

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68248 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

Paragraph S7.1 of the final rule taillamp or clearance lamp where (applicable to high-mounted stop lamps)
continues to contain the requirements optically combined) becomes paragraph were relocated in the final rule to be
for turn signal lamps. Paragraph S7.1.1.3 S7.1.2.12 in the final rule and has been paragraphs S6.1.3.4.2 and S6.1.3.4.1,
of the NPRM, addressing multiple split for clarity. respectively.
compartment and multiple front turn Paragraph S7.2.1.1 of the NPRM Guide commented that paragraph
signal lamps, becomes paragraph (addressing multiple compartment and S7.11.2.2(c) of the NPRM should be
S7.1.1.11 in the final rule and has been multiple taillamps) becomes paragraph relocated to the DRL activation portion
split for clarity. In this section, Nissan S7.2.11 in the final rule and has been of Table I-a. We disagree. This
stated that the term ‘‘compartments’’ split for clarity. Again, Nissan stated requirement, which becomes paragraph
after the word ‘‘three’’ was incorrectly that in this section the term S7.10.10.1(c) in the final rule, only
plural; it has been changed to singular ‘‘compartments’’ after the word ‘‘three’’ specifies activation and deactivation of
form in the final rule. was incorrectly plural; it has been the DRL when the turn signal is
As mentioned in the discussion of changed to singular form in the final activated on a vehicle where the DRL is
definitions, we replaced the term rule. Also, AAM and Koito commented in close proximity to a turn signal lamp.
‘‘functional lighted area’’ in paragraph that there was an incorrect reference to Given these constraints of limited
S7.1.1.2.2 of the NPRM (paragraph Table VII instead of Table VIII in the application, its present placement in the
S7.1.1.10.3 in the final rule), with the NPRM; this has been corrected in the final rule is the most appropriate
equivalent term ‘‘effective projected final rule. location. A statement in the DRL
luminous lens area.’’ Since this Paragraph S7.2.12, Ratio, has been activation portion of Table I-a does
paragraph was the only instance in added in the final rule to point to the point to paragraph S7.10.10.1(c) to also
Standard No. 108 where the term ratio requirements for rear turn signal alert users to this requirement.
‘‘functional lighted area’’ was used, it lamps and stop lamps optically S8 Reflective Device Requirements
was eliminated from the definition of combined with taillamps.
‘‘Effective projected luminous lens area’’ Paragraph S7.3.1.1 of the NPRM Requirements for reflex reflectors
in the final rule. (addressing multiple compartment and located in paragraph S7.10 of the NPRM
Calcoast objected to the language of multiple stop lamps) becomes paragraph have been relocated to paragraph S8.1 in
paragraph S7.1.1.3.1 of the NPRM S7.3.11 in the final rule and has been the final rule. Paragraphs S8.1.1 through
which stated, ‘‘* * * overall width split for clarity. Again, Nissan stated S8.1.10 are categorized identically to the
must meet the photometric that in this section the term organizational template of signal lamps.
requirements specified for a single ‘‘compartments’’ after the word ‘‘three’’ However, a section covering multiple
section and not * * *’’ photometric was incorrectly plural; it has been compartment lamp and multiple lamps
requirements for lamps installed on changed to singular form in the final and a section covering ratio are clearly
vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall rule. not applicable to reflex reflectors and
width. In the final rule, we have Paragraph S7.3.1.2 of the NPRM are not included. Paragraph S8.1.11,
changed this language in paragraph (containing requirements for the ratio Photometry, replaces paragraph S7.10.1
S7.1.1.11.4 to be faithful to the language between the photometric intensity of a of the NPRM, while paragraph S8.1.12,
of paragraph S5.1.1.12 of the current stop lamp and that of a taillamp where Physical tests, replaces paragraph
version of FMVSS No. 108. It now optically combined) becomes paragraph S7.10.2 and paragraph S8.1.13,
states, ‘‘* * * overall width require S7.3.12 in the final rule and has been Alternative reflex material, replaces
measurement of the photometrics for the split for clarity. paragraph S7.10.1.1.
entire lamp and not.* * *’’ This same Koito commented about the limitation References to physical tests applicable
issue was raised concerning rear turn of the application of reduced to reflex reflectors contained in Table
signal lamps and stop lamps. Therefore, photometry requirements of paragraph XXII of the NPRM have been revised in
similar changes were made in paragraph S7.4.1.1 of the NPRM to side marker the final rule to refer to paragraphs
S7.1.2.11.4 of the final rule for rear turn lamps installed on vehicles less than 80 S14.4 and S14.5.
signal lamps and in paragraph S7.3.11.4 inches wide. This limitation is The final rule combines the content of
for stop lamps. consistent with Table 1, footnote ‘‘b’’ of paragraph S7.12 and Table III of the
Paragraph S7.1.1.3.2 of the NPRM SAE J592e. A more comprehensive NPRM into paragraph S8.2. Specifically,
(containing requirements for the ratio discussion of this issue is part of the proposed paragraph S7.12 becomes
between the photometric intensity of a section on SAE documents in this final paragraph S8.2, proposed paragraph
front turn signal lamp and that of a rule. S7.12.1 becomes paragraph S8.2.1,
parking lamp or clearance lamp where Paragraph S7.5.12, Ratio, has been Retroreflective sheeting, (split for
optically combined) has become added in the final rule to point to the clarity), and proposed paragraph
paragraph S7.1.1.12 in the final rule and ratio requirements for front and rear S7.12.1.1 becomes paragraph S8.2.1.3,
has been split for clarity. turn signal lamps optically combined Certification marking.
Paragraph S7.1.2.2 of the NPRM with clearance lamps. Following this, the text of the
(addressing multiple compartment and Paragraphs S7.7.2, Photometry, and proposed Application pattern-
multiple rear turn signal lamps) S7.7.1, Installation, of the NPRM Alternating red and white materials-
becomes paragraph S7.1.2.11 in the final (applicable to license plate lamps) have Retroreflective sheeting box of Table III
rule and has been split for clarity. Once been split for clarity as paragraphs is stated as paragraph S8.2.1.4, the text
again, Nissan stated that in this section, S7.7.13 and S7.7.15 respectively, in the of the proposed Application location-
the term ‘‘compartments’’ after the word final rule. Retroreflective sheeting box of Table III
‘‘three’’ was incorrectly plural; it has A reference to new Figure 20, License is stated as paragraph S8.2.1.5, and the
been changed to singular form in the Plate Lamp Measurement of Incident text of the proposed Application
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final rule. Light Angle, was added to paragraph spacing-Retroreflective sheeting box of
Paragraph S7.1.2.3 of the NPRM S7.7.15.4 of the final rule (paragraph Table III is stated as paragraph S8.2.1.6.
(containing requirements for the ratio S7.7.1.1 in the NPRM.) 3M commented that they believe that
between the photometric intensity of a Paragraphs S7.9.1, Accessibility, and the use of the phrase ‘‘* * * material is
rear turn signal lamp and that of a S7.9.2, Installation, of the NPRM required to be installed * * *’’ in both

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the requirements for Application pattern-White material-Conspicuity (white). One mounting alternative for
pattern-Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors box of Table III is stated conspicuity treatment requirements in
Application pattern-Conspicuity reflex as paragraph S8.2.2.2.2. Regarding Truck tractor-Element 1 was
reflectors implies that there is only one retroreflective sheeting, we have inadvertently omitted from the NPRM.
method of meeting conspicuity addressed the previously noted 3M This material is allowed to be mounted
requirements, not two alternative comment about alternative methods of to ‘‘plates attached to the mudflap
methods. To increase clarity of these meeting conspicuity requirements by support brackets’’ as stated in the
alternative requirements, we have eliminating the phrase ‘‘Where white current version of FMVSS No. 108 at
revised the first sentence of the material is required to be installed’’ paragraph S5.7.1.4.3(a). We have
Alternating red and white materials- from the beginning of the first sentence inserted this alternative mounting
Retroreflective sheeting, (now paragraph of the Application pattern-White location after ‘‘mudflap support
S8.2.1.4.1) requirement to read ‘‘* * * material-Conspicuity reflex reflectors brackets’’ and before ‘‘or on the
where alternating material is installed (now paragraph S8.2.2.2.2) section. mudflaps’’ in paragraph S8.2.4.1.1 of the
* * *’’ We have also eliminated the Proposed paragraph S7.12.2.2, final rule.
phrase ‘‘Where alternating color Photometry, has become paragraph
S8.2.2.3 (split for clarity) in the final S9 Associated Equipment
material is required to be installed’’
rule. Requirements
from the beginning of the first sentence
of Alternating red and white materials- Paragraph S8.2.3 of the final rule Section 7.14 of the NPRM, Associated
Conspicuity reflex reflectors section contains the requirements for equipment requirements, is relocated to
(now paragraph S8.2.2.2.1). conspicuity systems installed on trailers paragraph S9 in the final rule.
3M also commented that the language that were part of Table III in the NPRM. Koito and Nissan commented that the
in the Application pattern-White Paragraph S8.2.3.1 (split for clarity) first sentence of paragraph S7.14.1 of
material-Conspicuity reflex reflectors includes the requirements for the three the NPRM, now paragraph S9.1.1 of the
section (paragraph S8.2.2.2.2 of the final conspicuity elements required on the final rule, virtually duplicated the
rule) discussing the dimensional rear of a trailer and paragraph S8.2.3.2 definition of Turn signal operating unit
relationship between adjacent white (split for clarity) states requirements for in S4. We agree and removed that
conspicuity reflex reflectors would be the alternating color side conspicuity sentence from paragraph S9.1.1.
more appropriately included in the treatment required on trailers. Paragraph S9.1.2 of the final rule states
Application location portion. We AAM requested that the specific that turn signal operating units must
disagree because the requirements in the grades of sheeting permitted be meet the applicable performance
Application location portion refer to the mentioned in the requirements for requirements of paragraph S14.9. These
location of the material on the vehicle Trailer rear-Element 2-white, now in references are to paragraph S6.6 and
while the requirements in the paragraph S8.2.3.1.2.1. Therefore, we Table XXI in the NPRM.
Application pattern portion only refer to have inserted the phrase ‘‘* * * of Similarly, the first sentence of
the location of a reflector to an adjacent Grade DOT–C2, DOT–C3, or DOT–C4 paragraph S7.14.2 of the NPRM, now
reflector. * * *’’ between the word ‘‘long’’ and paragraph S9.2.1 of the final rule,
AAM commented that the language of the word ‘‘applied’’ in the first sentence virtually duplicated the definition of
the Application location-Retroreflective making the language of the requirement Turn signal flasher in S4. We removed
sheeting portion begins with the phrase faithful to that of paragraph S5.7.1.4.1(b) that sentence from paragraph S9.2.1.
‘‘Not permitted * * *’’ which imposes of the current version of FMVSS No. Paragraph S9.2.2 of the final rule states
a different requirement than paragraph 108. that turn signal flashers must meet the
S5.7.1.4 of the current version of TTMA commented that certain tank applicable performance requirements of
FMVSS No. 108 which states ‘‘* * * trailers may not have a vertical surface paragraph S14.9. These references are to
but need not be applied * * *’’ We suitable for installing the Trailer side- paragraph S6.6 and Table XXI in the
agree and have revised the requirement alternating red and white materials NPRM.
of the Application location- conspicuity material between 375 mm In the NPRM, paragraph S7.14.3
Retroreflective sheeting (now paragraph and 1525 mm above the road surface. If stated requirements for the turn signal
S8.2.1.5 in the final rule) to begin, installed in a downward orientation, it pilot indicator. These requirements have
‘‘Need not be installed, as illustrated in would not be effective for its purpose. been relocated to paragraph S9.3 (split
Figure 12–2, * * *’’ The requirement of this section states for clarity) in the final rule. Paragraph
Proposed paragraph S7.12.1.2, that the material must be installed in S7.14.3.1 of the NPRM described the
Photometry, becomes paragraph S8.2.1.7 this height range if practicable and turn signal pilot indicator size and color
in the final rule with no substantive going beyond this range is permitted if requirements. These requirements were
changes. The photometry requirements it aids correct orientation. We believe erroneously based on paragraph 5.4.3 of
reference was updated to Table XVI–c that the language of paragraph S8.2.3.2.1 SAE J588 NOV84, Turn Signal Lamps
and the photometry test procedure of the final rule, along with the for use on Motor Vehicles less than 2032
reference to paragraph S14.2.3. illustrative examples of conspicuity mm in Overall Width. These
Proposed paragraph S7.12.2, treatment applied to tank trailers shown requirements should have been based
Conspicuity reflex reflectors, becomes in Figure 11, adequately addresses this upon paragraph 4.5 of SAE J588e, Turn
paragraph S8.2.2 and proposed issue. Signal Lamps, September 1970, as
paragraph S7.12.1, Certification Paragraph S8.2.4 of the final rule specified by paragraph S5.5.6 of the
marking, becomes paragraph S8.2.2.1 in contains the requirements for current version of FMVSS No. 108. We
the final rule. conspicuity systems installed on truck have stated the correct requirements in
Following this, the text of the tractors, which was part of Table III in paragraph S9.3.4 of the final rule. These
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proposed Application pattern- the NPRM. Paragraph S8.2.4.1 (split for corrected requirements include a
Alternating red and white material- clarity) contains requirements for visibility requirement that references
Conspicuity reflex reflectors box of Element 1 (alternating color) and SAE J941b, Motor Vehicle Driver’s Eye
Table III is stated as paragraph paragraph S8.2.4.2 (split for clarity) Range, February 1969, rather than the
S8.2.2.2.1 and the proposed Application states the requirements for Element 2 incorrect reference to SAE J1050,

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Describing and Measuring the Driver’s a second sentence added to it which Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher
Field of View, which was included in states, ‘‘The device shall not affect the in S4. We removed that sentence from
the NPRM. function of the upper beam indicator paragraph S9.7.1. Paragraph S9.7.2 of
The incorporation in paragraph light.’’ which was inadvertently omitted the final rule states that vehicular
S7.14.3.2 of the NPRM of the language from the NPRM. This requirement hazard warning signal flashers must
from the incorrect version of SAE J588 comes from paragraph 4.14 of SAE meet the applicable performance
also caused the description of the modes J565b, Semiautomatic Headlamp Beam requirements of paragraph S14.9. These
of indication of the turn signal pilot Switching Devices, February 1969, references are to paragraph S6.6 and
indicator to be omitted as noted in the which is incorporated by reference in Table XXI in the NPRM.
comments from AAM. We have the current version of FMVSS No. 108. Requirements for the vehicular hazard
corrected this in the final rule by Paragraph S9.4.1.7 of the final rule warning signal pilot indicator from
inserting the phrase ‘‘* * *by a ‘‘steady states that semi-automatic headlamp paragraph S7.14.8 of the NPRM are
on’’, ‘‘steady off’’, or by a significant beam switching devices must be relocated intact to paragraph S9.8 (split
change in the flashing rate* * *’’ into designed to conform to the performance for clarity) in the final rule. AAM
the text of paragraph S9.3.6. requirements of paragraph S14.9. These commented that a vehicular hazard
We also neglected in the NPRM to cite references are to paragraph S6.6 and warning signal pilot indicator was not
the reason for our use of the failure Table XXI in the NPRM. required by FMVSS No. 108. We direct
indication criteria of ‘‘* * *minimum Paragraphs S7.14.5 Upper beam AAM’s attention to SAE J910, Vehicular
photometric performance specified in headlamp indicator, and S7.14.5.1 Hazard Warning Signal Operating Unit,
Tables VI or VII* * *’’ rather than the Indicator size, location, and color, of the January 1966, specifically paragraph 5.
text of paragraph S5.5.6 of the current NPRM, become paragraphs S9.5 and When we removed J910 as a referenced
version of FMVSS No. 108, which states S9.5.1, respectively, in the final rule. document in the NPRM, we
that criteria as ‘‘Failure of one or more However, the term ‘‘color’’ and the last incorporated the requirements of
turn signal lamps to operate* * *.’’ The sentence of paragraph S7.14.5.1 stating paragraph 5 into paragraph S7.14.8,
language incorporated in the NPRM that the color of the indicator need not which we are now designating as
came from the July 10, 1998 letter of be red were deleted from paragraph paragraph S9.8 in the final rule. 24
interpretation to Mr. Binder.23 In that S9.5.1. By removing this language and
interpretation, the issue of how to making Standard No. 108 silent about S10 Headlighting System
indicate to the driver the failure of a the color of the upper beam headlamp Requirements.
turn signal lamp that consisted of a indicator, we have simplified the The headlighting system requirements
number of LED light sources was manner in which the requirement is of S8 of the NPRM become S10 of the
discussed. The failure indication criteria presented. The current version of final rule.
for this situation was stated in Binder in FMVSS No. 108 states in paragraph Paragraph S8.1 of the NPRM is now
this way, ‘‘If a light source fails in a turn S5.5.2 that, ‘‘Each vehicle shall have a paragraph S10.1 (split for clarity) in the
signal lamp on a vehicle that is not means for indicating to the driver when final rule. Guide commented that
equipped to tow a trailer, Standard No. the upper beams of the headlamps are paragraphs S8.1.1 and S8.1.2 of the
108 requires that the failure be on that conforms to SAE Recommended NPRM were redundant with the
indicated to the driver. We are not Practice J564a, April 1964, except that requirement, of paragraph S8.1, that the
aware of any LED turn signals in use, or the signal color need not be red’’. The headlighting system conforms to one of
how manufacturers would design such a second paragraph of SAE J564a states the systems of Table II. We agree and
unit to comply with this requirement. that ‘‘* * *The upper beam indicator eliminated paragraphs S8.1.1 and S8.1.2
However, we believe that a failure should consist of a red light* * *.’’ As from the final rule.
should be indicated to the driver at the noted in the comments of AAM, we We mentioned previously in the
point where an LED turn signal ceases incorporated in the NPRM the discussion of mounting location
to furnish the minimum photometric requirements of SAE J564a directly into requirements that Guide commented
performance required by Standard No. the text of the Standard No. 108 without that the content of sections 8.1.3 and
108.’’ The statements in the Binder including the red color requirement 8.1.4 of the NPRM, dealing with
interpretation also apply to turn signal because of the noted exclusion. headlamp beam mounting, was most
lamps using conventional incandescent However, we neglected to remove the appropriately located in the lamp
light sources. If a turn signal lamp using excluding language from the NPRM. We mounting location section. We agree
an incandescent light source fails, it are doing so in the final rule. and have moved them intact to become
obviously has zero photometric output. Koito and Nissan commented that the paragraph S6.1.3.5 of the final rule.
Therefore, we adopted the language of first sentence of paragraph S7.14.6 of Paragraph S8.1.5, Headlamp
Binder in the NPRM but omitted the NPRM, now paragraph S9.6.1 of the adjustments, of the NPRM was relocated
mention of it as one of the incorporated final rule, virtually duplicated the to be paragraphs S10.18.1.1 and
interpretations. We are correcting that definition of Vehicular hazard warning S10.18.1.2 of the final rule.
omission here and are preserving the signal operating unit in S4. We agree We adopted, in S10 of the final rule,
failure indication criteria of the NPRM and removed that sentence from the ASSN/AAM suggested standard
in paragraph S9.3.6 of the final rule. paragraph S9.6.1. Paragraph S9.6.3 of format similar to that of the signal lamp
Paragraphs S7.14.4, Headlamp beam the final rule states that vehicular and reflex reflector sections. Those
switching device, and S7.14.4.1, Semi- hazard warning signal operating units standardized criteria that apply to
automatic headlamp beam switching must meet the applicable performance headlamps with the appropriate
device, of the NPRM, were re-designated requirements of paragraph S14.9. These
as paragraphs S9.4 and S9.4.1, references are to paragraph S6.6 and 24 SAE J945, Vehicular Hazard Warning Signal
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respectively, in the final rule. Paragraph Table XXI in the NPRM. Flasher, February 1966 incorporated by reference in
S9.4.1.4 of the final rule, which was Similarly, the first sentence of the current version of FMVSS No. 108 also
discusses a visible pilot indicator for the vehicular
paragraph S7.14.4.1.4 in the NPRM, had paragraph S7.14.7 of the NPRM, now hazard warning signal. The test condition
paragraph S9.7.1 of the final rule, requirement of S9.8.3 of the final rule comes from
23 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/18121.ztv.html virtually duplicated the definition of J945.

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pointing statements or ‘‘no Paragraph S10.6, Photometry, of the respectively, in the final rule, with the
requirement’’ notations become NPRM becomes paragraph S10.14.6 in only revision being the substitution of
paragraphs S10.3 through S10.12 of the the final rule, with a revised reference the term ‘‘activated’’ for the term
final rule. to the photometry procedure. The ‘‘mechanized’’ used in the NPRM.
The requirements for a sealed beam physical test requirements of paragraph Paragraph S12.2, Photometry, of the
headlighting system, which were S9 of S10.7 of the NPRM, which referenced NPRM becomes paragraph S10.16.2 in
the NPRM, become paragraph S10.13 in Table XXII and Table XXIII, become the final rule, with a revised reference
the final rule. Paragraphs S9 and S9.1 of paragraph S10.14.7 (split for clarity) in to the photometry procedure. The
the NPRM have been relocated intact to the final rule, with updated references physical test requirements of paragraph
become paragraphs S10.13 and S10.13.1 to the applicable test procedures and S12.3 of the NPRM, which referenced
respectively in the final rule. The performance requirements in paragraph Table XXII and Table XXIII, become
simultaneous aim requirements for type S14. paragraph S10.16.3 (split for clarity) in
‘‘F’’ sealed beam headlamps, which The requirements for a replaceable the final rule, with updated references
were paragraph S9.2 in the NPRM, bulb headlighting system, which were to the applicable test procedures and
become S10.13.2 in the final rule, the paragraph S11 of the NPRM, become performance requirements in paragraph
only revision being the revised reference paragraph S10.15 in the final rule. S14.
for the applicable photometry Paragraph S11 of the NPRM has been The requirements for a motorcycle
procedure. Paragraph S9.3, Photometry, relocated intact to be paragraph S10.15 headlighting system that were S13 of the
of the NPRM becomes paragraph in the final rule. Koito commented that NPRM become paragraph S10.17 in the
S10.13.3 in the final rule, again with a the language of paragraph S11.1 of the final rule. Paragraphs S13.1, S13.1.1
revised reference to the photometry NPRM stating, ‘‘* * *must consist of (split for clarity), S13.1.2 (split for
procedure. The physical tests the correct number of designated clarity), and S13.1.3 (split for clarity) of
requirements of paragraph S9.4 of the headlamp units shown for* * *’’ did the NPRM are relocated intact to
NPRM, which referenced Tables XXII not clearly express the requirement. We become paragraphs S10.17.1, S10.17.1.1,
agree and have revised this phrase to, S10.17.1.2, and S10.17.1.3, respectively,
and XXIII, become paragraph S10.13.4
‘‘* * *must consist of either two or four of the final rule. Paragraph S13.4 of the
(split for clarity) in the final rule, with
headlamps shown for* * *’’ in NPRM becomes paragraph S10.17.2 of
updated references to the applicable test
paragraph S10.15.1 of the final rule. the final rule.
procedures and performance Paragraph S13.2, Photometry, of the
Paragraph S11.2 of the NPRM
requirements in paragraph S14. NPRM becomes paragraph S10.17.3 in
becomes paragraph S10.15.2 in the final
The requirements for an integral beam rule. Paragraph S11.4 of the NPRM has the final rule, with a revised reference
headlighting system that were paragraph the phrase ‘‘* * *be designed to* * *’’ to the photometry procedure. The
S10 of the NPRM become paragraph inserted before the word ‘‘conform’’ physical test requirements of paragraph
S10.14 in the final rule. Paragraphs S10 when it becomes paragraph S10.15.3 of S13.3 of the NPRM, which referenced
and S10.1 of the NPRM have been the final rule. Table XXII, become paragraph S10.17.5
relocated to be paragraphs S10.14 and Paragraph S11.5 of the NPRM is in the final rule, with updated
S10.14.1, respectively, in the final rule, relocated to become paragraph references to the applicable test
with the only revision being the S10.14.4.1 of the final rule. It is procedures and performance
substitution of the term ‘‘activated’’ for supplemented by a new paragraph requirements in paragraph S14.
the term ‘‘mechanized’’ used in the S10.15.4.2 stating the exception from Paragraphs S13.5.1, Modulation,
NPRM. Paragraphs S10.2, S10.3, and the requirements of paragraph S13.5.2, Replacement modulators,
S10.4 of the NPRM have been relocated S10.14.4.1 (that were contained in S13.5.2.1, Replacement performance,
to become paragraphs S10.14.2 (split for paragraphs S7.5(d)(3)(i)(A) and and S13.5.2.2, Replacement
clarity), S10.14.3, and S10.14.4 S7.5(d)(3)(ii)(A) of the current version of instructions, of the NPRM are relocated
respectively in the final rule. FMVSS No. 108), which was omitted intact to become paragraphs S10.17.5.1,
AAM and Koito both commented that from the NPRM, as noted in the S10.17.5.2, S10.17.5.2.1, and
the language in paragraph S10.5 comments of Guide and Koito. S10.17.5.2.2, respectively, in the final
(repeated in paragraph S11.3) of the As previously mentioned, paragraph rule.
NPRM, stating that, ‘‘An integral beam S11.3 of the NPRM was revised for Headlamp aimability requirements
(replaceable bulb in paragraph S11.3) clarity and becomes paragraph S10.15.5 that were located in S14 in the NPRM
headlamp may incorporate replaceable in the final rule. have been relocated to paragraph S10.18
light sources that are used for purposes Paragraph S11.6, Photometry, of the in the final rule with one exception and
other than headlighting’’, could be NPRM becomes paragraph S10.15.6 in with very few revisions. The exception
interpreted to mean those ‘‘replaceable the final rule, with a revised reference is proposed paragraph S14.2 dealing
light sources’’ defined in S4 of the to the photometry procedure. The with equipment in front of a headlamp
NPRM. This language came from physical tests requirement of paragraph lens. The requirements of this section
paragraphs S7.4(i) and S7.5(j) of the S11.7 of the NPRM, which referenced were moved to paragraph S6.2.6 in the
current version of Standard No. 108. To Table XXII and Table XXIII, becomes Impairment section of the final rule.
alleviate concerns that this incorrect paragraph S10.15.7 (split for clarity) in Paragraph S14.8.2 of the NPRM,
interpretation could be applied, we have the final rule, with updated references which becomes paragraph S10.18.7.2 of
revised the language of paragraph S10.5 to the applicable test procedures and the final rule, contains requirements for
(and paragraph S11.3) of the NPRM. performance requirements in paragraph use of nonadjustable headlamp aiming
Paragraph S10.14.5 (and paragraph S14. device locating plates for five types of
S10.15.5) of the final rule now states, The requirements for a combination sealed beam headlamps. The language
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‘‘An integral beam (replaceable bulb in headlighting system that were S12 of the in the NPRM stated that these units
paragraph S10.15.5) headlamp may NPRM become paragraph S10.16 in the should incorporate lens-mounted
incorporate light sources that are used final rule. Paragraphs S12 and S12.1 of aiming pads specified in Figures a, b, c,
for purposes other than headlighting the NPRM have been relocated to be d, or e of the NPRM. The figures referred
and are capable of being replaced.’’ paragraphs S10.16 and S10.16.1, to were intended to be placeholders in

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a draft version of the NPRM. The NPRM consolidated the procedures of were located in Table XXI of the NPRM
should have stated that, ‘‘* * * paragraphs S15.2 and 15.3 into a single become paragraph S14.9 in the final
incorporate lens-mounted aiming pads procedure, without revising or rule.
as specified for those units in Appendix modifying the requirements, and S6.8.1 of the NPRM, stating that
C of part 564 of this chapter,’’ which is relocated it to paragraph S14.7.3 of the lamps, reflective devices, and associated
incorporated in paragraph S10.18.7.2 of final rule. equipment regulated by Standard No.
the final rule. 108 be designed to conform to
Koito requested that an alternative S12 Headlamp Concealment Device
Requirements applicable physical test requirements,
measurement distance of 25 m be becomes paragraph S14.1.1 of the final
permitted for the measurement of the The headlamp concealment device rule. This is followed by proposed
cutoff parameter for a visually/optically requirements of S16 of the NPRM are paragraphs S6.8.4 and S.8.4.1 of the
aimed headlamp. Paragraph S14.10.1.5 relocated intact to S12 of the final rule. NPRM, applicable to plastic optical
of the NPRM, based upon the April 6, materials, which become paragraphs
S13 Replaceable Headlamp Lens
2000 letter of interpretation to Mr. S14.1.2 and S14.1.3, respectively, in the
Requirements
Spingler,25 required the measurement final rule. Bayer had asked that the
distance to be 10 m. One of the The replaceable headlamp lens word ‘‘reflex’’ be placed before the word
objectives of the rewrite of Standard No. requirements of paragraph S18 of the ‘‘reflector’’ in paragraph S14.1.2 but we
108 is to improve the clarity of the NPRM are relocated intact (split for prefer to keep the language faithful to
document without changing the clarity) to paragraph S13 of the final paragraph S5.1.2 of the current version
substance of the existing requirements. rule. of Standard No. 108. Paragraph S14.1.4,
The referenced letter of interpretation S14 Physical and Photometry Test Samples, of the final rule is paragraph
states a specific measurement distance Procedures and Performance S6.8.2 (split for clarity) of the NPRM,
without alternatives. Therefore, Koito’s Requirements except for the sentence ‘‘A mounting
request would be a substantive change bracket with a sample headlamp
beyond the scope of the rewrite and As previously mentioned, ASSN/
AAM and Grote commented that tables installed must not have a resonant
paragraph S10.18.9.1.5 of the final rule frequency in the 10–55 Hz. range’’
duplicates the requirement from the containing significant amounts of text,
such as the test requirements in Tables which was relocated to paragraph
NPRM. S14.6.8.1 in the final rule because of its
XXI, XXII, and XXIII of the NPRM, are
S11 Replaceable Light Source difficult to use because of lengthy specific applicability to the vibration
Requirements passages that contain several sentences test for headlamps. Paragraph S6.8.3 of
Paragraph S15 of the NPRM, and express several unique test the NPRM is now paragraph S14.1.5 of
Replaceable light source requirements, conditions or requirements. We agree the final rule.
is relocated to S11 in the final rule. with these comments. In the final rule, Paragraph S6.8.5 of the NPRM
Paragraphs S15 and S15.1 from the we have moved virtually all test becomes paragraph S14.2, Photometric
NPRM become paragraphs S11 and procedures and their associated test procedures, in the final rule.
S11.1, respectively, in the final rule. performance requirements to S14. Paragraph S6.8.5.1 was split for clarity
Paragraph S15.4, Ballast markings, of General test procedures and and becomes paragraph S14.2.1 in the
the NPRM becomes paragraph S11.2 in performance requirements that were final rule. Nissan commented that the
the final rule and paragraph S15.5, Gas located in paragraph S6.8 of the NPRM measurement distance requirements in
discharge laboratory life, becomes have been placed in paragraph S14.1 of paragraph S6.8.5.1 were confusing
paragraph S11.3. Paragraph S15.6 of the the final rule. Similarly, the photometric because they mentioned license plate
NPRM, containing requirements for test procedures of paragraph S6.8 of the lamps and headlamps. We agree and
physical tests of replaceable light NPRM are now paragraph S14.2 of the have revised the text of paragraph
sources, is split into paragraphs S11.4.1 final rule. S14.2.1.3 of the final rule to expressly
and S11.4.2 in the final rule. Paragraph Part of Table XXII of the NPRM, the state the required distance for all lamps
S11.4.1 references the deflection test out of focus test applicable to that paragraph S14.2.1 applies to.
and pressure test applicable to motorcycle headlamps designed to Nissan also noted that proposed
replaceable light sources, which were conform to paragraph S10.17(b), paragraph S6.8.5.1 contained a
part of Table XXIII in the NPRM and becomes paragraph S14.3 in the final requirement for photometric intensity
have been relocated to paragraph S14.7 rule. The color test and plastic optical between test points that was duplicated
in the final rule. Paragraph S11.4.2 materials test of Table XXII become in several photometry requirements
references a restated power and flux paragraph S14.4 in the final rule. The tables as a footnote. We eliminated this
measurement test that is described in remaining tests of Table XXII, the language from paragraph S14.2.1 of the
paragraph S14.7.3 of the final rule, vibration test, moisture test, dust test, final rule, deciding that the individual
noting that the performance and corrosion test, become paragraph requirements tables were the
requirements for this test do not reside S14.5 in the final rule. appropriate location for the intensity
in the main text of Standard No. 108, All tests applicable to complete between test point requirements.
but in the applicable appendix of part headlamps included in Table XXIII of Paragraph S6.8.5.1.1 of the NPRM
564 of this chapter. the NPRM have been relocated to becomes, in its entirety, paragraph
The NPRM contained paragraphs paragraph S14.6 of the final rule. The S14.2.1.4 (split for clarity) of the final
S15.2 and S15.3, both titled Power and tests in Table XXIII of the NPRM related rule. Paragraph S6.8.5.1.2, detailing
flux measurement, which essentially to replaceable light sources become requirements for photometry of multiple
described the same test of replaceable paragraph S14.7 in the final rule. Tests compartment lamps and multiple
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light sources. Recognizing that they in Table XXIII of the NPRM that apply lamps, becomes paragraph S14.2.1.5 in
were test procedures and striving to to vehicle headlamp aiming devices the final rule. We adopted the
advance the objectives of the rewrite, we (VHAD) were relocated to be paragraph suggestion of Koito to specifically
S14.8 in the final rule. Also, the tests indicate the type of lamps to which this
25 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/21406.ztv.html applicable to associated equipment that section applies.

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Paragraph S6.8.5.2 of the NPRM rule, with consistent language paragraph S14.2.5.3 contains the last
becomes paragraph S14.2.1.6 (split for throughout. Since the connection to sentence of paragraph S6.8.5.6,
clarity) in the final rule. Paragraph ASTM E 810 still exists, we see no paragraph S14.2.5.4 duplicates
S14.2.1.6.2 was added to this section at reason to modify the final rule as 3M paragraph S6.8.5.6.1, paragraph
the suggestion of Calcoast, which suggested. S14.2.5.5 duplicates paragraph
observed that the NPRM had not Nissan suggested that the language S6.8.5.6.2, paragraphs S14.2.5.5.1 and
included the content of Footnotes 2 and concerning the mounting of a reflex test S14.2.5.5.2 duplicate paragraphs
3, which follow Table IV, of the current sample for photometry, which becomes S6.8.5.6.2(a) and S6.8.5.6.2(b)
version of FMVSS No. 108. The last paragraph S14.2.3.1 of the final rule, did respectively, paragraph S14.2.5.5.3
sentence of paragraph S6.8.2, which not allow for a test chamber which does (split for clarity) duplicates paragraph
specifically addressed samples for the not provide a linear 100 foot test S6.8.5.6.2(c), paragraph S14.2.5.5.4
color test of reflex reflectors, was moved distance, but rather was arranged in a duplicates paragraph S6.8.5.6.2(d),
to be paragraph S14.4.1.1 of the final non-horizontal orientation. We do not paragraph S14.2.5.5.5 (split for clarity)
rule. agree and, therefore, have not changed duplicates paragraph S6.8.5.6.2(e),
Paragraph S6.8.5.3, License plate the text from the NPRM to the final rule. paragraph S14.2.5.5.6 (split for clarity)
lamp photometry, of the NPRM becomes The procedure of paragraph S14.2.3.1 is duplicates paragraph S6.8.5.6.2(f),
paragraph S14.2.2 in the final rule. faithful to the language of paragraph paragraph S14.2.5.5.7 (split for clarity)
Paragraphs S6.8.5.3.1 and S6.8.5.3.2 of 3.1.7 of SAE J594f, Reflex Reflectors, duplicates paragraph S6.8.5.6.2(g),
the NPRM become paragraphs S14.2.2.1 January 1977, incorporated by reference paragraph S14.2.5.5.8 duplicates
and S14.2.2.2, respectively, in the final in the current version of FMVSS 108. paragraph S6.8.5.6.2(i), and paragraph
rule. Nissan observed that the language The reflex reflector photometry test, S14.2.5.5.9 duplicates paragraph
of paragraph S6.8.5.3.2 was awkward like all tests in Standard No. 108, S6.8.5.6.2(j). Paragraph S6.8.5.6.2 of the
and suggested a revision that did not describes a procedure that NHTSA NPRM becomes paragraph S14.2.5.6 of
change the substance of the would use to test a reflex reflector for the final rule, paragraph S6.8.5.6.4
requirement. We adopted Nissan’s purposes of compliance. It also becomes paragraph S14.2.5.7 (split for
suggestion in paragraph S14.2.2.2. We describes the performance requirements clarity), paragraph S6.8.5.6.5 (less the
also added paragraph S14.2.2.3 to the that the reflector must be designed to last sentence) becomes paragraph
final rule to clarify that the bulb conform to, when tested according to S14.2.5.8 (split for clarity), and
requirements of paragraph S14.2.1.6 the procedure. If a manufacturer paragraph S6.8.5.6.6 becomes paragraph
also apply to license plate lamp chooses to use a procedure that differs S14.2.5.9. Guide commented that
photometry. with that described in FMVSS No. 108 paragraph S6.8.5.6.2(h) of the NPRM
Proposed paragraph S6.8.5.4, stating as its basis of compliance, or to establish described photometry measurement for
requirements for reflex reflector and a basis of compliance that does not rely
moveable reflector headlamps rather
retroreflective sheeting photometry, on an actual test, it is free to do so.
than an aiming procedure and did not
becomes paragraph S14.2.3 in the final However, the manufacturer must
belong where it was located. We agree
rule. For clarity, paragraph S6.8.5.4 of exercise due care in designing its
and have designated this provision as
the NPRM has been split into product to conform to the performance
paragraph S14.2.5.10 in the final rule.
paragraphs S14.2.3.1 through S14.2.3.6 requirements of all applicable tests in
and paragraph S6.8.5.4.1 has been split Standard No. 108 when tested according AAM and Honda objected to the word
into paragraphs S14.2.3.7.1 through to the procedures stated in the standard. ‘‘specified’’ which appeared before
S14.2.3.8.2 in the final rule. Likewise, Paragraph S6.8.5.5, Daytime running ‘‘position relative to the * * *’’ in the
paragraph S6.8.5.4.1.1 in the NPRM lamp (DRL) photometry measurements, NPRM. We omitted ‘‘specified’’ in the
becomes paragraph S14.2.3.8.3.1 in the of the NPRM becomes paragraph S14.2.4 final rule to be faithful to paragraph
final rule. (split for clarity) of the final rule. S7.8.2.2(b) of the current version of
3M commented that the language of Paragraph S14.2.4.3 was added to the FMVSS No. 108. We also added a
paragraph S6.8.5.4.1 of the NPRM, final rule to clarify that the bulb horizontal range exclusion for visually/
which is paragraph S14.2.3.7 of the final requirements of paragraph S14.2.1.6 optically aimed moveable reflector
rule, did not allow a complete also apply to DRL photometry. headlamps with a fixed horizontal aim
photometric evaluation of retroreflective Nissan expressed some confusion to be faithful to paragraph S7.8.2.2(d) of
sheeting because a presentation angle regarding how a dedicated DRL, without the current version of FMVSS No. 108,
was not specified. 3M’s premise was any equipment that alters or conditions as noted in the comments of Nissan.
that the test method of the current the voltage, should have power applied Paragraph S14.3 of the final rule
version of FMVSS No. 108 relies on to it for photometric testing as stated in contains the out of focus test that was
conventions regarding orientation and paragraph S14.2.4. We are unable to part of Table XXII of the NPRM. This
presentation that are part of ASTM E answer this question as part of the test only applies to motorcycle
810, Standard Test Method for rewrite process and note Nissan can headlamps that are designed to conform
Coefficient of Retroreflection of request an interpretation for this to paragraph S10.17(b) of the final rule.
Retroreflective Sheeting Utilizing the specific situation. AAM identified two typographical
Coplaner Geometry, which is referenced Paragraph S6.8.5.6 of the NPRM, errors in the out of focus test procedure
by ASTM D 4956, Standard covering photometry measurements of where there were no periods after the
Specification for Retroreflective headlamps, becomes paragraph S14.2.5 abbreviations ‘‘in’’. Our practice is to
Sheeting for Traffic Control, a document in the final rule. Some rearrangement of not include a period after such
3M contends is no longer referenced in content and splitting of sections for abbreviations, so the text identified by
the NPRM. This contention is incorrect. clarity was incorporated into the final AAM is correct although in several
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The reference to ASTM D 4956, from rule. Specifically, paragraph S14.2.5.1 of other instances we did include a period
paragraph S5.7.1.2 of the current the final rule contains the first sentence after such an abbreviation. In the final
version of FMVSS No. 108, is replicated of paragraph S6.8.5.6 of the NPRM, rule we have removed periods after all
in paragraph S7.12.1 of the NPRM and paragraph S14.2.5.2 contains the last such abbreviations, except in those
finally by paragraph S8.2.1.2 of the final sentence of paragraph S6.8.5.6.5, situations where other grammatical

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requirements, such as the end of a proposed Table XXII. We do not find the current version of FMVSS No. 108
sentence, require a period. that the text of proposed Table XXII and may increase the testing burden of
Paragraph S14.4 of the final rule, omitted any substantive portion of SAE the industry. We do not believe that
General test procedures and J578c that describes how the test is specifying 2.3 mm thick samples is a
performance requirements, contains the performed. In the absence of any change from current requirements. SAE
color test and plastic optical materials specific explanation of its comments by J576 JUL91 does only suggest 2.3 mm
test, along with applicable AAM, we are not revising the samples, paragraph S5.2.1 of the current
requirements, from Table XXII of the Tristimulus Method section, now version of FMVSS No. 108 (and
NPRM. In both tests, the text as stated located in paragraph S14.4.1.4 of the paragraph S5.1 of the NPRM) states that,
in the NPRM has been split for clarity final rule. ‘‘The words ‘It is recommended that’,
in the final rule. Paragraph S14.4.2 of the final rule ‘recommendations’, or ‘should be’
AAM noted that the Scope of SAE contains the plastic optical materials appearing in any SAE Standard or
J578c, Color Specification for Electric tests from Table XXII of the NPRM. Recommended Practice referenced or
Signal Lighting Devices, February 1977, Atlas, Bayer, Grote, and AAM subreferenced by this standard shall be
contains limitations on the application commented that the performance read as setting forth mandatory
of this standard that may be important requirement for headlamp lens materials requirements * * *’’ We consider the
to lighting manufacturers. This portion after the outdoor exposure test portion term ‘‘suggest’’ to have a similar
of SAE J578c was inadvertently left out of the plastic optical materials tests in meaning as the term ‘‘should be’’ and
of Table XXII in the NPRM. In the final Table XXII of the NPRM was not have therefore included 2.3 mm as one
rule, we have added it as paragraph identical to that stated in Section 4.2.3 of the sample thicknesses used for the
S14.4.1. This section will now read, of SAE J576 JUL91. The language of the plastic optical material test. We believe
‘‘The requirement applies to the overall NPRM stated that the requirement was there is value in specifying sample
effective color of light emitted by the no haze greater than 0% when measured thickness. The inclusion of the 2.3 mm
device and not to the color of the light by ASTM D 1033 (1992). SAE J576 sample thickness also serves to alert
from a small area of the lens. It does not JUL91 states the requirement as ‘‘shall regulated parties that should the agency
apply to any pilot, indicator, or tell-tale show no deterioration.’’ choose to perform a compliance test, it
lights. The color of the sample device Koito noted that while the will perform the test on this sample
* * *’’ measurement method of ASTM D 1033 thickness.
Paragraph S14.4.1.1 of the final rule, (1992) was required for evaluation of the AAM suggested eliminating the
detailing alternatives for samples used post exposure haze of other materials, it notation concerning test samples having
in the color test of reflex reflectors, was not required for the evaluation of 32 sq cm of exposed area from the
originated from the last sentence of headlamps. Koito also stated that the Procedure column of Table XXII of the
paragraph S6.8.2 of the NPRM. post exposure performance NPRM and allowing it to remain in the
Koito, 3M, and Honda commented requirements for luminous Samples column of the outdoor
that the language of the performance transmittance and color required by exposure test portion of the plastic
requirement for the color test for the SAE J576 at Sections 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 are optical materials tests. We do not agree
color yellow using the visual evaluation missing from the NPRM. We agree with with this suggestion. The area
method omitted a key word. In the these comments and have revised the requirement is important in both the
NPRM, the requirement is stated as, plastic optical materials test outdoor preparation of the samples and their
‘‘Yellow (Amber) is acceptable if it is exposure test portion performance mounting orientation for the exposure
less saturated (paler), greener, or redder requirements accordingly. Specifically, test. An area specification is appropriate
than the limit standard.’’ The revised the performance requirement section for in both places and is included in both
text in the final rule states, ‘‘Yellow headlamp lenses, now paragraph paragraph S14.4.2.1.2 and paragraph
(Amber) is not acceptable if it is less S14.4.2.2.4.2 of the final rule, no longer S14.4.2.2.3.1 of the final rule.
saturated (paler), greener, or redder than requires evaluation by ASTM D 1033 The NPRM omitted the third sentence
the limit standard’’ [emphasis added]. (1992) and states, ‘‘After completion of of SAE J576 JUL91 Section 3.3.2
AAM commented that the color the outdoor exposure test, materials requiring that samples be mounted in
restricted blue should be included in used for headlamp lenses must show no the open with a minimum 30 cm (11.8
the final rule because it appears in SAE deterioration.’’ The performance in) separation from their background.
J578c. We know of no requirements in requirement section for luminous This has been corrected in the final rule
Standard No. 108 for the light from a transmittance, now paragraph by including the separation requirement
lamp or the color of a lens material to S14.4.2.2.4.4, states, ‘‘After completion in paragraph S14.4.2.2.3.1.
be restricted blue. We also observed that of the outdoor exposure test, all AAM suggested that content of the
there are also no such requirements for materials, when compared with the Samples column of Table XXII of the
the colors green or blue. Therefore, we unexposed control samples, must not NPRM for the outdoor exposure test
have not only decided against adding have their luminous transmittance portion of the plastic optical material
requirements for restricted blue but also changed by more than 25% when tested tests be repeated for the heat test portion
have removed the requirements for the in accordance with ASTM E 308–66 separately. We agree that this would add
colors blue and green for both the visual (1973) using CIE Illuminant A (2856K).’’ clarity. We have revised the heat test
evaluation method and the tristimulus The performance requirement section portion of the plastic optical materials
evaluation method of the color test of for color, now paragraph S14.4.2.2.4.5, tests to appear as a test separate from
paragraph S14.4.1 in the final rule. states, ‘‘After completion of the outdoor the outdoor exposure test and have
AAM commented that Section 3.2, exposure test, all materials must placed content specific to the heat test
Tristimulus Method, from SAE J578c is conform to the color test of this standard into paragraph S14.4.2.3 of the final
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not stated in its entirety in the in the range of thickness stated by the rule.
procedure column of the color test of material manufacturer.’’ Paragraph S14.5 of the final rule,
proposed Table XXII. We have reviewed Bayer stated that specifying 2.3 mm Signal lamp and reflective device test
SAE J578c and the text of the thick test samples for the plastic optical procedures and performance
Tristimulus Method procedure from materials tests represents a change from requirements, contains the vibration,

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moisture, dust, and corrosion tests that portions of their text split for clarity as which is faithful to paragraph S8.7(d) of
were located in Table XXII of the part of their relocation from Table XXIII the current version of FMVSS No. 108.
NPRM. of the NPRM to paragraph S14.6 of the As we mentioned in the discussion of
As previously mentioned, the final rule. These tests include: (1) paragraph S14.5, the references in the
references in the NPRM to SAE J577, Abrasion test, (2) chemical resistance NPRM to SAE J577, Vibration Test
Vibration Test Machine, April 1964, test, (3) corrosion connector test, (4) Machine, April 1964, have been
have been eliminated in the final rule dust test, (5) temperature cycle test, (6) eliminated in the final rule with the
with the incorporation of the drawing internal heat test, (7) humidity test, (8) incorporation of the drawing and
and mechanical details of the vibration sealing test, (9) chemical resistance of mechanical details of the machine as
machine as Figure 21. The reference in reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps, Figure 21. The reference in the vibration
the vibration test procedure to SAE J577 (10) corrosion resistance of reflectors of test procedure of Table XXIII of the
has been revised to Figure 21 in replaceable lens headlamps, (11) torque NPRM to SAE J577 has been revised to
paragraph S14.5.1.1 of the final rule. deflection test, and (12) both aiming Figure 21 in the final rule.
AAM, Honda, and Guide commented adjustment tests. Nissan observed that the applicability
about the inadvertent omission of the Honda commented that the pad of the chemical resistance of reflectors
phrase ‘‘one hour’’ from the moisture cycling rate of the abrasion test of replaceable lens headlamps test and
test procedure of Table XXII of the procedure of Table XXIII of the NPRM the corrosion resistance of reflectors of
NPRM. This is corrected in the final rule contained typographical errors. We replaceable lens headlamps test did not
where paragraph S14.5.2.1, second agree and have revised the text in include integral beam headlamps, as
sentence, states, ‘‘* * * followed by a paragraph S14.6.1.1.3 of the final rule required by paragraph S5.8.11 of the
one hour drain period * * *’’ from ‘‘11 cycles at 10 ± cm per second current version of FMVSS No. 108. Its
We have decided that the first * * *’’ to the correct language from the comment is correct and paragraph
sentence of the moisture test current version of FMVSS No. 108 S10.14.7.6 of the final rule correctly
performance requirements of the NPRM paragraph S8.2(b) which is, ‘‘* * * 11 states the requirement for these two
stating, ‘‘After completion of the cycles at 4 ± 0.8 in (10 ± 2 cm) per tests.
moisture test * * *’’ is more second * * *.’’ Koito and Nissan questioned whether
appropriately part of the test procedure. AAM stated the requirement that the the inward force test of Table XXIII
Therefore, we are relocating it to be the same sample headlamp be used in both applied to headlamps other than sealed
last sentence of paragraph S14.5.2.1 of the temperature cycle test and the beams, particularly those headlamps
the final rule. internal heat test was not supported in that utilize a VHAD or are visually/
Calcoast commented that the moisture the current version of FMVSS No. 108. optically aimed. This requirement
test performance requirement for a We disagree. The current version of comes from paragraph S7.8.5.1(b) of the
sealed reflex unit stated in SAE J594f, Standard No. 108 states, concerning current version of FMVSS No. 108. That
January 1977, at Section 3.1.4 is ‘‘any integral beam headlamps at paragraph paragraph states, ‘‘when a headlamp is
visible moisture constitutes a failure.’’ S7.4(h)(5), ‘‘The headlamp shall meet installed on a motor vehicle, its aim in
We agree and have revised the moisture the requirements of subparagraph (i) any direction shall not change by more
test performance requirements of and then those of subparagraph (ii) than 0.30 degree nor shall the lamp
paragraph S14.5.2.2 in the final rule to [emphasis added]. Subparagraph (i) recede more than 0.1 in (2.5 mm) after
state ‘‘Accumulation of moisture in describes a temperature cycle test in being subjected to an inward force of 50
excess of 2 cc, or any visible moisture accordance with paragraph S8.6.1 and pounds (222 newtons) applied evenly to
in a sealed reflex unit, must constitute subparagraph (ii) describes an internal the lens parallel to the mechanical
a failure.’’ heat test in accordance with paragraph axis.’’ There is no distinction in this
AAM noted that the dust test of Table S8.6.2. Paragraph S7.5(h)(i) requires paragraph to any particular type of
XXII of the NPRM is not required to be replaceable bulb headlamps to meet the headlamp, so it must be applied to all
performed on sealed units per SAE same physical tests in paragraphs 7.4(g) headlamps.
J575d, August 1967, Section G, and SAE and S7.4(h) that are required of an Nissan commented that the
J575e, August 1970, Section G. We agree integral beam headlamp. Thus, there is performance requirements of the aiming
and in the final rule paragraph a very clear requirement that a single adjustment test (laboratory) were
S14.5.3.1, Samples states, ‘‘A sealed headlamp sample be used, in sequence, ‘‘difficult to read’’ as presented but did
unit is not required to meet the in the temperature cycle test and then not explain the difficulties or suggest
requirements of this test.’’ We also the internal heat test. alternative language. In the final rule,
decided that the first sentence of the Guide and VS commented that the we have split the performance
performance requirements of the dust humidity test of Table XXIII of the requirements of this test into paragraphs
test stating, ‘‘After completion of the NPRM incorrectly included a S14.6.17.2.1, S14.6.17.2.2, and
dust test the exterior surface of the performance requirement of post-test S14.6.17.2.3, which we believe will
device must be cleaned’’ was part of the photometry. We agree, and the post-test improve clarity.
test procedure rather than a photometry provision has been removed Paragraph S14.7 of the final rule,
performance requirement so that from the humidity test, which is Replaceable light source physical test
sentence was moved to paragraph contained in paragraph S14.6.7.2 of the procedures and performance
S14.5.3.2 in the final rule. final rule. requirements, consists of the deflection
Paragraph S14.6 of the final rule, Honda and AAM observed a test for replaceable light sources and the
Headlamp physical test procedures and typographical error in the tolerance for pressure test for replaceable light
performance requirements, consists of air flow uniformity in paragraph (d) of sources from Table XXIII of the NPRM,
all headlamp test procedures from Table the humidity test procedure. The text of along with a replaceable light source
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XXIII of the NPRM, except for those that the NPRM states, ‘‘* * * each grid point power and flux measurement procedure.
apply specifically to replaceable light is 10% of the average * * *’’ while the The text of all of these items has been
sources or vehicle headlamp aiming corrected text of paragraph S14.6.7.1.6 split for clarity in the final rule. There
devices (VHAD). Several of the tests that of the final rule states, ‘‘* * * each grid were no comments submitted that
become paragraph S14.6 had significant point is ± 10% of the average* * *’’ impacted the substance of these

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procedures and requirements. However restored the applicable language from optimum location for this provision,
as mentioned in the discussion of the SAE documents 26 incorporated by and have inserted it into the applicable
paragraph S11, the NPRM contained reference in the current version of test procedure in the final rule. Where
paragraphs S15.2 and S15.3, both titled FMVSS No. 108 for testing devices used those proposed procedures stated
Power and flux measurement, that in a nominal 6 volt electrical system. ‘‘* * * with the design load connected
essentially described the same test of The restoration of nominal 6 volt * * *’’ the text of the final rule now
replaceable light sources. We requirements necessitated revisions in states ‘‘* * * with the design load
consolidated the procedures of the following portions of paragraph (variable load flashers are tested with
paragraphs S15.2 and S15.3 into a single S14.9 of the final rule: (1) S14.9.1 turn their minimum and their maximum
procedure, without revising or signal operating unit durability test design load) connected * * *.’’
modifying the requirements, and procedure, (2) S14.9.2.2 vehicular Koito and AAM observed that load
relocated it to paragraph S14.7.3 of the hazard warning signal operating unit specifications stated in the procedure
final rule. durability performance requirements, for the turn signal flasher voltage drop
Paragraph S14.8 of the final rule, and (3) S14.9.3 turn signal flasher and test and durability test procedures did
Vehicle headlamp aiming device vehicular hazard warning signal flasher not clearly replicate the requirements
(VHAD) physical test procedures and test procedure and performance from paragraph S5.1.1.19 of the current
performance requirements, consists of requirements. version of FMVSS No. 108, and SAE
the six VHAD tests that were part of AAM and Honda commented that the J590b, October 1965, Section 2. We have
Table XXIII of the NPRM. There were no reference in the turn signal operating revised the language of those procedures
comments submitted that impacted the unit durability test procedure in Table in the final rule to clarify the load
substance of these procedures and XXI of the NPRM incorrectly stated the specifications. The proposed procedures
requirements. ripple voltage tolerance of the power stated ‘‘* * * with the maximum design
Paragraph S14.9 of the final rule, supply. We agree and have revised the load connected * * *’’ which has
Associated equipment physical test language of that procedure in the final changed in the final rule to state ‘‘ * * *
procedures and performance rule. The text ‘‘ * * * ripple voltage of with the design load (variable load
requirements, consists of the tests less than 5% * * * was changed to flashers are tested with their maximum
contained in Table XXI of the NPRM. ‘‘ * * * ripple voltage of not more than design load) connected * * *.’’
These test procedures and performance 5% * * *.’’ Honda observed that the durability
requirements, as written in Table XXI of The turn signal flasher and vehicular test performance requirements for the
the NPRM, were in block paragraph hazard warning signal flasher both vehicular hazard warning signal flasher
form. As we have done in several places maintained their reference to SAE did not include the notation from SAE
throughout the final rule, we have split J823b, Flasher Test Equipment, April J945, February 1966, Section 7,
some of these longer paragraphs into 1968, in the NPRM. As previously requiring the post durability test to
several smaller sections, which are mentioned, this document was incorporate pilot lamps as part of the
grouped according to similar content, in eliminated from the final rule by maximum design load. We agree and
an effort to improve clarity. incorporating its content directly into have revised the language of the
One of the goals of the FMVSS No. Standard No. 108. This was performance requirements in paragraph
108 rewrite was to remove outdated accomplished in the final rule by S14.9.3.10.3 of the final rule from
requirements from the document. The creating Figure 22, Flasher Standard ‘‘ * * * maximum design load at an
physical test requirements for associated Test Circuit, for the circuit diagram of ambient * * * ’’ to ‘‘maximum design
equipment presented an opportunity to Figure 1 of SAE J823b, and also by load, including pilot lamps as specified
pursue this goal. The applicable SAE listing the test setup requirements of by the manufacturer, at an
documents incorporated by reference in Sections 3 through 9 of SAE J823b in ambient* * *.’’
FMVSS No. 108 were adopted between paragraph S14.9.3 of the final rule as Honda, AAM, and Koito all
1964 and 1969 and several of them well as the power supply specifications commented that the column headings
contained specifications for both for testing performance requirements for the semiautomatic headlamp beam
vehicles with a nominal 12 volt and those specifications for testing switching device sensitivity test
electrical system as well as those with durability requirements that were performance requirements were
a nominal 6 volt electrical system. Section 10 of SAE J823b into paragraph incorrect. We agree and have revised
Believing that few, if any, vehicles S14.9.3.2 of the final rule. them in paragraph S14.9.3.11.2.3.1 of
manufactured after the effective date of Koito commented on the load the final rule. They now read from left
FMVSS No. 108 have been equipped requirements (from paragraph S5.1.1.19 to right: Test position (degrees) [above
with a nominal 6 volt electrical system, of the current version of FMVSS No. the two columns of lateral and vertical
we deleted references to that voltage in 108) for variable load turn signal test points], Dim (cd at 100 ft), and Hold
the proposal. flashers for the turn signal flasher (cd at 100 ft).
In its comments, AAM requested that starting time test and the flash rate and Honda observed that the maximum
we restore the nominal 6 volt percent current ‘‘on’’ time test. In the dim sensitivity at test point H–5R was
requirements to the physical test proposal, this information was located incorrectly stated in the NPRM as 100
requirements for associated equipment. parenthetically after the notation (cd at 100 feet). The correct value is 150
Presumably, this comment was based ‘‘Starting time test’’ and ‘‘Flash rate and (cd at 100 feet) as shown in Table 1 of
upon the knowledge that one of its percent current ‘‘on’’ time test’’. We SAE J565b, February 1969. We
constituent organizations was producing agree with Koito that this is not the incorporated this revision in the final
a 6 volt device for a regulated vehicle rule.
or had plans to do so. While we 26 SAE J589, Turn Signal Operating Units, April Koito also commented that the
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continue to believe that those 1964; SAE J910, Vehicular Hazard Warning Signal semiautomatic headlamp beam
requirements are not currently being Operating Unit, January 1966; SAE J945, Vehicular switching device voltage regulation test
Hazard Warning Signal Flasher, February 1966;
used by any regulated party, we do not SAE J590b, Automotive Turn Signal Flashers,
procedure incorrectly refers to ‘‘dim’’
want to eliminate a compliance option October 1965; and SAE J823b, Flasher Test sensitivity in the NPRM. The correct
that has value. Therefore, we have Equipment, April 1968. notation is ‘‘hold’’ sensitivity and that is

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what appears in paragraph with Honda, which commented about passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and
S14.9.3.11.3.1.2 of the final rule. the same language in Table I relating to buses less than 80 inches in overall
AAM commented that the language of motorcycle headlamps, believe that this width are activated.’’ This revision was
the semiautomatic headlamp beam phrase is inconsistent with the current made to the Device Activation
switching device warmup test FMVSS No. 108 requirement. We agree requirements for taillamps, side marker
performance requirement of the NPRM that it does not fully describe the lamps, intermediate side marker lamps,
was not faithful to SAE J565b, February relationship required between upper and license plate lamps in Table I–a.
1969, Section 4.5. We have revised that and lower beam headlamps. We AAM also commented that the
language in paragraph S14.9.3.11.5.2 of removed this language from Tables I–a activation requirement for a stop lamp
the final rule to be identical to the first and I–c of the final rule and optically combined with a turn signal
sentence of Section 4.5, specifically, ‘‘If incorporated headlamp beam spacing lamp was not stated in Table I using the
the warmup time of the device exceeds requirements in paragraph S6.1.3.5. language from SAE J586 FEB84, at
10 seconds, it must maintain the AAM commented that the activation Section 5.4.2 and SAE J1398 MAY85,
headlamps on lower beam during requirement for turn signal lamps also at Section 5.4.2. One of the stated
warmup.’’ stating, ‘‘Current 108 paragraph intentions of the rewrite is to clarify
S5.1.1.19 references SAE J590b * * * in requirements without making
Tables which Figure 1 combines flash rate and substantive changes to them. Although
Table I–a Portion of Proposed Table I percent current ‘‘on’’ time. This figure we were satisfied with the language of
appears as Figure 2 in Rewrite 108. the NPRM in this situation, we revised
As mentioned previously, we have
There is no reference to percent current the language to be faithful to the original
decided to split Table I of the NPRM
‘‘on’’ time in Rewrite 108 Table I. We SAE language. We replaced the third
into three sections. Table I–a lists lamp
are unable to find a reference to Rewrite sentence of the Device Activation
and reflective device requirements for Figure 108 anywhere within the Rewrite
passenger cars, multipurpose passenger requirement for stop lamps in Table I–
108 text.’’ The reference to NPRM a with ‘‘When a stop signal is optically
vehicles, trucks, and buses of all widths. Figure 2 is contained in Table XXI
Where we refer to comments about the combined with the turn signal, the
which details the performance of turn circuit must be such that the stop signal
content of Table I–a, it indicates that signal (and vehicular hazard warning
those comments were submitted about cannot be turned on if the turn signal is
signal) flashers, specifically in the flashing.’’ Identical revisions have been
the content of the portion of Table I of performance requirements for the Flash
the NPRM now contained in Table I–a made in Table I–b for trailers and Table
Rate and Percent Current ‘‘On’’ Time I–c for motorcycles.
of the final rule. Test. We agree that including the rate of
Based on comments submitted to the We have corrected an omission in
60 to 120 flashes per minute in Table I Table I–a with respect to the
docket regarding our proposal, we have is a detail that is not needed. The flash
decided to make several revisions to requirements applicable to a truck
rate will be determined by the choice of
Table I–a. One of these revisions was tractor. The current version of FMVSS
flasher and its performance when
the inclusion of the abbreviation ‘‘MPV’’ No. 108 excludes, in paragraph S5.1.1.2,
subjected to the test of paragraph
in parenthesis after the term a truck tractor from being required to be
S14.9.3. Therefore, we are revising the
‘‘Multipurpose Passenger Vehicle’’ in equipped with any rear side marker
Device Activation requirement for turn
the title of Table I–a. We have devices, rear clearance lamps, and rear
signal lamps in Table I–a (and the
subsequently used this abbreviation identification lamps. The NPRM
corresponding requirement in Table I–b
several times in this document. included this exclusion for rear side
for trailers and in Table I–c for
Guide commented that the reference marker lamps, rear clearance lamps, and
motorcycles) to read, ‘‘Flash when the
in Table I for the number and color of rear identification lamps but failed to
turn signal flasher is actuated by the
headlamps does not directly state a turn signal operating unit.’’ This include the notation for rear side reflex
number but instead makes an additional statement more accurately describes the reflectors. This has been corrected in the
reference to Table II. We do not find this process by which the turn signal lamps final rule.
method difficult or complex, it are caused to flash. TTMA stated in its comments that the
somewhat duplicates the method of the AAM, Honda, and Koito commented partial photometric output exclusion for
current version of FMVSS No. 108. Sub- about the activation requirements for clearance lamps mounted other than on
referencing is necessary because the taillamps, side marker lamps, and the front or rear of a vehicle where
number of headlamps actually used license plate lamps with respect to their necessary to indicate overall vehicle
depends on the headlighting system required activation when the parking width or protect the lamps from
chosen. We clarified the language of lamps are activated. AAM contended damage, appearing in paragraph S5.3.2.1
Table I–a for the number of upper beam that the NPRM does not clearly state of the current version of FMVSS No.
and lower beam headlamps from that the taillamps, side marker lamps, 108, does not appear in the NPRM. The
‘‘ * * * type and number * * * ’’ to and license plate lamps are required to exclusion for mounting location does
‘‘ * * * headlighting system * * * ’’ to be activated when the parking lamps are appear in the Mounting Location portion
more precisely describe this sub activated only on vehicles less than of Table I–a for both front and rear
reference. 2032 mm in overall width. To clarify clearance lamps (and has been added to
AAM and Koito commented about the those requirements, we revised the Table I–b for trailer clearance lamps).
inclusion of the phrase ‘‘ * * * equal to language of the activation requirement The photometric output exclusion for
or wider than the upper beam from * * * ‘‘Must be activated when such lamps appears in Table XI as
headlamps’’ in the mounting location the headlamps are activated in a steady Footnote 4, which is the appropriate
description for lower beam headlamps burning state or the parking lamps are location for this detail.
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along with the corresponding phrase activated (not a requirement for vehicles TTMA also called attention to an
‘‘ * * * equal to or narrower than the 2032 mm or more in overall width)‘‘, to interpretative rule issued by the agency
lower beam headlamps’’ in the * * * ‘‘Must be activated when the in 1999 and published at 64 FR 16358 27
mounting location description for the headlamps are activated in a steady
upper beam headlamps. They, along burning state or the parking lamps on 27 64 FR 16358, (April 5, 1999).

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which quantifies the requirement that functioning when the brakes are Guide commented that additional
clearance lamps and identification applied, the first sentence ensures that DRL activation requirements are
lamps be mounted ‘‘as near the top as the stop signal overrides the turn contained in paragraph S7.11.2 of the
practicable’’ and describes how signal.’’ NPRM and should be added to Table I–
‘‘practicability’’ will be determined for The Farber interpretation was a. We disagree. There is language in
these lamps when mounted on a vehicle incorporated into the NPRM because of Table I–a calling attention to these
with cargo doors. We agree that this its conclusion that, ‘‘ * * * when a additional requirements and directing
interpretative rule concerning vehicle is slowed by downshifting or an users to paragraph S7.10.10.1(c) of the
presumption of practicability is engine retarder, from the perspective of final rule, a notice that we believe is
important to include in FMVSS No. 108. the following driver, it would be adequate.
Therefore, we have added to the equivalent to what would occur if the Table I–b Portion of Proposed Table I
Mounting Height portion of Table I–a, service brakes were applied. Therefore,
applicable to rear clearance lamps and it would be permissible for the stop In addition to those revisions to Table
rear identification lamps (and to those lamps to be illuminated under this I–b that were listed in the preceding
same lamps in Table I–b applicable to scenario, since such illumination would section, several others have been
trailers), the sentence ‘‘Practicability of not create any confusion in the mind of incorporated in the final rule.
locating lamps on the vehicle header is AAM commented that the width
a following driver and thus would not
presumed when the header extends at criteria for installing a single taillamp,
‘‘impair the effectiveness’’ of the
least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear stop lamp, or rear reflex reflector on a
required stop lamps.’’ Clearly, the
doors.’’ trailer was incorrectly dimensioned.
Farber interpretation establishes a
ASSN commented that the Table I–b stated that the installation of
situation where the action of a retarder
incorporation of the May 26, 2000 letter a single such device can occur ‘‘* * *
or similar device is equivalent to the
of interpretation to Mr. Farber 28 on trailers less than 760 mm wide.’’ The
action of applying the service brakes.
permitting stop lamps to be activated correct dimension from paragraph
Since S5.5.4 of the current version of
when a vehicle is slowed by a device S5.1.1.14 of the current version of
FMVSS No. 108 requires activation of
designed to retard the motion of a FMVSS No. 108 is 30 inches, and the
the high-mounted stop lamp when the final rule states that dimension for all
vehicle, should also be extended to service brake is applied, it follows that
activation of a high-mounted stop lamp. three devices. Current paragraph
it may also be activated by application S5.1.1.14 also states that when single
The Farber interpretation was issued of a retarder. Table I–a of the final rule
several years after high-mounted stop devices are used, they shall be located
has been revised to include this ‘‘* * * at or near its vertical
lamps were first required on vehicles permitted activation.
but does not explicitly address their centerline.’’ To clarify this requirement,
AAM recognized a typographical error we have revised the Mounting Location
activation. The current version of
in Table I–a in describing the mounting requirement language from ‘‘A single
FMVSS No. 108 contains, in paragraph
location requirements for school bus lamp (reflector) must be mounted at or
S5.5.4, slightly different activation
signal warning lamps. AAM suggested near the vertical centerline’’ to ‘‘When
requirements for stop lamps and for
language that is more faithful to that of a single lamp (reflector) is installed, it
high-mounted stop lamps. It states,
SAE J887, School Bus Red Signal must be mounted at or near the vertical
‘‘The stop lamps on each vehicle shall
Lamps, July 1964, the document centerline.’’
be activated upon application of the
incorporated by reference in the current AAM, Grote, and Koito all
service brakes. The high-mounted stop
version of Standard No. 108. We have commented that the NPRM did not
lamp on each vehicle shall be activated
revised the language of the final rule include the mounting height limitation
only upon application of the service
applicable to the mounting location of of 60 inches for rear side marker lamps
brakes’’ (emphasis added). This
these lamps to state, ‘‘ * * * but in no installed on trailers 2032 mm or more in
difference in activation requirements is
case shall the spacing between lamps be overall width, which is stated in Table
explained in the September 10, 1990
less than 40 inches’’, which is more II of the current version of FMVSS No.
letter of interpretation to Mr.
faithful to SAE J887. 108. This omission is corrected in Table
Henneberger 29 which states, ‘‘ * * *
The second sentence of S5.5.4 restricts Nissan commented that inclusion of I–b in the final rule.
operation of the center stop lamp to the Daytime Running Lamp (DRL) in a TTMA commented on the appropriate
application of the service brakes, but no Table titled Required Lamps and location for the requirement stating that
such restriction exists in the first Reflective Devices implied that the DRL conspicuity treatment on a trailer can
sentence. Although the first sentence was the only non-required lamp serve as the required reflex reflectors if
requires operation of the stop lamps permitted on regulated vehicles. We the conspicuity treatment is placed at
upon application of the service brakes, have discussed previously that we the locations required for reflex
when considered in conjunction with believe Table I–a is the appropriate reflectors. This alternative is contained
the restriction stated in the second location for the DRL in the standard. in paragraph S6.1.1.1.1 in the NPRM,
sentence, it can be read as implying that However, we have clarified the portion but we agree it is best located in Table
there may be other conditions under of Table I–a applicable to the DRL by I–b and have moved it there, following
which activation of the stop lamps is revising the title from ‘‘Additional the listing of ‘‘Reflex Reflectors’’ and
permissible. However the reason for the Lamps Allowed * * *’’ to ‘‘Daytime ‘‘Intermediate Reflex Reflectors’’, and
difference in the two sentences is Running Lamps Allowed * * *.’’ have eliminated paragraph S6.1.1.1.1
otherwise. Commonly, in red rear Nissan and AAM commented that from the final rule.
combination lamps, the same filament Table I–a did not completely describe TTMA commented that the
serves both the stop and turn signal all mounting height restrictions on DRLs requirements for mounting height for
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functions. If the turn signal is in the appropriate portion of the table. clearance lamps and identification
We have clarified in Table I–a that lamps in Table I–b was missing. We
28 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/files/21341.ztv.html additional requirements do apply and have corrected this by adding the
29 http://isearch.nhtsa.gov/gm/90/nht90– are included in paragraph S7.10.13(b) of appropriate language from Table II of
3.93.html the final rule. the current version of FMVSS No. 108,

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‘‘As near the top as practicable.’’ We We agree and this has been corrected in source composition of HB2 or any single
have also added language to the the final rule. filament type used alone or with any
Mounting Height portion of the rear Koito commented that if an integral other single or dual filament type,
clearance lamp section stating that, beam headlamp was used in a should include UB3 (Figure 27–1 or 27–
similar to Table I–a, they are not combination headlighting system, it 2 in the current version of FMVSS No.
required to be mounted as near the top could consist of beam contributors and 108) as well as the listed UB2 (Figure
as practicable when the rear if so, they would be subject to the 17–1 or 17–2 in the current version of
identification lamps are mounted at the photometric allocation formula FMVSS No. 108). They provide the
extreme height of the vehicle, an described in paragraph S6.8.5.6.6 of the rationale that this is permitted by
exclusion provided by paragraph NPRM. Koito requested that a footnote paragraph S7.5(d)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of the
S5.3.1.4 of the current version of be added to call attention to that current version of FMVSS No. 108.
FMVSS No. 108 and inadvertently possibility. We agree and have added Indeed, a literal reading of that text
omitted from the NPRM. Footnote 7 to the final rule stating could lead to such a conclusion.
‘‘Beam contributor photometric However, Figure 26, Table for
Table I–c Portion of Proposed Table I allocation formula of paragraph Determining the Photometric
Consistent with the revision in S14.2.5.9 may apply.’’ Requirements of Replaceable Bulb
language to the Number and Color Headlamp Systems, of the current
Table II–c Headlighting Systems— version of FMVSS No. 108 clearly
portion of headlamps in Table I–a, we Integral Beam
have revised Table I–c. It previously shows, in the box where the row marked
stated ‘‘* * * of a type and number Footnote 6 was revised for clarity in ‘‘Two-Headlamp System’’ intersects the
listed * * *,’’ but now states ‘‘* * * of the final rule to read, ‘‘Beam contributor column marked ‘‘HB2 or Any Single
a headlighting system listed * * *.’’ We photometric allocation formula of Filament Type used Alone or with Any
believe that this revision more precisely paragraph S14.2.5.9 applies.’’ Other Single or Dual Filament Type,’’
describes this requirement. Koito commented that the lower beam that the applicable photometry
AAM commented that there are photometry requirements reference in requirements are those of Figure 17–1 or
additional motorcycle headlamp the NPRM for the headlamp in a four 17–2.31 Faced with the seeming
mounting restrictions that are not lamp system that provides a portion of contradiction between paragraph S7.5
acknowledged in Table I–c. We agree the upper beam and the lower beam (d)(2)(ii)(A)(1) and Figure 26, we looked
and have added language to direct the should be ‘‘LB3M’’ rather than ‘‘LB4M’’ for other cues in FMVSS No. 108 that
reader to paragraphs S10.17.1.1, for a mechanically aimed headlamp and would confirm the correct requirement.
S10.17.1.2, and S10.17.1.3 of the final ‘‘LB3V’’ rather than ‘‘LB2V’’ for a One such cue is in paragraph S7.5(b)
rule for additional headlamp mounting visually/optically aimed headlamp. which states that, ‘‘The photometrics as
requirements. These references are taken from specified in subparagraphs (c) through
paragraph S7.4(a)(1)(iii) of the current (e) of this paragraph (depicted in Figure
We have inserted the language ‘‘a turn
version of FMVSS No. 108, which 26), using any light source of the Type
signal’’ between the words ‘‘between’’
specifies Figure 28–1 or Figure 28–2. intended for use in such system.’’ This
and ‘‘lamp’’ in the last sentence of the clearly indicates that paragraph S7.5
LB4M is a restatement of the
Mounting Location portion of the front and Figure 26 provide identical
requirements of Figure 28–1 and LB2V
turn signal lamp requirements section of information. Another cue is the
similarly of Figure 28–2.30 We do not
Table I–c of the final rule to clarify that language in paragraph S7.5(d)(2)(i)(A)(2)
agree with Koito’s comment and are
requirement. Also, the language of the which states that only the photometry
therefore making no revision in the final
last sentence of the Mounting Location requirements of Figure 17–1 or 17–2 are
rule.
portion of the rear turn signal lamp to be used for lower beam with a two
requirements section of Table I–c was Table II–d Headlighting Systems— lamp system that uses an HB2 source.
revised so that it now states, ‘‘* * * Replaceable Bulb The specific language of paragraph
between the turn signal lamp and AAM and Koito commented that the S7.5(d)(2)(ii)(A)(1) first appeared in
taillamp or stop lamp is 4 inches references in Table II–d to photometry Standard No. 108 several years ago
* * *,’’ a change that clarifies the requirements in Table XIX for UB1, during a revision in text. Instead of
requirement in the final rule. LB1M, and LB1V should include concluding with ‘‘* * * light sources
Table II–a Headlighting Systems— Footnote 4, ‘‘Lower beams may remain that include Type HB2 * * *’’
Sealed Beam activated when upper beams are paragraph S7.5(d)(2)(ii)(A)(1) should
activated,’’ based upon paragraph S5.8.8 have concluded with ‘‘* * * light
GE, Honda, AAM, and Koito of the current version of FMVSS No. sources other than Type HB2 * * *’’
commented that the reference to 108. We agree that the UB1, LB1M, and This would make it consistent with
photometry requirements in Table XIX LB1V requirements are derived from paragraph S7.5(d)(2)(i)(A)(1), which
of the NPRM for a lower beam visual Figures 15–1 and 15–2 of the current addresses the lower beam, and Figure
aim ‘‘LF’’ headlamp erroneously stated version of FMVSS No. 108. Paragraph 26.
‘‘LB1(1)’’ rather than ‘‘LB1V(1).’’ We S5.8.8 states that a headlighting system Because this ambiguity has existed for
agree and this has been corrected in the designed to conform to the photometric a considerable length of time, it would
final rule. requirements of Figures 15–1 and 15–2 be a substantive change to revise it in
Table II–b Headlighting Systems— may be so wired. That footnote has been the final rule and thus is outside the
Combination added to the final rule. scope of the rewrite. We have revised
Koito and AAM commented that the
GE, Honda, AAM, and Koito photometric requirement reference in 31 The current version of FMVSS 108 presents
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commented that the reference to Table II–d of the NPRM for the upper headlamp photometry requirements in sets of
photometry requirements in Table XIX related tables that differ only by application to type
beam of a 2 lamp system with a light of aiming system used. In this instance Table 17–
of the NPRM for a 4 lamp system, lower 1 applies to mechanically aimed headlighting
beam visual aim headlamp erroneously 30 And also Figure 17–2 which has identical systems while Table 17–2 applies to visually/
stated ‘‘LBV(4)’’ rather than ‘‘LB1V(4).’’ requirements. optically aimed headlighting systems.

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Table II–d in the final rule to indicate language of the final rule appearing in documents incorporated by reference in
that UB3 may be used as an upper beam parenthesis to read (Single lamp or two the current version of FMVSS No. 108.32
photometry requirement for a 2 lamp lamps together where required by Guide also suggested that the phrase
system using a Type HB2 or any single paragraph S6.1.1.2 of this standard.) ‘‘To be considered visible’’ preface the
filament type used alone, or with any specific visibility requirements in Table
Table V–b Visibility Requirements of
other single or dual filament type. V–d. We believe that the language of the
Installed Lighting Devices (Lens Area
However, regulated parties should be requirements in Table V–d, along with
Visibility Option)
aware that we consider this to be the text of paragraph S6.4.4, clearly
incorrect and we may take action soon Grote suggested that the mandatory describe what is required and the
to correct what we believe is a mistake. enforcement dates for the exclusive use additional language is not needed.
of the visibility options of Table V–b We have revised the visibility
Table III Conspicuity Systems requirement minimum value for a
Requirements Becomes Table III and V–c be included in those tables. We
believe it is preferable to include these taillamp in Table V–d from 1250 sq mm
Marking Requirements Location to 2 sq in to be faithful to the language
dates in paragraph S6.4.4 of the
The recognition that the tabular regulatory text of the final rule, where of SAE J585e, September 1977, Section
method of organization did not work additional details about choosing a 4, incorporated by reference in the
well for the presentation of lengthy visibility compliance method are current version of FMVSS No. 108,
textual requirements provided the located. which is the original source of this
rationale for moving the conspicuity requirement.
AAM suggested that the language of
systems requirements content of Table
Footnote 2 of Table V–b (and Footnote Table VI Front Turn Signal Lamp
III of the NPRM to paragraph S8.2 of the
2 of Table V–c) be revised for clarity. Photometry Requirements
regulatory text of the final rule. The
We agree and those footnotes now read As previously mentioned, this table
substantive issues raised by public
in the final rule, ‘‘Where a lamp is has been divided into two sections.
comment and the revisions to
mounted with its axis of reference less Table VI–a contains the base front turn
conspicuity systems are discussed
than 750 mm above the road surface, the signal lamp photometry requirements
under paragraph S8.2. As discussed
vertical test point angles located below and the 2.5 times base front turn signal
under paragraph S6.5, Table III has been
the horizontal plane subject to visibility lamp photometry requirements. Table
re-designated as a source for listing each
requirements may be reduced to 5° VI–b contains the 1.5 times base and the
location in the regulatory text of the
down.’’ 2.0 times base front turn signal lamp
final rule applicable for each marking
requirement of Standard No. 108. Table V–c Visibility Requirements of photometry requirements.
Installed Lighting Devices (Luminous Nissan, AAM, and Koito commented
Table IV Effective Projected Luminous that displaying the ratio requirements
Intensity Visibility Option)
Lens Area Requirements for both turn signal lamps combined
As previously mentioned, this table AAM claimed that the visibility with parking lamps and turn signal
has been divided into three sections in requirements specifying corner points at lamps combined with clearance lamps
the final rule. 80° outboard are erroneous. We disagree in the same column of our proposal was
Koito and Guide commented that the because these corner points are faithful confusing. We agree and have placed
effective projected luminous lens area to those stated in Figure 20 of the the requirements for those two
requirements for a front turn signal current version of FMVSS No. 108. combinations in separate columns in
lamp were incorrectly stated in what is Table V–d Visibility Requirements of both Tables VI–a and VI–b in the final
now Table IV–a and did not agree with Installed Lighting Devices (Legacy rule.
the requirements of SAE J588 NOV84. Visibility Alternative) Koito and AAM commented that
We concur and have clarified those Footnote 4 does not accurately state the
requirements in the final rule to indicate AAM identified a typographical error requirements of SAE J1395 AP85,
that there is no effective projected in the proposal where a period did not Section 5.1.5.2, incorporated by
luminous lens area requirement for each directly follow the abbreviation ‘‘mm’’ reference in the current version of
compartment of a multiple compartment in the required visibility of turn signal FMVSS No. 108. We agree and have
front turn signal lamp. lamps. This has been corrected in the revised that footnote in the final rule to
There were no comments submitted final rule by removing all periods after read ‘‘When a clearance lamp on a
that impacted what are now Tables IV– these abbreviations in keeping with the vehicle 2032 mm or more in overall
b and IV–c in the final rule. style of regulatory text. width is combined with a front turn
Table V Visibility Requirements of Nissan believed that the term signal lamp and the maximum luminous
Installed Lighting Devices ‘‘existing’’ in the parenthetical subtitle intensity of the clearance lamp is
of this section was indeterminate and located below horizontal and within a
As previously mentioned, this table suggested it be removed. We decided to 1.0° radius around the test point, the
has been divided into four sections. revise the subtitle from ‘‘(Existing SAE ratio for the test point may be computed
AAM suggested that the column marked Visibility Alternative)’’ to ‘‘(Legacy by using the lowest value of the
‘‘Applicable Vehicles’’ was not needed. Visibility Alternative)’’ in the final rule clearance lamp luminous intensity
We agree and have removed it from all suggesting that these requirements are within the generated area.’’
four sections of Table V in the final rule. ones that have historically been used. AAM noted several instances where
Table V–a Visibility Requirements of Guide commented that the sentence the group minimum photometric
Installed Lighting Devices ‘‘Where more than one lamp or optical intensity values for 2 and 3 lighted
area is lighted on each side of the sections, 2.5x base photometry lamps,
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AAM suggested alternative language


vehicle, only one such area on each side were erroneous. These five values were
referring to the required visibility of
high-mounted stop lamps when two need comply’’ should not be included in 32SAE J1395 APR85, S5.4.1, SAE J586 FEB84,
lamps are installed. We agree with its visibility requirements. We disagree S5.4.1, SAE J1398 MAY85, S5.4.1, and SAE J585e,
suggestion and have revised the because it is an integral part of the SAE September 1977, S4.

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all 0.5 cd less than their calculated minimum photometric intensity can be sections in group 3. The correct value is
values. The correct values have been offset if one or more of the other points 520 cd instead of the listed 445 cd. This
incorporated in Table VI–a in the final in the group exceed their minimum error is corrected in Table IX of the final
rule. intensity requirement by enough margin rule.
Koito suggested that several of the that the group total intensity is still met. In Table IX of the NPRM, it was stated
group minimum photometric intensity Additionally, turn signal lamps and that when a stop lamp is combined with
values for 2 lighted sections, base stop lamps, including high-mounted a taillamp, the luminous intensity of the
photometry lamps, are erroneous. Koito stop lamps, also have a further stop signal must exceed the luminous
appears to have based its comment on limitation from their original SAE intensity of the tail signal at each test
the observation that the arithmetic sum source document concerning how much point by a certain minimum ratio. This
of the minimum values of all test points any individual test point can fail to ratio value is common for all vehicles at
included in the groups exceeds the meet its minimum intensity when all test points with the exception of the
value shown for the group. However, in considered in a group compliance test point H–5L.33 Proposed Table IX
this case all of the listed values are situation. This limitation states that the showed the ratio value at this point as
accurate. They are consistent with measured value at each test point must 3/5 (6) and further states at Footnote 6,
values of Table 1 for group requirements not be less than 60% of the minimum ‘‘Values preceded by a slash (/) apply
and Table 3 for individual test point value. only to lamps installed on multipurpose
requirements of SAE J588 NOV84, All these limitations must be passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and
incorporated by reference in the current considered simultaneously when buses, of 2032 mm or more in overall
version of Standard No. 108. Although determining grouped photometric width.’’ Thus, the requirement at the
in most cases SAE has specified that compliance for lamps where that H–5L test point is that the luminous
group photometric values equal the sum procedure is permitted. Calcoast was intensity of the stop lamp exceed the
of the individual test point values in a correct in its assessment that these luminous intensity of the combined
group, there are exceptions, and this is limitations may negate full utilization of taillamp by at least 3 times on
one of those exceptions. each other. multipurpose passenger vehicles,
Koito and AAM identified two trucks, trailers, and buses, of 2032 mm
Table VII Rear Turn Signal Photometry
minimum test point photometric or more in overall width, and by at least
Requirements
intensity values for 3 lighted section 5 times on other applicable vehicles
Footnote 6 of the final rule was lamps they believe are erroneous. We which includes all passenger cars and
revised to agree with the decision to agree and have corrected the values at motorcycles and all multipurpose
eliminate the reference to SAE J588e for 5L–10D and 5R–10D in the final rule. passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and
double faced turn signal lamps installed We have also revised Table VIII in the buses, less than 2032 mm in overall
on truck tractors. It now reads, ‘‘A final rule to reduce confusion by placing width. This discrepancy exists due to
double-faced turn signal lamp installed the minimum and maximum the language from which the ratio
as described in paragraph S6.1.1.3 on a photometric intensity values in separate requirements are derived. SAE J586
truck tractor need only meet the columns for each of the lighted sections FEB84, Stop Lamps for use on Motor
photometric requirements for a left side alternatives. Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall
lamp where the lamp is mounted on the Koito commented that Table VIII did Width, incorporated by reference in the
left side of the vehicle, and for a right not include Footnote 5 from Table 1 of current version of FMVSS No. 108 states
side lamp where the lamp is mounted SAE J585e, Tail Lamps (Rear Position in Section 5.1.5.3, ‘‘When a tail lamp is
on the right side of the vehicle.’’ Lamps), September 1977, incorporated combined with the stop lamp, the stop
Table VIII Taillamp Photometry by reference in the current version of lamp shall not be less than three times
Requirements FMVSS No. 108. This footnote limits the the luminous intensity of the tail lamp
size of the area of maximum at any test point; except that at H–V, H–
Calcoast commented that Footnote 1 photometric intensity in a specified 5L, H–5R, and 5U–V, the stop lamp
and Footnote 2 to Table VIII of the portion of the photometric pattern. This shall not be less than five times the
NPRM are not mutually exclusive. requirement was added to Table VIII in luminous intensity of the tail lamp.’’
Therefore, the limitations imposed by the final rule and now reads, ‘‘A Similarly, SAE J1398 MAY85, Stop
compliance with one of these footnotes taillamp shall not exceed the maximum Lamps for use on Motor Vehicles 2032
may negate an allowance offered by the intensity over any area larger than that mm or More in Overall Width,
other. We agree with Calcoast’s generated by a 0.25° radius, within a incorporated by reference in the current
assessment. The situation that it solid cone angle from 20°L to 20°R and version of FMVSS No. 108, states in
mentioned actually affects all lamps from H to 10°U.’’ Section 5.1.5.2, ‘‘When a tail lamp is
where grouped test point photometric combined with the stop lamp, the stop
compliance is permitted. The Table IX Stop Lamp Photometry
lamp shall not be less than three times
requirements of Footnote 1 of Table VIII Requirements
the luminous intensity of the tail lamp
also apply to all other lamps where The alternative photometric intensity at any test point; except that at H–V, H–
grouped compliance is permitted. The requirements for a stop lamp installed 5R, and 5U–V, the stop lamp shall not
original source of this requirement is on a motor driven cycle that were be less than five times the luminous
SAE J575, Test for Motor Vehicle included in Table IX in the NPRM have intensity of the tail lamp.’’ Thus, the
Lighting Devices and Components, been relocated to new Table XIII in the requirements are identical with the
paragraph J, which is identical in both final rule. This relocation means that exception of test point
J575d, August 1967, and J575e, August Footnote 5 is no longer needed in Table
1970, the two versions of this standard IX and it has been eliminated. Footnote 33 In the final rule we have elected to implement
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applicable to signal lamps in FMVSS 7 of the NPRM has been redesignated as a suggestion by Calcoast to identify photometric test
No. 108. Footnote 2 of Table VIII Footnote 5 in the final rule. points consistently in the photometric requirements
tables. We have chosen to list lateral values in the
describes the basic premise of grouped Honda, AAM, and Koito all observed left column and vertical values in the right column.
compliance. The failure of an individual an erroneous group minimum Thus the H–5L test point of Table IX of the NPRM
test point in the group to meet its photometric intensity value for 3 lighted appears as test point 5L–H in the final rule.

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68262 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

H–5L. By not specifically identifying H– m) was made to be faithful to Footnote rule. A new Table XIII has been created
5L as a test point requiring a 5:1 ratio, b of SAE J592e, Clearance, Side Marker, that includes the alternative stop lamp
SAE J1398 MAY85, by default, requires and Identification Lamps, July 1972. requirements for motor driven cycles,
a 3:1 ratio. which were previously part of Table IX
Table XI Clearance and Identification
SAE J585e, Tail Lamps (Rear Position in the NPRM and the optional turn
Lamps Photometry Requirements
Lamps), September 1977, also signal requirements for motorcycles
incorporated by reference in the current Koito and AAM commented that noted in paragraphs S7.1.1.1 and
version of FMVSS No. 108 (applicable Footnote 3 to Table XI did not include S7.1.2.1 of the NPRM, but not
to all vehicles), also contains a ratio the limitation on a turn signal lamp previously tabularized.
requirement. Footnote 4 to Table 1 of combined with a red clearance lamp as
that document states, ‘‘When a tail lamp required by SAE J592e, July 1972, Table Table XIV Parking Lamp Photometry
is combined with the turn signal lamp 1 Footnote ‘‘a’’, incorporated by Requirements
or the stop lamp, the signal lamp or stop reference by the current version of There were no comments submitted
lamp shall not be less than three times FMVSS No. 108. This is corrected in the that impacted Table XIV beyond those
the candlepower 34 of the tail lamp at final rule. previously mentioned.
any test point; except that at H–V, H– Grote believed that the maximum
photometric intensity for a red clearance Table XV High-Mounted Stop Lamp
5L, H–5R, and 5U–V, the signal lamp or Photometry Requirements
stop lamp shall not be less than five lamp should be 18 cd. We disagree
times the candlepower of the tail lamp.’’ because SAE J592e, July 1972, AAM suggested that Footnote 4 of
Thus, there is a documented conflict incorporated by reference in the current Table XV be incorporated directly into
regarding the ratio requirement at the version of FMVSS No. 108, states in the table where the maximum
H–5L test point on combined stop lamps Footnote ‘‘a’’ to Table 1 that 15 cd is the photometric intensity is stated. AAM
and taillamps used on wide vehicles. maximum allowed for a red clearance offered no arguments to support this
We resolved this in the final rule by lamp. request and we can see no compelling
maintaining the dual requirements Table XII Backup Lamp Photometry reason to implement it. Table XV
stated in the NPRM. That is the ratio of Requirements appears in the final rule identical to the
stop lamp intensity to taillamp intensity NPRM.
Guide commented that Footnotes 2
at that test point remains 3:1 for lamps and 3 only apply to groups 1, 2 5, and Table XVI
installed on multipurpose passenger 6. We agree. Figure 2, Footnote 1 of the
vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses, of As previously mentioned, Table XVI
current version of Standard No. 108 is of the NPRM has been partitioned into
2032 mm or more in overall width, and the source of these requirements and the
5:1 for lamps installed on all passenger three sections, Table XVI–a, Reflex
Guide assertion is consistent with that Reflector Photometry Requirements,
cars and motorcycles and all figure. We revised Table XII accordingly
multipurpose passenger vehicles, Table XVI–b, Additional Photometry
in the final rule. Requirements for Conspicuity Reflex
trucks, trailers, and buses, less than Guide suggested replacing the phrase
2032 mm in overall width. Reflectors, and Table XVI–c,
‘‘same or symmetrically opposite Retroreflective Sheeting Photometry
Although we believe there is ample design’’ in Footnote 2 of Table XII of the
evidence that the 3:1 ratio was never Requirements. The content of these
NPRM with the phrase ‘‘symmetrical
intended by SAE, to rectify this error at tables in the final rule is identical to
beam pattern’’ and also replacing the
this time would constitute a substantive that of the NPRM.
phrase ‘‘differing design’’ in Footnote 3
change and therefore be beyond the of Table XII with the phrase Table XVII School Bus Signal Lamp
scope of the FMVSS No. 108 rewrite. ‘‘asymmetrical beam pattern’’, claiming Photometry
We may address this issue in the near the terminology of the NPRM is vague.
future. There were no comments submitted
Guide offered no argument as to why that impacted Table XVII.
Table X Side Marker Photometry the suggested replacement phrases
Requirements would improve understanding. Since Table XVIII Headlamp Upper Beam
the language of the NPRM is faithful to Photometry Requirements
Footnote 1 was revised to be more the current version of FMVSS No. 108,
consistent with paragraph S7.4.1.1 of There were no comments submitted
we are not implementing its suggestion that impacted Table XVIII beyond those
the NPRM (paragraph S7.4.13.2 of the in the final rule.
final rule) concerning the widths of previously mentioned.
We have added the term ‘‘Each Lamp’’
vehicles that can use reduced after the title ‘‘Two Lamp Systems’’ in Table XIX Headlamp Lower Beam
photometric compliance angles between Table XII of the final rule to clarify that Photometry Requirements
the front and rear side marker. Footnote each lamp of a two lamp system is to be
1 now reads, ‘‘Where a side marker Table XIX, Headlamp Lower Beam
designed to conform to either the Photometry Requirements, has been
lamp installed on a motor vehicle less individual test point photometry
than 30 feet in overall length and less split into Tables XIX–a, XIX–b, and
requirements or the group photometry XIX–c in the final rule.
than 80 inches (2 m) in overall width requirements.
has the lateral angle nearest the other GE, Honda, AAM, and Koito
required side marker lamp on the same Table XIII–a Motorcycle Turn Signal identified that the maximum
side of the vehicle reduced from 45° by Lamp Alternative Photometry photometric intensity value of 2,500 cd
design as specified by S7.4.13.2, the Requirements for the 0.5D–1.5L to L test location of a
photometric intensity measurement may LB4M beam was inadvertently omitted
Table XIII–b Motor Driven Cycle Stop from Table XIX of the NPRM. We agree
be met at the lesser angle.’’ The change Lamp Alternative Photometry
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in width from 2032 mm to 80 inches (2 and this value has been added in the
Requirements final rule.
34 The term ‘‘candlepower’’ used in this context Table XIII of the NPRM, License Plate Guide suggested a reduction in the
means the contemporary unit of measurement used Lamp Target Locations, has been lateral limits in the NPRM for
to express the luminous intensity attribute. redesignated as Figure 19 in the final photometry of the 10°U to 90°U glare

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area from 90°L to 90°R to 45°L to 45°R paragraphs S14.6, S14.7, and S14.8 of Light Angle, in the final rule. It is
but offered no basis to support this the regulatory text in the final rule. referenced in paragraph S7.7.15.4 of the
request. Such a revision would be The substantive issues raised by final rule.
substantive and beyond the scope of the public comment and the revisions to
headlamp physical test requirements are Figure 21 Vibration Test Machine
rewrite, therefore this suggestion was
not pursued in the final rule. discussed under those sections. AAM requested that SAE J577,
Vibration Test Machine, April 1964, be
Table XX Motorcycle and Motor Figures directly incorporated into FMVSS No.
Driven Cycle Headlamp Photometry Figures 1 through 12 and 15 through 18 108 rather than to continue to be
Requirements incorporated by reference. Figure 1,
There were no comments submitted
Honda and Koito identified that the that impacted Figures 1 through 12 or Vibration Test Machine, and Table 1,
maximum photometric intensity value Figures 15 through 18. Cam Profile Radii, (from SAE J577) were
of 12,500 cd for the 4D–4R test location redrawn for the final rule as Figure 21,
for a motor driven cycle headlamp was Figure 13 Tractor Conspicuity Vibration Test Machine.
inadvertently placed in the minimum Treatment Examples
Figure 22 Flasher Standard Test
intensity column of Table XX of the TMA commented that Figure 31 of the Circuit
NPRM. The value has been placed in the current version of FMVSS No. 108,
correct location in the final rule. rather than Figure 13 of the NPRM, Figure 22 includes the standard test
AAM suggested that the column better illustrated that the right angle circuit of SAE J823b, Flasher Test
heading shown for lower beam white conspicuity treatment element Equipment, April 1968. The procedures
headlamps be replicated for upper beam required on the upper rear outside of SAE J823b have also been
headlamps. We agree that doing so corners of truck tractors may not be incorporated into paragraph S14.9 of the
would improve clarity and have continuous if cab mounted hardware final rule, allowing the subreference by
incorporated the headings in Table XX makes this impractical. We have revised incorporation of this standard to now be
of the final rule. Figure 13 to illustrate this condition in eliminated from FMVSS No. 108.
Table XXI Associated Equipment the final rule. IV. The Final Rule
Physical Test Requirements (Table Figure 14 92 x 150 mm Headlamp Aim After careful consideration of public
eliminated in final rule) Deflection Test Setup comments on the NPRM, the agency has
The recognition that the tabular GE identified 13 omissions or errors decided to publish a final rule to amend
method of organization did not work in Figure 14 of the NPRM that were 49 CFR Part 564 and FMVSS No. 108 as
well for lengthy textual requirements corrected in the final rule to agree with discussed below:
provided the rationale for moving the the source document, Figure 16 of the A. 49 CFR Part 564
associated equipment physical test current version of FMVSS No. 108.
requirements content of Table XXI of We are relocating figures addressing
the NPRM to paragraph S14.9 of the Figure 15 Types G & H Headlamp Aim sealed beam headlamps that currently
regulatory text in the final rule. Deflection Test Setup reside in FMVSS No. 108 and SAE
The substantive issues raised by GE identified an omission in Figure J1383 APR85 into a newly created
public comment and the revisions to 15 that was corrected to agree with the Appendix C of 49 CFR Part 564. We
associated equipment physical test source document, Figure 22 of the have listed those specific figures and
requirements are discussed under current version of FMVSS No. 108. where they currently reside in FMVSS
paragraph S14.9. No. 108 or SAE J1383 APR85 in the
Table XXII Lamp and Reflective Figure 19 License Plate Lamp Target reference document in Appendix C of
Devices Physical Test Requirements Locations this notice. In addition, we are making
(Table eliminated in final rule) Figure 19, License Plate Lamp Target the applicable changes to the scope and
The recognition that the tabular Locations, was designated as Table XIII purpose provisions of Part 564 to
method of organization did not work in the NPRM. The supplementary account for the newly formed Appendix
well for lengthy textual requirements response from the AAM/ASSN C. Unlike Appendices A and B, there
provided the rationale for moving the suggested changing it to be a figure. Its will be no further additions to, or
lamp and reflective devices physical test purpose is illustrative, so it is most modifications of, the sealed beam
requirements content of Table XXII of appropriately designated as a figure. headlamp figures in Appendix C.
the NPRM to paragraphs S14.3, S14.4, AAM requested that the English units
B. 49 CFR Part 571.108
and S14.5 of the regulatory text in the of measurement, which were part of the
final rule. source drawings, SAE J587 OCT81 We are amending Standard No. 108
The substantive issues raised by Figures 1 and 2, but not included in by: (1) Reorganizing the regulatory text
public comment and the revisions to Table XIII of the NPRM, be restored. so that it provides a more straight-
lamp and reflective devices physical test This was done, as Figure 19 is forward and logical presentation of the
requirements are discussed under those dimensioned in both metric and English applicable regulatory requirements; (2)
sections. units in the final rule. including important agency
interpretations of the existing
Table XXIII Headlamp Physical Test Figure 20 License Plate Lamp requirements; and (3) reducing reliance
Requirements (Table eliminated in final Measurement of Incident Light Angle on third-party documents incorporated
rule) AAM requested that Figure 3 of SAE by reference. This has resulted in
The recognition that the tabular J587 OCT81, License Plate Lamps, be additional tables and figures being
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method of organization did not work included to better illustrate the incident added to the standard. In addition, the
well for lengthy textual requirements light angle requirement of paragraph structure of the standard has been
provided the rationale for moving the S7.7.1.1 of the NPRM. We agree and changed to present the requirements in
headlamp physical test requirements have included it as Figure 20, License a more standardized and user-friendly
content of Table XXIII of the NPRM to Plate Lamp Measurement of Incident manner.

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V. Benefits and Costs undertaken numerous rulemakings and parties to comply with all applicable
Because this proposal only interpretations related to Standard No. requirements. The impacts of the
reorganizes the existing requirements of 108, in many cases to deal with the substantive provisions on vehicle safety
the standard, we do not anticipate that emergence of new lighting technologies. were discussed at the time of adoption
there would be any costs or benefits In recent years, concerns have been of those provisions.
associated with this rulemaking action raised that after nearly four decades of Finally, we believe that this final rule
to implement an administrative rewrite amendment, navigating the is reasonable and appropriate for motor
of FMVSS No. 108, other than the requirements of the standard has vehicles subject to the applicable
benefits associated with a clearer, become increasingly difficult. Therefore, requirements. As discussed elsewhere
easier-to-read standard. None of the in this final rule, the agency is in this notice, the modifications to the
public comments identified any implementing an administrative rewrite standard resulting from this final rule
instances where the rewritten standard of Standard No. 108 in order to improve are administrative in nature. It does not
would have a cost effect. Accordingly, its structure and clarity, without affect the substance of the requirements
the agency did not conduct a separate changing any of its existing substantive or the bases for those requirements, as
economic analysis for this rulemaking. requirements. In preparing this final articulated in earlier rulemakings.
rule, the agency carefully considered the Accordingly, we believe that this final
VI. Rulemaking Analyses and Notices statutory requirements of 49 U.S.C. rule is appropriate for covered vehicles
A. Vehicle Safety Act Chapter 301. that are or become subject to these
First, this final rule reflects the provisions of FMVSS No. 108 because it
Under 49 U.S.C. Chapter 301, Motor agency’s careful consideration and furthers the agency’s objective of
Vehicle Safety (49 U.S.C. 30101 et seq.), analysis of all existing regulatory preventing crash-related deaths and
the Secretary of Transportation is provisions of FMVSS No. 108, as well serious injuries by ensuring adequate
responsible for prescribing motor as salient letters of interpretation related illumination of roadways and enhanced
vehicle safety standards that are to that standard. In developing the conspicuity of motor vehicles.
practicable, meet the need for motor substantive provisions of the standard
vehicle safety, and are stated in over the years, the agency considered all B. Executive Order 12866 and DOT
objective terms.35 These motor vehicle relevant, available motor vehicle safety Regulatory Policies and Procedures
safety standards set the minimum level information, including available Executive Order 12866, ‘‘Regulatory
of performance for a motor vehicle or research, testing results, and other Planning and Review’’, provides for
motor vehicle equipment to be information related to various making determinations whether a
considered safe.36 When prescribing technologies. This administrative regulatory action is ‘‘significant’’ and
such standards, the Secretary must rewrite does not change any of these therefore subject to OMB review and to
consider all relevant, available motor existing provisions or the underlying the requirements of the Executive Order.
vehicle safety information.37 The basis therefore. The final rule also The Order defines a ‘‘significant
Secretary must also consider whether a reflects the agency’s consideration of regulatory action’’ as one that is likely
proposed standard is reasonable, information offered in public comments to result in a rule that may:
practicable, and appropriate for the type on the notice of proposed rulemaking (1) Have an annual effect on the
of motor vehicle or motor vehicle which preceded today’s final rule. economy of $100 million or more or
equipment for which it is prescribed Second, to ensure that the adversely affect in a material way the
and the extent to which the standard requirements of FMVSS No. 108 are economy, a sector of the economy,
will further the statutory purpose of practicable (as well as consistent with productivity, competition, jobs, the
reducing traffic accidents and associated our safety objectives), the agency environment, public health or safety, or
deaths.38 The responsibility for evaluated the cost, availability, and State, local, or Tribal governments or
promulgation of Federal motor vehicle suitability of the standard’s provisions, communities;
safety standards has been delegated to both when initially adopted and during (2) Create a serious inconsistency or
NHTSA. 39 subsequent amendments. As noted otherwise interfere with an action taken
FMVSS No. 108, Lamps, Reflective above, the changes resulting from this or planned by another agency;
Devices, and Associated Equipment, final rule are administrative in nature (3) Materially alter the budgetary
was originally established in a final rule and would not impact the costs and impact of entitlements, grants, user fees,
published in the Federal Register on benefits of the standard. In sum, we or loan programs or the rights and
February 3, 1967 (32 FR 2408). The believe that this final rule is practicable, obligations of recipients thereof; or
purpose of the standard is to reduce and we expect it to maintain the (4) Raise novel legal or policy issues
traffic accidents and deaths and injuries benefits of Standard No. 108. arising out of legal mandates, the
resulting from traffic accidents, by Third, the regulatory text following President’s priorities, or the principles
providing adequate illumination of the this preamble is stated in objective set forth in the Executive Order.
roadway, and by enhancing the terms in order to specify precisely what This rulemaking document was not
conspicuity of motor vehicles on the performance is required and how reviewed by the Office of Management
public roads so that their presence is performance will be tested to ensure and Budget under Executive Order
perceived and their signals understood, compliance with the standard. In certain 12866. The rule is not considered to be
both in daylight and in darkness or cases, the final rule modifies the significant within the meaning of E.O.
other conditions of reduced visibility. language of the standard to improve 12866 or the Department of
Since the time of the standard’s initial clarity or to incorporate existing Transportation’s Regulatory Policies and
promulgation, the agency has interpretations, again without changing Procedures (44 FR 11034 (Feb. 26,
the substance of the existing 1979)). As stated above in Section V,
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35 49 U.S.C. 30111(a).
36 49
requirements. Benefits and Costs, this final rule is not
U.S.C. 30102(a)(9).
37 49 U.S.C. 30111(b).
Fourth, we believe that this final rule expected to require parties subject to the
38 Id. meets the need for motor vehicle safety requirements of the safety standard to
39 49 U.S.C. 105 and 322; delegation of authority by clarifying the safety standard, alter their existing practices for
at 49 CFR 1.50. thereby making it easier for regulated certifying compliance with Standard

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No. 108 or to increase costs of power and the responsibilities among reconsideration or pursue other
compliance, because the final rule the various levels of government.’’ administrative proceeding before filing
merely reorganizes and clarifies existing Further, no consultation is needed to suit in court.
requirements. Accordingly, the agency discuss the preemptive effect of today’s
rule. NHTSA rules can have preemptive F. Executive Order 13045 (Protection of
has not prepared any supplemental
effect in at least two ways. First, the Children From Environmental Health
economic analysis to accompany this
rulemaking document. National Traffic and Motor Vehicle and Safety Risks)
Safety Act contains an express Executive Order 13045, ‘‘Protection of
C. Regulatory Flexibility Act preemptive provision: ‘‘When a motor Children from Environmental Health
Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility vehicle safety standard is in effect under and Safety Risks,’’ applies to any rule
Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as amended by this chapter, a State or a political that: (1) Is determined to be
the Small Business Regulatory subdivision of a State may prescribe or ‘‘economically significant’’ as defined
Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) of continue in effect a standard applicable under Executive Order 12866, and (2)
1996), whenever an agency is required to the same aspect of performance of a concerns an environmental, health, or
to publish a notice of rulemaking for motor vehicle or motor vehicle safety risk that the agency has reason to
any proposed or final rule, it must equipment only if the standard is believe may have a disproportionate
prepare and make available for public identical to the standard prescribed effect on children. If the regulatory
comment a regulatory flexibility under this chapter.’’ 49 U.S.C. action meets both criteria, the agency
analysis that describes the effect of the 30102(b)(1). must evaluate the environmental health
rule on small entities (i.e., small In addition to the express preemption or safety effects of the planned rule on
businesses, small organizations, and noted above, the Supreme Court has children, and explain why the planned
small governmental jurisdictions). The also recognized that State requirements regulation is preferable to other
Small Business Administration’s imposed on motor vehicle potentially effective and reasonably
regulations at 13 CFR Part 121 define a manufacturers, including sanctions feasible alternatives considered by the
small business, in part, as a business imposed by State tort law, can stand as agency.
entity ‘‘which operates primarily within an obstacle to the accomplishment and
the United States.’’ (13 CFR 121.105(a)). execution of a NHTSA safety standard. This final rule is not subject to E.O.
No regulatory flexibility analysis is When such a conflict is discerned, the 13045 because it is not an economically
required if the head of an agency Supremacy Clause of the Constitution significant regulatory action under
certifies the rule will not have a makes the State requirements Executive Order 12866, and because it
significant economic impact on a unenforceable. See Geier v. American does not involve decisions based upon
substantial number of small entities. Honda Motor Co., 529 U.S. 861 (2000). health and safety risks that
SBREFA amended the Regulatory NHTSA does not believe that such disproportionately affect children.
Flexibility Act to require Federal conflicts are likely to arise from today’s G. Paperwork Reduction Act
agencies to provide a statement of the rulemaking, because this final rule only
factual basis for certifying that a rule results in an administrative rewrite of Under the Paperwork Reduction Act
will not have a significant economic the existing requirements of FMVSS No. of 1995 (PRA), a person is not required
impact on a substantial number of small 108. However, if such a conflict were to to respond to a collection of information
entities. become evident, NHTSA may opine on by a Federal agency unless the
NHTSA has considered the effects of such conflicts in the future, if collection displays a valid OMB control
this final rule under the Regulatory warranted. See id. at 883–86. number. This final rule does not contain
Flexibility Act. I certify that this final any collection of information
E. Executive Order 12988 (Civil Justice requirements requiring review under the
rule will not have a significant
Reform) PRA.
economic impact on a substantial
number of small entities. The rationale With respect to the review of the
H. National Technology Transfer and
for this certification is that the present promulgation of a new regulation,
Advancement Act
final rule does not make any substantive section 3(b) of Executive Order 12988,
changes to this safety standard, so ‘‘Civil Justice Reform,’’ requires that Section 12(d) of the National
affected parties will be able to continue Executive agencies make every Technology Transfer and Advancement
current practices without change. reasonable effort to ensure that the Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104–
Accordingly, we do not anticipate that regulation: (1) Clearly specifies the 113, (15 U.S.C. 272) directs the agency
this final rule will have a significant preemptive effect; (2) clearly specifies to evaluate and use voluntary consensus
economic impact on a substantial the effect on existing Federal law or standards in its regulatory activities
number of small entities. regulation; (3) provides a clear legal unless doing so would be inconsistent
standard for affected conduct, while with applicable law or is otherwise
D. Executive Order 13132 (Federalism) promoting simplification and burden impractical. Voluntary consensus
NHTSA has examined today’s final reduction; (4) clearly specifies the standards are technical standards (e.g.,
rule pursuant to Executive Order 13132, retroactive effect, if any; (5) adequately materials specifications, test methods,
‘‘Federalism’’ and concluded that no defines key terms; and (6) addresses sampling procedures, and business
additional consultation with States, other important issues affecting clarity practices) that are developed or adopted
local governments, or their and general draftsmanship under by voluntary consensus standards
representatives is mandated beyond the guidelines issued by the Attorney bodies, such as the Society of
rulemaking process. The agency has General. This document is consistent Automotive Engineers. The NTTAA
concluded that the rule does not have with that requirement. Pursuant to this directs us to provide Congress (through
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Federalism implications, because the Order, NHTSA notes as follows. The OMB) with explanations when we
rule does not have ‘‘substantial direct preemptive effect of this rule is decide not to use available and
effects on the States, on the relationship discussed above. NHTSA notes further applicable voluntary consensus
between the national government and that there is no requirement that standards. The NTTAA does not apply
the States, or on the distribution of individuals submit a petition for to symbols.

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This final rule does not adopt or K. Regulatory Identifier Number (RIN) light sources used in motor vehicle
reference any new industry or The Department of Transportation headlighting systems. This part also
consensus standards that were not assigns a regulation identifier number serves as a repository for design
already present in Standard No. 108 (RIN) to each regulatory action listed in information as specified in Appendix C
(although in several cases, relevant the Unified Agenda of Federal of this part, for original equipment and
requirements from such standards are Regulations. The Regulatory Information replacement standardized sealed beam
now included directly in the standard, Service Center publishes the Unified units used in motor vehicle headlighting
rather than being incorporated by Agenda in April and October of each systems.
reference). The agency’s statements year. You may use the RIN contained in § 564.2 Purposes.
regarding the rationale for the use (or the heading at the beginning of this The purposes of this part are achieved
non-use) of information from third-party document to find this action in the through its Appendices:
standards, as presented in prior Unified Agenda. (a) The purposes of Appendix A of
rulemakings, remain unchanged. L. Privacy Act this part are to ensure:
I. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (1) The availability to replacement
Please note that anyone is able to light source manufacturers of the
search the electronic form of all manufacturing specifications of original
Section 202 of the Unfunded
comments received into any of our equipment light sources so that
Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) dockets by the name of the individual
requires Federal agencies to prepare a replacement light sources are
submitting the comment (or signing the interchangeable with original
written assessment of the costs, benefits, comment, if submitted on behalf of an
and other effects of proposed or final equipment light sources and provide
association, business, labor union, etc.). equivalent performance, and
rules that include a Federal mandate You may review DOT’s complete
likely to result in the expenditure by (2) That redesigned or newly
Privacy Act Statement in the Federal developed light sources are designated
State, local, or tribal governments, in the Register published on April 11, 2000
aggregate, or by the private sector, of as distinct, different, and
(Volume 65, Number 70; Pages 19477– noninterchangeable with previously
more than $100 million annually 78), or you may visit http://dms.dot.gov.
(adjusted for inflation with base year of existing light sources.
List of Subjects in 49 CFR Parts 564 and (b) The purposes of Appendix B of
1995 (so currently $126 million in 2006
571 this part are to ensure:
dollars)). Before promulgating a NHTSA (1) That original equipment light
rule for which a written statement is Imports, Incorporation by reference, sources are replaceable and that
needed, section 205 of the UMRA Motor vehicle safety, Motor vehicles, replacement light sources provide
generally requires the agency to identify Report and recordkeeping requirements. equivalent performance, and
and consider a reasonable number of ■ In consideration of the foregoing, (2) That redesigned or newly
regulatory alternatives and adopt the NHTSA is amending 49 CFR parts 564 developed light sources are designated
least costly, most cost-effective, or least and 571 as follows: as distinct, different, and
burdensome alternative that achieves noninterchangeable with previously
the objectives of the rule. The PART 564—REPLACEABLE LIGHT existing light sources.
provisions of section 205 do not apply SOURCE INFORMATION (c) The purpose of Appendix C of this
when they are inconsistent with part is to ensure the availability to
■ 1. Part 564 is revised to read as
applicable law. Moreover, section 205 original equipment and replacement
follows:
allows the agency to adopt an sealed beam headlamp manufacturers of
alternative other than the least costly, PART 564—REPLACEABLE LIGHT the manufacturing specifications of
most cost-effective, or least burdensome SOURCE AND SEALED BEAM standardized sealed beam headlamp
alternative if the agency publishes with HEADLAMP INFORMATION units used on motor vehicles so that all
the final rule an explanation of why that sealed beam headlamp units of a
alternative was not adopted. Sec. specific type are interchangeable with
564.1 Scope. all other units of that same type and
This final rule is not anticipated to 564.2 Purposes.
result in the expenditure by State, local, provide equivalent performance.
564.3 Applicability.
or tribal governments, in the aggregate, 564.4 Definitions. § 564.3 Applicability.
or by the private sector in excess of $112 564.5 Information filing; agency processing
of filings.
This part applies to replaceable light
million annually. Instead, the cost sources used as original equipment, and
Appendix A to Part 564—Information to be
impact of this administrative rewrite of Submitted for Replaceable Light Sources standardized sealed beam headlamp
Standard No. 108 is expected to be $0, Appendix B to Part 564—Information to be units used as original equipment and
because it does not change or increase Submitted for Long Life Replaceable replacement equipment in motor
the cost of existing requirements. Light Sources of Limited Definition vehicle headlighting systems.
Therefore, the agency has not prepared Appendix C to Part 564—Information
an economic assessment pursuant to the Applicable to Standardized Sealed Beam § 564.4 Definitions.
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act. Headlamp Units All terms defined in the Act and the
Authority: 49 U.S.C. 322, 30111, 30115, regulations and standards issued under
J. National Environmental Policy Act 30117, 30166; delegation of authority at 49 its authority are used as defined therein.
CFR 1.50.
NHTSA has analyzed this rulemaking § 564.5 Information filing; agency
action for the purposes of the National § 564.1 Scope. processing of filings.
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Environmental Policy Act. The agency This part requires the submission of (a) Each manufacturer of a motor
has determined that implementation of dimensional, electrical specification, vehicle, original equipment headlamp,
this action would not have any and marking/designation information as or original equipment headlamp
significant impact on the quality of the specified in Appendices A and B of this replaceable light source, which intends
human environment. part, for original equipment replaceable to manufacture a replaceable light

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source as original equipment or to when used to replace an unmodified relation of these to the bulb base reference
incorporate a replaceable light source in light source in a headlamp certified by plane and centerline.
its headlamps or motor vehicles, shall its manufacturer as conforming to all 1. Axial location of the filament centerline
furnish the information specified in applicable Federal motor vehicle safety or the filament tolerance box relative to the
Appendix A. If the rated laboratory life standards, together with reasons in bulb base reference plane.
2. Vertical location of the filament
of the light source is not less than 2,000 support of the statement; and
centerline or the filament tolerance box
hours, the manufacturer shall furnish (4) Information demonstrating that the
relative to the bulb base centerline.
the information specified in either modification would not adversely affect 3. Transverse location of the filament
Appendix A or Appendix B of this part. interchangeability with the original light centerline or the filament tolerance box
Information shall be furnished to: source. relative to the bulb base centerline.
Associate Administrator for After review of the request for 4. Filament tolerance box dimensions, if
Rulemaking, National Highway Traffic modification, the Associate used.
Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Administrator may seek further C. If the replaceable light source has both
Avenue, SE., West Building, information either from the a lower beam and an upper beam filament,
Washington, DC 20590 Attention: Part manufacturer or through a notice the dimensional relationship between the
564-Replaceable Light Source published in the Federal Register two filament centerlines or the filament
Information (unless the Agency has requesting comment on whether a tolerance boxes may be provided instead of
already filed such information in Docket modified light source incorporating the referencing the upper beam filament
changes requested will create a centerline or filament tolerance box to the
No. NHTSA 98–3397).
noncompliance with Federal Motor bulb base centerline or reference plane.
(b) The manufacturer shall submit
D. For a light source using excited gas
such information not later than 60 days Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 when
mixtures as a filament, necessary fiducial
before it intends to begin manufacture of substituted for an unmodified light information and specifications including
the replaceable light source to which the source. If the Associate Administrator electrode position dimensions and tolerance
information applies, or to incorporate seeks public comment on a submission information that provide similar location and
the light source into a headlamp, or to (s)he shall publish a notice stating characteristics information required by
incorporate the light source into a motor whether (s)he has accepted or rejected paragraphs A, B, and C of this section I for
vehicle of its manufacture. Each the submission. If a submission is light sources using a resistive type filament.
submission shall consist of one original accepted, the Associate Administrator
II. Dimensions Pertaining to Filament
set of information and ten legible files the information in Docket No. Capsule and Capsule Supports
reproduced copies, all on 81⁄2 by 11-inch NHTSA 98–3397. If a submission is
rejected, a manufacturer may submit A. Maximum length from bulb base
paper.
reference plane to tip of filament capsule.
(c) The Associate Administrator information with respect to it, as
B. Maximum radial distances from bulb
promptly reviews each submission and provides in paragraph 564.5(a), for base centerline to periphery of filament
informs the manufacturer not later than consideration as a new light source after capsule and/or supports.
30 days after its receipt whether the such changes as will insure that it is not C. Location of black cap relative to low
submission has been accepted. Upon interchangeable with the light source for beam filament centerline, filament tolerance
acceptance, the Associate Administrator which modification was originally box or other to-be-specified reference.
files the information in Docket No. requested. D. Size, length, shape, or other pertinent
NHTSA 98–3397. The Associate (e) Information submitted under this features and dimensions for providing
Administrator does not accept any section is made available by NHTSA for undistorted walls for the filament capsule.
submission that does not contain all the public inspection as soon as practicable III. Bulb Base Interchangeability Dimensions
information specified in Appendix A or after its receipt, but not later than the and Tolerance
Appendix B of this part, or whose date on which a vehicle equipped with A. Angular locations, diameters, key/
accompanying information indicates a new or revised replaceable light keyway sizes, and any other
that any new light source which is the source is offered for sale. interchangeability dimensions for indexing
subject of a submission is Appendix A to Part 564—Information the bulb base in the bulb holder.
interchangeable with any replaceable to be Submitted for Replaceable Light
B. Diameter, width, depth, and surface
light source for which the agency has finish of seal groove, surface, or other
Sources pertinent sealing features.
previously filed information in Docket
No. NHTSA 98–3397. I. Filament or Discharge Arc Position C. Diameter of the bulb base at the interface
(d) A manufacturer may request Dimensions and Tolerances Using Either of the base and its perpendicular reference
Direct Filament or Discharge Arc Dimensions surface.
modification of a light source for which
or the Three Dimensional Filament or D. Dimensions of features related to
information has previously been filed in retention of the bulb base in the bulb holder
Discharge Arc Tolerance Box
Docket No. NHTSA 98–3397, and the such as tabs, keys, keyways, surfaces, etc.
submission shall be processed in the A. Lower beam filament dimensions or
filament tolerance box dimensions and IV. Bulb Holder Interchangeability
manner provided by § 564.5(c). A relation of these to the bulb base reference
request for modification shall contain Dimensions and Tolerance
plane and centerline.
the following: 1. Axial location of the filament centerline A. Mating angular locations, diameters,
(1) All the information specified in or the filament tolerance box relative to the key/keyway sizes, and any other
Appendix A or Appendix B of this part bulb base reference plane. interchangeability dimensions for indexing
that is relevant to the modification 2. Vertical location of the filament the bulb base in the bulb holder.
centerline or the filament tolerance box B. Mating diameter, width, depth, and
requested,
relative to the bulb base centerline. surface finish of seal groove, surface, or other
(2) The reason for the requested
3. Transverse location of the filament pertinent sealing features.
modification, C. Mating diameter of the bulb holder at
centerline or the filament tolerance box
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(3) A statement that the use of the the interface of the bulb base aperture and its
relative to the bulb base centerline.
light source as modified will not create 4. Filament tolerance box dimensions, if perpendicular reference surface.
a noncompliance with any requirement used. D. Mating dimensions of features related to
of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety B. Upper beam filament dimensions or the retention of the bulb base in the bulb holder
Standard No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108) filament tolerance box dimensions, and such as tabs, keys, keyways, surfaces, etc.

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68268 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

V. Wiring Harness Connector to Bulb Base Appendix B to Part 564—Information to C. Diameter of the bulb base at the interface
Interchangeability Dimensions and be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable of the base and its perpendicular reference
Tolerances Light Sources of Limited Definition surface.
D. Dimensions of features related to
A. Maximum depth of harness connector I. Filament or Discharge Arc Position retention of the bulb base in the bulb holder
insertion into bulb base. Dimensions and Tolerances Using Either such as tabs, keys, keyways, surface, etc.
B. Location of electrical pins in bulb base. Direct Filament or Discharge Arc Dimensions
C. Dimensions of electrical pins in bulb or the Three Dimensional Filament Discharge III. Bulb Holder Interchangeability
base—length, diameter, width, thickness and Arc Tolerance Box Dimensions and Tolerances
etc. A. Lower beam filament or discharge arc A. Mating angular locations, diameters,
D. Fit of harness connector into bulb base key/keyway sizes, any other
dimensions or filament or discharge arc
providing all necessary dimensions, key/ interchangeability dimensions for indexing
tolerance box dimensions and relation of
keyway controls, and dimensions, tapers etc. the bulb base in the bulb holder.
these to the bulb base reference plane and
B. Mating diameter, width, depth, and
E. Dimensions and location of locking centerline.
surface, or other pertinent sealing features.
features for wiring harness connector to bulb 1. Axial location of the filament or
C. Mating diameter of the bulb holder at
base. discharge arc centerline or the filament or the interface of the bulb base aperture and its
F. Identification of upper beam, lower discharge arc tolerance box relative to the perpendicular reference surface.
beam, and common terminals. bulb base reference plane. D. Mating dimensions of features related to
2. Vertical location of the filament or retention of the bulb base in the bulb holder
VI. Seal Specifications (if Replaceable Light discharge arc centerline or the filament or such as tabs, keys, keyways, surface, or any
Source is Intended to be of a Sealed Base discharge arc tolerance box relative to the other characteristics necessary for mating
Design) bulb base centerline. dimensions.
A. Type. 3. Transverse location of the filament or
discharge arc centerline or the filament or IV. Electrical Specifications for Each Light
B. Material. Source That Operates With a Ballast and
discharge arc tolerance box relative to the
C. Dimensions. bulb base centerline. Rated Life of the Light Source/Ballast
VII. Electrical Specifications for Each 4. Filament or discharge arc tolerance box Combination
Filament at 12.8 Volts dimensions, if used. A. Maximum power (in watts).
B. Upper beam filament or discharge arc B. Luminous Flux (in lumens).
A. Maximum power (in watts). dimensions or the filament or discharge arc C. Rated laboratory life of the light source/
B. Luminous Flux with tolerance (in tolerance box dimensions and relation of ballast combination (not less than 2,000
lumens) with black cap if so equipped, these to the bulb base reference plane and hours).
measured in accordance with the document: centerline.
Illuminating Engineering Society of North 1. Axial location of the filament or V. Applicable to Light Sources That Operate
America, LM–45; IES Approved Method for discharge arc centerline or the filament or With a Source Voltage Other Than 12.8 Volts
discharge arc tolerance box relative to the Direct Current, and When a Proprietary
Electrical and Photometric Measurements of
bulb base reference plane. Ballast Must Be Used With the Light Source
General Service Incandescent Filament
Lamps (April 1980). This incorporation by 2. Vertical location of the filament or A. Manufacturer’s part number for the
discharge arc centerline or the filament or ballast.
reference was approved by the Director of the
discharge arc tolerance box relative to the B. Any other characteristics necessary for
Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C.
bulb base centerline. system operation.
552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies may be
3. Transverse location of the filament or VI. Bulb Markings/Designation—ANSI
obtained from the Illuminating Engineering discharge arc centerline or the filament or
Society of North America, 345 East 47th St., NUMBER, ECE IDENTIFIER,
discharge arc tolerance box relative to the MANUFACTURER’S PART NUMBER,
New York, NY 10017. Copies may be bulb base centerline.
inspected at the National Highway Traffic INDIVIDUAL OR IN ANY COMBINATION
4. Filament or discharge arc tolerance box
Safety Administration, Technical Information dimensions, if used. VII. All Other Identification, Dimensions or
Services, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, C. If the replaceable light source has both Performance Specifications Necessary for
Washington, DC 20590, or at the National a lower beam and upper beam filament or Replaceability or Systems Test Not Listed in
Archives and Records Administration discharge arc, the dimensional relationship Sections I Through VI
(NARA). For information on the availability between the two filament or discharge arc
centerlines or the filament or discharge arc
Appendix C to Part 564—Information
of this material at NARA, call 202–741–6030, Applicable to Standardized Sealed
or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_ tolerance boxes may be provided instead of
referencing the upper beam filament or Beam Headlamp Units
register/code_of_ federal regulations/
discharge arc centerline or filament or I. Dimensional Information Specific to a Type
ibr_locations.html.
discharge arc tolerance box to the bulb base of Standardized Sealed Beam Unit.
VIII. Bulb Markings/Designation—ANSI centerline or reference plane.
A. Dimensions marked ‘‘I’’, indicating
NUMBER, ECE IDENTIFIER, D. For a light source using excited gas
interchangeability, for which conformance is
MANUFACTURER’S PART NUMBER, mixtures as a filament, necessary fiducial
mandatory.
INDIVIDUALLY OR IN ANY COMBINATION information and specifications including
B. All other dimensions which are for
electrode position dimensions, and tolerance
IX. All Other Information, Dimensions or design purposes.
information that provide similar location and
Performance Specifications Necessary for characteristics information required by II. Dimensional Information Applicable to the
Interchangeability, Replaceability, or System paragraphs A, B, and C of this section I for Use of Nonadjustable Headlamp Aiming
Test Purposes not Listed in Sections I light sources using a resistive type filament. Device Locating Plates
Through VIII
II. Bulb Base Interchangeability Dimensions III. Dimensional Information Applicable to
IF A BALLAST IS REQUIRED FOR and Tolerance Mounting Features, Including Mounting
OPERATION, A COMPLETE LISTING OF A. Angular locations, diameters, key/ Rings and Lamp Bodies, Specific to a Type
THE REQUIREMENTS AND PARAMETERS keyway sizes, and any other of Standardized Sealed Beam Unit
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BETWEEN THE LIGHT SOURCE AND interchangeability dimensions for indexing A. Dimensions marked ‘‘I’’, indicating
BALLAST, AND BALLAST AND THE the bulb base in the bulb holder. interchangeability, for which conformance is
VEHICLE SHALL ALSO BE PROVIDED. B. Diameter, width, depth, and surface mandatory.
finish of seal groove, surface, or other B. All other dimensions which are for
pertinent sealing features. design purposes.

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Incorporated Figures [References from 49 trailers (except pole trailers and trailer Color bleeding means the migration of
CFR 571.108, Oct. 1, 2006] converter dollies), and motorcycles; color out of a plastic part onto the
LF Headlamp Dimensional Information S3.2 Retroreflective sheeting and surrounding surface.
[Figure 11] reflex reflectors manufactured to Combination clearance and side
UF Headlamp Dimensional Information conform to S8.2 of this standard; and marker lamps are single lamps which
[Figure 12] S3.3 Lamps, reflective devices, and simultaneously fulfill the requirements
LF/UF Mounting Features [Figure 13] associated equipment for replacement of of clearance and side marker lamps.
LF/UF Mounting Ring [Figure 14] like equipment on vehicles to which Cracking means a separation of
Type G & H Headlamp Dimensional
Information [Figure 18]
this standard applies. adjacent sections of a plastic material
Type G & H Headlamp Mounting Information
S4 Definitions. with penetration into the specimen.
[Figure 21] Aiming plane means a plane defined Crazing means a network of apparent
Type 1A1 Headlamp Dimensional by the surface of the three aiming pads fine cracks on or beneath the surface of
Information [SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 11] on the lens. materials.
Type 2A1 Headlamp Dimensional Aiming reference plane means a plane Cutoff means a generally horizontal,
Information [SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 10] which is perpendicular to the visual/optical aiming cue in the lower
Type 2B1 Headlamp Dimensional longitudinal axis of the vehicle and beam that marks a separation between
Information [SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 13] tangent to the forwardmost aiming pad areas of higher and lower luminance.
Type 1C1 Headlamp Dimensional on the headlamp. Daytime running lamps (DRLs) are
Information [SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 7] Aiming screws are the horizontal and steady burning lamps that are used to
Type 2C1 Headlamp Dimensional
vertical adjusting screws with self- improve the conspicuity of a vehicle
Information [SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 8]
Type 2D1 Headlamp Dimensional locking features used to aim and retain from the front and front sides when the
Information [SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 5] a headlamp unit in the proper position. regular headlamps are not required for
Type 2E1 Headlamp Dimensional Axis of reference means the driving.
Information [SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 15] characteristic axis of the lamp for use as Delamination means a separation of
Types 1A1, 2A1, and 2E1 Headlamp the direction of reference (H = 0°, V = the layers of a material including
Mounting Ring/Lamp Body Dimensional 0°) for angles of field for photometric coatings.
Information [SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 12] measurements and for installing the Design voltage means the voltage used
Type 2B1 Headlamp Mounting Ring/Lamp lamp on the vehicle. for design purposes.
Body Dimensional Information [SAE J1383 Backup lamp means a lamp or lamps Direct reading indicator means a
APR85, Figure 14] which illuminate the road to the rear of device that is mounted in its entirety on
Types 1C1and 2C1 Headlamp Mounting
Ring/Lamp Body Dimensional Information
a vehicle and provide a warning signal a headlamp or headlamp aiming or
[SAE J1383 APR85, Figure 9] to pedestrians and other drivers when headlamp mounting equipment, is part
Type 2D1 Headlamp Mounting Ring/Lamp the vehicle is backing up or is about to of a VHAD, and provides information
Body Dimensional Information [SAE J1383 back up. about headlamp aim in an analog or
APR85, Figure 6] Beam contributor means an digital format.
indivisible optical assembly including a Effective light-emitting surface means
PART 571—FEDERAL MOTOR lens, reflector, and light source, that is that portion of a lamp that directs light
VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS part of an integral beam headlighting to the photometric test pattern, and does
system and contributes only a portion of not include transparent lenses,
■ 2. The authority citation for Part 571 a headlamp beam. mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector
continues to read as follows: Cargo lamp is a lamp that is mounted area, beads or rims that may glow or
Authority: 49 U.S.C. 322, 30111, 30115, on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, produce small areas of increased
30117, 30166; delegation of authority at 49 truck, or bus for the purpose of intensity as a result of uncontrolled
CFR 1.50. providing illumination to load or light from an area of 1⁄2° radius around
■ 3. Section 571.108 is amended to read unload cargo. a test point.
as follows: Clearance lamps are lamps which Effective projected luminous lens area
show to the front or rear of the vehicle, means the area of the orthogonal
§ 571.108 Standard No. 108; Lamps, mounted on the permanent structure of projection of the effective light-emitting
reflective devices, and associated the vehicle as near as practicable to the surface of a lamp on a plane
equipment.
upper left and right extreme edges to perpendicular to a defined direction
S1 Scope. This standard specifies indicate the overall width and height of relative to the axis of reference. Unless
requirements for original and the vehicle. otherwise specified, the direction is
replacement lamps, reflective devices, Coated materials means a material coincident with the axis of reference.
and associated equipment. which has a coating applied to the Exposed means material used in
S2 Purpose. The purpose of this surface of the finished sample to impart lenses or optical devices exposed to
standard is to reduce traffic accidents some protective properties. Coating direct sunlight as installed on the
and deaths and injuries resulting from identification means a mark of the vehicle.
traffic accidents, by providing adequate manufacturer’s name, formulation Filament means that part of the light
illumination of the roadway, and by designation number, and source or light emitting element(s), such
enhancing the conspicuity of motor recommendations for application. as a resistive element, the excited
vehicles on the public roads so that Color Fundamental definitions of portion of a specific mixture of gases
their presence is perceived and their color are expressed by Chromaticity under pressure, or any part of other
signals understood, both in daylight and Coordinates according to the energy conversion sources, that
in darkness or other conditions of International Commission on generates radiant energy which can be
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

reduced visibility. Illumination (C.I.E.) 1931 Standard seen.


S3 Application. This standard Colorimetric System, as described in the Flash means a cycle of activation and
applies to: CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram deactivation of a lamp by automatic
S3.1 Passenger cars, multipurpose (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 means continuing until stopped either
passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, S5.2 of this title). automatically or manually.

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Fully opened means the position of S10.18.8 or paragraph S10.18.9 may to the front and are intended to mark the
the headlamp concealment device in have a lens designed to be replaceable. vehicle when parked or serve as a
which the headlamp is in the design License plate lamp means a lamp reserve front position indicating system
open operating position. used to illuminate the license plate on in the event of headlamp failure.
H-V axis means the line from the the rear of a vehicle. Protected means material used in
center of the principal filament of a Lower beam means a beam intended inner lenses for optical devices where
lamp to the intersection of the to illuminate the road and its environs such lenses are protected from exposure
horizontal (H) and vertical (V) lines of ahead of the vehicle when meeting or to the sun by an outer lens made of
a photometric test screen. closely following another vehicle. materials meeting the requirements for
Haze means the cloudy or turbid Material means the type and grade of exposed plastics.
appearance of an otherwise transparent plastics, composition, and Rated voltage means the nominal
specimen caused by light scattered from manufacturer’s designation number and circuit or vehicle electrical system
within the specimen or from its surface. color. voltage classification.
Headlamp means a lighting device Mechanically aimable headlamp Reflex reflectors are devices used on
providing an upper and/or a lower beam means a headlamp having three pads on vehicles to give an indication to
used for providing illumination forward the lens, forming an aiming plane used approaching drivers using reflected light
of the vehicle. for laboratory photometric testing and from the lamps of the approaching
Headlamp concealment device means for adjusting and inspecting the aim of vehicle.
a device, with its operating system and the headlamp when installed on the Remote reading indicator means a
components, that provides concealment vehicle. device that is not mounted in its
of the headlamp when it is not in use, Motor driven cycle means every entirety on a headlamp or headlamp
including a movable headlamp cover motorcycle, including every motor aiming or headlamp mounting
and a headlamp that displaces for scooter, with a motor which produces equipment, but otherwise meets the
concealment purposes. not more than 5 horsepower, and every definition of a direct reading indicator.
Headlamp mechanical axis means the bicycle with motor attached. Replaceable bulb headlamp means a
Motorcycle or motor driven cycle
line formed by the intersection of a headlamp comprising a bonded lens and
headlamp means a major lighting device
horizontal and a vertical plane through reflector assembly and one or two
used to produce general illumination
the light source parallel to the replaceable light sources, except that a
ahead of the vehicle.
longitudinal axis of the vehicle. If the headlamp conforming to paragraph
Mounting ring means the adjustable
mechanical axis of the headlamp is not S10.18.8 or paragraph S10.18.9 may
ring upon which a sealed beam unit is
at the geometric center of the lens, then have a lens designed to be replaceable.
mounted.
the location will be indicated by the Mounting ring (type F sealed beam) Replaceable light source means an
manufacturer on the headlamp. means the adjustable ring upon which a assembly of a capsule, base, and
Headlamp test fixture means a device sealed beam unit is mounted and which terminals that is designed to conform to
designed to support a headlamp or forces the sealed beam unit to seat the requirements of Appendix A or
headlamp assembly in the test position against the aiming ring when assembled Appendix B of 49 CFR part 564
specified in the laboratory tests and into a sealed beam assembly. Replaceable Light Source Information of
whose mounting hardware and Multiple compartment lamp means a this Chapter.
components are those necessary to device which gives its indication by two Retaining ring means the clamping
operate the headlamp as installed in a or more separately lighted areas which ring that holds a sealed beam unit
motor vehicle. are joined by one or more common against a mounting ring.
High-mounted stop lamp means a parts, such as a housing or lens. Retaining ring (type F sealed beam)
lamp mounted high and possibly Multiple lamp arrangement means an means the clamping ring that holds a
forward of the tail, stop, and rear turn array of two or more separate lamps on sealed beam unit against a mounting
signal lamps intended to give a steady each side of the vehicle which operate ring, and that provides an interface
stop warning through intervening together to give a signal. between the unit’s aiming/seating pads
vehicles to operators of following Optically combined means a lamp and the headlamp aimer adapter
vehicles. having a single or two filament light (locating plate).
Identification lamps are lamps used source or two or more separate light School bus signal lamps are
in groups of three, in a horizontal row, sources that operate in different ways, alternately flashing lamps mounted
which show to the front or rear or both, and has its optically functional lens area horizontally both front and rear,
having lamp centers spaced not less wholly or partially common to two or intended to identify a vehicle as a
than [6 in] 15.2 mm nor more than [12 more lamp functions. school bus and to inform other users of
in] 30.4 mm apart, mounted on the Overall width means the nominal the highway that such vehicle is
permanent structure as near as design dimension of the widest part of stopped on the highway to take on or
practicable to the vertical centerline and the vehicle, exclusive of signal lamps, discharge school children.
the top of the vehicle to identify certain marker lamps, outside rearview mirrors, Sealed beam headlamp means an
types of vehicles. flexible fender extensions, mud flaps, integral and indivisible optical assembly
Integral beam headlamp means a and outside door handles determined including the light source with
headlamp (other than a standardized with doors and windows closed, and the ‘‘SEALED BEAM’’ molded in the lens.
sealed beam headlamp designed to wheels in the straight-ahead position. Sealed beam headlamp assembly
conform to paragraph S10.13 or a Running boards may also be excluded means a major lighting assembly which
replaceable bulb headlamp designed to from the determination of overall width includes one or more sealed beam units
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conform to paragraph S10.15) if they do not extend beyond the width used to provide general illumination
comprising an integral and indivisible as determined by the other items ahead of the vehicle.
optical assembly including lens, excluded by this definition. Seasoning means the process of
reflector, and light source, except that a Parking lamps are lamps on both the energizing the filament of a headlamp at
headlamp conforming to paragraph left and right of the vehicle which show design voltage for a period of time equal

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to 1% of design life, or other equivalent indicate to approaching drivers the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.,
method. presence of a vehicular hazard. 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale,
Semiautomatic headlamp beam Visually/optically aimable headlamp PA 15096.
switching device is one which provides means a headlamp which is designed to 6. Society of Automotive Engineers
either automatic or manual control of be visually/optically aimable in (SAE) Standard J567b, revised APR
beam switching at the option of the accordance with the requirements of 1964, ‘‘Bulb Sockets.’’ Society of
driver. When the control is automatic paragraph S10.18.9 of this standard. Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400
the headlamps switch from the upper S5 References to SAE publications. Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA
beam to the lower beam when S5.1 Each required lamp, reflective 15096.
illuminated by the headlamps on an device, and item of associated 7. International Commission on
approaching vehicle and switch back to equipment must be designed to conform Illumination (C.I.E.) 1931 Chromaticity
the upper beam when the road ahead is to the requirements of applicable SAE Diagram. CIE Central Bureau, Kegelgasse
dark. When the control is manual, the publications as referenced and 27, A–1030 Vienna, Austria.
driver may obtain either beam manually subreferenced in this standard. The 8. General Services Administration
regardless of the conditions ahead of the words ‘‘it is recommended that,’’ (GSA) Federal Specification L–S–300,
vehicle. ‘‘recommendations,’’ or ‘‘should be’’ approved September 1965, ‘‘Sheeting
Side marker lamps are lamps which appearing in any SAE publication and Tape, Reflective: Nonexposed Lens,
show to the side of the vehicle, mounted referenced or subreferenced in this Adhesive Backing.’’ Superintendent of
on the permanent structure of the standard must be read as setting forth Documents, U.S. Government Printing
vehicle as near as practicable to the mandatory requirements. Office, Washington, DC 20402,
front and rear edges to indicate the S5.2 Incorporation by reference. The telephone 202–512–1800.
overall length of the vehicle. Additional Director of the Federal Register 9. American Society for Testing and
lamps may also be mounted at approves the incorporation by reference Materials (ASTM) D4956–90, published
intermediate locations on the sides of of the following material in accordance December 1990, ‘‘Standard Specification
the vehicle. with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic
All material is available for inspection Control.’’ ASTM International, 100 Barr
Stop lamps are lamps giving a steady
at the NHTSA Reading Room, 1200 New Harbor Drive, PO Box C700,
light to the rear of a vehicle to indicate
Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC Conshohocken, PA 19428–2959.
a vehicle is stopping or diminishing
20590, or at NARA. For information on 10. ECE 48 E/ECE/324–E/ECE/
speed by braking.
the availability of this material at TRANS/505, Rev.1/ADD.47/Rev.1/
Taillamps are steady burning low Corr.2, 26 February 1996, ‘‘Uniform
intensity lamps used to designate the NARA, call 202–741–6030, or go to:
http://www.archives.gov/ Provisions Concerning the Approval of
rear of a vehicle. Vehicles with Regard to the Installation
Test voltage means the specified federal_register/
code_of_federal_regulations/ of Lighting and Light-Signaling
voltage and tolerance to be used when Devices.’’ United Nations, Conference
conducting a test. ibr_locations.html.
The material is also available at the Services Division, Distribution and
Turn signal lamps are the signaling Sales Section, Office C.115–1, Palais des
publisher whose name and address
element of a turn signal system which Nations, CH–1211, Geneva 10, http://
follow the standard number:
indicates the intention to turn or change 1. Society of Automotive Engineers www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/
direction by giving a flashing light on (SAE) Standard J602, revised AUG 1963, wp29regs.html.
the side toward which the turn will be ‘‘Headlamp Aiming Device for 11. American Society for Testing and
made. Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam Materials (ASTM) D1003–92, published
Turn signal flasher means a device Headlamp Units.’’ Society of December 1992, ‘‘Standard Test Method
which causes a turn signal lamp to flash Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 for Haze and Luminous Transmittance
as long as it is turned on. Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA of Transparent Plastics.’’ ASTM
Turn signal operating unit means an 15096. International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO
operating unit that is part of a turn 2. Society of Automotive Engineers Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428–
signal system by which the operator of (SAE) Standard J941b, revised FEB 2959.
a vehicle causes the signal units to 1969, ‘‘Motor Vehicle Driver’s Eye 12. American Society for Testing and
function. Range.’’ Society of Automotive Materials (ASTM) E308–66, reapproved
Upper beam means a beam intended Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth 1981, ‘‘Standard Practice for
primarily for distance illumination and Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096. Spectrophotometry and Description of
for use when not meeting or closely 3. Society of Automotive Engineers Color in CIE 1931 System.’’ ASTM
following other vehicles. (SAE) Standard J602, revised OCT 1980, International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO
Vehicle headlamp aiming device or ‘‘Headlamp Aiming Device for Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428–
VHAD means motor vehicle equipment, Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam 2959.
installed either on a vehicle or Headlamp Units.’’ Society of 13. American Society for Testing and
headlamp, which is used for Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Materials (ASTM) B117–73, reapproved
determining the horizontal or vertical Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 1979, ‘‘Standard Method of Salt Spray
aim, or both the vertical and horizontal 15096. (Fog) Testing.’’ ASTM International, 100
aim of the headlamp. 4. Society of Automotive Engineers Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700,
Vehicular hazard warning signal (SAE) Standard J2009, revised FEB Conshohocken, PA 19428–2959.
flasher means a device which, as long as 1993, ‘‘Forward Discharge Lighting 14. American Society for Testing and
it is turned on, causes all the required Systems.’’ Society of Automotive Materials (ASTM) Co. 05.04 1985,
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

turn signal lamps to flash. Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth ‘‘Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Test
Vehicular hazard warning signal Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096. Methods for Rating Motor, Diesel,
operating unit means a driver controlled 5. Society of Automotive Engineers Aviation Fuels,’’ Section I, parts A2.3.2,
device which causes all required turn (SAE) Standard J573d, revised DEC A2.3.3, and A2.7 in Annex 2. ASTM
signal lamps to flash simultaneously to 1968, ‘‘Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units.’’ International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO

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68272 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428– S6.1.1.3 Truck tractor rear turn minimize reflections from the light of
2959. signal lamps. A truck tractor need not the lamp upon the rear window glazing
15. American Society for Testing and be equipped with turn signal lamps that might be visible to the driver when
Materials (ASTM) D362–84, published mounted on the rear if the turn signal viewed directly, or indirectly in the
March 1984, ‘‘Standard Specification for lamps installed at or near the front are rearview mirror.
Industrial Grade Toluene.’’ ASTM of double face construction and are S6.1.3.4.2 Accessibility. Each high-
International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO located such that they meet the mounted stop lamp must provide access
Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428– photometric requirements for double for convenient replacement of bulbs
2959. faced turn signal lamps specified in without special tools.
16. American Society for Testing and Footnote 6 of Table VII. S6.1.3.5 Headlamp beam mounting.
Materials (ASTM) C150–77, published S6.1.1.3.1 The flashing signal from a S6.1.3.5.1 Vertical headlamp
April 1977, ‘‘Standard Specification for double faced signal lamp must not be arrangement.
Portland Cement.’’ ASTM International, obliterated when subjected to external S6.1.3.5.1.1 Where multiple
100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, light rays from either in front or behind, headlamps with single light sources are
Conshohocken, PA 19428–2959. at any and all angles. installed in a vertical orientation the
17. Illuminating Engineering Society S6.1.1.4 Daytime running lamps. A lower beam must be provided by the
of North America (IES) LM 45, approved passenger car, multipurpose passenger uppermost headlamp.
April 1980, ‘‘IES Approved Method for vehicle, truck, or bus may be equipped S6.1.3.5.1.2 Where headlamps with
Electrical and Photometric with a pair of daytime running lamps two vertically oriented light sources are
Measurements of General Service (DRLs) as specified in Table I and S7.10 installed the lower beam must be
Incandescent Filament Lamps.’’ of this standard. DRLs may be any pair provided by the uppermost light source
Illuminating Engineering Society of of lamps on the front of the vehicle, or by all light sources.
North America, 345 East 47th St., New whether or not required by this S6.1.3.5.1.3 Where more than one
York, NY 10017. standard, other than parking lamps or lamp must be used for a motorcycle
S6 Vehicle requirements. fog lamps. headlighting system, the lamps must be
S6.1 Required lamps, reflective S6.1.2 Color. The color in all lamps mounted vertically, with the lower
devices, and associated equipment by and reflective devices to which this beam as high as practicable.
vehicle type. standard applies must be as specified in S6.1.3.5.2 Horizontal headlamp
S6.1.1 Quantity. Except as provided Table I. The color identified as amber is arrangement.
in succeeding paragraphs of this S6.1.1 identical to the color identified as S6.1.3.5.2.1 Where multiple
each vehicle must be equipped with at yellow. headlamps with single light sources are
least the number of lamps, reflective S6.1.3 Mounting location. installed in a horizontal orientation the
devices, and items of associated S6.1.3.1 Each lamp, reflective lower beam must be provided by the
equipment specified for that vehicle device, and item of associated most outboard headlamp.
type and size in Table I and Section 6.6, equipment must be securely mounted S6.1.3.5.2.2 Where headlamps with
designed to conform to the requirements on a rigid part of the vehicle, other than two horizontally oriented light sources
of this standard. Multiple license plate glazing, that is not designed to be are installed the lower beam must be
lamps and backup lamps may be used removed except for repair, within the provided by the outboard light source or
to fulfill photometric requirements for mounting location and height limits as by all light sources.
those functions. specified in Table I, and in a location S6.1.3.6 Auxiliary lamps mounted
S6.1.1.1 Conspicuity systems. Each where it complies with all applicable near identification lamps. Each
trailer of 2032 mm or more in overall photometric requirements, effective auxiliary lamp must be located at least
width, and with a GVWR over 10,000 projected luminous lens area twice the distance from any required
lbs., except a trailer designed requirements, and visibility identification lamp as the distance
exclusively for living or office use, and requirements with all obstructions between two adjacent required
each truck tractor must be equipped considered. identification lamps.
with retroreflective sheeting, reflex S6.1.3.2 When multiple lamp S6.1.4 Mounting height. The
reflectors, or a combination of arrangements or multiple compartment mounting height of each lamp and
retroreflective sheeting and reflex rear turn signal lamps, stop lamps, or reflective device must be measured from
reflectors as specified in S8.2. taillamps are used, with only a portion the center of the item, as mounted on
S6.1.1.2 High-mounted stop lamps. of the compartments or lamps installed the vehicle at curb weight, to the road
Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, on a rigid part of the vehicle, that surface.
truck, and bus required by this standard portion must meet at least the S6.1.4.1 High-mounted stop lamps.
to be equipped with a high-mounted photometric requirements for the S6.1.4.1.1 A high-mounted stop
stop lamp, whose vertical centerline, applicable single compartment lamp. lamp mounted below the rear window
when the vehicle is viewed from the S6.1.3.3 License plate lamp. The must have no lens portion lower than
rear, is not located on a fixed body license plate lamp or lamps installed on 153 mm [6 in] below the lower edge of
panel but separates one or two moveable vehicles other than motorcycles and the rear glazing on convertibles, or 77
body sections, such as doors, which motor driven cycles must be mounted so mm [3 in] on other passenger cars.
lacks sufficient space to install a single as to illuminate the license plate S6.1.5 Activation. Each lamp must
high-mounted stop lamp on the without obstruction from any designed be activated as specified, in the
centerline above such body sections, feature unless the lamp or lamps is (are) combinations specified, and in response
must have two high-mounted stop designed to comply with all the to the inputs specified in Table I and
lamps identical in size and shape. photometric requirements with these Table II.
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S6.1.1.2.1 The two lamps must be obstructions considered. S6.1.5.1 Hazard warning signal. In
located at the same height, with one S6.1.3.4 High-mounted stop lamps. all passenger cars, multipurpose
vertical edge of each lamp on the S6.1.3.4.1 Interior mounting. A high- passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses,
vertical edge of the body section nearest mounted stop lamp mounted inside the the activation of the vehicular hazard
the vehicle centerline. vehicle must have means provided to warning signal operating unit must

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cause to flash simultaneously sufficient items of associated equipment may be S6.4.5 School bus signal lamp
turn signal lamps to meet, as a combined if the requirements for each aiming. Each school bus signal lamp
minimum, the turn signal photometric lamp, reflective device, and item of must be mounted on the vehicle with
requirements of this standard. associated equipment are met with the their aiming plane vertical and normal
S6.1.5.2 Simultaneous beam following exceptions: to the vehicle longitudinal axis. Aim
activation. S6.3.1 No high-mounted stop lamp tolerance must be no more than 5 in
S6.1.5.2.1 On any vehicle to which is permitted to be combined with any vertically and 10 in horizontally at 25 ft
this standard applies where the other lamp or reflective device, other from the lamp. If the lamps are aimed
headlighting system is designed to than with a cargo lamp. or inspected by use of the SAE J602,
conform to the photometric S6.3.2 No high-mounted stop lamp Headlamp Aiming Device for
requirements of UB1 of Table XVIII and is permitted to be optically combined Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam
LB1M or LB1V of Table XIX–a, the with any cargo lamp. Headlamp Units, (August 1963)
lamps marked ‘‘L’’ or ‘‘LF’’ may remain S6.3.3 No clearance lamp is (incorporated by reference, see 571.108
permanently activated when the lamps permitted to be optically combined with S5.2 of this title), the graduation settings
marked ‘‘U’’ or ‘‘UF’’ are activated. any taillamp. for aim must be 2° D and 0° sideways
S6.1.5.2.2 On any vehicle to which S6.4 Lens area, visibility and school for aiming and the limits must be 3° U
this standard applies where an integral bus signal lamp aiming. to 7° D and from 10° R to 10° L for
beam headlighting system is designed to S6.4.1 Effective projected luminous inspection.
conform to the photometric lens area. Each turn signal lamp, stop S6.5 Marking. A summary of the
requirements of UB6 of Table XVIII and lamp, high-mounted stop lamp, and marking requirements of this standard
LB5M of Table XIX–b or LB4V of Table school bus signal lamp must meet the and their location in the standard is
XIX–c, the lower beam headlamps must applicable effective projected luminous contained in Table III.
remain permanently activated when the lens area requirement specified in
S6.5.1 DOT marking. The lens of
upper beam headlamps are activated. Tables IV–a, IV–b, and IV–c.
each original equipment and
S6.1.5.2.3 On any vehicle to which S6.4.2 Visibility. Each backup lamp,
replacement headlamp, and of each
this section applies where the single or combination of dual high-
original equipment and replacement
headlighting system is designed to mounted stop lamp(s), and school bus
beam contributor, and each replacement
conform to the photometric signal lamp must meet the applicable
headlamp lens for an integral beam or
requirements of UB2 of Table XVIII and visibility requirement specified in Table
replaceable bulb headlamp, must be
LB2M or LB2V of Table XIX–a, a lower V-a.
S6.4.3 Visibility options. A marked with the symbol ‘‘DOT’’ either
beam light source may remain horizontally or vertically to indicate
permanently activated when an upper manufacturer must certify compliance
of each lamp function to one of the certification under 49 U.S.C. 30115.
beam light source is activated if the S6.5.1.1 The DOT marking
lower beam light source contributes to following visibility requirement options,
and it may not thereafter choose a requirements for conspicuity materials
the upper beam photometric compliance are specified in S8.2 of this standard.
of the headlighting system. different option for that vehicle:
(a) Lens area option. When a vehicle S6.5.1.2 Each original equipment or
S6.2 Impairment.
S6.2.1 No additional lamp, reflective is equipped with any lamp listed in replacement lamp or reflective device
device, or other motor vehicle Table V-b each such lamp must provide specified in Table I, except for a
equipment is permitted to be installed not less than 1250 sq mm of headlamp, or an item of associated
that impairs the effectiveness of lighting unobstructed effective projected equipment specified in S9 may be
equipment required by this standard. luminous lens area in any direction marked with the symbol ‘‘DOT’’ which
S6.2.2 If any required lamp or throughout the pattern defined by the constitutes a certification that it
reflective device is obstructed by motor corner points specified in Table V-b for conforms to the requirements of this
vehicle equipment (e.g., mirrors, snow each such lamp; or standard.
plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, (b) Luminous intensity option. When S6.5.2 DRL marking. Each original
winches, etc.) including dealer installed a vehicle is equipped with any lamp equipment and replacement lamp used
equipment, and cannot meet the listed in Table V-c each such lamp must as a daytime running lamp (DRL),
applicable photometry and visibility provide a luminous intensity of not less unless optically combined with a
requirements, the vehicle must be than that specified in Table V-c in any headlamp, must be permanently marked
equipped with an additional lamp or direction throughout the pattern defined ‘‘DRL’’ on its lens in letters not less than
device of the same type which meet all by the corner points specified in Table 3 mm high.
applicable requirements of this V-c for each such lamp when measured S6.5.3 Headlamp markings.
standard, including photometry and in accordance with the photometry test S6.5.3. Trademark. The lens of each
visibility. requirements of this standard. original and replacement equipment
S6.2.3 Headlamp obstructions. S6.4.4 Legacy visibility alternative. headlamp, and of each original and
S6.2.3.1 When activated in a steady As an alternative to S6.4.3, each replacement equipment beam
burning state, headlamps must not have passenger car and motorcycle, and each contributor must be marked with the
any styling ornament or other feature, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, name and/or trademark registered with
such as a translucent cover or grill, in trailer, and bus that is of less than 2032 the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office of
front of the lens. mm overall width, that are the manufacturer of such headlamp or
S6.2.3.2 Headlamp wipers may be manufactured on or before September 1, beam contributor, of its importer, or any
used in front of the lens provided that 2011, and each multipurpose passenger manufacturer of a vehicle equipped
the headlamp system is designed to vehicle, truck, trailer, and bus that is of with such headlamp or beam
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

conform with all applicable photometric 2032 mm or more overall width, that are contributor. Nothing in this standard
requirements with the wiper stopped in manufactured on or before September 1, authorizes the marking of any such
any position in front of the lens. 2014, must have each lamp located so name and/or trademark by one who is
S6.3 Equipment combinations. Two that it meets the visibility requirements not the owner, unless the owner has
or more lamps, reflective devices, or specified in Table V-d. consented to it.

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S6.5.3.2 Voltage and trade number. pilot indicator, a headlamp beam matched paired devices are sold
Each original and replacement switching device, and an upper beam together. This provision does not limit
equipment headlamp, and each original headlamp indicator meeting the the responsibilities of manufacturers,
and replacement equipment beam requirements of S9. distributors, dealers or motor vehicle
contributor must be marked with its S6.6.2 All vehicles to which this repair businesses under 49 U.S.C.
voltage and with its part or trade standard applies except trailers and 30122, Making safety devices and
number. motorcycles must be equipped with a elements inoperative.
S6.5.3.3 Sealed beam headlamp vehicular hazard warning operating S6.7.2 Version of this standard. The
markings. unit, a vehicular hazard warning signal requirements of S6.7.1 must be met, at
S6.5.3.3.1 Each sealed beam flasher, and a vehicular hazard warning the option of the manufacturer, using
headlamp lens must be molded with signal pilot indicator meeting the either the current version of this
‘‘SEALED BEAM’’ and the appropriate requirements of S9. standard or the standard in effect at the
designation code as shown in Table II in S6.6.3 License plate holder. Each time of manufacture of the original
characters no less than 6.35 mm in size. rear license plate holder must be equipment being replaced.
S6.5.3.3.2 The face of any character designed and constructed to provide a S7 Signal lamp requirements.
molded on the surface of the lens must substantial plane surface on which to S7.1 Turn signal lamps.
not be raised more than 0.5 mm above mount the plate. The plane of the S7.1.1 Front turn signal lamps.
the lens surface. license plate mounting surface and the S7.1.1.1 Number. See Tables I–a and
S6.5.3.3.3 Type 1C1, 2C1, and 2D1 plane on which the vehicle stands must I–c.
headlamps must have no raised be perpendicular within ± 15°. S7.1.1.2 Color of light. See Tables I–
markings on the outside surface of the S6.7 Replacement equipment. a and I–c.
lens between the diameters of 40 mm S6.7.1 General. S7.1.1.3 Mounting location. See
S6.7.1.1 Each replacement lamp, Tables I–a and I–c.
and 90 mm about the lens center.
reflective device, or item of associated S7.1.1.4 Mounting height. See
S6.5.3.3.4 Type 1A1, 2A1, 2B1, and
equipment, including a combination Tables I–a and I–c.
2E1 headlamps must have no raised S7.1.1.5 Activation. See Tables I–a
markings on the outside surface of the lamp, must:
(a) Be designed to conform to meet all and I–c.
lens within a diameter of 70 mm about S7.1.1.6 Effective projected
the lens center. requirements specified in this standard
for that type of lamp, reflective device, luminous lens area. See Table IV–a.
S6.5.3.3.5 Type LF, UF, 1G1, 2G1, S7.1.1.7 Visibility. See S6.4.
and 2H1 headlamps must have no raised or other item of equipment (in the case S7.1.1.8 Indicator. See S9.3.
markings on the outside surface of the of a combination lamp, it must meet S7.1.1.9 Markings. See S6.5.
lens within a diameter of 35 mm about these requirements for each function); S7.1.1.10 Spacing to other lamps.
the lens center. and S7.1.1.10.1 Each front turn signal
S6.5.3.3.6 A Type 1C1 replacement (b) Include all of the functions of the lamp must also be designed to comply
headlamp may be marked ‘‘1’’ rather lamp, reflective device, or item of with any additional photometry
than ‘‘1C1’’. A Type 2C1 replacement associated equipment, including a requirements based on its installed
headlamp may be marked ‘‘2’’ rather combination lamp, it is designed to spacing to other lamps as specified by
than ‘‘2C1’’. A Type 2D1 replacement replace or is capable of replacing (other this section. Where more than one
headlamp may be marked ‘‘TOP’’ or ‘‘2’’ than functions not required by this spacing relationship exists for a turn
rather than ‘‘2D1’’. standard). signal lamp the requirement must be the
S6.5.3.4 Replaceable bulb headlamp S6.7.1.2 Each replacement lamp, one that specifies the highest luminous
markings. reflective device, or item of associated intensity multiplier of Tables VI–a and
S6.5.3.4.1 The lens of each equipment, including a combination VI–b.
replaceable bulb headlamp must bear lamp, which is designed or S7.1.1.10.2 Spacing measurement
permanent marking in front of each recommended for particular vehicle for non-reflector lamps. For any front
replaceable light source with which it is models must be designed so that it does turn signal lamp that does not employ
equipped that states either: The HB not take the vehicle out of compliance a reflector to meet photometric
Type, if the light source conforms to S11 with this standard when the individual requirements, the spacing must be
of this standard for filament light device is installed on the vehicle. measured from the light source of the
sources, or the bulb marking/ Except as provided in S6.7.1.3, the turn signal lamp to the lighted edge of
designation provided in compliance determination of whether a vehicle any lower beam headlamp, or any lamp
with Section VIII of Appendix A of 49 would be taken out of compliance with such as an auxiliary lower beam
CFR Part 564 (if the light source this standard when an individual device headlamp or fog lamp used to
conforms to S11 of this standard for is installed on the vehicle is made supplement the lower beam headlamp.
discharge light sources). without regard to whether additional S7.1.1.10.3 Spacing measurement
S6.5.3.4.1.1 No marking need be devices, including separate lamps or for lamps with reflectors. For any front
provided if the only replaceable light reflective devices sold together with the turn signal lamp which employs a
source in the headlamp is type HB1. device, would also be installed. reflector, such as a parabolic reflector, to
S6.5.3.5 Additional headlamp S6.7.1.3 In the case of a lamp or meet photometric requirements, the
markings. Additional marking other device that is used on each side spacing must be measured from the
requirements for headlamps are found of the vehicle in pairs, the geometric centroid of the turn signal
in, S10.14.4, S10.15.4, S10.17.2, determination (for the purposes of lamp effective projected luminous lens
S10.18.5, S10.18.7, and S10.18.9 of this S6.7.1.2) of whether a vehicle would be area to the lighted edge of any lower
standard. taken out of compliance with this beam headlamp, or any lamp such as an
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

S6.6 Associated equipment. standard when an individual device is auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog
S6.6.1 All vehicles to which this installed on the vehicle is made lamp used to supplement the lower
standard applies, except trailers, must assuming that the other matched paired beam headlamp.
be equipped with a turn signal operating device would be installed on the other S7.1.1.10.4 Spacing based
unit, a turn signal flasher, a turn signal side of the vehicle, whether or not the photometric multipliers.

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(a) where the spacing measurement of S7.1.1.12 Ratio to parking lamps moisture test, dust test, and corrosion
S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a and clearance lamps. test of S14.5, and the color test and
turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of S7.1.1.12.1 When a parking lamp, or plastic optical material test of S14.4.
any lower beam headlamp is less than a clearance lamp on a multipurpose S7.1.2 Rear turn signal lamps.
100 mm the photometric multiplier passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus S7.1.2.1 Number. See Tables I–a, I–
must be 2.5. of 2032 mm or more in overall width, b, and I–c.
(b) where the spacing measurement of is combined with a front turn signal S7.1.2.2 Color of light. See Tables I–
S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a lamp, the luminous intensity of the a, I–b, and I–c.
turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of front turn signal lamp at each identified S7.1.2.3 Mounting location. See
any lamp such as an auxiliary lower test point must not be less than the Tables I–a, I–b, and I–c and S6.1.3.2.
beam headlamp or fog lamp used to luminous intensity of the parking lamp S7.1.2.4 Mounting height. See
supplement the lower beam headlamp is or clearance lamp at that same test point Tables I–a, I–b, and I–c.
at least 75 mm but less than 100 mm the times the multiplier shown for that test S7.1.2.5 Activation. See Tables I–a,
photometric multiplier of Table VI must point in Tables VI-a or VI-b. I–b, and I–c.
be 1.5. S7.1.1.12.2 If a multiple S7.1.2.6 Effective projected
(c) where the spacing measurement of compartment or multiple lamp luminous lens area. See Table IV–a.
S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a arrangement is used on a passenger car S7.1.2.7 Visibility. See S6.4.
turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, S7.1.2.8 Indicator. See S9.3.
any lamp such as an auxiliary lower truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 S7.1.2.9 Markings. See S6.5.
beam headlamp or fog lamp used to mm in overall width, and the distance S7.1.2.10 Spacing to other lamps.
supplement the lower beam headlamp is between the optical axes for both the No requirement.
at least 60 mm but less than 75 mm the parking lamp and turn signal lamp is S7.1.2.11 Multiple compartments
photometric multiplier must be 2.0. within 560 mm for two compartment or and multiple lamps.
(d) where the spacing measurement of lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three S7.1.2.11.1 A multiple compartment
S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a compartment or lamp arrangements, lamp or multiple lamps may be used to
turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of then the ratio must be computed with meet the photometric requirements of a
any lamp such as an auxiliary lower all compartments or lamps lighted. rear turn signal lamp provided the
beam headlamp or fog lamp used to S7.1.1.12.3 If a multiple requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met
supplement the lower beam headlamp is compartment or multiple lamp S7.1.2.11.2 If a multiple
less than 60 mm the photometric arrangement is used and the distance compartment lamp or multiple lamps
multiplier must be 2.5. between optical axes for one of the are used on a passenger car or on a
S7.1.1.11 Multiple compartments functions exceeds 560 mm for two multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck,
and multiple lamps. compartment or lamp arrangements or bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in
S7.1.1.11.1 A multiple compartment 410 mm for three compartments or lamp overall width, and the distance between
lamp or multiple lamps may be used to arrangements, then the ratio must be adjacent light sources does not exceed
meet the photometric requirements of a computed for only those compartments 560 mm for two compartment or lamp
front turn signal lamp. or lamps where the parking lamp and arrangements and does not exceed 410
S7.1.1.11.2 If a multiple turn signal lamp are optically combined. mm for three compartment or lamp
compartment lamp or multiple lamps S7.1.1.12.4 Where the clearance arrangements, then the combination of
are used on a passenger car or on a lamp is combined with the turn signal the compartments or lamps must be
multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, lamp, and the maximum luminous used to meet the photometric
bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in intensity of the clearance lamp is requirements for the corresponding
overall width, and the distance between located below horizontal and within an number of lighted sections specified in
adjacent light sources does not exceed area generated by a 1.0 radius around a Table VII.
560 mm for two compartment or lamp test point, the ratio for the test point S7.1.2.11.3 If the distance between
arrangements and does not exceed 410 may be computed using the lowest adjacent light sources exceeds the
mm for three compartments or lamp value of the clearance lamp luminous previously stated dimensions, each
arrangements, then the combination of intensity within the generated area. compartment or lamp must comply with
the compartments or lamps must be S7.1.1.13 Photometry. the photometric requirements for one
used to meet the photometric S7.1.1.13.1 When tested according lighted section specified in Table VII.
requirements for the corresponding to the procedure of S14.2.1, each front S7.1.2.11.4 Lamps installed on
number of lighted sections specified in turn signal lamp must be designed to vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall
Tables VI–a or VI–b. conform to the base photometry width. Multiple compartment rear turn
S7.1.1.11.3 If the distance between requirements plus any applicable signal lamps installed on multipurpose
adjacent light sources exceeds the multipliers as shown in Tables VI–a and passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses
previously stated dimensions, each VI–b for the number of lamp 2032 mm or more in overall width
compartment or lamp must comply with compartments or individual lamps and require measurement of the
the photometric requirements for one the type of vehicle it is installed on. photometrics for the entire lamp and not
lighted section specified in Tables VI– S7.1.1.13.2 As an alternative to for individual compartments.
a or VI–b S7.1.1.13.1, a front turn signal lamp S7.1.2.12 Ratio to taillamps and
S7.1.1.11.4 Lamps installed on installed on a motorcycle may be clearance lamps.
vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall designed to conform to the photometry S7.1.2.12.1 When a taillamp, or a
width. Multiple compartment front turn requirements of Table XIII-a when clearance lamp on a multipurpose
signal lamps installed on multipurpose tested according to the procedure of passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses S14.2.1. of 2032 mm or more in overall width,
2032 mm or more in overall width S7.1.1.14 Physical tests. Each front is combined with a rear turn signal
require measurement of the turn signal lamp must be designed to lamp, the luminous intensity of the rear
photometrics for the entire lamp and not conform to the performance turn signal lamp at each identified test
for individual compartments. requirements of the vibration test, point must not be less than the

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luminous intensity of the taillamp or test of S14.5, and the color test and and/or lamp meets the single lighted
clearance lamp at that same test point plastic optical material test of S14.4. section photometric requirements
times the multiplier shown for that test S7.1.3 Combined lamp bulb specified in Table VIII. Each lamp and/
point in Table VII. indexing. or compartment utilized in this manner
S7.1.2.12.2 If a multiple S7.1.3.1 Each turn signal lamp must meet the single lighted section
compartment or multiple lamp optically combined with a taillamp or a requirements for all functions for which
arrangement is used on a passenger car parking lamp, or clearance lamp where it is designed.
or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, installed on a vehicle 2032 mm or more S7.2.12 Ratio. See S7.1.2.12 for rear
truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 in overall width, where a two-filament turn signal lamps and S7.3.12 for stop
mm in overall width, and the distance bulb is used must have a bulb with an lamps.
between the optical axes for both the indexing base and a socket designed so S7.2.13 Photometry. Each taillamp
taillamp and turn signal lamp is within that bulbs with non-indexing bases must be designed to conform to the
560 mm for two compartment or lamp cannot be used. photometry requirements of Table VIII,
arrangement or 410 mm for three S7.1.3.2 Removable sockets must when tested according to the procedure
compartments or lamp arrangements, have an indexing feature so that they of S14.2.1, for the number of lamp
then the ratio must be computed with cannot be re-inserted into lamp compartments or individual lamps and
all compartments or lamps lighted. housings in random positions, unless the type of vehicle it is installed on.
S7.1.2.12.3 If a multiple the lamp will perform its intended S7.2.14 Physical tests. Each taillamp
function with random light source must be designed to conform to the
compartment or multiple lamp
orientation. performance requirements of the
arrangement is used and the distance
S7.2 Taillamps. vibration test, moisture test, dust test,
between optical axes for one of the
S7.2.1 Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the
functions exceeds 560 mm for two
and I-c. color test and plastic optical material
compartment or lamp arrangements or
S7.2.2 Color of light. See Tables I-a, test of S14.4.
410 mm for three compartment or lamp S7.3 Stop lamps.
arrangements, then the ratio must be I-b, and I-c.
S7.2.3 Mounting location. See S7.3.1 Number. See Tables I-a, I-b,
computed for only those compartments and I-c.
or lamps where the taillamp and turn Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.3.2.
S7.2.4 Mounting height. See Tables S7.3.2 Color of light. See Tables I-a,
signal lamp are optically combined. I-b, and I-c.
I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.1.2.12.4 Where the taillamp or S7.3.3 Mounting location. See
S7.2.5 Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b,
clearance lamp is combined with the Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.3.2.
and I-c.
turn signal lamp, and the maximum S7.3.4 Mounting height. See Tables
S7.2.6 Effective projected luminous
luminous intensity of the taillamp or I-a, I-b, and I-c.
lens area. No requirement.
clearance lamp is located below S7.3.5 Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b,
S7.2.7 Visibility. See S6.4.
horizontal and within an area generated and I-c.
S7.2.8 Indicator. No requirement.
by a 0.5 ° radius around a test point for S7.2.9 Markings. See S6.5.
S7.3.6 Effective projected luminous
a taillamp on a passenger car or on a lens area. See Table IV-a.
S7.2.10 Spacing to other lamps. No
multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, S7.3.7 Visibility. See S6.4.
requirement. S7.3.8 Indicator. No requirement.
bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in S7.2.11 Multiple compartments and
overall width, or by a 1.0 ° radius S7.3.9 Markings. See S6.5.
multiple lamps. S7.3.10 Spacing to other lamps. No
around a test point for a taillamp or S7.2.11.1 A multiple compartment requirement.
clearance lamp on a vehicle 2032 mm or lamp or multiple lamps may be used to S7.3.11 Multiple compartments and
more in overall width, the ratio for the meet the photometric requirements of a multiple lamps.
test point may be computed using the taillamp provided the requirements of S7.3.11.1 A multiple compartment
lowest value of the taillamp or clearance S6.1.3.2 are met. lamp or multiple lamps may be used to
lamp luminous intensity within the S7.2.11.2 If a multiple compartment meet the photometric requirements of a
generated area. lamp or multiple lamps are used and the stop lamp provided the requirements of
S7.1.2.13 Photometry. distance between the optical axes does S6.1.3.2 are met.
S7.1.2.13.1 Each rear turn signal not exceed 560 mm for two S7.3.11.2 If a multiple compartment
lamp must be designed to conform to compartment or lamp arrangements and lamp or multiple lamps are used on a
the photometry requirements of Table does not exceed 410 mm for three passenger car or on a multipurpose
VII, when tested according to the compartment or lamp arrangements, passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer
procedure of S14.2.1, for the number of then the combination of the of less than 2032 mm in overall width,
lamp compartments or individual compartments or lamps must be used to and the distance between adjacent light
lamps, the type of vehicle it is installed meet the photometric requirements for sources does not exceed 560 mm for two
on, and the lamp color as specified by the corresponding number of lighted compartment or lamp arrangements and
this section. sections specified in Table VIII. does not exceed 410 mm for three
S7.1.2.13.2 As an alternative to S7.2.11.3 If the distance between compartment or lamp arrangements,
S7.1.2.13.1, a rear turn signal lamp optical axes exceeds the previously then the combination of the
installed on a motorcycle may be stated dimensions, each compartment or compartments or lamps must be used to
designed to conform to the photometry lamp must comply with the photometric meet the photometric requirements for
requirements of Table XIII-a when requirements for one lighted section the corresponding number of lighted
tested according to the procedure of specified in Table VIII. sections specified in Table IX.
S14.2.1. S7.2.11.4 Taillamps installed on S7.3.11.3 If the distance between
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S7.1.2.14 Physical tests. Each rear vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall adjacent light sources exceeds the
turn signal lamp must be designed to width. A maximum of two taillamps previously stated dimensions, each
conform to the performance and/or two compartments per side may compartment or lamp must comply with
requirements of the vibration test, be mounted closer together than 560 the photometric requirements for one
moisture test, dust test, and corrosion mm providing that each compartment lighted section specified in Table IX.

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S7.3.11.4 Lamps installed on of Table XIII-b when tested according to test of S14.5, and the color test and
vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall the procedure of S14.2.1. plastic optical material test of S14.4.
width. Multiple compartment stop S7.3.14 Physical tests. Each stop S7.5 Clearance and identification
lamps installed on multipurpose lamp must be designed to conform to lamps.
passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses the performance requirements of the S7.5.1 Number. See Tables I–a and
2032 mm or more in overall width vibration test, moisture test, dust test, I–b.
require measurement of the and corrosion test of S14.5, and the S7.5.2 Color of light. See Tables I–a
photometrics for the entire lamp and not color test and plastic optical material and I–b.
for individual compartments. test of S14.4. S7.5.3 Mounting location. See
S7.3.12 Ratio to taillamps. S7.3.15 Combined lamp bulb Tables I–a and I–b.
S7.3.12.1 When a taillamp is indexing. S7.5.4 Mounting height. See Tables
combined with a stop lamp, the S7.3.15.1 Each stop lamp optically I–a and I–b.
luminous intensity of the stop lamp at combined with a taillamp where a two- S7.5.5 Activation. See Tables I–a
each identified test point must not be filament bulb is used must have a bulb and I–b.
less than the luminous intensity of the with an indexing base and a socket S7.5.6 Effective projected luminous
taillamp at that same test point times designed so that bulbs with non- lens area. No requirement.
the multiplier shown for that test point indexing bases cannot be used. S7.5.7 Visibility. No requirement.
in Table IX. S7.3.15.2 Removable sockets must S7.5.8 Indicator. No requirement.
S7.3.12.2 If a multiple compartment have an indexing feature so that they S7.5.9 Markings. See S6.5.
or multiple lamp arrangement is used cannot be re-inserted into lamp S7.5.10 Spacing to other lamps. No
on a passenger car or on a multipurpose housings in random positions, unless requirement.
the lamp will perform its intended S7.5.11 Multiple compartments and
passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer
function with random light source multiple lamps. No requirement.
of less than 2032 mm in overall width,
orientation. S7.5.12 Ratio.
and the distance between the optical
S7.4 Side marker lamps. S7.5.12.1 Clearance lamps. See
axes for both the taillamp and stop lamp
S7.4.1 Number. See Tables I–a, I–b, S7.1.1.12 for front turn signal lamps and
is within 560 mm for two compartment
and I–c. S7.1.2.12 for rear turn signal lamps.
or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for
S7.4.2 Color of light. See Tables I–a, S7.5.12.2 Identification lamps. No
three compartment or lamp
I–b, and I–c. requirement.
arrangements, then the ratio must be S7.5.13 Photometry. Each clearance
computed with all compartments or S7.4.3 Mounting location. See
Tables I–a, I–b, and I–c. or identification lamp must be designed
lamps lighted. to conform to the photometry
S7.4.4 Mounting height. See Tables
S7.3.12.3 If a multiple compartment requirements of Table XI, for the
I–a, I–b, and I–c.
or multiple lamp arrangement is used applicable lamp color, when tested
S7.4.5 Activation. See Tables I–a, I–
and the distance between optical axes according to the procedure of S14.2.1.
b, and I–c.
for one of the functions exceeds 560 mm S7.4.6 Effective projected luminous S7.5.14 Physical tests. Each
for two compartment or lamp lens area. No requirement. clearance and identification must be
arrangements or 410 mm for three S7.4.7 Visibility. No requirement. designed to conform to the performance
compartments or lamp arrangements, S7.4.8 Indicator. No requirement. requirements of the vibration test,
then the ratio must be computed for S7.4.9 Markings. See S6.5. moisture test, dust test, and corrosion
only those compartments or lamps S7.4.10 Spacing to other lamps. No test of S14.5, and the color test and
where the taillamp and stop lamp are requirement. plastic optical material test of S14.4.
optically combined. S7.4.11 Multiple compartments and S7.6 Backup lamps.
S7.3.12.4 Where the taillamp is multiple lamps. No requirement. S7.6.1 Number. See Table I–a and
combined with the stop lamp, and the S7.4.12 Ratio. No requirement. S6.1.1.
maximum luminous intensity of the S7.4.13 Photometry. S7.6.2 Color of light.
taillamp is located below horizontal and S7.4.13.1 Each side marker lamp S7.6.2.1 See Table I–a.
within an area generated by a 0.5 ° must be designed to conform to the S7.6.2.2 A backup lamp may project
radius around a test point for a taillamp photometry requirements of Table X, incidental red, yellow, or white light
on a passenger car or on a multipurpose when tested according to the procedure through reflectors or lenses that are
passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of S14.2.1, for the lamp color as adjacent, close to, or a part of the lamp
of less than 2032 mm in overall width, specified by this section. assembly.
or by a 1.0 ° radius around a test point S7.4.13.2 Inboard photometry. For S7.6.3 Mounting location. See Table
for a taillamp on a vehicle 2032 mm or each motor vehicle less than 30 feet in I–a.
more in overall width, the ratio for the overall length and less than 2032 mm in S7.6.4 Mounting height. No
test point may be computed using the overall width, the minimum requirement.
lowest value of the taillamp luminous photometric intensity requirements for a S7.6.5 Activation. See Table I–a.
intensity within the generated area. side marker lamp may be met for all S7.6.6 Effective projected luminous
S7.3.13 Photometry. inboard test points at a distance of 15 lens area. No requirement.
S7.3.13.1 Each stop lamp must be feet from the vehicle and on a vertical S7.6.7 Visibility. See Table V–a.
designed to conform to the photometry plane that is perpendicular to the S7.6.8 Indicator. No requirement.
requirements of Table IX, when tested longitudinal axis of the vehicle and S7.6.9 Markings. See S6.5.
according to the procedure of S14.2.1, located midway between the front and S7.6.10 Spacing to other lamps. No
for the number of lamp compartments or rear side marker lamps. requirement.
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individual lamps and the type of vehicle S7.4.14 Physical tests. Each side S7.6.11 Multiple compartments and
it is installed on. marker lamp must be designed to multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.3.13.2 A stop lamp installed on a conform to the performance S7.6.12 Ratio. No requirement.
motor driven cycle may be designed to requirements of the vibration test, S7.6.13 Photometry. Each backup
conform to the photometry requirements moisture test, dust test, and corrosion lamp must be designed to conform to

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the photometry requirements of Table driven cycle must be of such size and S7.9.6 Effective projected luminous
XII, when tested according to the design as to provide illumination on all lens area. See Table IV–b.
procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by parts of a 100 mm by 175 mm test plate. S7.9.7 Visibility. See Table V–a.
this section. S7.7.15.3 The light rays must reach S7.9.8 Indicator. No requirement.
S7.6.14 Physical tests. Each backup all portions of an imaginary plate of the S7.9.9 Markings. See S6.5
lamp must be designed to conform to same size at least 25 mm ahead of the S7.9.10 Spacing to other lamps. No
the performance requirements of the actual plate measured perpendicular to requirement.
vibration test, moisture test, dust test, the plane of the plate. S7.9.11 Multiple compartments and
and corrosion test of S14.5, and the S7.7.15.4 Incident light from single multiple lamps. No requirement.
color test and plastic optical material lamp. When a single lamp as shown in S7.9.12 Ratio. No requirement.
test of S14.4. Figure 20 is used to illuminate the S7.9.13 Photometry. Each high-
S7.7 License plate lamps. license plate, the lamp and license plate mounted stop lamp must be designed to
S7.7.1 Number. See Tables I–a, I–b, holder must bear such relation to each conform to the photometry requirements
and I–c and S6.1.1. other that at no point on the plate must of Table XV, when tested according to
S7.7.2 Color of light. See Tables I–a, the incident light make an angle of less the procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by
I–b, and I–c. than 8° to the plane of the plate, this this section.
S7.7.3 Mounting location. See S7.9.14 Physical tests.
angle being measured from the edge of S7.9.14.1.1 Each high-mounted stop
Tables I–a, the light emitting surface of the lamp
I–b, and I–c. lamp must be designed to conform to
farthest from the surface of the plate. the performance requirements of the
S7.7.4 Mounting height. See Tables S7.7.15.5 Incident light from
I–a, I–b, and I–c. vibration test of S14.5, and the color test
multiple lamps. When two or more
S7.7.5 Activation. See Tables I–a, I– and plastic optical material test of
lamps as shown in Figure 20 are used
b, and I–c. S14.4.
to illuminate the license plate, the S7.9.14.1.2 Each high-mounted stop
S7.7.6 Effective projected luminous
minimum 8° incident light angle must lamp that is not mounted inside the
lens area. No requirement.
S7.7.7 Visibility. No requirement. apply only to that portion of the plate vehicle must be designed to conform to
S7.7.8 Indicator. No requirement. which the particular lamp is designed to the performance requirements of the
S7.7.9 Markings. See S6.5. illuminate. The angle must be measured moisture test, dust test, and corrosion
S7.7.10 Spacing to other lamps. No in the same manner as S7.7.15.4. test of S14.5.
requirement. S7.8 Parking lamps. S7.10 Daytime running lamps
S7.7.11 Multiple compartments and S7.8.1 Number. See Table I–a. (DRLs).
multiple lamps. No requirement. S7.8.2 Color of light. See Table I–a. S7.10.1 Number. See Table I–a.
S7.7.12 Ratio. No requirement. S7.8.3 Mounting location. See Table S7.10.2 Color of light. See Table I–a.
S7.7.13 Photometry. I–a. S7.10.3 Mounting location. See
S7.7.13.1 Each license plate lamp S7.8.4 Mounting height. See Table I– Table I–a.
must be designed to conform to the a. S7.10.4 Mounting height. See Table
photometry requirements of this section S7.8.5 Activation. See Table I–a. I–a. and S7.10.13(b).
when tested according to the procedure S7.8.6 Effective projected luminous S7.10.5 Activation. See Table I–a.
of S14.2.2. lens area. No requirement. and S7.10.10.1(c).
S7.7.13.2 An illumination value of S7.8.7 Visibility. See S6.4. S7.10.6 Effective projected luminous
no less than 8 lx [0.75 fc] must be met S7.8.8 Indicator. No requirement. lens area. No requirement.
at each test station target location shown S7.8.9 Markings. See S6.5. S7.10.7 Visibility. No requirement.
in Figure 19. S7.8.10 Spacing to other lamps. No S7.10.8 Indicator. No requirement.
S7.7.13.3 The ratio of the average of requirement. S7.10.9 Markings. See S6.5.
the two highest illumination values S7.8.11 Multiple compartments and S7.10.10 Spacing to other lamps.
divided by the average of the two lowest multiple lamps. No requirement. S7.10.10.1 Spacing to turn signal
illumination values must not exceed S7.8.12 Ratio. See S7.1.1.12 for front lamps. Each DRL not optically
20:1 for vehicles other than motorcycles turn signal lamps. combined with a turn signal lamp must
and motor driven cycles. S7.8.13 Photometry. Each parking be located on the vehicle so that the
S7.7.13.4 The ratio of the highest lamp must be designed to conform to distance from its lighted edge to the
illumination value divided by the the photometry requirements of Table optical center of the nearest turn signal
average of the two lowest illumination XIV, when tested according to the lamp is not less than 100 mm unless,
values must not exceed 15:1 for procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by (a) The luminous intensity of the DRL
motorcycles and motor driven cycles. this section. is not more than 2,600 cd at any
S7.7.14 Physical tests. Each license S7.8.14 Physical tests. Each parking location in the beam and the turn signal
plate lamp must be designed to conform lamp must be designed to conform to lamp meets 2.5 times the base front turn
to the performance requirements of the the performance requirements of the signal photometric requirements, or
vibration test, moisture test, dust test, vibration test, moisture test, dust test, (b) The DRL is optically combined
and corrosion test of S14.5, and the and corrosion test of S14.5, and the with a lower beam headlamp and the
color test and plastic optical material color test and plastic optical material turn signal lamp meets 2.5 times the
test of S14.4. test of S14.4. base front turn signal photometric
S7.7.15 Installation. S7.9 High-mounted stop lamps. requirements, or
S7.7.15.1 Each license plate lamp S7.9.1 Number. See Table I–a and (c) The DRL is deactivated when the
installed on a vehicle other than a S6.1.1.2. turn signal or hazard warning signal
motorcycle or motor driven cycle must S7.9.2 Color of light. See Table I–a. lamp is activated.
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

be of such size and design as to provide S7.9.3 Mounting location. See Table S7.10.11 Multiple compartments
illumination on all parts of a 150 mm I–a. and multiple lamps. No requirement.
by 300 mm test plate. S7.9.4 Mounting height. See Table I– S7.10.12 Ratio. No requirement.
S7.7.15.2 Each license plate lamp a and S6.1.4.1. S7.10.13 Photometry. Each DRL
installed on a motorcycle or motor S7.9.5 Activation. See Table I–a. must have a luminous intensity not less

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than 500 cd at test point H–V, nor more S8.1.11 Photometry. Each reflex S8.2.1.4.1.1 As shown in Figures
than 3,000 cd at any location in the reflector must be designed to conform to 12–1 and 12–2, where alternating
beam when tested according to the the photometry requirements of Table material is installed, except for a
procedure of S14.2.4 as specified by this XVI–a when tested according to the segment that is trimmed to clear
section, unless it is: procedure of S14.2.3 for the reflex obstructions, or lengthened to provide
(a) A lower beam headlamp intended reflector color as specified by this red sheeting near red lamps, alternating
to operate as a DRL at full voltage, or a section. material must be installed with each
voltage lower than used to operate it as S8.1.12 Physical tests. Each reflex white and red segment having a length
a lower beam headlamp, or reflector must be designed to conform to of 300 ± 150 mm.
(b) An upper beam headlamp the performance requirements of the S8.2.1.4.1.2 Neither white nor red
intended to operate as a DRL, whose vibration test, moisture test, dust test, sheeting must represent more than two
luminous intensity at test point H–V is and corrosion test of S14.5, and the thirds the aggregate of any continuous
not more than 7,000 cd, and whose color test and plastic optical material strip marking the width of a trailer, or
mounting height is not higher than 864 test of S14.4. any continuous or broken strip marking
mm. S8.1.13 Alternative side reflex its length.
S7.10.14 Physical tests. Each DRL reflector material. Reflective material S8.2.1.5 Application location. Need
that is not combined with another conforming to Federal Specification L– not be installed, as illustrated in Figure
required lamp must be designed to S–300, Sheeting and Tape, Reflective; 12–2, on discontinuous surfaces such as
conform to the performance Non-exposed Lens, Adhesive Backing, outside ribs, stake post pickets on
requirements of the color test and (September 7, 1965) (incorporated by platform trailers, and external
plastic optical material test of S14.4. reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title), protruding beams, or to items of
S7.11 School bus signal lamps. may be used for side reflex reflectors if equipment such as door hinges and
S7.11.1 Number. See Table I–a. this material as used on the vehicle, lamp bodies on trailers and body joints,
S7.11.2 Color of light. See Table I–a. meets the performance requirements of stiffening beads, drip rails, and rolled
S7.11.3 Mounting location. See Table XVI–a. surfaces on truck tractors.
Table I–a. S8.2 Conspicuity systems. The S8.2.1.6 Application spacing. As
S7.11.4 Mounting height. See Table requirement for conspicuity systems illustrated in Figure 12–2, the edge of
I–a. may be met with retroreflective any white sheeting must not be located
S7.11.5 Activation. See Table I–a. sheeting, conspicuity reflex reflectors, closer than 75 mm to the edge of the
S7.11.6 Effective projected luminous or a combination of retroreflective luminous lens area of any red or amber
lens area. See Table IV–c. sheeting and conspicuity reflex lamp that is required by this standard.
S7.11.7 Visibility. See Table V–a. reflectors. The edge of any red sheeting must not
S7.11.8 Indicator. No requirement. S8.2.1 Retroreflective sheeting. be located closer than 75 mm to the
S7.11.9 Markings. See S6.5. S8.2.1.1 Retroreflective sheeting edge of the luminous lens area of any
S7.11.10 Spacing to other lamps. No must consist of a smooth, flat, amber lamp that is required by this
requirement. transparent exterior film with
S7.11.11 Multiple compartments standard.
retroreflective elements embedded or S8.2.1.7 Photometry. Each
and multiple lamps. No requirement. suspended beneath the film so as to
S7.11.12 Ratio. No requirement. retroreflective sheeting must be
form a non-exposed retroreflective designed to conform to the photometry
S7.11.13 Photometry. Each school
optical system. requirements of Table XVI–c when
bus signal lamp must be designed to
S8.2.1.2 Retroreflective sheeting tested according to the procedure of
conform to the photometry requirements
material. Retroreflective sheeting must S14.2.3 for the color and grade as
of Table XVII, when tested according to
meet the requirements, except specified by this section.
the procedure of S14.2.1, for the lamp
photometry, of ASTM D 4956–90, S8.2.2 Conspicuity reflex reflectors.
color as specified by this section.
Standard for Retroreflective Sheeting for S8.2.2.1 Certification marking. The
S7.11.14 Physical tests. Each school
Traffic Control, (incorporated by exposed surface of each conspicuity
bus signal lamp must be designed to
reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title) reflex reflector must be marked with the
conform to the performance
for Type V Sheeting. Sheeting of Grade letters DOT–C which constitutes a
requirements of the vibration test,
DOT–C2 of no less than 50 mm wide, certification that the reflector conforms
moisture test, dust test, and corrosion
Grade DOT–C3 of no less than 75 mm to the conspicuity reflex reflector
test of S14.5, and the color test and
wide, or Grade DOT–C4 of no less than requirements of this standard. The
plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S8 Reflective device requirements. 100 mm wide may be used. certification must be not less than 3 mm
S8.1 Reflex reflectors. S8.2.1.3 Certification marking. The high, and must be permanently
S8.1.1 Number. See Tables I–a, I–b, letters DOT–C2, DOT–C3, or DOT–C4, stamped, etched, molded, or printed in
and I–c. as appropriate, constituting a indelible ink.
S8.1.2 Color. See Tables I–a, I–b, certification that the retroreflective S8.2.2.2 Application pattern.
and I–c. sheeting conforms to the requirements S8.2.2.2.1 Alternating red and white
S8.1.3 Mounting location. See of this standard, must appear at least materials. Conspicuity reflex reflectors
Tables I–a, I–b, and I–c. once on the exposed surface of each must be installed in a repetitive pattern
S8.1.4 Mounting height. See Tables white or red segment of retroreflective of two or three white reflectors
I–a, I–b, and I–c. sheeting, and at least once every 300 alternating with two or three red
S8.1.5 Activation. No requirement. mm on retroreflective sheeting that is reflectors, with the center of each
S8.1.6 Effective projected luminous white only. The characters must be not reflector not more than 100 mm from
lens area. No requirement. less than 3 mm high, and must be the center of each adjacent reflector.
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

S8.1.7 Visibility. No requirement. permanently stamped, etched, molded, S8.2.2.2.2 White material. White
S8.1.8 Indicator. No requirement. or printed in indelible ink. conspicuity reflex reflectors must be
S8.1.9 Markings. See S6.5. S8.2.1.4 Application pattern. installed with the center of each
S8.1.10 Spacing to other lamps or S8.2.1.4.1 Alternating red and white reflector not more than 100 mm from
reflective devices. No requirement. materials. the center of each adjacent reflector.

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68280 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

S8.2.2.3 Photometry. S8.2.3.1.3.1 As shown in Figure 11, close to the outer edges as practicable,
S8.2.2.3.1 Each red conspicuity a strip of Grade DOT–C2 sheeting no above the top of the tires, and not more
reflex reflector must be designed to less than 38 mm wide or reflectors must than 1525 mm above the road surface at
conform to the photometry requirements be applied across the full width of the unladen vehicle height.
of Table XVI–a for a red reflex reflector horizontal member of the rear underride S8.2.4.1.4 If the strips are mounted
and Table XVI–b for a red conspicuity protection device. on the back of the cab, no more than
reflex reflector when tested according to S8.2.3.2 Trailer side—alternating 25% of their cumulative area may be
the procedure of S14.2.3 as specified by red and white materials. obscured by vehicle equipment as
this section. S8.2.3.2.1 As shown in Figure 11, a determined in a rear orthogonal view.
S8.2.2.3.2 Each white conspicuity strip of sheeting or conspicuity reflex S8.2.4.2 Element 2—white. As
reflex reflector installed in only a reflectors must be applied to each side, shown in Figure 13, two pairs of strips
horizontal orientation must be designed as horizontal as practicable, originating of sheeting or conspicuity reflex
to conform to the photometry and terminating as close to the front and reflectors, each pair consisting of strips
requirements of Table XVI–a for a white rear as practicable, as close as 300 mm long, must be applied
reflex reflector and Table XVI–b for a practicable to not less than 375 mm and horizontally and vertically as
white horizontal conspicuity reflex not more than 1525 mm above the road practicable to the right and left upper
reflector when tested according to the surface at the strip centerline at curb contours of the cab, as close to the top
procedure of S14.2.3 as specified by this weight, except that at the location of the cab and as far apart as practicable.
section. chosen the strip must not be obscured S8.2.4.2.1 No more than 25% of
S8.2.2.3.3 Each white conspicuity in whole or in part by other motor their cumulative area may be obscured
reflex reflector installed in a vertical vehicle equipment or trailer cargo. by vehicle equipment as determined in
orientation must be designed to conform S8.2.3.2.2 The strip need not be a rear orthogonal view.
to the photometry requirements of Table continuous as long as not less than half S8.2.4.2.2 If one pair must be
XVI–a for a white reflex reflector, and the length of the trailer is covered and relocated to avoid obscuration by
Table XVI–b for a white horizontal the spaces are distributed as evenly as vehicle equipment, the other pair may
conspicuity reflex reflector and a white practicable. be relocated in order to be mounted
S8.2.3.2.3 If necessary to clear rivet symmetrically.
vertical conspicuity reflex reflector
heads or other similar obstructions, S8.2.4.2.3 If the rear window is so
when tested according to the procedure
Grade DOT–C2 sheeting may be large as to occupy all the practicable
of S14.2.3 as specified by this section.
separated into two 25 mm wide strips of space, the material may be attached to
S8.2.3 Conspicuity system
the same length and color, separated by the edge of the window itself.
installation on trailers.
a space of not more than 25 mm and S9 Associated equipment
S8.2.3.1 Trailer rear.
used in place of the retroreflective requirements.
S8.2.3.1.1 Element 1—alternating
sheeting that would otherwise be S9.1 Turn signal operating unit.
red and white materials. As shown in
applied. S9.1.1 The turn signal operating unit
Figure 11, a strip of sheeting or S8.2.4 Conspicuity system installed on passenger cars,
conspicuity reflex reflectors, as installation on truck tractors. multipurpose passenger vehicles,
horizontal as practicable, must be S8.2.4.1 Element 1—alternating red trucks, and buses less than 2032 mm in
applied across the full width of the and white materials. As shown in Figure overall width must be self-canceling by
trailer, as close to the extreme edges as 13, two strips of sheeting or conspicuity steering wheel rotation and capable of
practicable, and as close as practicable reflex reflectors, each not less than 600 cancellation by a manually operated
to not less than 375 mm and not more mm long, located as close as practicable control.
than 1525 mm above the road surface at to the edges of the rear fenders, S9.1.2 Physical tests. Each turn
the strip centerline with the trailer at mudflaps, or the mudflap support signal operating unit must be designed
curb weight. brackets, must be applied to mark the to conform to all applicable
S8.2.3.1.2 Element 2—white. (not width of the truck tractor. performance requirements of S14.9.
required for container chassis or for S8.2.4.1.1 The strips must be S9.2 Turn signal flasher.
platform trailers without bulkheads). mounted as horizontal as practicable, in S9.2.1 The means of producing the
S8.2.3.1.2.1 As shown in Figure 11, a vertical plane facing the rear, on the turn signal pilot indicator signal may be
two pairs of strips of sheeting or rear fenders, on the mudflap support incorporated in the flasher. A means of
conspicuity reflex reflectors, each pair brackets, on plates attached to the producing an audible signal may be
consisting of strips 300 mm long of mudflap support brackets, or on the incorporated in the flasher.
Grade DOT–C2, DOT–C3, or DOT–C4, mudflaps. S9.2.2 Physical tests. Each turn
must be applied horizontally and S8.2.4.1.2 Strips on mudflaps must signal flasher must be designed to
vertically to the right and left upper be mounted not lower than 300 mm conform to all applicable performance
contours of the body, as viewed from below the upper horizontal edge of the requirements of S14.9.
the rear, as close to the top of the trailer mudflap. If the vehicle is certified with S9.3 Turn signal pilot indicator.
and as far apart as practicable. temporary mudflap support brackets, S9.3.1 Each vehicle equipped with a
S8.2.3.1.2.2 If the perimeter of the the strips must be mounted on the turn signal operating unit where any
body, as viewed from the rear, is other mudflaps or on plates transferable to turn signal lamp is not visible to the
than rectangular, the strips may be permanent mudflap support brackets. driver must also have an illuminated
applied along the perimeter, as close as S8.2.4.1.3 For a truck tractor without pilot indicator to provide a clear and
practicable to the uppermost and mudflaps, the strips may be mounted unmistakable indication that the turn
outermost areas of the rear of the body outboard of the frame on brackets signal system is activated.
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

on the left and right sides. behind the rear axle or on brackets S9.3.2 The indicator must consist of
S8.2.3.1.3 Element 3—alternating ahead of the rear axle and above the top one or more lights flashing at the same
red and white materials. (not required of the rear tires at unladen vehicle frequency as the turn signal lamps.
for trailers without underride protection height, or they may be mounted directly S9.3.3 The indicator must function
devices). or indirectly to the back of the cab as satisfactorily under all test conditions

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imposed on the turn signal flasher in the opposite beam from the one audible signal may be incorporated in
S14.9. provided. the flasher.
S9.3.4 Indicator size and color. S9.4.1.3 Fail safe operation. A S9.7.2 Physical tests. Each vehicular
S9.3.4.1 If the indicator is located failure of the automatic control portion hazard warning signal flasher must be
inside the vehicle it must emit a green of the device must not result in the loss designed to conform to all applicable
colored light and have a minimum area of manual operation of both upper and performance requirements of S14.9.
equivalent to a 3⁄16 in diameter circle. lower beams. S9.8 Vehicular hazard warning
S9.3.4.2 If the indicator is located S9.4.1.4 Automatic dimming signal pilot indicator.
outside of the vehicle it must emit a indicator. There must be a convenient S9.8.1 In vehicles equipped with
yellow light and have a minimum means of informing the driver when the right hand and left hand turn signal
projected illuminated area of 0.1 sq in. device is controlling the headlamps pilot indicators, both pilot indicators
S9.3.5 The minimum required automatically. The device shall not and /or a separate pilot indicator must
illuminated area of the indicator must affect the function of the upper beam flash simultaneously while the vehicle
be visible to any tangent on the 95th indicator light. hazard warning signal operating unit is
eyellipse as defined in SAE J941b, turned on.
S9.4.1.5 Lens accessibility. The
Motor Vehicle Driver’s Eye Range, S9.8.2 In vehicles equipped with a
device lens must be accessible for
February 1969, (incorporated by single turn signal pilot indicator, a
cleaning when the device is installed on
reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title) separate vehicular hazard warning
a vehicle.
with the steering wheel turned to a signal pilot indicator must flash and the
S9.4.1.6 Mounting height. The
straight ahead driving position and in turn signal pilot indicator may flash
center of the device lens must be
the design location for an adjustable while the vehicle hazard warning signal
mounted no less than 24 in. above the
wheel or column. operating unit is turned on.
S9.3.6 Turn signal lamp failure. road surface.
S9.8.3 The indicator must function
Failure of one or more turn signal lamps S9.4.1.7 Physical tests. Each semi-
satisfactorily under all test conditions
such that the minimum photometric automatic headlamp beam switching
imposed on the vehicular hazard
performance specified in Tables VI or device must be designed to conform to
warning signal flasher in S14.9.
VII is not being met must be indicated all applicable performance requirements S9.8.4 Indicator size and color. If the
by the turn signal pilot indicator by a of S14.9. vehicular hazard warning signal pilot
‘‘steady on’’, ‘‘steady off’’, or by a S9.5 Upper beam headlamp indicator is not combined with the turn
significant change in the flashing rate, indicator. Each vehicle must have a signal pilot indicator, it must emit a red
except when a variable-load turn signal means for indicating to the driver when color and have a minimum area
flasher is used on a multipurpose the upper beams of the headlighting equivalent to a 0.5 in diameter circle.
passenger vehicle, truck, or bus 2032 system are activated. S10 Headlighting system
mm or more in overall width, on a truck S9.5.1 Indicator size and location. requirements.
that is capable of accommodating a slide The upper beam headlamp indicator S10.1 Vehicle headlighting systems.
in camper, or on any vehicle equipped must have a minimum area equivalent S10.1.1 Each passenger car,
to tow trailers. to that of a 3⁄16 in diameter circle, and multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck
S9.4 Headlamp beam switching be plainly visible to drivers of all and bus must be equipped with a
device. Each vehicle must have a means heights under normal driving conditions headlighting system conforming to the
of switching between lower and upper when headlamps are required. requirements of Table II and this
beams designed and located so that it S9.6 Vehicular hazard warning standard.
may be operated conveniently by a signal operating unit. S10.1.2 Each motorcycle must be
simple movement of the driver’s hand S9.6.1 The unit may be an equipped with a headlighting system
or foot. The switch must have no dead independent device or it may be conforming to S10.17 of this standard or
point and, except as provided by combined with the turn signal operating one half of any headlighting system of
S6.1.5.2, the lower and upper beams unit. If combined with the turn signal Table II which provides both a full
must not be energized simultaneously operating unit, the actuating motion of upper beam and full lower beam.
except momentarily for temporary the hazard function must differ from the S10.2 Aiming. Each headlamp
signaling purposes or during switching actuating motion of the turn signal system installed on a motor vehicle
between beams. function. must be aimable in accordance with the
S9.4.1 Semi-automatic headlamp S9.6.2 Operating unit switch. The requirements of S10.18.
beam switching device. As an unit must operate independently of the S10.3 Number. See Tables I–a and I–
alternative to S9.4, a vehicle may be ignition or equivalent switch. If the c.
equipped with a semi-automatic means actuation of the hazard function S10.4 Color of light. See Tables I–a
of switching between lower and upper requires the operation of more than one and I–c.
switch, a means must be provided for S10.5 Mounting location. See Tables
beams.
S9.4.1.1 Operating instructions. actuating all switches simultaneously by I–a and I–c and S6.1.3.5.
a single driver action. S10.6 Mounting height. See Tables
Each semi-automatic headlamp
S9.6.3 Physical tests. Each vehicular I–a and I–c.
switching device must include S10.7 Activation. See Tables I–a and
operating instructions to permit a driver hazard warning signal operating unit
I–c, Table II, and S6.1.5.
to operate the device correctly must be designed to conform to all S10.8 Effective projected luminous
including; how to turn the automatic applicable performance requirements of lens area. No requirement.
control on and off, how to adjust the S14.9. S10.9 Visibility. No requirement.
provided sensitivity control, and any S9.7 Vehicular hazard warning S10.10 Indicator. See S9.5.
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other specific instructions applicable to signal flasher. S10.11 Markings. See S6.5.
the particular device. S9.7.1 The means of producing the S10.12 Spacing to other lamps. See
S9.4.1.2 Manual override. The hazard warning signal pilot indicator S6.1.3.5.
device must include a means signal may be incorporated in the S10.13 Sealed beam headlighting
convenient to the driver for switching to flasher. A means of producing an systems. All sealed beam headlighting

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systems must be of a type designated in S10.14 Integral beam headlighting S10.14.7 Physical tests.
Table II-a. Each sealed beam headlamp systems. All integral beam headlighting S10.14.7.1 Each integral beam
must be designed to conform to the systems must be of a type designated in headlamp must be designed to conform
specifications furnished with respect to Table II-c. to the performance requirements of the
it pursuant to Appendix C of part 564 S10.14.1 Installation. An integral corrosion test, temperature cycle test,
of this chapter and Table II-a of this beam headlighting system must consist vibration test, inward force test,
standard. The dimensions applicable to of the correct number of designated headlamp connector test, and aiming
the design of a specific type are those headlamp units as specified for the adjustment tests of S14.6.
identified with an ‘‘I’’ for applicable system in Table II-c. The S10.14.7.2 Each integral beam
interchangeability specified on the units must have their beams activated as headlamp that is not designed to
applicable drawing(s) filed in Docket specified in Table II-c. A system must conform to the performance
No. NHTSA 98–3397. provide in total not more than two requirements of the sealing test of S14.6
S10.13.1 Installation. A sealed beam upper beams and two lower beams. must be designed to conform to the
headlighting system must consist of the S10.14.2 Aimability. performance requirements of the
correct number of designated headlamp S10.14.2.1 A system that connector-corrosion test, dust test, and
units as specified for the applicable incorporates any headlamp or beam humidity test of S14.6.
system in Table II-a. The units must contributor that does not have a VHAD S10.14.7.3 Each integral beam
have their beams activated as specified as an integral and indivisible part of the headlamp except those with a glass lens
in Table II-a. A system must provide in headlamp or beam contributor must be must be designed to conform to the
total not more than two upper beams designed so that the applicable performance requirements of the
and two lower beams. photometric requirements are met when abrasion test of S14.6.
any correctly aimed and S10.14.7.4 Each integral beam
S10.13.2 Simultaneous aim. Type F
photometrically conforming headlamp headlamp except those with a
sealed beam headlamps may be
or beam contributor is removed from its nonreplaceable glass lens must be
mounted on common or parallel seating
mounting and aiming mechanism, and designed to conform to the performance
and aiming planes to permit
is replaced without reaim by any requirements of the chemical resistance
simultaneous aiming of both headlamps
conforming headlamp or beam test of S14.6.
provided that there is no provision for
contributor of the same type. S10.14.7.5 Each integral beam
adjustment between the common or
S10.14.2.2 A system that headlamp except those with a glass lens
parallel aiming and seating planes of the
incorporates more than one beam and a non-plastic reflector must be
two lamps. When tested with any
contributor providing a lower beam, designed to conform to the performance
conforming Type UF and LF headlamps
and/or more than one beam contributor requirements of the internal heat test of
in accordance with S14.2.5, the
providing an upper beam, shall be S14.6.
assembly (consisting of the Type UF and
designed to conform to the on-vehicle S10.14.7.6 Each integral beam
LF headlamps, mounting rings, the
aiming requirements specified in headlamp incorporating a replaceable
aiming/seating rings, and aim
S10.18.8. lens must be designed to conform to the
adjustment mechanism) must be S10.14.3 Simultaneous aim. An performance requirements of the
designed to conform to the applicable integral beam headlighting system chemical resistance of reflectors of
photometric requirements. consisting of four individual headlamps replaceable lens headlamps test and the
S10.13.3 Photometry. Each sealed or beam contributors may have the corrosion resistance of reflectors of
beam headlamp must be designed to headlamp units mounted in an assembly replaceable lens headlamps test of
conform to the photometry requirements to permit simultaneous aiming of the S14.6.
of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table beam(s) contributors, providing that S10.14.7.7 Each integral beam
XIX for lower beam as specified in Table with any complying contributor the headlamp capable of being
II-a for the specific headlamp unit and assembly complete with all lamps meets mechanically aimed by externally
aiming method, when tested according the applicable photometric applied headlamp aiming devices
to the procedure of S14.2.5. requirements when tested in accordance specified in SAE J602 OCT80,
S10.13.4 Physical tests. with S14.2.5. Headlamp Aiming Device for
S10.13.4.1 Each sealed beam S10.14.4 Markings. An integral beam Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam
headlamp must be designed to conform headlamp with a single light source Headlamp Units, (incorporated by
to the performance requirements of the providing the lower beam must have its reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title)
corrosion test, vibration test, inward lens permanently marked with ‘‘L’’. An must be designed to conform to the
force test, torque deflection test, integral beam headlamp with a single performance requirements of the torque
headlamp connector test, headlamp light source providing the upper beam deflection test of S14.6.
wattage test, and aiming adjustment must have its lens permanently marked S10.14.7.8 Each integral beam
tests of S14.6. with ‘‘U’’. headlamp must be designed to conform
S10.13.4.2 Each sealed beam S10.14.5 Additional light sources. to the performance requirements of the
headlamp except a Type G or Type H An integral beam headlamp may color test of S14.4. Each integral beam
must be designed to conform to the incorporate light sources that are used headlamp that does not incorporate a
performance requirements of the for purposes other than headlighting glass lens must be designed to conform
retaining ring test of S14.6. and are capable of being replaced. to the performance requirements of the
S10.13.4.3 Each sealed beam S10.14.6 Photometry. Each integral plastic optical materials test of S14.4.
headlamp must be designed to conform beam headlamp must be designed to S10.15 Replaceable bulb
to the performance requirements of the conform to the photometry requirements headlighting systems. All replaceable
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color test of S14.4. Each sealed beam of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table bulb headlighting systems must be of a
headlamp that does not incorporate a XIX for lower beam as specified in Table type designated in Table II-d.
glass lens must be designed to conform II-c for the specific headlamp unit and S10.15.1 Installation. A replaceable
to the plastic optical materials test of aiming method, when tested according bulb headlighting system must consist
S14.4. to the procedure of S14.2.5. of either two or four headlamps as

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specified for the applicable system in S10.15.7.3 Each replaceable bulb when tested according to the procedure
Table II-d. The headlamps must have headlamp except those with a of S14.2.5.
their beams activated as specified in nonreplaceable glass lens must be S10.16.3 Physical tests.
Table II-d. A system must provide in designed to conform to the performance S10.16.3.1 Any component
total not more than two upper beams requirements of the chemical resistance headlamp of a combination headlighting
and two lower beams and must test of S14.6. system that is a Type F sealed beam
incorporate not more than two S10.15.7.4 Each replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform
replaceable light sources in each headlamp except those with a glass lens to the performance requirements of
headlamp. and a non-plastic reflector must be S10.13.4.
S10.15.2 Aiming restrictions. Each designed to conform to the performance S10.16.3.2 Any component
replaceable bulb headlamp designed to requirements of the internal heat test of headlamp of a combination headlighting
conform to the external aiming S14.6. system that is an integral beam
requirements of S10.18.7 must have no S10.15.7.5 Each replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform
mechanism that allows adjustment of an headlamp incorporating a replaceable to the performance requirements of
individual light source, or if there are lens must be designed to conform to the S10.14.7.
two light sources, independent performance requirements of the S10.16.3.3 Any component
adjustments of each reflector. chemical resistance of reflectors of headlamp of a combination headlighting
S10.15.3 Replacement lens reflector replaceable lens headlamps test and the system that is a replaceable bulb
units. Each lens reflector unit corrosion resistance of reflectors of headlamp must be designed to conform
manufactured as replacement replaceable lens headlamps test of to the performance requirements of
equipment must be designed to conform S14.6. S10.15.7.
to applicable photometry requirements S10.15.7.6 Each replaceable bulb S10.17 Motorcycle headlighting
when any replaceable light source headlamp capable of being systems. A motorcycle headlighting
designated for such a unit is inserted in mechanically aimed by externally system may consist of:
it. (a) One half of any headlighting
applied headlamp aiming devices
S10.15.4 Markings. system of Table II which provides both
specified in SAE J602 OCT80,
S10.15.4.1 A replaceable bulb a full upper beam and full lower beam,
Headlamp Aiming Device for
headlamp in a four headlamp system and is designed to conform to the
Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam
providing lower beam must have its lens requirements for that headlamp type.
Headlamp Units, (incorporated by
permanently marked with ‘‘L’’. A Where more than one lamp must be
reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title)
replaceable bulb headlamp in a four used, the lamps shall be mounted
must be designed to conform to the
headlamp system providing upper beam vertically, with the lower beam as high
performance requirements of the torque
must have its lens permanently marked as practicable, or
deflection test of S14.6.
(b) A headlighting system designed to
with ‘‘U’’. S10.15.7.7 Each replaceable bulb
conform to the requirements of
S10.15.4.1.1 No such markings are headlamp must be designed to conform
paragraphs S10.17.1 through S10.17.5.
required if the light sources in the to the performance requirements of the S10.17.1 Installation. The
headlamp are any combination of dual color test of S14.4. Each replaceable headlighting system installed on a
filament light sources other than HB2. bulb headlamp that does not incorporate motorcycle must consist of one of the
S10.15.5 Additional light sources. A a glass lens must be designed to system types specified in this
replaceable bulb headlamp may conform to the performance paragraph, and must be located on the
incorporate replaceable light sources requirements of the plastic optical front.
that are used for purposes other than materials test of S14.4. S10.17.1.1 Single headlamp.
headlighting. S10.16 Combination headlighting S10.17.1.1.1 If the system consists of
S10.15.6 Photometry. Each systems. All combination headlighting a single headlamp, it must be mounted
replaceable bulb headlamp must be systems must be of a type designated in on the vertical centerline of the
designed to conform to the photometry Table II–b. motorcycle.
requirements of Table XVIII for upper S10.16.1 Installation. A combination S10.17.1.1.2 If the headlamp
beam and Table XIX for lower beam as headlighting system must consist of the contains more than one light source,
specified in Table II-d for the specific correct number of designated headlamp each light source must be mounted on
headlamp unit and aiming method, units as specified for the applicable the vertical centerline with the upper
when tested according to the procedure system in Table II-b. The units must beam no higher than the lower beam, or
of S14.2.5 using any replaceable light have their beams activated as specified horizontally disposed about the vertical
source designated for use in the system in Table II-b. A system must provide in centerline and mounted at the same
under test. total not more than two upper beams height.
S10.15.7 Physical tests. and two lower beams. When installed S10.17.1.1.3 If the light sources are
S10.15.7.1 Each replaceable bulb on a motor vehicle, the headlamps (or horizontally disposed about the vertical
headlamp must be designed to conform parts thereof) that provide the lower centerline, the distance between the
to the performance requirements of the beam must be of the same type, and closest edges of the effective projected
corrosion test, corrosion-connector test, provide a symmetrical effective luminous lens area in front of the light
dust test, temperature cycle test, projected luminous lens area when sources must not be greater than 200
humidity test, vibration test, inward illuminated. mm.
force test, headlamp connector test, and S10.16.2 Photometry. Each S10.17.1.2 Two headlamps with
aiming adjustment tests of S14.6. combination headlamp must be both beams.
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S10.15.7.2 Each replaceable bulb designed to conform to the photometry S10.17.1.2.1 If the system consists of
headlamp except those with a glass lens requirements of Table XVIII for upper two headlamps, each of which provides
must be designed to conform to the beam and Table XIX for lower beam as both an upper and lower beam, the
performance requirements of the specified in Table II-b for the specific headlamps must be mounted either at
abrasion test of S14.6. headlamp unit and aiming method, the same height and symmetrically

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disposed about the vertical centerline or (c) The lowest intensity at any test S10.18 Headlamp aimability
mounted on the vertical centerline. point must be not less than 17 percent performance requirements.
S10.17.1.2.2 If the headlamps are of the maximum intensity measured at S10.18.1 Headlamp mounting and
horizontally disposed about the vertical the same point. aiming. Except as provided in this
centerline, the distance between the (d) The modulator switch must be paragraph, each headlamp must be
closest edges of their effective projected wired in the power lead of the beam installed on a motor vehicle with a
luminous lens areas must not be greater filament being modulated and not in the mounting and aiming mechanism that
than 200 mm. ground side of the circuit. permits aim inspection and adjustment
S10.17.1.3 Two headlamps, upper (e) Means must be provided so that of both vertical and horizontal aim, and
beam and lower beam. both the lower beam and upper beam is accessible for those purposes without
S10.17.1.3.1 If the system consists of remain operable in the event of a removal of any vehicle parts, except for
two headlamps, one of which provides modulator failure. protective covers removable without the
an upper beam and one of which (f) The system must include a sensor use of tools.
provides the lower beam, the headlamps mounted with the axis of its sensing S10.18.1.1 The axis of the light
must be located on the vertical element perpendicular to a horizontal beams must be adjustable to the left,
centerline with the upper beam no plane. Headlamp modulation must right, up, or down from the designed
higher than the lower beam, or cease whenever the level of light setting, the amount of adjustability to be
horizontally disposed about the vertical emitted by a tungsten filament light determined by practical operating
centerline and mounted at the same operating at 3000° Kelvin is either less conditions and the type of equipment.
S10.18.1.2 The adjustments must be
height. than 270 lux of direct light for upward
conveniently made by one person with
S10.17.1.3.2 If the headlamps are pointing sensors or less than 60 lux of
tools ordinarily available. When the
horizontally disposed about the vertical reflected light for downward pointing
headlamps are secured, the aim will not
centerline, the distance between the sensors. The light is measured by a
be disturbed under ordinary conditions
closest edges of their effective projected silicon cell type light meter that is
of service.
luminous lens areas must not be greater located at the sensor and pointing in the S10.18.2 Headlamp aiming systems.
than 200 mm. same direction as the sensor. A Kodak When a headlamp system is installed on
S10.17.2 Motorcycle replaceable Gray Card (Kodak R–27) is placed at a motor vehicle, it must be aimable with
bulb headlamp marking. Each ground level to simulate the road at least one of the following: An
replaceable bulb headlamp that is surface in testing downward pointing externally applied aiming device, as
designed to conform to S10.17(b) and sensors. specified in S10.18.7; an on-vehicle
that is equipped with a light source (g) When tested in accordance with headlamp aiming device installed by the
other than a replaceable light source the test profile shown in Figure 9, the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, as
meeting the requirements of S11, must voltage drop across the modulator when specified in S10.18.8; or by visual/
have the word ‘‘motorcycle’’ the lamp is on at all test conditions for optical means, as specified in S10.18.9.
permanently marked on the lens in 12 volt systems and 6 volt systems must S10.18.3 Aim adjustment
characters not less than 3 mm in height. not be greater than 0.45 volt. The interaction. When installed on the
S10.17.3 Photometry. Each modulator must meet all the provisions vehicle, adjustment of one aim axis
motorcycle headlamp that is not of the standard after completion of the through its full on-vehicle range must
designed to conform to S10.17(a), must test profile shown in Figure 9. not cause the aim of the other axis to
be designed to conform to the (h) Means must be provided so that deviate more than ± 0.76°. If the
photometry requirements of Table XX both the lower and upper beam function performance specified is not achievable,
when tested according to the procedure at design voltage when the headlamp the requirements of S10.18.3.1 apply,
of S14.2.5. control switch is in either the lower or except that if the aiming mechanism is
S10.17.4 Physical tests. Each upper beam position when the not a VHAD, the requirements specific
motorcycle headlamp that is not modulator is off. to VHADs are not applicable, and the
designed to conform to S10.17(a) must S10.17.5.2 Replacement modulators. instruction must be specific to the
be designed to conform to the Each modulator not intended as original aiming mechanism installed.
performance requirements of the equipment, or its container, must be S10.18.3.1 Should the mechanism
vibration test, moisture test, dust test, labeled with the maximum wattage, and not meet the requirements of S10.18.3,
and corrosion test of S14.5, the out of the minimum wattage appropriate for its a cautionary label must be placed
focus test of S14.3, the color test of use. adjacent to the mechanism stating the
S14.4, and each motorcycle headlamp S10.17.5.2.1 Replacement caution and including either the reason
that does not incorporate a glass lens performance. Each modulator, not for the caution or the corrective action
must be designed to conform to the intended as original equipment, must necessary. Each such label must also
performance requirements of the plastic comply with S10.17.5.1 (a) through (g) refer the reader to the vehicle operator’s
optical materials test of S14.4. when connected to a headlamp of the manual for complete instructions. Each
S10.17.5 Motorcycle headlamp maximum rated power and a headlamp such vehicle must be equipped with an
modulation system. A headlamp on a of the minimum rated power, and must operator’s manual containing the
motorcycle may be activated to provide means so that the modulated complete instructions appropriate for
modulate either the upper beam or the beam functions at design voltage when the mechanism installed.
lower beam from its maximum intensity the modulator is off. S10.18.4 Horizontal adjustment-
to a lesser intensity, provided that: S10.17.5.2.2 Replacement visually aimed headlamp. A visually/
S10.17.5.1 Modulation. instructions. Instructions, with a optically aimable headlamp that has a
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

(a) The rate of modulation must be diagram, must be provided for mounting lower beam must not have a horizontal
240 ± 40 cycles per minute. the light sensor including location on adjustment mechanism unless such
(b) The headlamp must be operated at the motorcycle, distance above the road mechanism meets the requirements of
maximum power for 50 to 70 percent of surface, and orientation with respect to this standard for on vehicle aiming as
each cycle. the light. specified in S10.18.8.

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S10.18.5 Optical axis marking. S10.18.7 External aiming. Each S5.2 of this title), or the 92×150 mm
S10.18.5.1 Optical axis marking- headlighting system that is capable of Type F unit, and incorporate lens-
vehicle. Each motor vehicle must be being mechanically aimed by externally mounted aiming pads as specified for
equipped with headlamps or beam applied headlamp aiming devices must those units pursuant to Appendix C of
contributors which have a mark or be mechanically aimable using the part 564 of this chapter. If so designed,
markings that are visible from the front equipment specified in SAE J602 no additional lens marking is necessary
of the headlamp when installed on the Headlamp Aiming Device for to designate the type of plate or
vehicle to identify the optical axis of the Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam dimensions.
headlamp to assure proper horizontal Headlamp Units, October 1980, S10.18.8 On-vehicle aiming. Each
and vertical alignment of the aiming (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 headlighting system that is capable of
screen or optical aiming equipment. The S5.2 of this title) without the removal of being aimed by equipment installed on
manufacturer is free to choose the any ornamental trim rings, covers, the vehicle must include a Vehicle
design of the mark or markings. The wipers or other vehicle parts. Headlamp Aiming Device (VHAD) that
mark or markings may be on the interior S10.18.7.1 Headlamp aiming device conforms to the following requirements:
or exterior of the lens or indicated by a locating plates. Each headlighting S10.18.8.1 Aim. The VHAD must
mark or central structure on the interior system which is designed to use the provide for headlamp aim inspection
or exterior of the headlamp. Headlamp Aiming Device Locating and adjustment in both the vertical and
S10.18.5.2 Optical axis marking- Plates with adjustable legs for the horizontal axes.
lamp. Each headlamp or beam 100×165 mm unit and the 142×200 mm S10.18.8.1.1 Vertical aim. The
contributor that is not visually/optically unit, and which has adjustable length VHAD must include the necessary
aimable in accordance with S10.18.9 of legs, must meet the following references and scales relative to the
this standard must be equipped with requirements: horizontal plane to assure correct
fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar S10.18.7.1.1 The lens must have vertical aim for photometry and aiming
references of sufficient detail and three aiming pads which meet the purposes. An off vehicle measurement
accuracy, for determination of an requirements of Figure 4, Dimensional of the angle of the plane of the ground
appropriate vehicle plane to be used Specifications for Location of Aiming is permitted. In addition, an equal
with the photometric procedures of Pads on Replaceable Bulb Headlamp number of graduations from the ‘‘0’’
S14.2.5 for correct alignment with the Units. The aiming pads need not be position representing angular changes in
photometer axis when being tested for centered at the geometric center of the the axis in the upward and downward
photometric compliance, and to serve lens, or on the optical axis. Except as directions must be provided.
for the aiming reference when the provided in S10.18.7.1.2, a whole S10.18.8.1.1.1 Each graduation must
headlamp or beam contributor is number, which represents the distance represent a change in the vertical
installed on a motor vehicle. The in tenths of an inch (i.e. 0.3 inch = 3) position of the mechanical axis not
fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar from the aiming reference plane to the larger than 0.19° (1 in at 25 ft) to
references are protrusions, bubble vials, respective aiming pads which are not in provide for variations in aim at least
holes, indentations, ridges, scribed contact with that plane, must be 1.2° above and below the horizontal,
lines, or other readily identifiable marks inscribed adjacent to each respective and have an accuracy relative to the
established and described by the vehicle aiming pad on the lens. The height of zero mark of less than 0.1°.
or headlamp manufacturer. these numbers must be not less than S10.18.8.1.1.2 The VHAD must be
S10.18.5.3 Optical axis marking- .157 inch (4 mm). If there is interference marked to indicate headlamp aim
visual/optical aim headlamp. There between the plane and the area of the movement in the upward and
must be a mark or markings identifying lens between the aiming pads, the downward directions.
the optical axis of the headlamp visible whole number represents the distance to S10.18.8.1.1.3 Each graduation must
from the front of the headlamp when a secondary plane. The secondary plane indicate a linear movement of the scale
installed on the vehicle, to assure must be located parallel to the aiming indicator of not less than 0.05 in (1.27
proper horizontal and vertical alignment reference plane and as close to the lens mm) if a direct reading analog indicator
of the aiming screen or optical aiming as possible without causing is used. If a remote reading indicator is
equipment with the headlamp being interference. provided, it must represent the actual
aimed. The manufacturer is free to S10.18.7.1.2 If the most forward aim movement in a clear,
choose the design of the mark or aiming pad is the lower inboard aiming understandable format.
markings. The mark or markings may be pad, then the dimensions may be placed S10.18.8.1.1.4 The vertical indicator
on the interior or exterior of the lens or anywhere on the lens. The dimension must perform through a minimum range
indicated by a mark or central structure for the outboard aiming pad (Dimension of ± 1.2°.
on the interior or exterior of the F in Figure 4) must be followed by the S10.18.8.1.1.5 Means must be
headlamp. letter ‘‘H’’ and the dimension for the provided in the VHAD for compensating
S10.18.6 Moveable reflectors. Each center aiming pad must be followed by for deviations in floor slope less than
headlamp aimed by moving the reflector the letter ‘‘V.’’ The dimensions must be 1.2° from the horizontal that would
relative to the lens and headlamp expressed in tenths of an inch. affect the correct positioning of the
housing, or vice versa, must conform S10.18.7.2 Nonadjustable headlamp headlamp for vertical aim.
with the photometric requirements aiming device locating plates. Each S10.18.8.1.1.6 The graduations must
applicable to it when tested according to headlamp may be designed to use the be legible under an illumination level
the procedure of S14.2.5 with the lens nonadjustable Headlamp Aiming Device not greater than 30 foot candles,
at any position relative to the reflector Locating Plate for the 100×165 mm unit, measured at the top of the graduation,
within the full range of vertical pitch on the 142×200 mm unit, the 146 mm by an observer having 20/20 vision
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the vehicle on which the headlamp diameter unit, or the 178 mm diameter (Snellen), and must permit aim
system is installed and a horizontal unit of SAE J602 OCT80, Headlamp adjustment to within 0.19° (1 in at 25 ft).
range of ± 2.5°. Additionally it must Aiming Device for Mechanically S10.18.8.1.2 Horizontal aim. The
comply with the aiming adjustment Aimable Sealed Beam Headlamp Units, VHAD must include references and
requirements of S14.6. (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 scales relative to the longitudinal axis of

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the vehicle necessary to assure correct the beam pattern for the purposes of S10.18.9.1.5.2 The headlamp beam
horizontal aim for photometry and compliance with the standard. pattern is aimed with the cutoff at the
aiming purposes. An ‘‘0’’ mark must be S10.18.8.4 Replacement units. When H–H axis. There is no adjustment,
used to indicate alignment of the tested according to the procedure of shimming, or modification of the
headlamps relative to the longitudinal S14.2.5 with any replacement headlamp horizontal axis of the headlamp or test
axis of the vehicle. In addition, an equal unit(s) or light sources intended for use fixture, unless the headlamp is
number of graduations from the ‘‘0’’ in the system under test, the VHAD and equipped with a VHAD. In this case the
position representing equal angular headlighting system must be designed to VHAD is adjusted to zero.
changes in the axis relative to the conform to the photometric performance S10.18.9.1.5.3 A vertical scan of the
vehicle axis must be provided. requirements applicable for the system beam pattern is conducted for a
S10.18.8.1.2.1 Each graduation must under test. headlamp with a left side gradient by
represent a change in the horizontal S10.18.8.5 Physical tests. Each aligning the goniometer on a vertical
position of the mechanical axis not VHAD must be designed to conform line at 2.5° L and scanning from 1.5° U
greater than 0.38° (2 in at 25 ft) to with the performance requirements of to 1.5° D. For a headlamp with a right
provide for variations in aim at least S14.8. side gradient, a vertical scan of the beam
0.76° (4 in at 25 ft) to the left and right S10.18.9 Visual/optical aiming. pattern is conducted by aligning the
of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, Each visually/optically aimable goniometer on a vertical line at 2.0° R
and must have an accuracy relative to headlamp must be designed to conform and scanning from 1.5° U to 1.5° D.
the zero mark of less than 0.1°. to the following requirements: S10.18.9.1.5.4 Determine the
S10.18.8.1.2.2 The VHAD must be S10.18.9.1 Vertical aim, lower beam. maximum gradient within the range of
marked to indicate headlamp aim Each lower beam headlamp must have the scan by using the formula: G = log
movement in the left and right a cutoff in the beam pattern. It may be E(a)¥logE(a + 0.1), where ‘‘G’’ is the
directions. either on the left side or the right side gradient, ‘‘E’’ is illumination and ‘‘a’’ is
S10.18.8.1.2.3 The graduations must of the optical axis, but once chosen for vertical angular position. The maximum
be legible under an illumination level a particular headlamp system’s design, value of the gradient ‘‘G’’ determines the
not greater than 30 foot candles, the side chosen for the cutoff must not vertical angular location of the cutoff.
measured at the top of the graduation, be changed for any headlamps intended Perform vertical scans at 1.0° L and R
by an observer having 20/20 vision to be used as replacements for those of the measurement point of the
(Snellen), and must permit aim system’s headlamps. maximum gradient to determine the
adjustment to within 0.38° (2 in at 25 ft). S10.18.9.1.1 Vertical position of the inclination.
S10.18.8.1.2.4 The horizontal cutoff. The headlamp must be aimed S10.18.9.2 Horizontal aim, lower
indicator must perform through a vertically so that the cutoff is on the left beam. There is no adjustment of
minimum range of ± 0.76° (4 in at 25 ft); side, at 0.4° down from the H–H line, or horizontal aim unless the headlamp is
however, the indicator itself must be on the right side, at the H–H line. equipped with a horizontal VHAD. If
capable of recalibration over a S10.18.9.1.2 Vertical gradient. The the headlamp has a VHAD, it is set to
movement of ± 2.5° relative to the gradient of the cutoff measured at either zero.
longitudinal axis of the vehicle to 2.5° L or 2.0° R must be not less than S10.18.9.3 Vertical aim, upper
accommodate any adjustment necessary 0.13 based on the procedure of beam.
for recalibrating the indicator after S10.18.9.1.5. S10.18.9.3.1 If the upper beam is
vehicle repair from accident damage. S10.18.9.1.3 Horizontal position of combined in a headlamp with a lower
S10.18.8.2 Aiming instructions. the cutoff. The width must be not less beam, the vertical aim of the upper
S10.18.8.2.1 The instructions for than 2°, with not less than 2° of its beam must not be changed from the aim
properly aiming the headlighting system actual width centered at either 2.5° L, or set using the procedures of S10.18.9.1
using the VHAD must be provided on a 2.0° R. and S10.18.9.2 used for the lower beam.
label permanently affixed to the vehicle S10.18.9.1.4 Maximum inclination S10.18.9.3.2 If the upper beam is not
adjacent to the VHAD, or in the vehicle of the cutoff. The vertical location of the combined in a headlamp with a lower
operator’s manual. The instructions highest gradient at the ends of the beam, the vertical aim of the upper
must advise that the headlighting minimum width must be within ± 0.2° beam is adjusted so that the maximum
system is properly aimed if the of the vertical location of the maximum beam intensity is located on the H–H
appropriate vertical plane (as defined by gradient measured at the appropriate axis.
the vehicle manufacturer) is vertical line (at either 2.5° L for a left S10.18.9.4 Horizontal aim, upper
perpendicular to both the longitudinal side cutoff, or 2.0° R for a right side beam.
axis of the vehicle, and a horizontal cutoff). S10.18.9.4.1 If the upper beam is
plane when the vehicle is on a S10.18.9.1.5 Measuring the cutoff combined in a headlamp with a lower
horizontal surface, and the VHAD is set parameter. beam, the horizontal aim of the upper
at ‘‘0’’ vertical and ‘‘0’’ horizontal. S10.18.9.1.5.1 The headlamp is beam must not be changed from the aim
S10.18.8.2.2 Should a remote mounted on a headlamp test fixture set using the procedures of S10.18.9.1
indicator or a remote indicator and which simulates its actual design and S10.18.9.2 used for the lower beam.
adjuster be provided, the instructions location on any vehicle for which the S10.18.9.4.2 If the upper beam is not
must be placed in the operator’s headlamp is intended. The fixture, with combined in a headlamp with the lower
manual, and may also be placed on a the headlamp installed, is attached to beam and has fixed horizontal aim or
label adjacent to the VHAD. the goniometer table in such a way that has a horizontal VHAD, then the
S10.18.8.3 Permanent calibration. the fixture alignment axes are headlamp is mounted on a headlamp
Each headlamp equipped with a VHAD coincident with the goniometer axes. test fixture which simulates its actual
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must be manufactured with its The headlamp is energized at the design location on any vehicle for
calibration permanently fixed by its specified test voltage. The cutoff which the headlamp is intended. The
manufacturer. Calibration in this case parameter must be measured at a fixture, with the headlamp installed, is
means the process of accurately aligning distance of 10 m from a photosensor attached to the goniometer table in such
the geometry of the VHAD devices with with a 10 mm diameter. a way that the fixture alignment axes are

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coincident with the goniometer axes. S11.2 Ballast markings. If a ballast is switch, lever, or similar mechanism,
The headlamp must be energized at 12.8 required for operation, each ballast must including a mechanism that is
± 0.20 mV. There is no adjustment, bear the following permanent markings: automatically actuated by a change in
shimming, or modification of the (a) Name or logo of ballast ambient light conditions.
horizontal axis of the headlamp or test manufacturer; S12.4 Each headlamp concealment
fixture, unless the headlamp is (b) Ballast part number or unique device must be installed so that the
equipped with a VHAD. In this case the identification; headlamp may be mounted, aimed, and
VHAD is adjusted to zero. (c) Part number or other unique adjusted without removing any
S10.18.9.4.3 If the upper beam is not identification of the light source for component of the device, other than
combined in a headlamp with a lower which the ballast is designed; components of the headlamp assembly.
beam, and it does not have a VHAD, the (d) Rated laboratory life of the light S12.5 Except for cases of
horizontal aim of the upper beam is source/ballast combination, if the malfunction covered by S12.2, each
adjusted so that the maximum beam information for the light source has been headlamp concealment device must,
filed in Appendix B of part 564 of this within an ambient temperature range of
intensity is located on the V–V axis.
chapter; ¥20 °F to +120 °F, be capable of being
S10.18.9.5 Photometry. When tested (e) A warning that ballast output fully opened in not more than 3 seconds
according to the procedure of S14.2.5, a voltage presents the potential for severe after the actuation of a driver-operated
visually/optically aimable headlamp electrical shock that could lead to control.
must be designed to conform to the permanent injury or death; S12.6 As an alternative to complying
lower beam requirements of columns; (f) Ballast output power in watts and with the requirements of S12.1 through
LB1V or LB2V of Table XIX–a, or LB3V output voltage in rms volts AC or DC; S12.5, a vehicle with headlamps
of Table XIX–b, or LB4V of Table XIX– and incorporating VHAD or visual/optical
c. (g) The symbol ‘DOT’. aiming in accordance with this standard
S10.18.9.6 Visual/optical aiming S11.3 Gas discharge laboratory life. may meet the requirements for
identification marking. Each letter used For light sources that use excited gas Concealable lamps in paragraph 5.14 of
in marking according to this paragraph mixtures as a filament or discharge arc, the following version of the Economic
must be not less than 3 mm high. the ‘‘rated laboratory life’’ is determined Commission for Europe Regulation 48
S10.18.9.6.1 The lens of a lower in accordance with sections 4.3 and 4.9 ‘‘Uniform Provisions Concerning the
beam headlamp must be marked ‘‘VOL’’ of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 Approval of Vehicles With Regard to the
if the headlamp is intended to be FEB93, Forward Discharge Lighting Installation of Lighting and Light-
visually/optically aimed using the left Systems (incorporated by reference, see Signaling Devices’’: E/ECE/324–E/ECE/
side of the lower beam pattern. The lens 571.108 S5.2 of this title). TRANS/505, Rev.1/Add.47/Rev.1/
of a lower beam headlamp must be S11.4 Physical tests. Corr.2, 26 February 1996 (page 17)
marked ‘‘VOR’’ if the headlamp is S11.4.1 Each replaceable light (incorporated by reference, see 571.108
intended to be visually/optically aimed source must be designed to conform S5.2 of this title), in the English
using the right side of the lower beam with the performance requirements of language version.
pattern. The lens of a headlamp that is the deflection test and pressure test S12.7 Certification election.
solely an upper beam headlamp and requirements of S14.7. Manufacturers of vehicles with
intended to be visually/optically aimed S11.4.2 Replaceable light sources headlamps incorporating VHAD or
using the upper beam must be marked must be designed to conform with the visual/optical aiming must elect to
‘‘VO’’. requirements of section VII of Appendix certify to S12.1 through S12.5 or to
A of part 564 of this chapter, or section S12.6 prior to, or at the time of
S10.18.9.6.2 The lens of each sealed
IV of Appendix B of part 564 of this certification of the vehicle, pursuant to
beam or integral beam headlamp must
chapter, for maximum power and 49 CFR Part 567. The selection is
be marked ‘‘VOR’’ if the headlamp is of
luminous flux when test by the irrevocable.
a type that was manufactured before
procedure of S14.7.3. S13 Replaceable headlamp lens
May 1, 1997, and if such headlamp type
S12 Headlamp concealment device requirements.
has been redesigned since then to be
requirements. S13.1 A replacement lens for a
visually/optically aimable. S12.1 While the headlamp is replaceable bulb headlamp or integral
S11 Replaceable light source illuminated, its fully opened headlamp beam headlamp that is not required to
requirements. Each replaceable light concealment device must remain fully have a bonded lens must be provided
source must be designed to conform to opened should any loss of power to or with a replacement seal in a package
the dimensions and electrical within the headlamp concealment that includes instructions for the
specifications furnished with respect to device occur. removal and replacement of the lens,
it pursuant to part 564 of this chapter, S12.2 Whenever any malfunction the cleaning of the reflector, and the
on file in Docket No. NHTSA 98–3397, occurs in a component that controls or sealing of the replacement lens to the
and must conform to the following conducts power for the actuation of the reflector assembly.
requirements: concealment device, each closed S13.2 Each replacement headlamp
S11.1 Markings. If other than an HB headlamp concealment device must be lens with seal, when installed according
Type, the light source must be marked capable of being fully opened by a to the lens manufacturer’s instructions
with the bulb marking designation means not requiring the use of any tools. on an integral beam or replaceable bulb
specified for it in compliance with Thereafter, the headlamp concealment headlamp, must not cause the headlamp
Appendix A or Appendix B of part 564 device must remain fully opened until to fail to comply with any of the
of this chapter. The base of each HB intentionally closed. requirements of this standard.
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Type must be marked with its HB Type S12.3 Except for malfunctions S13.3 Each replacement headlamp
designation. Each replaceable light covered by S12.2, each headlamp lens must be marked with the symbol
source must also be marked with the concealment device must be capable of ‘‘DOT’’ either horizontally or vertically,
symbol DOT and with a name or being fully opened and the headlamps to constitute certification. Each
trademark in accordance with S6.5. illuminated by actuation of a single replacement headlamp lens must also be

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marked with manufacturer and the part S14.2.1.1 Mounting. Photometry S14.2.1.5.3 Multiple compartment
or trade number of the headlamp for measurements are made with the turn signal lamps or stop lamps or
which it is intended, and with the name sample lamp mounted in its normal multiple lamp arrangements of these
and/or trademark of the lens operating position. lamps installed on multipurpose
manufacturer or importer that is S14.2.1.2 School bus signal lamp passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, or
registered with the U.S. Patent and aiming. A school bus signal lamp must buses 2032 mm or more in overall width
Trademark Office. Nothing in this be aimed with its aiming plane normal must use the method of S14.2.1.5.2(b)
standard authorizes the marking of any to the photometer axis and may be only.
such name and/or trademark by one reaimed for photometry by ± 1⁄2° S14.2.1.6 Bulbs. Except for a lamp
who is not the owner, unless the owner vertically and ± 1° horizontally. having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp must
has consented to it. S14.2.1.3 Measurement distance. meet the applicable requirements of this
S14 Physical and photometry test Photometric measurements are made at standard when tested with a bulb whose
procedures and performance a distance between the light source and filament is positioned within ± .010 in
requirements. the point of measurement of at least 1.2 of the nominal design position specified
S14.1 General test procedures and m for side marker lamps, clearance in SAE J573d, Lamp Bulbs and Sealed
performance requirements. lamps, identification lamps, and parking Units, December 1968, (incorporated by
S14.1.1 Each lamp, reflective device, lamps, and at least 3 m for turn signal reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title)
item of conspicuity treatment, and item lamps, stop lamps, taillamps, backup or specified by the bulb manufacturer
of associated equipment required or lamps, and school bus signal lamps. and operated at the bulb’s rated mean
permitted by this standard must be S14.2.1.4 Location of test points. spherical candela.
designed to conform to all applicable Test point location must comply with S14.2.1.6.1 Each lamp designed to
physical test performance requirements the following nomenclature: use a type of bulb that has not been
specified for it. (a) The line formed by the intersection assigned a mean spherical candela
S14.1.2 Plastic optical materials. All of a vertical plane through the light rating by its manufacturer and is not
plastic materials used for optical parts source of the lamp and normal to the listed in SAE J573d, Lamp Bulbs and
such as lenses and reflectors on lamps test screen is designated ‘‘V’’. Sealed Units, December 1968
or reflective devices required or allowed (b) The line formed by the (incorporated by reference, see 571.108
by this standard must conform to the intersection of a horizontal plane S5.2 of this title), must meet the
material test requirements of S14.4.2. through the light source and normal to applicable requirements of this standard
S14.1.3 All coatings used on optical the test screen is designated ‘‘H’’. when used with any bulb of the type
materials must have added to their (c) The point of intersection of these specified by the lamp manufacturer,
formulations an optical brightener, two lines is designated ‘‘H-V’’. operated at the bulb’s design voltage. A
whose presence is detectable by (d) Other test points on the test screen lamp that contains a sealed-in bulb must
ultraviolet light, to aid in testing for are measured in terms of angles from the meet these requirements with the bulb
their presence. Other equivalent H and V lines. operated at the bulb’s design voltage.
industry accepted methods may be used S14.2.1.6.2 A bulb that is not listed
(e) Angles to the right (R) and to the
as an alternative. in SAE J573d, Lamp Bulbs and Sealed
left (L) are regarded as being to the right
S14.1.4 Samples. Units, December 1968, (incorporated by
and left of the V line when the observer
reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title)
S14.1.4.1 Samples submitted for stands behind the lamp and looks in the
is not required to use a socket that
laboratory test must be new, unused, direction of its light beam when it is
conforms to the requirements of SAE
manufactured from production tooling properly aimed for photometry.
J567b, Bulb Sockets, April 1964
and assembled by production processes, Similarly, the upward angles designated
(incorporated by reference, see 571.108
and representative of the devices as as U and the downward angles
S5.2 of this title).
regularly manufactured and marketed. designated as D, refer to light directed S14.2.2 License plate lamp
S14.1.4.2 Each test sample must at angles above and below the H line, photometry. Photometry compliance of
include not only the device but also respectively. license plate lamps is determined by
accessory equipment necessary to S14.2.1.5 Multiple compartment and measurement of the illumination falling
operate in its intended manner. Where multiple lamp photometry of turn signal upon test stations located on a test plate.
necessary a mounting bracket shall be lamps, stop lamps, and taillamps. S14.2.2.1 Illumination surface. All
provided so that the device may be S14.2.1.5.1 When compartments of illumination measurements are made on
rigidly bolted in its operating position lamps or arrangements of multiple a rectangular test plate of clean, white
on the various test equipment. lamps are photometered together, the blotting paper mounted on the license
S14.1.4.3 Dust and photometric tests H–V axis intersects the midpoint plate holder in the position normally
may be made on a second set of between the optical axes. taken by the license plate. The face of
mounted samples, if desired, to expedite S14.2.1.5.2 Luminous intensity the test plate must be 1.5 mm from the
completion of the tests. measurements of multiple compartment face of the license plate holder.
S14.1.5 Laboratory facilities. The lamp or multiple lamp arrangements are S14.2.2.2 Test stations. Test stations
laboratory must be equipped to test the made either by: must be located on the face of the test
sample in accordance with the (a) Measuring all compartments plate as shown in Figure 19 according
requirements of the specific device. together, provided that a line from the to the type of vehicle on which the
S14.2 Photometric test procedures. optical axis of each compartment or license plate lamps are installed.
Each lamp and reflective device lamp to the center of the photometer S14.2.2.3 Bulb requirements of
required or permitted by this standard sensing device does not make an angle S14.2.1.6 apply to license plate lamp
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must be designed to conform to the more than 0.6° with the H–V axis, or photometry.
applicable photometric requirements. (b) Measuring each compartment or S14.2.3 Reflex reflector and
S14.2.1 Photometry measurements lamp separately by aligning its optical retroreflective sheeting photometry.
for all lamps except license plate lamps, axis with the photometer and adding the S14.2.3.1 Mounting. Each reflex
headlamps, and DRLs. value at each test point. reflector is mounted for photometry

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with the center of the reflex area at the test point as shown in Table XVI is S14.2.5.4 Seasoning and test
center of goniometer rotation and at the candela per lux per square meter of area. voltage. All sealed beam headlamps,
same horizontal level as the source of S14.2.3.8.3 Reflex reflector integral beam headlamps, beam
illumination. photometry measurement adjustments. contributors, and replaceable light
S14.2.3.2 Illumination source. The S14.2.3.8.3.1 Reflex reflectors, sources are seasoned at design voltage
source of illumination is a lamp with a which do not have a fixed rotational for 1% of its average design life or 10
50 mm effective diameter and with a position on the vehicle, are rotated hours, whichever is less prior to a
filament operating at 2856 °K. about their axis through 360° to find the photometry test. A headlamp is tested at
S14.2.3.3 Measurement distance. minimum photometric value which 12.8 v. ± 20 mv, D.C. as measured at the
The test distance is 30.5 m [100ft]. must be reported for each test point. If terminals of the lamp.
S14.2.3.4 Test setup The observation the output falls below the minimum S14.2.5.5 Aiming. Each headlamp is
point is located directly above the requirement at any test point, the aimed prior to a photometry test in
source of illumination. The H–V axis of reflector is rotated ±5° about its axis accordance with the procedure
reflex reflectors is taken as parallel to from the angle where the minimum appropriate to its aiming system. A 1⁄4°
the longitudinal axis of the vehicle for output occurred, and the maximum reaim is permitted in any direction at
rear reflectors and perpendicular to a value within this angle is reported as a any test point to allow for variations in
vertical plane passing through the tolerance value. readings between laboratories for all
longitudinal axis of the vehicle for side S14.2.3.8.3.2 Reflex reflectors, headlamps except a Type F upper beam
reflectors. which by their design or construction, unit not equipped with a VHAD.
S14.2.3.5 Photodetector. The permit mounting on a vehicle in a fixed S14.2.5.5.1 Mechanically aimable
photodetector has an opening of not rotational position, are tested in this headlamps using an external aimer. The
more than 13 mm vertically and 25 mm position. A visual locator, such as the headlamp is aimed mechanically with
horizontally. word TOP is not considered adequate to the aiming plane at the design angle(s)
S14.2.3.6 Photometry surface. Reflex establish a fixed rotational position on to the photometer axis and the
reflectors may have any linear or area the vehicle. mechanical axis of the headlamp on the
dimensions but must have no more than S14.2.3.8.3.3 If uncolored reflections photometer axis.
7740 sq mm projected area contained from the front surface interfere with S14.2.5.5.2 Mechanically aimable
within a 254 mm diameter circle photometric readings at any test point, headlamps equipped with a VHAD. The
exposed for photometry. additional readings are taken 1° above, headlamp is aimed mechanically using
S14.2.3.7 Procedure. Photometric the VHAD in accordance with the
below, right, and left of the test point,
measurements of reflex reflectors and manufacturer’s instructions as provided
and the lowest of these readings and its
retroreflective sheeting must be made at with the vehicle on which the headlamp
location is reported provided the
various observation and entrance angles is intended to be used.
minimum test point requirement for the
as shown in Table XVI. S14.2.5.5.3 Visually aimable lower
test point is met.
S14.2.3.7.1 The observation angle is beam headlamps-vertical aim.
S14.2.4 Daytime running lamp (DRL)
the angle formed by a line from the S14.2.5.5.3.1 A VOL cutoff
photometry measurements.
observation point to the center of the headlamp must have the location of the
reflector and a second line from the S14.2.4.1 Each DRL is tested to the
cutoff maximum gradient, as
center of the reflector to the source of procedure of S14.2.5 when a test voltage
determined by the method of this
illumination. of 12.8 v ± 20 mv is applied to the input
standard, positioned at 0.4° down from
S14.2.3.7.2 The entrance angle is the terminals of the lamp switch module or
the H–H line.
angle between the axis of the reflex voltage-reducing equipment, whichever
S14.2.5.5.3.2 A VOR cutoff
reflector and a line from the center of is closer to the electrical source on the
headlamp must have the location of the
the reflector to the source of vehicle.
cutoff maximum gradient, as
illumination. S14.2.4.2 The test distance from the determined by the method of this
S14.2.3.7.3 The entrance angle is lamp to the photometer is not less than standard, positioned at the H–H line.
designated left, right, up, and down in 18.3 m if the lamp is optically combined S14.2.5.5.4 Visually aimable lower
accordance with the position of the with a headlamp, or is a separate lamp, beam headlamps-horizontal aim. There
source of illumination with respect to and not less than 3 m if the lamp is must be no adjustment of horizontal aim
the axis of the reflex reflector as viewed optically combined with a lamp, other unless the headlamp is equipped with a
from behind the reflector. than a headlamp, that is required by this horizontal VHAD. If the headlamp has
S14.2.3.7.4 Measurements are made standard. a VHAD, it must be set to zero.
of the luminous intensity which the S14.2.4.3 Bulb requirements of S14.2.5.5.5 Visually aimable upper
reflex reflector is projecting toward the S14.2.1.6 apply to DRL photometry. beam headlamps-vertical aim.
observation point and the illumination S14.2.5 Headlamp photometry S14.2.5.5.5.1 A headlamp whose
on the reflex reflector from the source of measurements. upper beam is combined with a lower
illumination. S14.2.5.1 Mounting. Photometry beam must not have its vertical aim
S14.2.3.8 Measurements. measurements at the applicable test changed from that set for the lower
S14.2.3.8.1 Reflex reflectors. The points are made with the sample beam.
required measurement for reflex headlamp mounted in its normal S14.2.5.5.5.2 A headlamp whose
reflectors at each test point as shown in operating position. upper beam is not combined with a
Table XVI is the quotient of the S14.2.5.2 Test points in the area lower beam must have its maximum
projected luminous intensity divided by from 10° U to 90° U must be measured beam intensity positioned on the H–H
the illumination expressed as from the normally exposed surface of axis.
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millicandela per lux or candela per the lens face. S14.2.5.5.6 Visually aimable upper
footcandle. S14.2.5.3 Measurement distance. beam headlamps-horizontal aim.
S14.2.3.8.2 Retroreflective sheeting. Photometric measurements are made at S14.2.5.5.6.1 A headlamp whose
The required measurement for a distance between the light source and upper beam is combined with a lower
retroreflective sheeting reflectors at each the photometer sensor of at least 18.3 m. beam must not have its horizontal aim

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68290 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

changed from that set for the lower the top of the beam aimed vertically to S14.2.5.8.1.3 Horizontal angles
beam. obtain 2000 cd at H–V. designated L and R are defined as the
S14.2.5.5.6.2 A headlamp whose S14.2.5.6 Positioner. The goniometer plan view angle between the vertical
upper beam is not combined with a configuration, used to position the plane and the projection of the light ray
lower beam and has a fixed horizontal sample headlamp when making from the headlamp onto the horizontal
aim or has a horizontal VHAD must be photometric measurements at specific plane.
mounted in its normal operating angular test points, is horizontal S14.2.5.8.1.4 Vertical angles
position on a goniometer such that the rotation over elevation. The vertical axis designated U and D are defined as the
mounting fixture alignment axes are of the goniometer must correspond to true angle between the horizontal plane
coincident with the goniometer axes the design position vertical axis of the and the light ray from the headlamp.
and must be energized at 12.8 v ± 20 mv. sample headlamp which is vertical and S14.2.5.9 Beam contributor
There must be no adjustment, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of photometry measurements. In a
shimming, or modification of the the vehicle. headlighting system where there is more
horizontal axis of the headlamp or test S14.2.5.7 Photometer. than one beam contributor providing a
fixture, unless the headlamp is S14.2.5.7.1 The photometer must be lower beam, and/or more than one beam
equipped with a VHAD, in which case capable of measuring the luminous contributor providing an upper beam,
the VHAD must be adjusted to zero. intensity of the sample headlamp each beam contributor must be designed
S14.2.5.5.6.3 A headlamp whose throughout its illumination range. to meet only the applicable photometric
upper beam is not combined with a S14.2.5.7.2 Sensor. performance requirements based upon
lower beam and is not equipped with a S14.2.5.7.2.1 The maximum the following mathematical expression:
horizontal VHAD, the horizontal aim effective area of the photometric sensor conforming test point value = 2(test
must be adjusted so that the maximum must fit within a circle whose diameter point value)/total number of lower or
beam intensity is positioned on the V– upper beam contributors for the vehicle,
is equal to 0.009 times the actual test
V axis. as appropriate.
distance from the light source of the
S14.2.5.5.7 Simultaneous aim Type S14.2.5.10 Moveable reflector aimed
F sealed beam headlamps and beam sample headlamp to the sensor.
S14.2.5.7.2.2 The sensor effective headlamp photometry measurements.
contributor integral beam headlamps. S14.2.5.10.1 A headlamp aimed by
S14.2.5.5.7.1 A headlamp system area is defined as the actual area of
intercepted light striking the detector moving the reflector relative to the lens
permitted to use simultaneous aim of and headlamp housing, or vice versa,
lower beams and upper beams must be surface of the photometer. Sensor
systems incorporating lens(es) that must conform to the photometry
aimed mechanically for lower beam requirements applicable to it with the
photometry by centering the lower beam change the diameter of the intercepted
light beam before it reaches the actual lens at any position relative to the
unit or the geometric center of all lower reflector.
beam contributors on the photometer detector surface, the maximum size
S14.2.5.10.2 These positions include
axis and aligning the aiming plane, requirements must apply to the total
not less than the full range of vertical
aiming reference plane, or other area of the light actually intercepted by
pitch of the vehicle on which the
appropriate vertical plane defined by the lens surface.
headlamp is installed and not less than
S14.2.5.7.2.3 The sensor must be
the manufacturer perpendicular to the ± 2.5° from the nominal horizontal aim
photometer axis. capable of intercepting all direct
position for the vehicle on which the
S14.2.5.5.7.2 The headlamp must be illumination from the largest
headlamp is installed unless the
aimed for upper beam photometry by illuminated dimension of the sample
headlamp is visually/optically aimed
moving the assembly in a plane parallel lamp at the test distance.
with a fixed horizontal aim.
to the established lower beam aiming S14.2.5.7.3 The color response of the S14.3 Motorcycle headlamp out of
plane until the upper beam unit or the photometer must be corrected to that of focus test procedure and performance
geometric center of all upper beam the 1931 International Commission on requirements.
contributors is centered in the Illumination (C.I.E.) Standard Observer S14.3.1 Procedure. The sample
photometric axis. (2-degree) Photopic Response Curve, as device must be tested for photometry
S14.2.5.5.8 Motorcycle headlamp- shown in the C.I.E. 1931 Chromaticity using bulbs having each of four out-of-
upper beam headlamps designed to Diagram (incorporated by reference, see focus filament positions. Where
comply with Table XX. The upper beam 571.108 S5.2 of this title). conventional bulbs with two pin
of a multiple beam headlamp designed S14.2.5.8 Location of test points. bayonet bases are used, tests must be
to comply with the requirements of S14.2.5.8.1 Test point positions are made with the light source 0.060 in
Table XX must be aimed defined by the positioner. The following above, below, ahead, and behind the
photoelectrically so that the center of nomenclature applies: designated position. If prefocused bulbs
the zone of highest intensity falls 0.4° S14.2.5.8.1.1 The letters ‘‘V’’ and are used, the limiting positions at which
vertically below the lamp axis and is ‘‘H’’ designate the vertical and tests are made must be 0.020 in above,
centered laterally. The center of the horizontal planes intersecting both the below, ahead, and behind the
zone of highest intensity must be headlamp light source and the designated position. The sample device
established by the intersection of a photometer axis. ‘‘H–V’’ designates the may be re-aimed for each of the out-of-
horizontal plane passing through the zero test point angle at the intersection focus positions of the light source.
point of maximum intensity, and the of the H and V planes. This intersection S14.3.2 Performance requirements.
vertical plane established by balancing is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the The minimum photometric values for
the photometric values at 3°L and 3°R. vehicle. the out-of-design position must be 80%
S14.2.5.5.9 Motorcycle headlamp- S14.2.5.8.1.2 The letters ‘‘U’’, ‘‘D’’, of the in-design position.
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lower beam headlamps designed to ‘‘L’’, and ‘‘R’’, indicating up, down, left S14.4 General test procedures and
comply with Table XX. The beam from and right, respectively, designate the performance requirements.
a single beam headlamp designed to angular position from the H and V S14.4.1 Color test. The requirement
comply with the requirements of Table planes to the photometer as viewed applies to the overall effective color of
XX must be aimed straight ahead with from the headlamp. light emitted by the device and not to

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the color of the light from a small area S14.4.1.4.1.2 A sphere may be used samples of all materials, including
of the lens. It does not apply to any to integrate light from a colored source coated and uncoated versions, used for
pilot, indicator, or tell-tale lights. The provided that the color shift that results optical parts of devices covered by this
color of the sample device must comply from the spectral selectivity of the standard. Tests are to be conducted in
when tested by either the Visual Method sphere paint be corrected by the use of Florida and Arizona.
or the Tristimulus Method. a filter, correction factor, or an S14.4.2.2.2 Concentrations of
S14.4.1.1 Samples. A test sample for appropriate calibration. polymer components and additives used
a reflex reflector may be either the reflex S14.4.1.4.1.3 Where the sample in plastic materials may be changed
reflector or a disc of the same material, device does not have uniform spectral without outdoor exposure testing
technique of fabrication, and dye characteristics in all useful directions, provided the changes are within the
formulation as the reflex reflector. If a color measurements must be made at as limits of composition represented by
disc is used, the thickness must be twice many directions of view as are required higher and lower concentrations of
the thickness of the reflector as to evaluate the color for those directions these polymer components and
measured from the face of the lens to the that apply to the end use of the device. additives previously tested to this
apexes of the reflecting elements. S14.4.1.4.2 Tristimulus method section and found to meet its
S14.4.1.2 General procedure. performance requirements. The color requirements.
S14.4.1.2.1 The device must be must comply with the applicable S14.4.2.2.3 Procedure.
operated at design voltage. requirement. S14.4.2.2.3.1 One sample of each
S14.4.1.2.2 Components (bulbs, S14.4.1.4.2.1 Red. The color of light thickness of each material must be
caps, lenses, and the like) must be tested emitted must fall within the following mounted at each exposure site so that at
in a fixture or manner simulating the boundaries: least a minimum uninterrupted area of
intended application.
S14.4.1.2.3 The lamp shall be y = 0.33 (yellow boundary) 32 sq cm of the exposed upper surface
allowed to reach operating temperature y = 0.98 ¥ x (purple boundary) of the sample is at an angle of 45° to the
before measurements are made. S14.4.1.4.2.2 Yellow (Amber). The horizontal facing south. The sample
S14.4.1.2.4 The entire light emitting color of light emitted must fall within must be mounted in the open no closer
surface of the sample must be visible the following boundaries: than 30 cm (11.8 in) to its background.
from any point on the entrance window y = 0.39 (red boundary) S14.4.2.2.3.2 During the exposure
of the test instrument. y = 0.79 ¥ 0.67x (white boundary) time the samples must be cleaned once
S14.4.1.2.5 The distance between y = x ¥ 0.12 (green boundary) every three months by washing with
the test instrument and the sample must S14.4.1.4.2.3 White (achromatic). mild soap or detergent and water, and
be large enough so that further increases The color of light emitted must fall then rinsing with distilled water.
in distance will not affect the results. within the following boundaries: Rubbing must be avoided.
S14.4.1.3 Visual method. S14.4.2.2.4 Performance
x = 0.31 (blue boundary)
S14.4.1.3.1 Visual method requirements. Plastic lenses, other than
y = 0.44 (green boundary)
procedure. The color of light from the those incorporating reflex reflectors,
x = 0.50 (yellow boundary)
sample device must be compared y = 0.15 + 0.64x (green boundary) used for inner lenses or those covered
visually with the color of the light from y = 0.38 (red boundary) by another material and not exposed
a standard. The standard may consist of y = 0.05 + 0.75x (purple boundary) directly to sunlight must meet the
a filter or limit glass. In the case of optical material test requirements when
S14.4.2 Plastic optical materials
white, CIE Source A is used only as a covered by the outer lens or other
color reference. The chromaticity tests. Accelerated weathering
procedures are not permitted. material.
coordinates of the color standards must S14.4.2.2.4.1 After completion of the
S14.4.2.1 Samples.
be as close as possible to the limits outdoor exposure test the haze and loss
S14.4.2.1.1 Samples of materials
listed. The color of the standard filters of surface luster as measured by ASTM
shall be injection molded into polished
is determined spectro-photometrically. 1003–92, Haze and Luminous
S14.4.1.3.2 Visual method metal molds to produce test specimens
with two flat and parallel faces. Transmittance of Transparent Plastic,
performance requirements. The color (incorporated by reference, see 571.108
must comply with the applicable Alternative techniques may be used to
produce equivalent specimens. S5.2 of this title) must not be greater
requirement. than:
S14.4.1.3.2.1 Red. Red is not S14.4.2.1.2 Test specimens shape
may vary, but each exposed surface (a) 30% for materials used for outer
acceptable if it is less saturated (paler), lenses, other than those incorporating
yellower, or bluer than the limit must contain a minimum uninterrupted
area of 32 sq cm. reflex reflectors;
standards.
S14.4.2.1.3 Samples must be (b) 7% for materials used for reflex
S14.4.1.3.2.2 Yellow (Amber).
furnished in thicknesses of 1.6 ± 0.25 reflectors and lenses used in front of
Yellow is not acceptable if it is less
saturated (paler), greener, or redder than mm, 2.3 ± 0.25 mm, 3.2 ± 0.25 mm, and reflex reflectors.
the limit standards. 6.4 ± 0.25 mm. S14.4.2.2.4.2 After completion of the
S14.4.1.3.2.3 White. White is not S14.4.2.1.4 All samples must outdoor exposure test materials used for
acceptable if its color differs materially conform to the applicable color test headlamp lenses must show no
from that of CIE Source A. requirement of this standard prior to deterioration.
S14.4.1.4 Tristimulus method. testing. S14.4.2.2.4.3 After completion of the
S14.4.1.4.1 Tristimulus method S14.4.2.1.5 A control sample, kept outdoor exposure test all materials,
procedure. properly protected from influences when compared with the unexposed
S14.4.1.4.1.1 The color of light from which may change its appearance and control samples, must not show
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the H–V point of a sample device must properties of each thickness, must be physical changes affecting performance
be measured by photoelectric receivers retained. such as color bleeding, delamination,
with spectral responses that S14.4.2.2 Outdoor exposure test. crazing, or cracking. Additionally
approximate CIE standard spectral S14.4.2.2.1 Outdoor exposure tests materials used for reflex reflectors and
tristimulus valves. of 3 years in duration must be made on lenses used in front of reflex reflectors

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68292 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

must not show surface deterioration or show compliance with specifications excessive corrosion which would affect
dimensional changes. despite such rotation. the proper function of the device.
S14.4.2.2.4.4 After completion of the S14.5.2 Moisture test. S14.6 Headlamp physical test
outdoor exposure test all materials, S14.5.2.1 Procedure. The sample procedures and performance
when compared with the unexposed device must be mounted in its normal requirements.
control samples, must not have their operating position with all drain holes S14.6.1 Abrasion test.
luminous transmittance changed by open and subjected to a precipitation of S14.6.1.1 Procedure.
more than 25% when tested in 0.1 in of water per minute, delivered at S14.6.1.1.1 Abrading pad. A new,
accordance with ASTM E 308–66 an angle of 45° from a nozzle with a unused abrading pad constructed of
(1973), Spectrophotmetry and solid cone spray. During the test the 0000 steel wool not less than 2.5 ± .1 cm
Description of Color in CIE 1931 System device must revolve about its vertical wide, rubber cemented to a rigid base
(incorporated by reference, see 571.108 axis at a rate of 4 rpm for a period of shaped to the same vertical contour of
S5.2 of this title) using CIE Illuminant 12 hours followed by a one hour drain the lens, is used for each test. The
A (2856K). period where the device does not rotate abrading pad support is equal in size to
S14.4.2.2.4.5 After completion of the and the spray stops. After completion of the pad and the center of the support
outdoor exposure test all materials must the moisture test the device must be surface is within ± 2 mm of parallel to
conform to the color test of this standard examined for moisture accumulation. the lens surface. The ‘‘grain’’ of the pad
in the range of thickness stated by the S14.5.2.2 Performance requirements. is oriented perpendicular to the
material manufacturer. Accumulation of moisture in excess of direction of motion. The density of the
S14.4.2.3 Heat test. 2 cc or any visible moisture in a sealed pad is such that when the pad is resting
S14.4.2.3.1 Procedure. Two samples reflex unit must constitute a failure. unweighted on the lens, the base of the
of each thickness of each material must S14.5.3 Dust test. pad is no closer than 3.2 mm to the lens
S14.5.3.1 Samples. A sealed unit is at its closest point.
be supported at the bottom, with at least
not required to meet the requirements of S14.6.1.1.2 Abrading pad alignment.
51 mm of the sample above the support,
this test. A sample headlamp is mounted in the
in the vertical position in such a manner S14.5.3.2 Procedure. The sample abrasion test fixture of Figure 5 with the
that, on each side, the minimum device with any drain hole closed must lens facing upward. When mounted on
uninterrupted area of exposed surface is be mounted in its normal operating its support and resting on the lens of the
not less than 3225 sq mm. The samples position, at least 6 in from the wall in test headlamp, the abrading pad is then
are placed in a circulating air oven at 79 a cubical box with inside measurements weighted such that a pad pressure of 14
± 3 °C for two hours. of 3 ft on each side containing 10 lb of ± 1 KPa. exists at the center and
S14.4.2.3.2 Performance fine powered cement in accordance perpendicular to the face of the lens.
requirements. After completion of the with ASTM C 150–56, Standard S14.6.1.1.3 Abrasion test procedure.
heat exposure and cooling to room Specification for Portland Cement The pad is cycled back and forth (1
ambient temperature, a test specimen (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 cycle) for 11 cycles at 4 ± 0.8 in (10 ±
must show no change in shape and S5.2 of this title). At intervals of 15 2 cm) per second over at least 80% of
general appearance discernable to the minutes during a test period of 5 hours, the lens surface, including all the area
naked eye when compared with an the dust must be agitated by compressed between the upper and lower aiming
unexposed specimen and continue to air or fan blower by projecting blasts of pads, but not including lens trim rings
conform to the applicable color test air for a 2 second period in a downward and edges. A pivot must be used if it is
requirement of this standard. direction into the dust in such a way required to follow the contour of the
S14.5 Signal lamp and reflective that the dust is completely and lens.
device physical test procedures and uniformly diffused throughout the S14.6.1.2 Performance requirements.
performance requirements. entire cube and allowed to settle. After After completion of the abrasion test the
S14.5.1 Vibration test. the completion of the dust test the sample headlamp must meet the
S14.5.1.1 Procedure. The sample exterior surface of the device must be requirements of the applicable
device, as mounted on the support cleaned. photometry tests of Table XIX and Table
supplied, must be bolted to the anvil S14.5.3.3 Performance requirements. XVIII. A 1⁄4° reaim is permitted in any
end of the table of the vibration test If after a photometry test the maximum direction at any test point.
machine of Figure 21 and vibrated photometric intensity of the device is S14.6.2 Chemical resistance test.
approximately 750 cpm through a not more than 10% less than the S14.6.2.1 Procedure.
distance of 1⁄8 in. The table must be maximum photometric intensity of the S14.6.2.1.1 Test fluids. The five test
spring mounted at one end and fitted same device after being cleaned both fluids used in the chemical resistance
with steel calks on the underside of the inside and outside, the device is test include:
other end. The calks are to make contact considered to have met the (a) ASTM Reference Fuel C, which is
with the steel anvil once during each requirements of the dust test. composed of Isooctane 50% volume and
cycle at the completion of the fall. The S14.5.4 Corrosion test. Toluene 50% volume. Isooctane must
rack must be operated under a spring S14.5.4.1 Procedure. The sample conform to A2.7 in Annex 2 of the
tension of 60 to 70 lb. The test must be device must be subjected to a salt spray Motor Fuels Section of the 1985 Annual
continued for 1 hour. (fog) test in accordance with the latest Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04
S14.5.1.2 Performance requirements. version of ASTM B117–73, Method of (incorporated by reference, see 571.108
After completion of the vibration test a Salt Spray (Fog) Testing (incorporated S5.2 of this title), and Toluene must
device showing evidence of material by reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this conform to ASTM specification D362–
physical weakness, lens or reflector title), for a period of 50 hours, 84, Standard Specification for Industrial
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rotation, displacement or rupture of consisting of two periods of 24 hour Grade Toluene (incorporated by
parts except bulb failures, must be exposure followed by a 1 hr drying time. reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title).
considered to have failed, providing that S14.5.4.2 Performance requirements. ASTM Reference Fuel C must be used
the rotation of lens or reflector must not After the completion of the corrosion as specified in: Paragraph A2.3.2 and
be considered as a failure when tests test there must be no evidence of A2.3.3 of Annex 2 to Motor Fuels;

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Section 1 in the 1985 Annual Book of consisting of two periods of 24 hours must be immersed in deionized water
ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04 exposure followed by a 1 hour drying for 5 minutes, then secured and allowed
(incorporated by reference, see 571.108 period. If a portion of the device is to dry by natural convection only.
S5.2 of this title); and OSHA Standard completely protected in service, that S14.6.4.1.6 Using the voltage,
29 CFR 1910.106—Handling Storage portion is covered to prevent salt fog resistance and pre-test set up of
and Use of Flammable Combustible entry during exposure. After removal S14.6.4.1.1 the current in each filament
Liquids; from the salt spray and the final 1 hour circuit must be measured after the test
(b) Tar remover (consisting by volume drying period the sample headlamp is conducted in S14.6.4.1.2.
of 45% xylene and 55% petroleum base examined for corrosion that affect any S14.6.4.2 Performance requirements.
mineral spirits); other applicable tests contained in S14.6.4.2.1 After the completion of
(c) Power steering fluid (as specified S14.6. If such corrosion is found, the the corrosion-connector test, the sample
by the vehicle manufacturer for use in affected test(s) must be performed on headlamp must show no evidence of
the motor vehicle on which the the corrosion sample and the results external or internal corrosion or rust
headlamp is intended to be installed); recorded. visible without magnification.
(d) Windshield washer fluid S14.6.3.2 Performance requirements. S14.6.4.2.2 Loss of adhesion of any
consisting of 0.5% monoethanolamine After completion of the corrosion test, applied coating must not occur more
with the remainder 50% concentration the sample headlamp must not have any than 3.2 mm from any sharp edge on the
of methanol/distilled water by volume; observed corrosion which would result inside or out.
and in the failure of any other applicable S14.6.4.2.3 Corrosion may occur on
(e) Antifreeze (50% concentration of tests contained in S14.6 and no terminals only if the test current
ethylene glycol/distilled water by corrosion of the headlamp mounting produced during the test of S14.6.4.1.6
volume). and aiming mechanism that would is not less than 9.7 amperes.
S14.6.2.1.2 Fluid application. The result in the failure of the aiming S14.6.5 Dust test.
entire exterior lens surface of the sample adjustment tests, inward force test, or S14.6.5.1 Procedure.
headlamp mounted in the headlamp test torque deflection test of S14.6. S14.6.5.1.1 A sample headlamp,
fixture and top surface of the lens- S14.6.4 Corrosion-connector test. mounted on a headlamp test fixture,
reflector joint is wiped once to the left S14.6.4.1 Procedure. with all drain holes, breathing devices
and once to the right with a 6 inch S14.6.4.1.1 A headlamp connector or other designed openings in their
square soft cotton cloth (with pressure test must be performed on each filament normal operating positions, is
equally applied) which has been circuit of the sample headlamp prior to positioned within a cubical box, with
saturated once in a container with 2 the test in S14.6.4.1.2 according to inside measurements of 900 mm on
ounces of five different test fluids listed Figure 4 and S14.6.15. The power each side or larger if required for
above. The lamp is wiped within 5 source is set to provide 12.8 volts and adequate wall clearance (i.e., a distance
seconds after removal of the cloth from the resistance must be set to produce 10 of at least 150 mm between the
the test fluid. A new lamp sample may amperes. headlamp and any wall of the box).
be used with each fluid. S14.6.4.1.2 The headlamp, with S14.6.5.1.2 The box contains 4.5 kg
S14.6.2.1.3 Test duration. After the connector attached to the terminals, of fine powdered cement which
headlamp sample has been wiped with unfixtured and in its designed operating conforms to the ASTM C150–77,
the test fluid, it must be stored in its attitude with all drain holes, breathing Standard Specification for Portland
designed operating attitude for 48 hours devices or other designed openings in Cement (incorporated by reference, see
at a temperature of 23°C ± 4°C and a their normal operating positions, is 571.108 S5.2 of this title). Every 15
relative humidity of 30% ± 10%. At the subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in minutes, the cement is agitated by
end of the 48-hour period, the headlamp accordance with ASTM B117–73, compressed air or fan blower(s) by
is wiped clean with a soft dry cotton Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing projecting blasts of air for a two-second
cloth and visually inspected. (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 period in a downward direction so that
S14.6.2.2 Performance requirements. S5.2 of this title), for 240 hours, the cement is diffused as uniformly as
After completion of the chemical consisting of ten successive 24-hour possible throughout the entire box.
resistance test, the sample headlamp periods. S14.6.5.1.3 This test is continued for
must have no surface deterioration, S14.6.4.1.3 During each period, the five hours after which the exterior
coating delamination, fractures, headlamp is mounted in the middle of surfaces of the headlamp are wiped
deterioration of bonding or sealing the chamber and exposed for 23 hours clean.
materials, color bleeding, or color to the salt spray. The spray is not S14.6.5.2 Performance requirements.
pickup visible without magnification activated during the 24th hour. The bulb After completion of the dust test, the
and the headlamp must meet the is removed from the headlamp and from sample headlamp must meet the
requirements of the applicable the test chamber during the one hour of requirements of the applicable
photometry tests of Table XIX and Table salt spray deactivation and reinserted photometry tests of Table XIX and Table
XVIII. A 1⁄4° reaim is permitted in any for the start of the next test period, at XVIII. A 1⁄4° reaim is permitted in any
direction at any test point. the end of the first and last three 23- direction at any test point.
S14.6.3 Corrosion test. hour periods of salt spray exposure, and S14.6.6 Temperature cycle test and
S14.6.3.1 Procedure. A sample at the end of any two of the fourth internal heat test.
headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test through seventh 23-hour periods of salt- S14.6.6.1 Samples. A sample
fixture in designed operating position spray exposure. headlamp with one or more replaceable
and including all accessory equipment S14.6.4.1.4 The test chamber is light sources is tested according to the
necessary to operate in its normal closed at all times except for a procedures of this section for a
jlentini on PROD1PC65 with RULES2

manner, is subjected to a salt spray (fog) maximum of 2 minutes which is temperature cycle test and an internal
test in accordance with ASTM B117–73, allowed for removal or replacement of a heat test. The same sample headlamp is
Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing bulb during each period. used in the temperature cycle test and
(incorporated by reference, see 571.108 S14.6.4.1.5 After the ten periods, the then in the internal heat test.
S5.2 of this title), for 50 total hours, lens-reflector unit without the bulb S14.6.6.2 General procedure.

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68294 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 232 / Tuesday, December 4, 2007 / Rules and Regulations

S14.6.6.2.1 Tests are made with all as applicable) to 25% ± 2% of the normal operation positions for all
filaments lighted at design voltage that output originally measured in the phases of the humidity test.
are intended to be used simultaneously applicable photometric compliance test. S14.6.7.1.4 The headlamp is
in the headlamp and which in S14.6.6.4.1.2 A headlamp with a subjected to 24 consecutive 3-hour test
combination draw the highest total single type HB1 or type HB2 light cycles. In each cycle, the headlamp is
wattage. These include but are not source is tested on the upper beam only. energized for 1 hour at design voltage
limited to filaments used for turn signal S14.6.6.4.1.3 Such reduction is with the highest combination of
lamps, fog lamps, parking lamps, and determined under the same conditions filament wattages that are intended to be
headlamp lower beams lighted with as that of the original photometric used, and then de-energized for 2 hours.
upper beams when the wiring harness is measurement. If the headlamp incorporates a turn
so connected on the vehicle. S14.6.6.4.1.4 After the photometric signal then the turn signal flashes at 90
S14.6.6.2.2 If a turn signal is output of the lamp has been reduced as flashes per minute with a 75% ± 2%
included in the headlamp assembly, it specified above, the sample lamp and its current ‘‘on-time.’’
is operated at 90 flashes a minute with mounting hardware must be mounted in S14.6.7.1.5 Within 3 minutes after
a 75% ± 2% current ‘‘on time.’’ an environmental chamber in a manner the completion of the 24th cycle, the air
S14.6.6.2.3 If the lamp produces similar to that indicated in Figure 7 flow test will begin. The following
both the upper and lower beam, it is ‘‘Dirt/Ambient Test Setup.’’ procedure shall occur: the mounted
tested in both the upper beam mode and S14.6.6.4.1.5 The headlamp is assembly is removed, placed in an
the lower beam mode under the soaked for one hour at a temperature of insulating box and covered with foam
conditions above described, except for a 35° + 4° ¥ 0 °C) and then the lamp is material so that there is no visible air
headlamp with a single type HB1 or energized according to the procedure of space around the assembly; the box is
type HB2 light source. this section for one hour in a still air closed, taken to the air flow test
S14.6.6.3 Temperature cycle test. condition, allowing the temperature to chamber, and placed within it. Inside
S14.6.6.3.1 Procedure. rise from the soak temperature. the chamber, the assembly with respect
S14.6.6.3.1.1 A sample headlamp, S14.6.6.4.1.6 At the end of one hour to the air flow, is oriented in its design
mounted on a headlamp test fixture, is the sample lamp is returned to a room operating position. The assembly is
subjected to 10 complete consecutive ambient temperature of 23° + 4° ¥ 0 °C positioned in the chamber so that the
cycles having the thermal cycle profile and a relative humidity of 30% ± 10% center of the lens is in the center of the
shown in Figure 6. and allowed to stabilize to the room opening of the air flow entry duct
S14.6.6.3.1.2 During the hot cycle, ambient temperature. The lens is then during the test. The headlamp has at
the lamp, is energized commencing at cleaned. least 3 inches clearance on all sides, and
point ‘‘A’’ of Figure 6 and de-energized S14.6.6.4.2 Performance at least 4 inches to the entry and exit
at point ‘‘B.’’ requirements. After completion of the ducts at the closest points. If vent tubes
S14.6.6.3.1.3 Separate or single test temperature cycle test and meeting its are used which extend below the lamp
chambers may be used to generate the requirements, and completion of the body, the 3 inches are measured from
environment of Figure 6. internal heat test, the sample headlamp the bottom of the vent tube or its
S14.6.6.3.1.4 All drain holes, must: protection. The temperature of the
breathing devices or other openings or (a) have no lens warpage greater than chamber is 73° + 7° ¥ 0 °F (23° + 4°
vents of the headlamps are set in their 3 mm when measured parallel to the ¥ 0 °C) with a relative humidity of 30%
normal operating positions. optical axis at the point of intersection + 10% ¥ 0%. The headlamp is not
S14.6.6.3.2 Performance of the axis of each light source with t