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Drivers for Gas

Compression
A comparison between reciprocating
engines, turbines, and electric motors

Presented by
Wayne Longer

Courtesy of

Compressor station design 73,000 horse-power

42 pipeline

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Courtesy of

Exhaust-Catalyst-Air intake-Engine coolers-Gas coolers-Separators

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How does the air flow ?

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Working space overhead bridge crane - ventalation


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Note the insulation on the exhaust systems

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How Does an Engineer Decide?


Factors and Examples

Company
ABC
Project

Factors for Deciding Driver & Compressor


 Site information
environmental issues
operating conditions
pressure ratios
volume of gas
variability of operation

 Owning and operating costs


initial capital expenditure
fuel/electricity costs
maintenance

 What driver is familiar


like to go with what you know

 Risk assessment
driver reliability - storm outage?
redundancy of units crank failure?
mix of driver types

Driver Options

Driver Options
Reciprocating Engines
 Major players
Caterpillar
Waukesha
Wrtsil

CAT G16CM34

 Typical engine power


1200 - 8000 bhp
 Operate at 750 - 1000 rpm
CAT G3612

Waukesha ATGL16V

Driver Options
Turbines
 Major players

Solar Mars 90

Solar
Siemens
Elliot

GE10-2

GE
Rolls-Royce
MAN Turbo
 Typical power 1500 - 30,000 bhp
 Operate at 11,000 - 23,000 rpm
GE10-1

Driver Options
Electric Motors
 Major players
Toshiba
Siemens
Rockwell (formerly Reliance)
Ideal
GE
ABB
 Typical power 1300 - 20,000 bhp
 Operate typically at 300 - 3600 rpm

Siemens
H-Compact

Siemens
H-Compact PLUS

high speed motors at 12,000 - 23,000 rpm


Direct Drive Systems
Frame 2 (high speed motor)

Compressor Options

Compressor Options
Reciprocating
 Major players

Ariel
Dresser-Rand
Cameron Compression
GE

Ariel JGV/6

 300 - 1800 rpm input speed


 Wide operating range 1 to 10,000 PSI
Advantage at higher pressure ratios, > 3:1

Dresser-Rand HOS

Cameron Axis

Compressor Options
Centrifugal

Solar C16

Dresser-Rand
Datum

 Major players
Solar
Dresser-Rand
Siemens
Rolls Royce
 Operates with higher speed drivers (motors
and turbines)
 Sweet spot at low pressure ratios and high
volumes
< 1.4 pressure ratio is ideal

 Operate best at lower discharge pressures


< 2000 psi

Siemens STC-SV

Package Combinations

Package Combinations
Reciprocating Compressor
Recip Engine
Electric Motor

Package Combinations
Centrifugal Compressor
Turbine

Electric Motor

Emerging Technology
Dual Drive
Engine or Electric motor driver
Flexibility lowest cost by the hour
Reduced emissions

Performance Characteristics
Fuel and Power*
Compression Efficiency
(Turndown Flexible operation)

De-ration
Emissions
Noise

* For the following comparison tables, cost of electricity is based solely on cents/kWhr price; demand
charges not included and could substantially increase yearly energy cost

Electricity Source: Energy Information Administration

Engine

Fuel and Power


4700 - 5500 bhp*
($4.00/MMBtu and 6.5 cents/kWhr at 8000 hours/year)
Btu/bhp-hr
$/year
Efficiency
or kW
rpm
bhp
($/hp-hr)
G3616
4735
1000
39%
6736
$1,020,638
(.0269)

Turbines Gas Turbine

Motors

4700

15,000

27.9%

9125

$1,372,400
(.0366)

501 KC-5

5500

13,600

29.6%

8495

$1,495,120
(.0339)

DDS Frame 8

5360

7000

97.5%

4101

Toshiba/
Siemens

5500

1800

96.5%

4252

$2,132,565
(.0497)
$2,211,040
(.0502)

* Ratings based on companies published ISO conditions


Demand charges not included and could substantially increase yearly electric costs

Fuel and Power


7700 - 10,400 bhp*
($4.00/MMBtu and 6.5 cents/kWhr at 8000 hours/year)

Btu/bhp-hr
Efficiency
or kW

bhp

rpm

Engines G16CM34

8180

750

42.7%

5959

Wrtsil
16V34SG
Turbines Gas Turbine

9360

750

44.3%

5793

7700

15,000

32%

7960

Gas Turbine

10,310

15,200

34%

7484

Toshiba/
Siemens

10,000

1800

96.5%

7730kwk

Motor

$/year
($/hp-hr)
$1,559,827
(.0238)
$1,735,119
(.0232)
$1,961,344
(.0318)
$2,469,121
(.02993)
$4,019,896
(.0502)

Ratings based on companies published ISO conditions @ 70F Turbines de-rate as temp increases
Demand charges not included and could substantially increase yearly electric costs.

Combined cycle

True Carbon foot print ???

Additional Electric Power Costs


 Demand charges
based on total at site power
no charge if electricity is not used
even 1 kW of usage triggers total kW demand charge

can be firm or interruptible


firm is more expensive

usually between $5 - $8 per kW in one month


some companies charge per kW-hr
$.009/kW-hr is common

Electric
Motor Power
5000 bhp =
3731 kW

Demand
Charge
($/kW-Mo)
$6.50

Yearly
Demand
Charge
$291,000

Compression Efficiency
 Reciprocating compressor
typically run at 70% - 85% efficiency
suited for higher pressure ratios >1.4:1 ratios
 Centrifugal
typically run at 70% - 85% efficiency
highest efficiencies at lower pressure ratios 1.2:1

high pressure ratios favor reciprocating compressors


low pressure ratios favor centrifugal compressors

Horsepower De-rate

Ambient Temperature
Altitude
Fuel gas

Site specific ???

Turbine60
G16CM34 and Taurus
Available Power
9000

8500

Power, bhp

8000

7500

G16CM34
G16CM34
Turbine - 60
Sea(ISO)
level
Taurus

Taurus
Turbine - 60
500(500
ft
ft)

7000

Taurus
ft)
Turbine - 60
1500(1500
ft

6500

6000

5500
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Temp, degF

70

80

90

100

Fuel Consumption (btu/bhp-hr)

Fuel Consumption at Sea Level


10000
9500
9000
8500
8000
7500
7000
6500
6000
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Ambient Temp (deg F)


G3616
Recip

Centaur
Turbine 50

80

90

100

De-rate - Electric Motor


Ambient Temperature
 Insulation usually enough to avoid de-ration
Altitude
 Typical motor will not de-rate until 3500 ft.
 Above 3500 ft. requires special insulation - cooler
possible derating (though not as severe as engines and turbines)
Load change
 Turndown does not affect motor efficiency much .

Emissions
(g/bhp-hr) w/o after treatment

(Oxidation Catalyst 90% reduction)

NOx

CO

THC

G3600

0.5 - 0.7

2.5

6.0

GCM34

0.5 0.7

2.0

6.0 - 7.0

0.9

2.0

6.0

0.2 - 0.6

0.6

0.2

Wrtsil
16V34SG
Turbine

Electric Motor
 At site only from packaging leaks (valves, vents)
 Transfers emissions to power plant

- Carbon foot print??

Noise Comparison
Reciprocating Engine
 128 dBA
 noise dampening required in some areas
Turbine
 82 dBA
 high frequency noise
dissipates quickly with distance

Electric Motor
 70 dBA
 considered noiseless if inside building

Exception - air flow for cooling and gas flow in pipe

Packaging and
Installation Comparison

Packaging and Installation


G3600









Air inlet system


Exhaust system
Cooling system
Package
controls/electronics
Recip compressor
Scrubbers
Pulsation bottles
Gas cooler

Packaging and Installation


G3616
 Package approx
weight: 95,000 lbs
G3616:
65,900 lbs
Compressor:
28,600 lbs

 Package approx
length:
29 feet
116
223
 Package approx
width:
 Package approx height: 137 inches
178 inches
Note: does not include auxiliary modules, additional piping

Packaging and
Installation - GCM34







Air inlet system


Exhaust system
Fuel Module
Combined Module
Unit Control Panel






Recip compressor
Scrubbers
Pulsation bottles
Gas cooler

Packaging and
Installation - G16CM34
 Package approx weight:
300,000 lbs
G16CM34: 179,080 lbs
Compressor: 120,000 lbs

 Package approx length:


42 feet
 Package approx width:
220 inches
 Package approx height:
137 inches
Note: does not include auxiliary modules,
building/infrastructure or additional piping

319

185

Packaging and Installation


Turbine
Air inlet system
Exhaust system
Cooling system
Package controls
Rotating compressor
Scrubbers
Gas cooler

Packaging and Installation


Turbine (6000 hp)
CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR

COOLING SYSTEM
(off skid)

Packaging and Installation


Electric Motor with Reciprocating Compressor
 Air ducting
 Cooling System
 Package controls
 Recip compressor
 Scrubbers
 Pulsation bottles
 Gas cooler
 Typical motor weight: 20,000 lbs +/- 5000
 Typical motor length: 75 +/- 25
 4 throw compressor 116

Packaging and Installation


Electric Motor with Centrifugal Compressor

 Air ducting
 Cooling System
 Package controls/electronics

 Couplings
 Gear box or transmission
 Centrifugal compressor

Packaging and Installation


Electric Motor with Centrifugal Compressor

 Typical motor weight: 20,000 lbs +/- 5000


 Typical motor length: 75 +/- 25
 Other package dimensions similar to turbine
addition of gear box or transmission could greatly increase length

Packaging and Installation


Additional Requirements
Reciprocating Engines and Turbines
 Usually need enclosure
 Possible noise suppression and exhaust
after treatment
 Similar installation for both drivers

Packaging and Installation


Additional Requirements
Electric Motor
 Building / enclosure needed
 Sub-station
includes switchgear, breaker, transformers, drives

 Need VFD or transmission for variable speed


 Need transmission lines
Could take a years or more to get power to
compression station (Eagleford shale)
Right-away procurement

Lifetime Maintenance Compared


(includes labor at $100/hour and oil at $7.40/gallon)
Gas turbines
Average ~ $0.0035/bhp-hr Downtime over
15 years 280 hours
Reciprocating engines
G3600 avg. ~ $0.0036/bhp-hr
GCM ~ $0.0037/bhp-hr
Downtime over 15 years
Electric motors
Less than $10,000/year or
$.0004/bhp-hr
Downtime over 15 years 240 hours

G3600 800 hours CM 730 hours

How Does an Engineer Decide?


Factors and Examples

Company
ABC
Project

Factors for Deciding Driver & Compressor


 Site information
environmental issues
operating conditions
pressure ratios
volume of gas
variability of operation

 Owning and operating costs


initial capital expenditure
fuel/electricity costs
maintenance

 What power is familiar


like to go with what know

 Risk assessment
power reliability storm outage?
redundancy of units
mix of driver types

Example 1
Project Specifics
 4,500 bhp required
 Not in non-attainment area
emissions not a major issue

 Site rated at sea level and 100 degrees (F) ambient temperature
 Average operating pressure ratio of 1.3 and discharge pressure of 1100 psi
centrifugal and reciprocating compressors both options

 No horsepower in place
no customer preference

 2 miles from electricity power source

Example 1
Compression Options
 G3616 (4735 bhp, 6736 Btu/bhp-hr)
 Gas Turbine (4700 bhp, 9050 Btu/bhp-hr)
 5000 bhp electric motor with reciprocating compressor
 5000 bhp electric motor with centrifugal compressor

Example 1
Initial Capital Expenditures
Driver

Driver Cost Package Cost Other Install


Costs
$4,000,000*

Total
($MM)
$7.20

Total
($/bhp)
$1521

G3616

$1,360,000

$3,200,000

Gas Turbine

$1,950,000

$3,750,000

$4,000,000*

$7.75

$1550

Electric Motor
(5000 bhp w/
reciprocating)
Electric Motor
(5000 bhp w/
centrifugal)

$225,000

$900,000

$6,505,000

$7.51

$1501

$225,000

$1,000,000

$6,605,000

$7.61

$1521

* Includes facility and additional piping and controls

Example 1
Electric Motor Installation Breakdown
Package

$900,000
(reciprocating
compressor)
$1,000,000
(centrifugal
compressor)

Total

VFD
Substation with Transmission
($150/bhp)
everything
Lines
included
($1 mill/mi)

Facility,
controls
and piping

$750,000

$855,000

$2,000,000

$3,000,000 $6,505,000

$750,000

$855,000

$2,000,000

$3,000,000 $6,605,000

Example 1
Driver and Compressor Owning and
Operating Costs* 15 year outlook (15 years covers one major overhaul)
Driver

Maintenance
Lifecycle Cost

15 Year
Fuel/Electricity 15 Year Fuel
Maintenance
bhp-hr
Cost
Cost

G3616
(4735)
Gas Turbine
(4700 hp)
Electric Motor
(5000 bhp)

$.0044/bhp-hr

=$2,471,700 $.0269/bhp-hr =$15,284,580

$.0038/bhp-hr

=$2,250,000 $.0366/bhp-hr =$20,642,400

$.0012/bhp-hr

=$690,000

8000 hours/year, $4.00/MMBtu, 6.5 cents/kWhr

$.048/bhp-hr

=$29,820,000

Example 1 Driver and Compressor Owning


and Operating total Costs*
15 year outlook
Driver

Initial Capital
Expenditures

Maintenance

Fuel/
Electricity

Total
(in millions)

Total
($/bhp)

G3616

$7,200,000

$2,471,700

$15,284,580

$24,956,280

$5270

Gas Turbine

$7,750,000

$2,250,000

$20,642,000

$30,642,000

$6519

Electric
Motor

$7,605,000

$690,000

$29,820,000

$38,115,000

$7623

* 8000 hours/year, $4.00/MMBtu, 6.5 cents/kWhr

Advantages/Disadvantages
Reciprocating Engine
Advantages
 Fuel efficiency
 Operation under variable loads and pressure ratios
 Well known technology
Disadvantages
 Emissions
 High maintenance intervals and costs
 Complex package
 Lower compressor efficiency at lower pressure ratios

Advantages/Disadvantages
Turbine
Advantages
 Long maintenance intervals
 Low emissions
 Lower first cost for high horsepower applications due to larger
horsepower blocks
 Higher efficiencies at lower pressure ratios 1.2
Disadvantages
 Fuel consumption
 High maintenance costs
 Minimal turndown / load reduction
 Starting and stopping takes hours off life cycle
 Altitude and ambient temperature quickly affect power and heat rate

Advantages/Disadvantages
Electric Motor
Advantages
 Low maintenance costs and intervals
 No emissions at site
 Turndown does not affect motor efficiency much
 Can be used with centrifugal or reciprocating compressor
Disadvantages
 Dependency on power company (interruptions in service)
 If high power source not within 2 - 3 miles, installation cost are high
(14.7 KV)
 Complex controls required (VFD or variable speed gear box)

Sources
Manufacturers
Ariel Corporation
Caterpillar
Solar Turbines

Pipeline Companies
Kinder Morgan
El Paso Pipeline
Spectra Energy

Others
Alliance Engineering
Miratech Emissions
Solutions
Shermco Industries

Packagers
Compressor Systems
Inc.
Exterran

References
Ariel Corporation
Ariel Performance Software
Arielcorp.com
Caterpillar Gas Engines
Gas Engine Rating Pro software
catoilandgas.cat.com

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, "Caterpillar Yellow," the "Power Edge"
trade dress as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of
Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.