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# ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND

ACOUSTICS
Multi-degree of freedom systems
Dr. P. Jeyaraj
NITK Surathkal, India.

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1

Introduction

Decoupling

Damped Response

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Outline
1

Introduction

Decoupling

Damped Response

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Introduction

Introduction
When a system requires more than one co-ordinate to describe
its motion, it is called multi d.o.f system.
The n-dof system differs from that of the single-DOF system in
that it has N natural frequencies, and for each natural
frequencies, there corresponds a natural state of vibration known
as the normal mode
It has n natural frequencies associated with natural state of
vibration with a displacement configuration known as normal
mode
mathematical terms associated with these quantities are known
as eigen values and eigen vectors
They are established from the N simultaneous equations of
motion of the system and possesss certain dynamic properties
associated with the system.
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Introduction

Introduction
Normal mode vibrations are free undamped vibrations that
depend only on the mass and stiffness of the system and how
they are distributed.
When vibrating at one these normal modes all points in the
system undergo simple harmonic motion that passes through
their equilibrium positions simultaneously.
As in the single dof system, forced harmonic vibration of the
N-dof system takes place at the frequency of the excitation.
Damping is generally omitted except when its concern is of
importance in limiting the amplitude of vibration

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Introduction

Introduction
2-DOF System
It is the simplest of the N-dof system
All of the fundamental concepts of multi-dof system can be
described in terms of the 2-dof system without becoming
burdened with the algebraic difficulties.
Numerical results are easily obtained for 2-dof system and they
provide a simple introduction to the behavior of multi-dof
system.
Damping is generally omitted except when its concern is of
importance in limiting the amplitude of vibration

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Introduction

Introduction
2-DOF System
For systems with higher dof, matrix methods are essential
They provide a compact notation and an organized procedure for
their analysis and solution.
We will determine the natural frequencies and normal modes of
the 2-dof systems

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## Normal Mode Analysis -Example

2-DOF System
Normal Mode Analysis-Example
q
q
k
k
Natural Frequencies are 1 = 0.634 m
; 2 = 2.366 m




0.731
2.73
Normal Modes are 1 (x) =
; 2 (x) =
;
1
1

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Orthogonality of eigen-vectors
Let i be the i th eigenvector, the normal mode equation for the
ith mode is
K i = i Mi
premultiplying the ith equation by the transpose Tj , of mode j,
we obtain
Tj K i = i Tj Mi
If we start with the equation for the jth mode and premultiplying
by Ti , we obtain a similar equation with i and j interchanged
Ti K j = j Ti Mj
Because
K and M are symmetric matrices
K
K
T
T
j or i = i or j
M
M
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Orthogonality of eigenvectors
Thus, subtraction of the two equation, we obtain
(i j )Ti Mj = 0
If i 6= j the foregoing equation requires that
Ti Mj = 0
i 6= j
T
Then j K j = 0,
i 6= j, so normal modes are othogonal to
each other.
Finally, if i = j, (i j ) = 0. Then
Ti Mi = Mii and Ti K i = Kii where Mii and Kii are known as
generalized mass and stiffness , respectively.

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## Normal modes are orthogonal to each other

Demonstration
The mass
stiffness matrices
are
 and 

1 0
2
1
M=m
; K= k
0 2
1
2
The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are


0.731
2 m
1 =
and
1 = 1k = 0.634;
1


2.731
2 m
2 = 2k = 2.366;
2 =
1








2.731
2
1
2.731
T
1 K 2 = 0.731 1 k
= k 0.462 1.269
=0
1
2
1
1








0.731
2
1
0.731
1 k
T
= k 6.462 4.731
=0
2 K 1 = 2.731
1
2
1
1
T
Similarly T
1 M2 = 0; 2 M1 = 0. Normal modes are orthogonal to each other with
respect to mass and stiffness matrices of a vibrating system.

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Orthonormal modes
Each normal mode i is divided by the square root of the
generalized mass Mii is known as othonormal mode. Also known
as weighted normal mode.
ei = Mi ii
T
T
Then ei M ei = 1; ei K ei = i

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Modal Matrix
When the N normal modes are assembled into a square matrix
with each normal mode represented by a column, we call it the
modal matrix P.
Thus,the modal matrix for a 3-DOF system can appear as
(1) (2) (3)
x 1
x 1
x1


= 1 2 3
P = x2
x2
x2

x3
x3
x3

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Modal Matrix
If we now form the product P T MP OR P T KP, the result will be
diagonal matrix, because off-diagonal terms simply express the
orthogonality relations, which are zero.
For
system, P T MP
=[1 2 3 ]T [M][1
2 3 ]
Tthe 3 DOF

T
T
1 M1 1 M2 1 M3
M11 0
0
T2 M1 T2 M2 T2 M3 = 0 M22 0
0
0 M33
T3 M1 T3 M2 T3 M3
The off-diagonal terms are zero because of orthogonality, and
the diagonal terms are the generalized mass Mii

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Modal Matrix

K11 0
0
Similarly for the stiffness matrix, P T KP = 0 K22 0
0
0 K33
The off-diagonal terms are zero because of orthogonality, and
the diagonal terms are the generalized stiffness Kii
When the normal modes in the P matrix are replaced by the
e the modal matrix designated as P.
e It is
orthonormal modes ,
easily seen then that the orthogonality relationship are
eT M e = I eT K e =
Where
matrix of the eigen values
is the diagonal

1 0 0
= 0 2 0
0 0 3
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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## Modal Matrix - Example

The mass
are
 andstiffness matrices


1 0
2 1
M=m
; K= k
0 2
1 2
The eigenvalues and eigenvectorsare 
0.731
2 m
1 = 1k = 0.634;
1 =
and
 1

2.731
2 m
2 = 2k = 2.366;
2 =
1

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Modal Matrix - Example
Forming
P we have
 the modal matrix

0.731 2.731
P=
1
1



0.731 1 1 0 0.731 2.731
T
P MP =
1
2.731 1 0 2
 1
0.731 2 0.731 2.731
P T MP =
2.731
2 1
1

2.53 0
M11 0
P T MP =
=
0 9.45
0 M22
Thus generalized mass are 2.53 and 9.45

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Modal Matrix - Example
ofP we use

 the orthonormal

modes,
 we obtain 
0.731
2.73
0.459 0.888
e = 1
1
P
=
2.53
9.45
1
1
0.628 0.325
Thus



 

0.459
0.628
1
0
0.459
0.888
1
0
T
e MP
e=
P
=
0.888 0.325 0 2 0.628 0.325
0 1
Similarly 



0.459
0.628
2
1
0.459
0.888
eT K P
e=
P
=
0.888
0.628 0.325

  0.325  1 2
0.635
0
0
= 1
0
2.365
0 2
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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## Normal Mode Analysis

Free Vibration Response
When the normal mode frequencies and mode shapes are known,
it is possible to determine the free vibration of the system for any
initial conditions by the proper summation of the normal modes.
For free vibration to take place in one of the normal modes for
any initial conditions, the equation of motion for mode i must be
of
 the
(i)form
x1
= ci i sin(i t + i )
i = 1, 2
x2
The constants ci and i are necessary to satisfy the initial
conditions, and i ensures that the amplitude ratio for the free
vibration is proportional to that of mode i
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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## Free vibration response

Presentation by Prof. David M Harrison, University of Toronto
The content of this presentation has been taken from Prof.
David M Harrison available at

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Example

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## Free Vibration Response

Let free vibration response of the system is summation of free
vibration response of both the masses
x(t) = c1 1 sin(1 t + 1 ) + c2 2 sin(2 t + 2 )
For the initial condition x1 (0) = 1 mm;x2 (0) = 0; x 1 (0) = 0;
x 2 (0) = 0
The values of constants are c1 = 1.5; c2 = -1.5; 1 = 2 = 0;
then

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## Example given in Willam T Thampson et al.

q
q
k
k
Natural Frequencies and Normal Modes are 1 = 0.634 m
; 2 = 2.366 m
;




0.731
2.73
; 2 (x) =
;
1 =
1
1
For the initial condition x1 (0) = 2;x2 (0) = 4; x 1 (0) = 0; x 2 (0) = 0
The values of constants are c1 = 3.732; c2 = 0.268; 1 = 2 = 90; then free vibration
response
of the system
is governed




 by 
x1
2.732
0.732
=
cos(1 t) +
cos(2 t)
x2
3.732
0.268
N
when k= 100 m and m = 20 kg, the normal mode frequencies are 1 = 1.78045 rad
and
sec
sec

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## When excited at first mode

For the initial condition x1 (0) = 0.731;x2 (0) = 1; x 1 (0) = 0; x 2 (0) = 0
The values of constants are c1 = 1; c2 = 0; 1 = 2 = 90; then free vibration response
of
governed by  
 the
 system
 is 
x1
0.731
0
=
cos(1 t) +
cos(2 t)
x2
1
0
N
when k= 100 m
and m = 20 kg, the normal mode frequencies are 1 = 1.78045
2 = 3.4395 sec

sec

and

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## When excited at second mode

For the initial condition x1 (0) = -2.731;x2 (0) = 1; x 1 (0) = 0; x 2 (0) = 0
The values of constants are c1 = 0; c2 = 1; 1 = 2 = 90; then free vibration response
of
 the
 system
  is governed by


x1
0
2.731
=
cos(1 t) +
cos(2 t)
x2
0
1
N
when k= 100 m
and m = 20 kg, the normal mode frequencies are 1 = 1.78045
2 = 3.4395 sec

sec

and

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## Forced Harmonic Vibration

Consider a 2 d.o.f system excited by a harmonic force F1 sin t
expressed by the matrix equation

  
   
m1 0
x1
k11 k12 x1
F1
+
=
sint
0 m2 x2
k21 k22 x2
0
As the system is undamped, the solution can be assumed as
   
x1
X1
=
sint
x2
X2
substituting this into the differential equation, we obtain

   
(k11 m1 2 )
k12
X1
F1
=
2
k21
(k22 m2 ) X2
0
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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## Forced Harmonic Vibration

Consider a 2 d.o.f system excited by a harmonic force F1 sin t
expressed by the matrix equation

   
(k11 m1 2 )
k12
X1
F1
=
2
k21
(k22 m2 ) X2
0
or in simpler notation
   
X1
F1
[Z ()]
=
X2
0
Pre-multiplying by [Z()]1 , we obtain
 
F
 
0
X1
F1
= [Z ()]1
=
X2
0
|Z ()|
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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## Forced Harmonic Vibration

Determinant of |Z ()| is

(k11 m1 2 )

k
12

=
2

k21
(k22 m2 )
k11 k22 m2 k11 2 m1 k22 2 + m1 m2 4 k21 k12 =
m1 m2 (12 2 )(12 2 )
where 1 and 2 are the normal mode frequencies. Then

 
 
1
(k11 m1 2 )
k12
F1
X1
=
X2
k21
(k22 m2 2 )
0
[Z ()]
The amplitudes of the forced vibration are
(k22 m2 2 )F1
X1 =
m1 m2 (12 2 )(12 2 )
X2 =
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

(k21 )F1
m1 m2 (12 2 )(12 2 )

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## For William T Thomson problem


  
   
m 0
x1
2k k
x1
F1
+
=
sint
0 m x2
k 2k
x2
0
Forced Vibration Response is
X1 =
X2 =

## Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

(2k m 2 )F1
m2 (12 2 )(12 2 )
m2 (12

kF1
2 )(12 2 )

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Decoupling

Decoupling Equations
When the normal modes of the system are known, the modal
can be used to decouple the equations of motion.
matrix P or P
+ KX = F
MX
Making the coordinate transformation X = PY
MP Y + KPY = F
Pre-multiplying by P T
P T MP Y + P T KPY = P T F
Because P T MP and P T KP are diagonal matrices due to
orthogonality, the new equations in terms of Y are uncoupled
and can be solved as a system of single d.o.f.
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Decoupling

Decoupling Equations-Demonstration


Normal Modes are 1 (x) =




0.731
2.73
; 2 (x) =
;
1
1

## Substituting the values in

P T MP Y + P T KPY = P T F
Results in

  
  

2.53 0
y1
1.607
0
y1
0.731 1 F
+k
=
m
0 9.45 y2
0
22.38 y2
2.731 1
0
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Decoupling

Decoupling Equations-Demonstration
We have
m


2.53
0


 
0
y1
1.607
+k
9.45
y2
0

  
0
y1
0.731
=
22.38
y2
2.731

 
1
F
1
0

## The two uncoupled equations are

2.53m
y1 + 1.607ky1 = 0.731F
9.45m
y2 + 22.38ky2 = 2.731F
Further, these equations will become
0.731
F
2.53m
2.731
y2 + 22 y2 =
F
9.45m
The solutions for y1 and y2 are in the form
y1 + 12 y1 =

yi = y1 (0)cosi t +

y i (0)
F2 sint
sini t +
i
k 1 ( )2
i

## which can be expressed in terms of the original coordinates by the P matrix as

  
 
0.731 2.731
y1
x1
=
x2
1
1
y2
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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Decoupling

## Modal Damping in Forced Vibration

The equation of motion of an N - DOF system with viscous
damping and arbitrary excitation F can be presented in matrix
form:
+ C X + KX = F
MX
and pre-multiply by P
T
Let X = PY
T MP
Y + P
TCP
Y + P
T K PY
=P
T
P
T MP
and P
TKP
are diagonal
We have already shown that P
T
CP
is not diagonal and the preceding
matrices. In general P
equation is coupled by the damping matrix.
TCP
becomes
If C is proportional to M or K it is evident that P
diagonal then the system is said to have proportional damping.
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Decoupling

Let C = M + K then
TCP
= P
T MP
+ P
TKP

P
TCP
= I +
P
Then the following equation will become
T MP
Y + P
TCP
Y + P
T K PY
=P
TF
P
TF
I Y + (I + )Y + Y = P
1
1
...

  y   + 2
1
1
y2
+
...
1

22

  y  2
1
1
y 2
+
...

...
+ n2

yn

22


...

y n

n2

In general, we have
yi + ( + i2 )y i + i2 yi = fi (t)
where, the modal damping can be defined as 2i i = + i2
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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## The forced vibration equation for N d.o.f system

+ C X + KX = F
MX
For systems of large number of degrees of freedom, the computation can be costly. It is
possible to cut down the size of the computation by a procedure known as Mode
Summation Method.
The displacement of the structure under forced excitation is approximated by the sum of
a limited number of normal modes of the system multiplied by generalized coordinates.
For a 50-story building with 50 d.o.f., has 50 eigen values and 50 eigen vectors
representing the normal mode frequencies and normal modes of the undamped system.

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## If we know that the excitation of the building centers around the

lower frequencies, the higher modes will be excited.
Assuming the forced response to be the superposition of only a
few of the lower-frequency modes. Perhaps the modes 1 (x),
2 (x) and 3 (x) may be sufficient. Then the deflection and
forced excitation can be
xi = 1 (xi )q1 (t) + 2 (xi )q2 (t) + 3 (xi )q3 (t)

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## Normal Mode Summation

The position of all n floors can be expressed in terms of the modal matrix P composed of
only the three modes.

1 (x1 )
x1

1 (x2 )
x2

.
.
=
.
.

.
1 (xn )
xn

2 (x1 )
2 (x2 )
.
.
.
2 (xn )

3 (x1 ) q1

3 (x3 )

q2

. .

.
.

.
qn
3 (xn )

The use of the limited modal matrix then reduces the system to that equal to the
number of modes used.
For the 50-story building, we have
P T KP = (3 50)(50 50)(50 3) = (3 3)matrix
Thus instead of solving the 50 coupled equations, we need only to solve the three by
three equations represented by
P T MP q
+ P T CP q + P T KPq = P T F
If the damping matrix is assumed to be proportional, then
q
i + 2i i q i + i2 qi = i f (t)
where i is known as mode participation factor
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

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## Normal Mode Summation

Rayleigh Damping
If damping is proportional, the system mode shapes are those of
the undamped system.
If we displace the system initially in one of the undamped mode
shapes, the masses continue to oscillate in that shape, but the
motion eventually disappears in time because of damping.
When the damping is not proportional, the masses do not
continue to oscillate in that mode shape.
Damping in structural elements is mostly hysteretic and hard to
quantify. Lacking a better model proportional damping is
often assumed.
With proportional damping assumption, higher modes are
damped more than the lower modes.

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## Normal Mode Summation

Rayleigh Damping
The natural frequencies of stiff structural elements are usually
greatly separated.
The effect of higher modes in total response is less than the
modes with lower natural frequencies. For these reasons,
damping ratios are often specified only for lower modes.
Modes with higher damping ratios die out more quickly when
the system is subjected to any short-term or shock excitation.
If the system is subjected to a harmonic excitation, the modes
with higher frequencies have lesser effect because their
amplitudes are inversely proportional to the square of their
frequencies.

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## Damping - General issues

Damping forces are difficult to quantify.
Often the source of damping is unclear (coulomb friction,
viscous damping or hysteretic damping) and form of the
damping relation is uncertain (linear, quadratic or other).
Even though source and form are known obtaining precise values
for the parameters in damping model is difficult.
Damping is often slight in structural vibration, but can be
significant in systems where damping is deliberately introduced
(suspension, vibration isolation and passive damping).
Because of these considerations damping complicates the
mathematics.
Vibration engineers often either totally neglect damping in the
analysis or assume it is linear and proportional.
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Damped Response

Modal Transformation
Equation of motion for an N d.o.f system
+ C X + KX = F
MX
For a 2 d.o.f
we have
 system
 with Rayleigh
 2 damping,

1
0

0
T MP
=
TKP
= 1
P
;P
;
0
1
0 22


2
0
TCP
= + 1
P
0
+ 22
Y and pre-multiplying the equation of motion with P
T,
If X = P
we have
T MP
Y + P
TCP
Y + P
T K PY
=P
TF
P
TF
I Y + [I + ]Y + Y = P
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

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Damped Response

Modal Transformation
TF
I Y + [I + ]Y + Y = P
Let yi = Yi e it and F = F e it then


2
TF
I + [I + ]i + = P
For
we have
  the 2two d.o.f
 system,



0
i + i12
0
+
+
0 2
0
+ i + i22
 2
     1 1  
1 0
y1

F1
= 21 22
2
0 2
y2
0
1 2
The i th equation of displacement will be
f
yi () = 2
(i 2 + i + ii2 )
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

August 14,of2015
freedom 45
systems
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Damped Response

Modal Transformation-Demonstration

kg
N
Natural Frequencies for k = 100 m
and m = 20 m
3 are
q
q
1 = 0.634 mk = 1.78 rad
; 2 = 2.366 mk = 3.44 rad
;
sec
sec

## We have 2i i = + i2 . Let 1 = 2 = 0.001, then the

Rayleigh damping co-efficients will be
2
21 2
=
= 3.83e 4; =
= 0.00234
(1 + 2 )
(1 + 2 )


0.2889 0.2889

## The ortho-normal modal matrix is P =

0.395 0.1058

  

0.2889
0.395
F
0.2889F
T
F=
Then P
=
0.2889 0.1058
0
0.2889F
Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

## ME420 MECHANICAL VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS Multi-degree

August 14,of2015
freedom 46
systems
/ 47

Damped Response

Modal Transformation
The i th equation of displacement will be
f
yi () = 2
(i 2 + i + ii2 )
yi () =

(i2

f
2 + i + ii2 )

August 14,of2015
freedom 47
systems
/ 47