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ACOUSTICS

Multi-degree of freedom systems

Dr. P. Jeyaraj

NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,

of 2015

freedom systems

1 / 47

Table of contents

1

Introduction

Decoupling

Damped Response

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of 2015

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2 / 47

Outline

1

Introduction

Decoupling

Damped Response

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Introduction

Introduction

When a system requires more than one co-ordinate to describe

its motion, it is called multi d.o.f system.

The n-dof system differs from that of the single-DOF system in

that it has N natural frequencies, and for each natural

frequencies, there corresponds a natural state of vibration known

as the normal mode

It has n natural frequencies associated with natural state of

vibration with a displacement configuration known as normal

mode

mathematical terms associated with these quantities are known

as eigen values and eigen vectors

They are established from the N simultaneous equations of

motion of the system and possesss certain dynamic properties

associated with the system.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,

of 2015

freedom systems

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Introduction

Introduction

Normal mode vibrations are free undamped vibrations that

depend only on the mass and stiffness of the system and how

they are distributed.

When vibrating at one these normal modes all points in the

system undergo simple harmonic motion that passes through

their equilibrium positions simultaneously.

As in the single dof system, forced harmonic vibration of the

N-dof system takes place at the frequency of the excitation.

Damping is generally omitted except when its concern is of

importance in limiting the amplitude of vibration

August 14,

of 2015

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Introduction

Introduction

2-DOF System

It is the simplest of the N-dof system

All of the fundamental concepts of multi-dof system can be

described in terms of the 2-dof system without becoming

burdened with the algebraic difficulties.

Numerical results are easily obtained for 2-dof system and they

provide a simple introduction to the behavior of multi-dof

system.

Damping is generally omitted except when its concern is of

importance in limiting the amplitude of vibration

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Introduction

Introduction

2-DOF System

For systems with higher dof, matrix methods are essential

They provide a compact notation and an organized procedure for

their analysis and solution.

We will determine the natural frequencies and normal modes of

the 2-dof systems

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2-DOF System

Normal Mode Analysis-Example

q

q

k

k

Natural Frequencies are 1 = 0.634 m

; 2 = 2.366 m

0.731

2.73

Normal Modes are 1 (x) =

; 2 (x) =

;

1

1

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Orthogonality of eigen-vectors

Let i be the i th eigenvector, the normal mode equation for the

ith mode is

K i = i Mi

premultiplying the ith equation by the transpose Tj , of mode j,

we obtain

Tj K i = i Tj Mi

If we start with the equation for the jth mode and premultiplying

by Ti , we obtain a similar equation with i and j interchanged

Ti K j = j Ti Mj

Because

K and M are symmetric matrices

K

K

T

T

j or i = i or j

M

M

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,

of 2015

freedom systems

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Orthogonality of eigenvectors

Thus, subtraction of the two equation, we obtain

(i j )Ti Mj = 0

If i 6= j the foregoing equation requires that

Ti Mj = 0

i 6= j

T

Then j K j = 0,

i 6= j, so normal modes are othogonal to

each other.

Finally, if i = j, (i j ) = 0. Then

Ti Mi = Mii and Ti K i = Kii where Mii and Kii are known as

generalized mass and stiffness , respectively.

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Demonstration

The mass

stiffness matrices

are

and

1 0

2

1

M=m

; K= k

0 2

1

2

The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are

0.731

2 m

1 =

and

1 = 1k = 0.634;

1

2.731

2 m

2 = 2k = 2.366;

2 =

1

2.731

2

1

2.731

T

1 K 2 = 0.731 1 k

= k 0.462 1.269

=0

1

2

1

1

0.731

2

1

0.731

1 k

T

= k 6.462 4.731

=0

2 K 1 = 2.731

1

2

1

1

T

Similarly T

1 M2 = 0; 2 M1 = 0. Normal modes are orthogonal to each other with

respect to mass and stiffness matrices of a vibrating system.

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Orthonormal modes

Each normal mode i is divided by the square root of the

generalized mass Mii is known as othonormal mode. Also known

as weighted normal mode.

ei = Mi ii

T

T

Then ei M ei = 1; ei K ei = i

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Modal Matrix

When the N normal modes are assembled into a square matrix

with each normal mode represented by a column, we call it the

modal matrix P.

Thus,the modal matrix for a 3-DOF system can appear as

(1) (2) (3)

x 1

x 1

x1

= 1 2 3

P = x2

x2

x2

x3

x3

x3

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Modal Matrix

If we now form the product P T MP OR P T KP, the result will be

diagonal matrix, because off-diagonal terms simply express the

orthogonality relations, which are zero.

For

system, P T MP

=[1 2 3 ]T [M][1

2 3 ]

Tthe 3 DOF

T

T

1 M1 1 M2 1 M3

M11 0

0

T2 M1 T2 M2 T2 M3 = 0 M22 0

0

0 M33

T3 M1 T3 M2 T3 M3

The off-diagonal terms are zero because of orthogonality, and

the diagonal terms are the generalized mass Mii

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Modal Matrix

K11 0

0

Similarly for the stiffness matrix, P T KP = 0 K22 0

0

0 K33

The off-diagonal terms are zero because of orthogonality, and

the diagonal terms are the generalized stiffness Kii

When the normal modes in the P matrix are replaced by the

e the modal matrix designated as P.

e It is

orthonormal modes ,

easily seen then that the orthogonality relationship are

eT M e = I eT K e =

Where

matrix of the eigen values

is the diagonal

1 0 0

= 0 2 0

0 0 3

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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The mass

are

andstiffness matrices

1 0

2 1

M=m

; K= k

0 2

1 2

The eigenvalues and eigenvectorsare

0.731

2 m

1 = 1k = 0.634;

1 =

and

1

2.731

2 m

2 = 2k = 2.366;

2 =

1

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Modal Matrix - Example

Forming

P we have

the modal matrix

0.731 2.731

P=

1

1

0.731 1 1 0 0.731 2.731

T

P MP =

1

2.731 1 0 2

1

0.731 2 0.731 2.731

P T MP =

2.731

2 1

1

2.53 0

M11 0

P T MP =

=

0 9.45

0 M22

Thus generalized mass are 2.53 and 9.45

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Modal Matrix - Example

If instead

ofP we use

the orthonormal

modes,

we obtain

0.731

2.73

0.459 0.888

e = 1

1

P

=

2.53

9.45

1

1

0.628 0.325

Thus

0.459

0.628

1

0

0.459

0.888

1

0

T

e MP

e=

P

=

0.888 0.325 0 2 0.628 0.325

0 1

Similarly

0.459

0.628

2

1

0.459

0.888

eT K P

e=

P

=

0.888

0.628 0.325

0.325 1 2

0.635

0

0

= 1

0

2.365

0 2

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Free Vibration Response

When the normal mode frequencies and mode shapes are known,

it is possible to determine the free vibration of the system for any

initial conditions by the proper summation of the normal modes.

For free vibration to take place in one of the normal modes for

any initial conditions, the equation of motion for mode i must be

of

the

(i)form

x1

= ci i sin(i t + i )

i = 1, 2

x2

The constants ci and i are necessary to satisfy the initial

conditions, and i ensures that the amplitude ratio for the free

vibration is proportional to that of mode i

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Presentation by Prof. David M Harrison, University of Toronto

The content of this presentation has been taken from Prof.

David M Harrison available at

August 14,of2015

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Example

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Let free vibration response of the system is summation of free

vibration response of both the masses

x(t) = c1 1 sin(1 t + 1 ) + c2 2 sin(2 t + 2 )

For the initial condition x1 (0) = 1 mm;x2 (0) = 0; x 1 (0) = 0;

x 2 (0) = 0

The values of constants are c1 = 1.5; c2 = -1.5; 1 = 2 = 0;

then

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August 14,of2015

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q

q

k

k

Natural Frequencies and Normal Modes are 1 = 0.634 m

; 2 = 2.366 m

;

0.731

2.73

; 2 (x) =

;

1 =

1

1

For the initial condition x1 (0) = 2;x2 (0) = 4; x 1 (0) = 0; x 2 (0) = 0

The values of constants are c1 = 3.732; c2 = 0.268; 1 = 2 = 90; then free vibration

response

of the system

is governed

by

x1

2.732

0.732

=

cos(1 t) +

cos(2 t)

x2

3.732

0.268

N

when k= 100 m and m = 20 kg, the normal mode frequencies are 1 = 1.78045 rad

and

sec

2 = 3.4395 rad

sec

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For the initial condition x1 (0) = 0.731;x2 (0) = 1; x 1 (0) = 0; x 2 (0) = 0

The values of constants are c1 = 1; c2 = 0; 1 = 2 = 90; then free vibration response

of

governed by

the

system

is

x1

0.731

0

=

cos(1 t) +

cos(2 t)

x2

1

0

N

when k= 100 m

and m = 20 kg, the normal mode frequencies are 1 = 1.78045

rad

2 = 3.4395 sec

rad

sec

and

August 14,of2015

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For the initial condition x1 (0) = -2.731;x2 (0) = 1; x 1 (0) = 0; x 2 (0) = 0

The values of constants are c1 = 0; c2 = 1; 1 = 2 = 90; then free vibration response

of

the

system

is governed by

x1

0

2.731

=

cos(1 t) +

cos(2 t)

x2

0

1

N

when k= 100 m

and m = 20 kg, the normal mode frequencies are 1 = 1.78045

rad

2 = 3.4395 sec

rad

sec

and

August 14,of2015

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Consider a 2 d.o.f system excited by a harmonic force F1 sin t

expressed by the matrix equation

m1 0

x1

k11 k12 x1

F1

+

=

sint

0 m2 x2

k21 k22 x2

0

As the system is undamped, the solution can be assumed as

x1

X1

=

sint

x2

X2

substituting this into the differential equation, we obtain

(k11 m1 2 )

k12

X1

F1

=

2

k21

(k22 m2 ) X2

0

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Consider a 2 d.o.f system excited by a harmonic force F1 sin t

expressed by the matrix equation

(k11 m1 2 )

k12

X1

F1

=

2

k21

(k22 m2 ) X2

0

or in simpler notation

X1

F1

[Z ()]

=

X2

0

Pre-multiplying by [Z()]1 , we obtain

F

adj[Z ()] 1

0

X1

F1

= [Z ()]1

=

X2

0

|Z ()|

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Determinant of |Z ()| is

(k11 m1 2 )

k

12

=

2

k21

(k22 m2 )

k11 k22 m2 k11 2 m1 k22 2 + m1 m2 4 k21 k12 =

m1 m2 (12 2 )(12 2 )

where 1 and 2 are the normal mode frequencies. Then

1

(k11 m1 2 )

k12

F1

X1

=

X2

k21

(k22 m2 2 )

0

[Z ()]

The amplitudes of the forced vibration are

(k22 m2 2 )F1

X1 =

m1 m2 (12 2 )(12 2 )

X2 =

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

(k21 )F1

m1 m2 (12 2 )(12 2 )

August 14,of2015

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August 14,of2015

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m 0

x1

2k k

x1

F1

+

=

sint

0 m x2

k 2k

x2

0

Forced Vibration Response is

X1 =

X2 =

(2k m 2 )F1

m2 (12 2 )(12 2 )

m2 (12

kF1

2 )(12 2 )

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Decoupling

Decoupling Equations

When the normal modes of the system are known, the modal

can be used to decouple the equations of motion.

matrix P or P

+ KX = F

MX

Making the coordinate transformation X = PY

MP Y + KPY = F

Pre-multiplying by P T

P T MP Y + P T KPY = P T F

Because P T MP and P T KP are diagonal matrices due to

orthogonality, the new equations in terms of Y are uncoupled

and can be solved as a system of single d.o.f.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Decoupling

Decoupling Equations-Demonstration

Normal Modes are 1 (x) =

0.731

2.73

; 2 (x) =

;

1

1

P T MP Y + P T KPY = P T F

Results in

2.53 0

y1

1.607

0

y1

0.731 1 F

+k

=

m

0 9.45 y2

0

22.38 y2

2.731 1

0

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Decoupling

Decoupling Equations-Demonstration

We have

m

2.53

0

0

y1

1.607

+k

9.45

y2

0

0

y1

0.731

=

22.38

y2

2.731

1

F

1

0

2.53m

y1 + 1.607ky1 = 0.731F

9.45m

y2 + 22.38ky2 = 2.731F

Further, these equations will become

0.731

F

2.53m

2.731

y2 + 22 y2 =

F

9.45m

The solutions for y1 and y2 are in the form

y1 + 12 y1 =

yi = y1 (0)cosi t +

y i (0)

F2 sint

sini t +

i

k 1 ( )2

i

0.731 2.731

y1

x1

=

x2

1

1

y2

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Decoupling

The equation of motion of an N - DOF system with viscous

damping and arbitrary excitation F can be presented in matrix

form:

+ C X + KX = F

MX

and pre-multiply by P

T

Let X = PY

T MP

Y + P

TCP

Y + P

T K PY

=P

T

P

T MP

and P

TKP

are diagonal

We have already shown that P

T

CP

is not diagonal and the preceding

matrices. In general P

equation is coupled by the damping matrix.

TCP

becomes

If C is proportional to M or K it is evident that P

diagonal then the system is said to have proportional damping.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Decoupling

Let C = M + K then

TCP

= P

T MP

+ P

TKP

P

TCP

= I +

P

Then the following equation will become

T MP

Y + P

TCP

Y + P

T K PY

=P

TF

P

TF

I Y + (I + )Y + Y = P

1

1

...

y + 2

1

1

y2

+

...

1

22

y 2

1

1

y 2

+

...

...

+ n2

yn

22

...

y n

n2

In general, we have

yi + ( + i2 )y i + i2 yi = fi (t)

where, the modal damping can be defined as 2i i = + i2

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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+ C X + KX = F

MX

For systems of large number of degrees of freedom, the computation can be costly. It is

possible to cut down the size of the computation by a procedure known as Mode

Summation Method.

The displacement of the structure under forced excitation is approximated by the sum of

a limited number of normal modes of the system multiplied by generalized coordinates.

For a 50-story building with 50 d.o.f., has 50 eigen values and 50 eigen vectors

representing the normal mode frequencies and normal modes of the undamped system.

August 14,of2015

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lower frequencies, the higher modes will be excited.

Assuming the forced response to be the superposition of only a

few of the lower-frequency modes. Perhaps the modes 1 (x),

2 (x) and 3 (x) may be sufficient. Then the deflection and

forced excitation can be

xi = 1 (xi )q1 (t) + 2 (xi )q2 (t) + 3 (xi )q3 (t)

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The position of all n floors can be expressed in terms of the modal matrix P composed of

only the three modes.

1 (x1 )

x1

1 (x2 )

x2

.

.

=

.

.

.

1 (xn )

xn

2 (x1 )

2 (x2 )

.

.

.

2 (xn )

3 (x1 ) q1

3 (x3 )

q2

. .

.

.

.

qn

3 (xn )

The use of the limited modal matrix then reduces the system to that equal to the

number of modes used.

For the 50-story building, we have

P T KP = (3 50)(50 50)(50 3) = (3 3)matrix

Thus instead of solving the 50 coupled equations, we need only to solve the three by

three equations represented by

P T MP q

+ P T CP q + P T KPq = P T F

If the damping matrix is assumed to be proportional, then

q

i + 2i i q i + i2 qi = i f (t)

where i is known as mode participation factor

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Rayleigh Damping

If damping is proportional, the system mode shapes are those of

the undamped system.

If we displace the system initially in one of the undamped mode

shapes, the masses continue to oscillate in that shape, but the

motion eventually disappears in time because of damping.

When the damping is not proportional, the masses do not

continue to oscillate in that mode shape.

Damping in structural elements is mostly hysteretic and hard to

quantify. Lacking a better model proportional damping is

often assumed.

With proportional damping assumption, higher modes are

damped more than the lower modes.

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Rayleigh Damping

The natural frequencies of stiff structural elements are usually

greatly separated.

The effect of higher modes in total response is less than the

modes with lower natural frequencies. For these reasons,

damping ratios are often specified only for lower modes.

Modes with higher damping ratios die out more quickly when

the system is subjected to any short-term or shock excitation.

If the system is subjected to a harmonic excitation, the modes

with higher frequencies have lesser effect because their

amplitudes are inversely proportional to the square of their

frequencies.

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Damping forces are difficult to quantify.

Often the source of damping is unclear (coulomb friction,

viscous damping or hysteretic damping) and form of the

damping relation is uncertain (linear, quadratic or other).

Even though source and form are known obtaining precise values

for the parameters in damping model is difficult.

Damping is often slight in structural vibration, but can be

significant in systems where damping is deliberately introduced

(suspension, vibration isolation and passive damping).

Because of these considerations damping complicates the

mathematics.

Vibration engineers often either totally neglect damping in the

analysis or assume it is linear and proportional.

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Damped Response

Modal Transformation

Equation of motion for an N d.o.f system

+ C X + KX = F

MX

For a 2 d.o.f

we have

system

with Rayleigh

2 damping,

1

0

0

T MP

=

TKP

= 1

P

;P

;

0

1

0 22

2

0

TCP

= + 1

P

0

+ 22

Y and pre-multiplying the equation of motion with P

T,

If X = P

we have

T MP

Y + P

TCP

Y + P

T K PY

=P

TF

P

TF

I Y + [I + ]Y + Y = P

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Damped Response

Modal Transformation

TF

I Y + [I + ]Y + Y = P

Let yi = Yi e it and F = F e it then

2

TF

I + [I + ]i + = P

For

we have

the 2two d.o.f

system,

0

i + i12

0

+

+

0 2

0

+ i + i22

2

1 1

1 0

y1

F1

= 21 22

2

0 2

y2

0

1 2

The i th equation of displacement will be

f

yi () = 2

(i 2 + i + ii2 )

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Damped Response

Modal Transformation-Demonstration

kg

N

Natural Frequencies for k = 100 m

and m = 20 m

3 are

q

q

1 = 0.634 mk = 1.78 rad

; 2 = 2.366 mk = 3.44 rad

;

sec

sec

Rayleigh damping co-efficients will be

2

21 2

=

= 3.83e 4; =

= 0.00234

(1 + 2 )

(1 + 2 )

0.2889 0.2889

0.395 0.1058

0.2889

0.395

F

0.2889F

T

F=

Then P

=

0.2889 0.1058

0

0.2889F

Dr. P. Jeyaraj NITK Surathkal, India.

August 14,of2015

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Damped Response

Modal Transformation

The i th equation of displacement will be

f

yi () = 2

(i 2 + i + ii2 )

yi () =

(i2

f

2 + i + ii2 )

August 14,of2015

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- Optimal Design of a Damped Dynamic Vibration AbsorberDiunggah olehShrikant Dhole
- MEC3453-2014.PDFDiunggah olehMonash_Student
- Dynamic Analysis of Fan FoundationDiunggah olehVirgilio
- Design and Validation of Monitoring Systems and SensorsDiunggah olehanshutomar7915
- U Tube OscillationDiunggah olehHarshana Kelasha
- Machine_Foundation_Vibrations-Vertical Dynamic Response of Foundation RestingDiunggah olehRajendra S. Raut
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