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A.

Theory of GBA and Teaching Simulations


In this section, writer describes some theories of genre based approach, example
of teaching materials based on GBA theories and the simulations of teaching.
B.1. Definition of Genre-Based Approach
Many experts try to introduce and present their concept about genre. According to
Christie (2005:233) argues, Genre is a technical tem for a particular instance of a text
type. In addition, Hyland (2007:4) defines, Genre is a term for grouping texts together,
representing how writers typically use language to respond to recurring situations.In line
with the definitions above, Nunan (1999:308) also stated:
Genre is a purposeful, socially constructed oral or written
communicative event, such as narrative, a casual conversation, a poem, a
recipe, or a description. Different genres are characterized by a particular
structure

or

stages,

and

grammatical

forms

that

reflect

the

communicative purpose of the genre in question.


Furthermore, Knapp and Watkins (2009:21) argue:
Genre is an organizing concept for our culture practices, any field of
genres constitutes a network of contrasts according to a variety of
parameters, genre is a place occasion, function, behavior, and
interactional structure; it is very rarely useful to think of it is a kind of
text, genre is culture competence involves knowing the appropriateness
principle for any genre, knowing the kind of margin you have with it,
being able to vary it, knowing how to shift from one to another and how
many factors would be involve in any such shift."
In relation to several definitions above, Derewianka (1990) gives a simple definition that
genre can be defined as, The schematic structure of a text which helps it to achieve its purpose.
Dealing with several definitions above, the writer can infer that genre is a term for an
organized concept and technique which has purposeful and meaningful constructed activities,
and it also has grammatical forms, stages and aimed orientation to create a particular text types
both in oral and written according to the situations.

B.2. Stages of the teaching/ learning cycle

There are five stage of teaching English using GBA, There are building the context,
modeling and deconstructing the text, joint construction of the text, linking related texts and
independent construction of the text.

2. Modeling and
deconstructing
the text

1. Building
the context

3. Join
construction
of the text

4. Independent
construction of
the text
B.2.1. Building the Context
In this stage student:
1. are introduced to the social context of an authentic model of the text - type being
studied
2. explore feature of the general cultural context in which the text type is used and the
social purposes the text - type achieves
3. Explore the immediate context of situation by investigating the register of a model
text which has been selected on the basic of the course objective and learner need.
B.2.2. Modeling and Deconstructing the Text
In this stage student:
1. Investigate the structural pattern and language feature of the model
2. Compare the model with other examples of the text type
B.2.3. Joint Construction of the Text
In this stage:
1. Students begin to contribute to the construction of whole examples of the text-type.
2. The teacher gradually reduces the contribution to text construction, as the students
move closer to being able to control the text-type independently.
B.2.4. Independent construction of the text

In this stage:
1.
2.

Students work independently with the text


Learner performances are used for achievement assessment

B.2.5. Linking to related texts


In this stage students investigate what they have learnt in this
teaching/learning cycle can be related to:
1. other texts in the same or similar contexts
2. future or past cycles of teaching and learning

B.3. Teaching English Simulations: analyzing the text Materials, framework using GBA in
Junior High School
The monologue texts introduced in secondary junior high school are procedure text,
descriptive text, report text, recount text, and narrative text. But in this section the writer limited
the explanation in Procedure text and narrative text.
B.3.1. Procedure Text
Some socio-cultural functions of procedure texts are to instruct, to warn, and state
temporal sequences. Linguistic feature used to instruct is imperative; and to state temporal
sequences is sequencers, such as first, next, then, finally. Occasionally, procedural texts are
completed with diagram, flow chart, or illustrations.
Example of Procedure text:
How to Make a Pencil Box

What you need:


An empty plastic bottle of mineral water

A sharp cutter

A piece of white or colorful paper

Some paint

Some glue

How to make it:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Im the
sure
you all know
mineral
water,
right?
What
is it.
an example of mineral water?
Wash
plastic
surewater,
it is clean
when
you use
Im sure
you allbottle.
knowMake
mineral
right?
What
is an
example of mineral water?
Yes, we
have a two
lot halves.
of them now, such as Aqua, the most famous one, or Club, or
Cut
bottle
Yes,thewe
haveinto
a lot of
them now, such as Aqua, the most famous one, or Club, or
Cheers.
Do you know
that the
bottles
of the mineral water can be useful for us?
Wrap
the bottle
a piece
colored
paper
Cheers.
Do youwith
know
thatofthe
bottles
of the mineral water can be useful for us?
We use
canplain
recycle
them
andpaint
maketo useful
IfWe
you
paper,
use the
make athings.
drawingNow
on it.we are going to learn how to
can recycle them and make useful things. Now we are going to learn how to
Now
your
pencil box
box from
is ready
use. bottle of mineral water. Listen carefully:
make
a pencil
thetoused

make a pencil box from the used bottle of mineral water. Listen carefully:
First, reads
you have
to prepare
the things
that you
need;
they as
arefollows:
an
If a teacher
theto
text
above, the
he/she
will that
explain
procedure
First, you
have
prepare
things
youthe
need;
they are
an
empty plastic bottle of mineral water, a sharp cutter, a piece of white or colorful
empty plastic bottle of mineral water, a sharp cutter, a piece of white or colorful
paper, some paint and some glue. After that, wash the plastic bottle to make sure
paper, some paint and some glue. After that, wash the plastic bottle to make sure
it is clean. Then cut the bottle into two, and wrap the bottom part with paper. If
it is clean. Then cut the bottle into two, and wrap the bottom part with paper. If
you use white paper, draw some interesting pictures on the paper and paint them.
you use white paper, draw some interesting pictures on the paper and paint them.
Now, your pencil box is ready to use!
Now, your pencil box is ready to use!

Exercise:
1. Now try to analyze the text above into its generic structure.
a. Are the materials and the steps given in clear details?
b. Can you make it clearer?
c. If you think so, how?
2. In terms of grammar:
a. What are the grammar points that you notice?
b. You can discuss this with your colleagues the grammar use in this
texts.
3. The students try to make another thing and write the procedure of making
something using their own words.

B.3.2. Narrative text


The narrative text type tells a story. Its purpose is to present a view of the world that
entertains or informs the listener or reader. The response text type is a persons response or
action to another text (a book, film, play, and so on). The generic structures of the text are

orientation, complication, resolution. The language features usually found in narrative text
are specific characters, time words that connect events to tell when they occur, verbs to show the
actions that occur in the story, and descriptive words to portray the characters and settings.
Text organization

Orientation

language
features
John slumped in the armchair, his arms Who?
Where?
crossed and his face with a gloomy frown.
Mental process
He was a new kid in town, but no-one Action verb
knew he was even there. John didnt like
anybody and they didnt like him. All day
he sat in the armchair, staring out the

Complication

window.
Through the window he saw a gigantic Linking word
hollow tree in vacant lot. The tree seemed
to call him.

He stood slowly up, then

started to walk towards the tree. Its


branches were very thin and its roots dug
into the ground like claws. he tree had
thorns all over it. John tried to turn away
from the tree but he couldnt. A mysterious
force was pulling him into the hollow.
This story is about John. Who is he, students, does anybody know? Yes, it is said in
This
story is aboutJohn
John.
Who
is he, students,
does noticed
anybody know? Yes, it is said in
Resolution
never
reappeared
but no-one
the story that John is a new kid in town. What does that mean? Right, kid means
the story that John is a new kid in town. What does that mean? Right, kid means
cared a newcomer in the town. OK, everybody say newcomer
child; so he is a neworchild,
child; so he is a new child, a newcomer in the(Adapted
town. OK,
everybody
say1990)
newcomer
from
Derewianka,
newcomer Do you know anything about his personality? What is he like? Is he a
newcomer Do you know anything about his personality? What is he like? Is he a
cheerful boy, or a gloomy boy? How do you know that? OK, now, what happened to
cheerful boy, or a gloomy boy? How do you know that? OK, now, what happened to
him one day? He was sitting in his armchair one day, day dreaming, when he suddenly
him one day? He was sitting in his armchair one day, day dreaming, when he suddenly
saw a big hollow (you know the meaning of hollow? Yes, lubang) in the tree outside
saw a big hollow (you know the meaning of hollow? Yes, lubang) in the tree outside
his house. This tree looked very scary, with thin roots, and branches that looked
his house. This tree looked very scary, with thin roots, and branches that looked
like claws. (What are claws? In Indonesian they are called cakar. Can you imagine
like claws. (What are claws? In Indonesian they are called cakar. Can you imagine
If the
story is told
the teacher
telltree
as follows:
branches
thatorally,
look like
claws?).will
This
also has thorns all over it.
branches that look like claws?). This tree also has thorns all over it.
John felt as if the tree was calling him, and unconsciously he went out towards the
John felt as if the tree was calling him, and unconsciously he went out towards the
tree. He had tried to turn away, but he couldnt. After that John was never seen
tree. He had tried to turn away, but he couldnt. After that John was never seen
again, but nobody missed him because he was such a gloomy and unfriendly kid.
again, but nobody missed him because he was such a gloomy and unfriendly kid.
Now, what do you think of this story? Is it a happy-ending or a saddening story?
Now, what do you think of this story? Is it a happy-ending or a saddening story?

The following examples are narrative texts. Analyze the generic structure and its language
features
On Sunday
It is Sunday. Billy and his friends do not go to school, so they plan to clean
the bedroom. They also clean the bathroom and living room. They make
the bed, sweep and mop the floor, dust the furniture and rearrange all
their books. Now everything looks so clean and tidy, says Giga.
After they finish with the rooms, they go to the garden. They cut
the grass, sweep the dirty leaves, and water the plants. Mother is very
happy and very proud of them. She gives Billy and his friends a delicious
breakfast of fried rice and scrambled eggs.

The Naughty Brothers

Kim and Sandra were doing their homework from school. They had to
make a cloth puppet and a paper house.
At noon, Kim and Sandra left their room to have lunch in the dining
room. While they were busily eating and chatting, their brothers Alex
and Tim sneaked into the bedroom. They took the puppets and hid them
behind the wardrobe.
After lunch, Kim and Sandra couldnt find the puppets anywhere. They
searched everywhere, but still the puppets were missing. Meanwhile,
Alex and Tim were playing outside. Kim and Sandra cried, because they
would not be able to hand in their puppets the next day.
In the morning, Tim remembered that they hadnt returned the puppets
to the girls. Here are the puppets. Im sorry we hid them

Task:

1. Read the two texts above and notice the difference in tenses. What is it?
2. With a colleague, analyze the texts in terms of their generic structures; which part
are the orientations, the complications and the resolutions.

B. Conclusion
Genre-based approaches, where teaching and learning focuses on the understanding
and production of selected genres of texts, have been identified by Rodgers (2001) as a major
trend in English language teaching (ELT) in the new millennium. Genre-based approaches
emphasize that this higher order must be attended to for effective language use: "all texts
conform to certain conventions, and that if a student is to be successful in joining a particular
English-language discourse community, the student will need to be able to produce texts
which fulfill the expectations of its readers in regards to grammar, organization, and context.
Genre-based approach (GBA) recently has been adapted by the newest Indonesian
curriculum as the so called Competence Based Curriculum or 2004 Curriculum.

C. REFERENCES

Nugroho, Taufik. 2009. Introduction to Genre Based Approach (Ministry of National


Education in Indonesia, Directorate General of Quality Improvement
of Teachers and Education Personal,), Suplement Module MGMP
bermutu; Jakarta.
Payaprom, Sudarat. 2012. The Impact of a genre-based approach on English Language
teaching in an EFL tertiary context in Thailand. University of
Wollongong: Australia.
Larsen-Freeman, D. 2000. Techniques and principles in language teaching.Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. 2001. Approaches and methods in language Teaching (2nd ed.).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.