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BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, PILANI

KK BIRLA GOA CAMPUS


SECOND SEMESTER 2013-2014

Numerical Analysis
Tutorial3
Use 5-digit floating point arithmetic with rounding for all the problems.
1. Let f (x) = x3 cos x, and p0 = 1. Use Newtons method to find p2 . Could p0 = 0 be used?
2. Use the Newtons method to find the root of the equation
(
f (x) = 4x 1 exp
3

x2
2

p0 = 1.0.
3. Find the zero of the function f (x) = x sin x + cos x by using method of False Position. Perform
4 iterations.
4. The function f (x) = e2x ex 2 has a zero on the interval [0, 1]. Find this zero correct to three
significant digits using Newtons method.
5. Use Newtons method to find the nth root of b, where (i) n = 2, b = 14, (ii) n = 8, b = 85 and
(iii) n = 15, b = 134.
6. Use Newtons method to find the inverse square root of b, where (i) b = 15 and (ii) b = 89.

7. The equation f (x) x3 + x2 3x 3 = 0 has a root on the interval (1, 2) namely x = 3 . For
)0.616
(
|pn p|
|f (p)|
n 2, compute the ratio
and show that this value approaches
.
|pn1 p|1.618
2|f (p)|
8. The equation f (x) x3 + x2 3x 3 = 0 has a root on the interval (1, 2) namely x =

|pn p|
1 |f (p)|
.
n 2, compute the ratio
and
show
that
this
value
approaches
|pn1 p|2
2 |f (p)|

3 . For

9. The fourth-degree polynomial f (x) = 230x4 + 18x3 + 9x2 221x 9 has two real zeros in [1, 0]
and [0, 1]. Attempt to approximate these zeros to within 106 using the (i) Method of False
Position, (ii) Secant method and (iii) Newtons method.
10. The equation x2 10 cos x = 0 has two solutions, 1.3793646. Use Newtons method to approximate the solution within 103 with the following values of p0 : (i) 50, (ii) 25, (iii) 25, and
(iv) 50.
11. The function f (x) = 27x4 + 162x3 180x2 + 62x 7 has a zero of multiplicity 3 at x = 1/3. Use
Modified Newtons method and do 4 iterations to approximate the zero of the function. Take
p0 = 0.

12. Use Modified Newtons method to find solutions accurate to within 103 for the following problems:
(i) 1 4x cos x + 2x2 + cos 2x = 0, for 0 x 1.
(ii) e3x 27x6 + 27x4 ex 9x2 e2x = 0, for 3 x 5.
13. The function f (x) = x(1 cos x) has a zero of multiplicity 3 at x = 0. Use Modified Newtons
method and do 4 iterations to approximate the zero of the function. Take p0 = 1.
14. Suppose we want to solve the equation f (x) = 0, that has a root of multiplicity m at x = p.
Assume f (x) is suciently dierentiable function. Show that the Newtons iterative scheme
xn+1 = xn

f (xn )
f (xn )

converges only linearly. Determine the asymptotic error constant.


( )
15. Use Fixed Point Theorem to show that g(x) = + 0.5 sin x2 has a unique fixed point on [0, 2].
Use fixed-point iteration to find an approximation to the fixed point that is accurate to within
102 . Also, estimate the number of iterations required to achieve 102 accuracy, and compute
this theoretical estimate to the number actually used.
16. Use Fixed Point Theorem to show that g(x) = 2x has a unique fixed point on [ 31 , 1]. Use

fixed-point iteration to find an approximation to the fixed-point that is accurate to within 103 .
Also, estimate the number of iterations required to achieve 103 accuracy, and compute this
theoretical estimate to the number actually used.

17. Use fixed-point iteration method to find an approximation to

3
25 that is accurate to within

103 .
18. Most functions can be rearranged in several ways to give
x = g(x) with which to begin the
ex
fixed-point method. For f (x) = ex 2x2 , one g(x) is x =
.
2
(a) Show that this converges to the root near 1.5 if the positive value is used and to the root
near 0.5 if the negative is used.
(b) There is a third root near 2.6. Show that the sequence do not converge to this root even
though values near to the root are used to begin the iterations. Where does it converge if
x0 = 2.5? If x0 = 2.7?
(c) Find another rearrangement that does converge correctly to the third root.
19. Consider the function g(x) = ex .
2

(a) Prove that g has a unique fixed point on the interval [0, 1].
(b) With a starting approximation of x0 = 0, use the iteration scheme xn = exn1 to approxi2

mate the fixed point on [0, 1] to within 5 107 .


kn
(c) Use the theoretical error bound |xn |
|x1 x0 | to obtain a theoretical bound on
1k
the number of iterations needed to approximate the fixed point to within 5 107 . How
does the number of iterations performed in part (b) compare with the theoretical result.
2

20. For each of the following equations, determine an interval [a, b] on which fixed-point iteration
will converge. Estimate the number of iterations necessary to obtain approximations accurate
to within 104 , and perform the calculations.
2 ex + x2
(i) x =
,
3

(
(ii) x =

ex
3

)1/2

(iii) x = 6x .

1
1
21. Use fixed point theorem to show that the sequence defined by xn = xn1 +
for n 1,
2
xn1

converges to 2 whenever x0 > 2.


22. Find the parameters a, b and c in the iterative function g(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx such that the
order of convergence for finding the root x = p using fixed point iteration method is 3.
23. Show that the following sequences converge linearly to p = 0. How large must n be before
|pn p| 5 102 ?
1
(i) pn = , n 1,
n

(ii) pn =

1
, n 1.
n2

24. Show that the sequence pn = 102 converges quadratically to 0.


n

25. Use Mullers method to find the roots of the following functions
(i) f (x) = 4x3 3x2 + 2x 1, near x = 0.6,

(ii) f (x) = x3 2x2 + x 2 near x = 2,

(iii) f (x) = tan(x) + 3x2 1, near x = 0.8,

(iv) f (x) = x4 4x2 3x + 5 near x = 0.86.

THE END