Anda di halaman 1dari 17

Embedded Systems

Unit I
Instructor : Govind Krishnan

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Concept of an ES

SOFTWARE PROGRAM

HARDWARE

#include <16f876a.h>
#use delay (clock=20000000)
#byte PORTB=6
main()
{
set_tris_b(0);
portb=255;
//decimal
delay_ms(1000);
portb=0x55;
//hexadecimal
delay_ms(1000);
portb=0b10101010; //binary
delay_ms(500);
}

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Components of an ES
Any ES consists of the following components:
Processor/MCU/DSP

Sensors
Converters (A-D and D-A)

Control Components
Memory (On-chip and Off chip)
Interfaces
Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W
Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Block Diagram of an Embedded System

Sensor

A-D

Processor &
ASICs

Memory

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

D-A

Control
components

Components of a Microprocessor
A microprocessor is a single
chip CPU used in
microcomputers.
Functions :
Has the ability to fetch and
execute instructions stored
in memory.
Has the ability to access
external memory, external
I/O and other peripherals.
Applications :
Used as CPU in
computers.
Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W
Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Microprocessor Features
It is the key element of all computers, providing the mathematical
and decision making ability.
They are powerful pieces of hardware, but not much useful on their
own. Just as the human brain needs hands, feet, eyes, ears, mouth
to be useful; so does the microprocessor.
They operate at ultra-fast speeds doing over a billion operations
every second.
Current state-of-the-art uPs (Pentium, Athlon, SPARC, PowerPC)
contain complex circuits consisting of tens of millions of
transistors.
Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W
Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Continued ..
More than 90% of the microprocessors/micro-controllers
manufactured are used in embedded computing applications. In
2000 alone, 365 million microprocessors and 6.4 billion microcontrollers were manufactured.
Examples of microprocessors :
Intel
4004, 4040
8080, 8085, 8086, 8088,
80186, 80188, 80286,
80386, x86-64, Pentium

Motorola, Cyrix, Zilog


and others

AMD
Athlon, Phenom, Fusion
Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W
Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Microprocessor Architecture
The MPU communicates with memory and I/O using the system
bus
Address bus
Unidirectional
Memory and I/O Addresses
Data bus
Bidirectional
Transfers binary data and instructions
Control lines
Read and write timing signals
Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W
Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Functional view of a Microprocessor-based


System

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Evolution of Intel Microprocessors

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Components of a Microcontroller
A microcontroller is a
functional computer SoC.

Includes microprocessor,
memory, I/O ports, and support
devices (such as timers, A/D
converter, sensors etc) on a
single semiconductor chip.

Applications :
They are found in small,
minimum component
designs performing control
oriented activities.
Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W
Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Microcontroller Features
They are essentially another type of microprocessor systems.
They are a complete computer on a chip containing direct
input and output capability and memory along with the
microprocessor on a single chip. Many times they contain
other specialized application-specific components as well.
The processing power is much less compared to a
Microprocessor.
They are found embedded in video games, VCRs, microwave
ovens, printers, autos, etc.

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Microcontroller Architecture

It includes an integrated CPU, memory (a small amount of RAM, program


memory, or both) and peripherals capable of input and output.

I/O ports are generally multiplexed and can be programmed to perform


different functions.

Examples of microcontrollers :
INTEL
8031,8032,8051,8052,8751,8752
PIC (Microchip)
8-bit PIC16, PIC18 ; 16-bit DSPIC33 / PIC24 ; PIC16C7x
ARM, NXP, Freescale, Cypress PSOC, ATMEL, Renesas

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Differences
Microprocessor

Microcontroller

An IC that can be programmed to It is a small computer on a single


do certain processing , but cannot IC. It needs IO devices to be a
sustain alone as a complete complete system.
system.

Building blocks : ALU, control


unit, buses.

Building blocks : MPU core,


timers, counters, UART,
programming memory and data
memory.

It does not have input and output Microcontrollers have input and
ports.
output ports.

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Continued ..
Microprocessor

Microcontroller

Here there are more op-codes and Here there are few op-codes and
few bit-handling instructions.
more bit-handling instructions.
The access time for memory and IO The access time is less because, of
devices is more.
inbuilt memory and IO devices.
High speed, 1-3GHz

Moderate speed, 500KHz-2GHz

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Temperature Measurement System

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011

Blood Glucose Monitor

Courseware : Embedded Systems S/W


Design Seer Akademi Pvt. Ltd., 2011