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Examples for Chapter 24

Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed


Dr. Peter J. Nolan

"Fundamentals of College Physics" Third Edition


Dr. Peter J. Nolan, SUNY Farmingdale
Chapter 24 Alternating Current Circuits
Computer Assisted Instruction
Interactive Examples

Example 24.1
The effective value of an AC current. An AC current in a circuit varies from -3.50 A to
+ 3.50 A. Find the effective value of this current.
Initial Conditions
imax =
3.5 A
Solution.
The effective value of the current, found from equation 24.5, is
ieff = 0.707 imax
ieff = (

0.707 )

ieff =

2.4745 A

3.5 A)

Thus, even though the current is varying with time, if an AC ammeter were placed in
the circuit it would read the single value of
2.4745 A

Example 24.2
Finding the maximum value when the effective value is known. What is the
maximum voltage in a 60.0-Hz, 120-V line?
Initial Conditions
Veff =
120 V
Solution.
The effective voltage is 120 V and the maximum voltage, found from equation 24.7, is
Veff = 0.707 Vmax
Vmax = Veff / 0.707
Vmax = (
Vmax =

120 V)

0.707 )

169.7313 V

Hence, even though an AC voltmeter would read the single value


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120 V,

Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

the actual voltage would be varying between

-169.731 V and + 169.731 V.

Example 24.3
An RLC series circuit. The RLC series circuit shown in figure 24.7 has a resistance
R = 400 , an inductor L = 5.00 H, a capacitor C = 3.00 F, and they are connected
to a 110-V, 60.0-Hz line. Find (a) the inductive reactance X L, (b) the capacitive
reactance XC, (c) the impedance Z of the circuit, (d) the current i in the circuit, (e) the
voltage drop VR across R, (f) the voltage drop VL across L, (g) the voltage drop VC
across C, (h) the total voltage V across RLC, and (i) the phase angle .
Initial Conditions
R=
400
L=
5H
C = 3.00E-06 F

f=
V=

60 Hz
110 V

Solution.
a. The inductive reactance, found from equation 24.15, is
XL = 2 f L
XL = (

2)

x
( 3.141593 )
XL = 1884.956

60 Hz) x

5 H)

60 Hz) x

( 3.00E-06 F)]

b. The capacitive reactance, found from equation 24.17, is


XC = 1 / [2 f C]
XC = (

1)

/ [( 6.283185 )
XC = 884.1941

c. The impedance of the circuit, found from equation 24.18, is


Z = Sqrt[R2 + (XL - XC)2]
Z = Sqrt[(

400 )2 +

(( 1884.956 )
Z=
1077.74

( 884.1941 ))2]

d. The effective current i in the circuit, found from equation 24.19, is


i=V/Z
i=(
110 V) /
( 1077.74
i = 0.102065 A
e. The voltage drop across R, found from equation 24.13, is

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

VR = i R
VR = ( 0.102065 A) x (
VR = 40.82617 V

400

f. The voltage drop across L, found from equation 24.14, is


VL = i X L
VL = ( 0.102065 A) x ( 1884.956
VL = 192.3888 V
g. The voltage drop across C, found from equation 24.16, is
VC = i X C
VC = ( 0.102065 A) x ( 884.1941
VC = 90.24566 V
h. The total voltage across R, L, and C in series, found from equation 24.11, is
V = Sqrt[VR2 + (VL - VC)2]
V = Sqrt[( 40.82617 V)2 + ( ( 192.3888 V
V=
110 V

( 90.2457 V))2]

which is, of course, equal to the applied voltage. Notice that the voltages are added
vectorially and not algebraically.
i. The phase angle, found from equation 24.12, is
= arctan[(VL - VC) / VR ]
= arctan[(( 192.3888 V) - ( 90.24566 V))
= 68.21363 degrees

40.8262 V) ]

This means that the applied voltage leads the current in the circuit by
68.2136 degrees
and the phase relation is shown in figure 24.8. Since is a positive angle the circuit is
called an inductive circuit.

Example 24.4
An RC series circuit. A 110-V, 60.0-Hz, AC line is connected across a resistance of
1000 and a capacitor of 1.00 F, as shown in figure 24.9. Find (a) the capacitive
reactance, (b) the impedance, (c) the current in the circuit, (d) the voltage drop V R
across the resistor, (e) the voltage drop VC across the capacitor, (f) the total voltage
across R and C, and (g) the phase angle between the voltage and current.

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

Initial Conditions
R=
1000
C = 1.00E-06 F

f=
V=

60 Hz
110 V

Solution.
a. The capacitive reactance XC, found from equation 24.17, is
XC = 1 / [2 f C]
XC = (

1)

/ [( 6.283185 )
XC = 2652.582

60 Hz) x

( 1.00E-06 F)]

b. The impedance Z is found from equation 24.18. Because there is no induction in


this RC circuit, XL = 0. Therefore, the impedance becomes
Z = Sqrt[R2 + XC2]
Z = Sqrt[(
1000 )2
Z = 2834.818

+ ( 2652.582 )2]

c. The effective current i in the circuit comes from Ohm's law, equation 24.19, and is
i=V/Z
i=(
110 V) /
( 2834.818
i = 0.038803 A
d. The voltage drop VR across the resistor, found from equation 24.13, is
VR = i R
VR = ( 0.038803 A) x (
VR =
38.8032 V

1000

e. The voltage drop VC across the capacitor, found from equation 24.16, is
VC = i X C
VC = ( 0.038803 A) x ( 2652.582
VC = 102.9287 V
f. The total voltage drop across R and C in series is found from equation 24.11. Since
there is no inductance in this circuit, VL = 0. Therefore,
V = Sqrt[VR2 + VC2]
V = Sqrt[(
V=

38.8032 V)2 + (( 102.9287 V))2]


110 V

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

Note that the voltage across R and C in series is the same as the applied voltage,
which it should be. Because of the phase difference of the voltages, they add as
vectors rather than as algebraic quantities.
g. The phase angle between the voltage and the current in the circuit is found from
equation 24.12 with VL = 0. Therefore,
= arctan[( - VC) / VR ]
= arctan[(( -102.929 V)) /
( 38.8032 V) ]
= -69.344
degrees
This phase angle is represented in figures 24.10(a) and 24.10(b). The voltage in the
circuit lags the current in the circuit by
-69.344 0. Since is a negative quantity,
the circuit is called a capacitive circuit.

Example 24.5
An RL series circuit. A 110-V, 60-Hz, AC line is connected across a resistance of
1000 and an inductor of 5.00 H, as shown in figure 24.11. Find (a) the inductive
reactance, (b) the impedance, (c) the current in the circuit, (d) the voltage drop V R
across the resistor, (e) the voltage drop VL across the inductor, (f) the total voltage
drop V across R and L, and (g) the phase angle between the voltage V and the
current I.
Initial Conditions
R=
1000
L=
5H

f=
V=

60 Hz
110 V

Solution.
a. The inductive reactance XL, found from equation 24.15, is
XL = 2 f L
XL = (

2)

x
( 3.141593 )
XL = 1884.956

60 Hz) x

b. The impedance Z is found from equation 24.18, with X C = 0. Therefore,


Z = Sqrt[R2 + XL2]
Z = Sqrt[(

1000 )2 + ( 1884.956 )2]


Z = 2133.789

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5 H)

Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

c. The current i in the circuit, found from Ohm's law, equation 24.19, is
i=V/Z
i=(
110 V) /
( 2133.789
i = 0.051551 A
d. The voltage drop VR across the resistor, found from equation 24.13, is
VR = i R
VR = ( 0.051551 A) x (
VR = 51.55148 V

1000

e. The voltage drop VL across the inductor, found from equation 24.14, is
VL = i X L
VL = ( 0.051551 A) x ( 1884.956
VL = 97.17225 V
f. The total voltage drop V across R and L is found from equation 24.11 with V C = 0.
Therefore,
V = Sqrt[VR2 + VL2]
V = Sqrt[( 51.55148 V)2 + ( 97.17225 V)2]
V=
110 V
Note that the voltage drop across R and L is the same as the applied voltage V, as is
expected.
g. The phase angle between the current and voltage in the circuit is found from
equation 24.12 with VC = 0. Therefore,
= arctan[ VL / VR ]
= arctan[( 97.17225 V) /
( 51.55148 V) ]
= 62.05331 degrees
Because this is a positive angle it means that the voltage leads the current in the
circuit by 62.10 and the circuit is an inductive circuit. This is shown in figures 24.12(a)
and 24.12(b).

Example 24.6
Resonant frequency. Find the resonant frequency of the RLC series circuit in

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

example 24.3.
Initial Conditions
L=
5H

C=

3.00E-06 F

Solution.
The resonant frequency, found from equation 24.21, is
fo = 1 / [2 sqrt(L C)]
fo = (

1)

[( 6.283185 ) x sqrt(
fo = 41.09363 Hz

5 H)

( 3.00E-06 F)]

Example 24.7
Power factor in an AC circuit. In the RLC series circuit of example 24.3, find (a) the
power factor, (b) the power consumed, and (c) the total power that must be supplied
to the circuit.
Initial Conditions
See example 24.3
Solution.
a. In example 24.3 the phase angle was found to be 68.40. The power factor of the
circuit, found from equation 24.23, is
PF = cos = cos( 68.21363 ) =
0.371147
=
37.1147 %
b. The power dissipated in the circuit is
P = i2 R
P = ( 0.102065 A)2 x (
P = 4.166941 W
c. The power applied to the circuit is
Papp = I Vapp = ( 0.102065 A) x
Papp =

400 )

110 V)

11.2272 W

As a check, note that


Power consumed = 4.166941 W) /
Power supplied
= 0.371147
=

( 11.2272 W)
37.1147 %

which agrees with the original value, within round-off errors of the calculations.

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

Example 24.8
An RLC parallel circuit. A resistor of 400 , an inductor of 5.00 H, and a capacitor of
3.00 F are connected in parallel to a 110-V, 60.0-Hz line. Find (a) the inductive
reactance, (b) the capacitive reactance, (c) the current through the resistor I R, (d) the
current through the inductor IL, (e) the current through the capacitor IC, (f) the total
current in the circuit IT, (g) the phase angle , and (h) the total impedance of the circuit.
Initial Conditions
R=
400
L=
5H
C = 3.00E-06 F

f=
V=

60 Hz
110 V

Solution.
a. The inductive reactance is
XL = 2 f L
XL = (

2)

( 3.141593 )
XL = 1884.956

60 Hz) x

5 H)

b. The capacitive reactance XC is found from equation 24.17 as


XC = 1 / [2 f C]
XC = (

1)

/
( 6.283185 ) x
XC = 884.1941

60 Hz) x

( 3.00E-06 F)

c. The current IR through the resistor, found from Ohm's law, equation 24.27, is
IR = V / R
IR = (

110 V)
IR =

400

0.275 A

d. The current IL through the inductor, found from equation 24.28, is


IL = V / XL
IL = (

110 V) /
( 1884.956
IL = 0.058357 A

e. The current IC through the capacitor, found from equation 24.29, is

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

IC = V / XC
IC = (

110 V)
/ ( 884.1941
IC = 0.124407 A

f. The total current IT in the circuit, found from equation 24.26, is


IT = Sqrt[IR2 + (IC - IL)2]
IT = Sqrt[(

0.275 A)2 + (( 0.124407 A)


IT = 0.282821 A

g. The phase angle , found from equation 24.30, is


= arctan[(IC - IL) / IR ]
= arctan[( 0.124407 A) ( 0.058357 A))
= 13.50563 degrees

( 0.05836 A))2]

0.275 A) ]

The total current in the circuit leads the applied voltage by 13.5 0
h. The total impedance of the circuit, found from equation 24.32, is
Z = V / IT
Z=(
110 V) /
( 0.282821 A)
Z = 388.9388

Example 24.9
An RC parallel circuit. A 110-V, 60.0-Hz, AC line is connected in parallel to a resistor
of 1000 and a capacitor of 1.00 F, as shown in figure 24.17. Find (a) the
capacitive reactance, (b) the current IR through the resistor, (c) the current I C through
the capacitor, (d) the total current in the circuit, (e) the phase angle , and (f) the total
impedance of the circuit.
Initial Conditions
R=
1000
C = 1.00E-06 F

f=
V=

60 Hz
110 V

Solution.
a. The capacitive reactance is found to be
XC = 1 / [2 f C]
XC = (

1)

/
( 6.283185 ) x
XC = 2652.582

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60 Hz) x

( 1.00E-06 F)

Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

b. The current in the resistor, found from equation 24.27, is


IR = V / R
IR = (

110 V)
IR =

1000

(
0.11 A

c. The current IC through the capacitor, found from equation 24.29, is


IC = V / XC
IC = (

110 V) / ( 2652.582
IC = 0.041469 A

d. The total current in the circuit is found from equation 24.26 with I L = 0, that is,
IT = Sqrt[IR2 + IC2]
IT = Sqrt[(

0.11 A)2 + ( 0.041469 A)2]


IT = 0.117557 A

e. The phase angle is found from equation 24.30 with IL = 0, that is,
= arctan[ IC / IR ]

= arctan[( 0.041469 A) /
(
0.11 A) ]
=
20.656 degrees
f. The total impedance of the circuit, found from equation 24.32, is
Z = V / IT
Z=(
110 V) /
( 0.117557 A)
Z = 935.7152

Example 24.10
The voltage in a step-up transformer. A 120-V line from an AC generator is
connected to the primary of a transformer of 50 turns. If the secondary of the
transformer has 100 turns, what voltage will be found across the secondary of the
transformer?
Initial Conditions
N1 =
50 turns
N2 =

100 turns

V1 =

120 V

i1 =

3A

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

Solution.
The voltage across the secondary, found from equation 24.34, is
V2 = [N2 / N1] V1
V2 = [(

100 )
V2 =

50 ) ]

120 V)

240 V

Example 24.11
The current in a step-up transformer. If the current in the primary of example 24.10 is
3.00 A, what is the current in the secondary?
Initial Conditions
See initial conditions in example 24.10
Solution.
The current in the secondary, found from equation 24.38, is
I2 = [N1 / N2] i1
I2 = [(

50 )
I2 =

100 ) ]

3 A)

1.5 A

Example 24.12
A step-down transformer. You wish to make a transformer that can take the 120 V
from your wall outlet and drop it down to 24.0 V to operate a toy electric train. If there
are 100 turns of wire in the primary how many turns do you need for the secondary?
Initial Conditions
V1 =
120 V
V2 =

N1 =

100 turns

24 V

Solution.
The number of turns in the secondary can be found from equation 24.37 as
N 2 / N 1 = V2 / V 1
N 2 = [ V 2 / V1 ] N 1
N2 = [(

24 V)
N2 =

120 V) ] x

20 turns

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100 turns)

Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

Edition

equation 24.7, is

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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Examples for Chapter 24


Fundamentals of College Physics, 2nd.Ed
Dr. Peter J. Nolan

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