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Values and Behaviors 1

A case study in organizational value communication: understanding


value/behavior relationship.

Nancy M. Desjardins

A Thesis
Submitted in Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of
Master of Science
Central Connecticut State University
New Britain, Connecticut

April 2002
Thesis Advisor
Glynis Fitzgerald, Ph.D
Department of Communication

Values and Behaviors 2

ABSTRACT
This thesis seeks to determine if organizational values and defined behaviors
that are communicated throughout the organization can increase employee
satisfaction, commitment and performance outcomes. This research explains
how these values are defined by an organization and ways that values and
expected behaviors can be communicated to improve employee outcomes.
Past research on values and behaviors within organizations is reviewed. The
communication of stated organizational values and the relationship with
employee outcomes is evaluated between two departments within a Health
Care Organization (HCO). Questions from the Organizational Culture Survey
and the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire are combined to measure
employee satisfaction, morale and perceived involvement in decision-making.
The organization provided data on employee absenteeism, turnover and
performance ratings. A comparative analysis was conducted by performing
an Independent Sample Test and Chi-Square which supported one of the six
hypotheses presented; departments that clearly define and communicate
stated organization values have employees that perceive they are more
involved and more participative in decision-making.

Values and Behaviors 3


CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Organizational values are a topic of discussion in many major
organizations. These values can, if properly communicated, guide the
behaviors that support an organization's mission and vision. Research has
shown that in organizations where organizational values are shared by
employees there are improved performance outcomes in for-profit
organizations (Melgino, Ravlin & Adkins, 1989). These improved
performance outcomes can increase an organizations ability to compete
within its market. With the onset of the Health Care Reform, health care
organizations, traditionally not for-profit structures needed to become more
competitive and therefore incorporate for profit business strategies. Eisenberg
(1996) notes that the health care industry has nurtured a historic immunity to
entrepreneurship (p.17). For the subject health care organization,
incorporating stated organizational values that all employees were expected
to embrace became a new business strategy.
Through this research, the relationship between clearly defined and
communicated organizational values within a hospital department and
performance outcomes of that department will be investigated. Past research
on culture, values and behaviors will be reviewed to determine the best
approach and methodology to support and measure the hypotheses.
Specifically, departmental performance measures and communication

Values and Behaviors 4


surveys will be employed with two clinical departments within a Health Care
Organization (HCO) to demonstrate that a department that defines and
communicates stated organizational values will have better departmental
performance outcomes and higher employee satisfaction than one that does
not. These two departments have similarities in their responsibilities and
where they are geographically located within the hospital yet perform different
functions.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Culture
Definition of Cultures. As organizational culture research advanced,
researchers clarified the definition of culture to include the pattern of beliefs
and expectations shared by the organizations members---which produce
norms that shape the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization
(Schwatz & Davis, 1981); symbols, language and ideology (Goldhaber, 1993);
and the collection of central values hidden in the shared myths and symbols
of that domain (Broms & Gahmberg, 1983). For this research, Charles
Conrads (1994) definition of culture will be applied:
Cultures are communicative creations. They emerge through
communication, are maintained through communication, and change
through the communicative acts of their members. Simultaneously,
communication is a cultural creation. Persons perceptions of the
cultures in which they live (both their overall culture and their

Values and Behaviors 5


organizational cultures) form the situations that guide and constrain
their communication. (p.31)
Research on culture and subcultures by Bantz (1993), Gertz (1973),
Siehl (1985), and Weick (1985) supports that multiple cultures exist within an
organization. Rochen (1998) argues that culture consists of the links stock of
ideas that define a set of commonsense beliefs about what is right, what is
natural, what works. These commonsense beliefs are not universal, but are
instead typically bounded by time as well as by space(p. 131). If an
organization has multiple hours of operation and departments, they are more
likely to have more cultures within their organization. These multiple cultures
are often referred to as subcultures. Maanen and Barley (1985) stated:
More commonly, organizations intentionally differentiate their members by
assigning them relatively insulated roles and position-specific niches. When
these niches are occupied by people facing similar problems, who have both
opportunities and motives for interaction, organizational subcultures are
born(p. 38).
Discovery of Organizational Culture. Culture had previously only
been identified as a system that exists in an organization until Pettigrew
(1979). He broadened the scope of organizational culture to reflect social
processes by examining concepts that in the past were associated with the
fields of sociology and anthropology. These concepts include beliefs,
ideology, symbols, language, ritual and myths. More importantly, he specified
humans as the creator of these messages and therefore they create meaning

Values and Behaviors 6


within the process of symbolic interaction. Symbolic interactions are actions
that create meaning. Pettigrew based his conclusions on data collected in an
empirical study of a private British boarding school that studied the social
dramas that occurred from the birth of the school in 1934 through 1975. This
longitudinal study provided data about the school during its transformation
over a forty-year span. The data revealed that social processes impact
organizational development and create the culture within an organization.
The field of Anthropology continued to play an important role in the
further development of organizational culture research. Hart and Scott (1989)
stated:
Management discovered culture in the 1980s, but it was not precisely a
discovery. Rather, management learned that some well-established
anthropological concepts could be applied to modern organizations to
improve their performance. The most important of these concepts was
culture, and it was understood by anthropologists as a system of
shared symbolic meaning expressed by ritual, myths, legends, heroic
sagas, fictions, and fairy tales. (p.101)

Culture & Change. Research has indicated organizations are held


together by cultures and argue that cultures can be managed (OReilly,
1989;Safford, 1988). However, Weick (1983) in a response to an article in
Fortune magazine on managing corporate culture, states that organizations

Values and Behaviors 7


dont have cultures, they are cultures, and this is why culture is so difficult to
change (p. 125).
Saffold (1988) researched culture and its impact on organizational
performance. His work compared and contrasted the trait-strength framework
and the cultural performance framework. According to Saffold, The traitstrength framework relates positive cultural trait profiles to enhanced
organizational performance in proportion to the strength with which particular
cultural traits are manifested (p. 547). He challenged Dennisons (1984)
strong culture hypothesis that supports the trait-strength framework. The
strong culture hypothesis states that if an organization has a strong culture
then they will be successful as measured by continued success and superior
performance. However, Saffold revealed five major flaws that include:
1. the assumption of a unitary culture;
2. the ambiguity of strength as a measure of culture;
3. dependence upon composite culture profiles;
4. insufficient attention to culture-performance links; and
5. the use of inadequate methodologies.
Saffold suggested the use of the cultural performance framework. This
framework description is:
As an organizations culture evolves, existing elements are selected for
retention (historical penetration) and new elements. Drawn from both
the larger social, technological, and cultural environments and
organizations own outcomes, are added (alloplastic flexibility). The

Values and Behaviors 8


implication of all elements for the organization are eventually
elaborated, and these become embodied in specific artifacts
(artifactual penetration) with varying degrees of mutual consistency
(elemental coherence). Divergent task characteristics and differential
interaction among members lead to formation of multiple subcultures
(sociological penetration). Human behavior within these subcultures is
influenced in proportion to the cultures psychological penetration and
symbolic potency. (p. 554)
Psychological penetration is accomplished when an organizations employees
internalize the values of the culture or subcultures. If these elements are
present, what has been described is not a strong culture but a high
performing culture that links performance outcomes to an organizations
strategic position.
OReilly (1989) assessed the culture of innovative organizations that
included New United Motors Manufacturing Incorporated (NUMMI), General
Motors, Toyota, 3M and Johnson & Johnson. He defined culture as a
combination of social control systems and norms. OReilly describes a social
control system as a set of common expectations that are shared by workers
who care about each other. Norms will vary dependent on the types of
organizations and workers. He stated, Norms are expectations about what
are appropriate or inappropriate behaviors (OReilly, p. 12). To determine
the norms that are perceived to promote innovation, over 500 managers were
surveyed. The norms that the managers listed can be characterized into 2

Values and Behaviors 9


groupings: (1) norms to promote creation and (2) norms to promote
implementation. Norms to promote creation include risk taking, rewards for
change and openness. Norms to promote implementation include common
goals, autonomy and belief in action. OReilly took these norms and
assessed the success of 3Ms innovative performance. 3M not only had
similar norms (promote creation and implementation) but also was committed
to communicating and supporting the resources needed to maintain their
norms for innovation. 3M specifically defined the behaviors that they wanted
their employees to model. OReilly concluded that there are four factors to
developing and managing culture within an organization:
1. participation: employees are encouraged to feel involved and therefore
feel they are valued.
2. management as symbolic action: managers behave in a way that
supports the messages they are stating.
3. information from others: consistent messages are given by all employees,
management and peers.
4. comprehensive reward system: recognizing and rewarding employees for
exhibiting behaviors consistent with messages from the organization.
When these four factors are present, an organization is better able to manage
their organizational culture.
Values
Definition of Values. In its broadest sense, values refer to the relative
worth of a quality or object. Similar to organizational culture, many definitions
of organizational values can be found. Agle and Caldwell (1999) performed a
literature review of over 200 articles related to values and found many

Values and Behaviors 10


different definitions for values existed. However, there was enough similarity
within the definitions that researchers concluded it a central construct. Agle
and Caldwell summarized that despite the many definitions they agreed with
Schwartz and Bilsky (1987) findings. Schwartz and Bilsky identified the
following common threads in defining values: (1) concepts or beliefs; (2)
desirable end states or behaviors that transcend specific situations; (3) guide
selection or evaluation of behavior and events; and (4) ordered by relative
importance. For this research value will be defined as qualities exhibited by
people (Mankoff, 1974).
Values can also be higher order values (HOVs) or lower order values
(LOVs). HOVs are broader values that remain stable and encompass an
organization. According to Ju and Cushman (1995), HOVs should stay
relatively stable, even in a highly turbulent and chaotic environment(p. 109).
LOVs are more flexible and represent current management strategies. Unlike
HOVs, LOVs should be flexible enough to adapt to environmental
changes(Ju & Cushman, p.109). An example of a higher order value is
respect for employees. Increase sales by 10% is an example of a lower order
value.
Behaviors. Values and behaviors are often used together but they are
not synonymous. Values provide us with guidelines for behavior. Values
direct our behavior so that it is consistent with the achievement if the values
we hold which equals value congruence. Values are determinants of virtually
all kinds of behavior that could be called social behavior or social action,

Values and Behaviors 11


attitudes and ideology, evaluations, moral judgments and justification of self
and others, comparisons of self with others, presentations of self to others,
and attempts to influence others (Guth & Tagiuri, 1965, p.123). For example,
a customer friendly value may be exhibited through the behaviors of
smiling, giving eye contact and saying thank you. Researchers (Fudge &
Schlacter, 1999; Luthens, 1995) identified behavior modification as a way to
improve employee performance.
Luthens and Kreitner (1995), developed the term organizational
behavior modification as a behavioral approach to manage employees and is
summarized in the following 5 steps: (1) identification of performance
behaviors, (2) measurement of the behavior, (3) functional analysis of the
behavior, (4) development of an intervention strategy and (5) evaluation to
ensure performance improvement. The researchers concluded that the
model has also been directly tested and has been found to have positive
performance results in both manufacturing and service organization (retail
and hospital) (Luthens, p. 219).
Fudge and Schlacter (1999) assessed motivating employees to
behave ethically by using the Expectancy Theory. Expectancy Theory is a
formula for motivational force that was developed by Tolmen and Levin in the
1930s and then applied to an organizational setting by Vroom in 1964
(Porter, Lawler, & Hackman, 1975). Motivational force is equal to expectancy
and the valence of outcomes. People will be motivated if they believe it will

Values and Behaviors 12


improve their performance and they will get certain highly, valued job
outcomes.
Fudge and Schlacter evaluated the results of 50 Harvard MBA
Program graduate interviewees. The interviews, conducted by Badaracoo
and Webb (1995) as discussed by Fudge & Schlacter, asked the graduates to
assess their companys ethics training programs. They found that formal
ethics programs were ineffective if the company itself did not promote ethical
behaviors. Since behaviors are a major component of values, defining,
promoting and communicating behaviors to employees are essential to
obtaining shared organizational values.
Values & Communication. The Organizational Communication
Culture method for communicating in organizations (Bantz, 1993) identifies
two sources of communicating messages in an organization: (1)
communicative interactions and (2) documents. Communicative interactions
include verbal and non-verbal communication. Documents, which is the
communication method that will be evaluated in this research, includes but
are not limited to memos, letters and procedure manuals. When documents
are used by employees within an organization to communicate, these
documents become documentary interactions. According to Johnson (1977),
documents are messages that are more enduring than communicative
interactions because they are permanent and last longer. Johnson goes on
to state, When this potential is realized such messages have a powerful role
in the construction of meanings and expectations in an organization (p.46).

Values and Behaviors 13


Organizational Values. Researchers, in the study of values, have
tried to identify organizational values (Mankoff, 1974), analyze value
congruence (Enz, 1988; McDonald & Gandz, 1985; Meglino, Ravlin, &
Adkins, 1989; Posner, Kouzes, & Schmidt, 1985) and identify competing
values (Quinn & McGrath, 1985).
Mankoff (1974) administered the Rokeach Value Survey to identify the
value systems of a sample of an accounting firms partners and their spouses,
managers and their spouses, and staff accountants to identify individual value
differences and the impact these differences have regarding communication
and motivation. The results revealed that dependent on the persons role in
the organization or if they were the spouse of an employee, they individually
ranked the values differently. For example, social recognition was ranked
higher by organizational superiors than the staff accountants. The survey
results are helpful for organizations to understand their employees individual
values and how congruent they are, or are not, with the organizational values
so they can incorporate value-based change strategies into the organization.
As cited by Mankoff, Charles Hollen (1972) pointed out that changing
attitudes indirectly through changing values would appear more for
persuaders in that a number of attitudes may be influenced in one fell
economical swoop through the manipulation of a single value (p. 26).
A managers awareness of their employees individual value sets will enhance
a mangers ability to create and implement a value-based change strategy.

Values and Behaviors 14


In the 1980s research was conducted regarding value congruence.
McDonald and Gandz (1985) interviewed forty-five senior managers and
management consultants to generate a relevant list of shared values for the
modern business corporation. From the analysis of their interview data, they
proposed four grouping of values: task oriented values, relationship-oriented
values, change-related values and status quo values. As noted by McDonald
and Gandz:
The analysis is consistent with earlier work by Robert Quinn and
Michael McGrath, who applied a competing values perspective to
derive four organizational forms, each with distinct information
processing preferences: the market (emphasizing efficiency and
productivity), the adhocracy (emphasizing transformation and growth),
the clan (emphasizing moral and group cohesion), and the hierarchy
(emphasizing stability and the execution of regulations). (p. 70)
McDonald and Gandz also suggested that organizations could be classified
by these groupings by looking at the values that the organization emphasizes
and rewards.

They did note that there are organizations whose values

represented a more heterogeneous cultural mosaic and did not point towards
one of the four poles suggesting that more research is needed in this area.
Lastly, their research also looked at the make-values and buy-values
of organizations. The make-value organizations socialized their new hires
towards their values while the buy-value organizations hired employees that
already displayed value congruence with the organizations value set.

Values and Behaviors 15


McDonald and Gandzs research has significant implications for managers.
Managers must be held accountable for their outcomes and helping
employees to understand the value set of their organization. Managers need
to ensure that department values are congruent with organizational values
and then communicate to their employees how they can behave to support
both sets of values.
Research conducted by Posner, Kouzes and Schmidt (1985) analyzed
the importance of the link between executive managers, middle level
managers, and supervising managers personal values and organizational
values. Questionnaires were sent to over 6,000 managers to assess their
personal values and expectations. In summary, their study revealed that
shared values are related to:
1. Feelings of personal success employees experienced feelings of
success and ability to reach their ambitions.
2. Organizational commitment employees reported that they were
confident that they would remain with their current employer for at least
5 years.
3. The self confidence in understanding personal and organizational
goals as the perception of shared values increased so did the
employees awareness and understanding of the organizations goals
4. Ethical behavior the higher the perception of shared values the
greater the behavior to act ethically.
5. Feelings of job and personal stress employees reported higher levels
of home stress when their values were not congruent with
organizational values.
6. Organizational goals goals of the organization increased in
importance as perception of shared values increased. They also
ranked the goal of morale higher.

Values and Behaviors 16


7. Organizational stakeholders as an employees feeling of shared
values increases so does their concern for organizational stakeholders.
Overall the study revealed that managers that have congruent personal and
organizational values produce positive outcomes for an organization that
include clarity of an organizations vision, mission and goals to increased
commitment to the organizations.
Organizational Values & Individual Performance Outcomes.
Meglino, Ravlin, and Adkins (1989) researched the relationship between
value congruence and individual outcomes. They surveyed over 170 workers
of a large industrial products manufacturing plant. Findings indicate that
when there is congruence between supervisor and employee values,
satisfaction and commitment are higher. They noted that the value
congruence with the supervisor appeared to be a more significant factor than
congruence with the organizational cultural values with regards to satisfaction
and commitment.
Other value-based research examined the correlation between
departments with perceived congruent values with their organizational and
the ability to possess power within the organization (Enz, 1988; Posner,
Kouzes, & Schmidt, 1985). Departments that are able to link shared
departmental goals with organizational goals have the ability to possess more
organizational power and are more likely to be involved in decision making
processes.
Enz (1988) hypothesized that top managers will ascribe more power to
departments with perceived value congruence. In her study she found a

Values and Behaviors 17


significant relationship to the greater perceived value congruency between
top managers and department members, the greater the perceived power
within the organization by that department. Enz suggests that there may be
more perceived power within an organization because the values are
communicated by top management and not necessarily because they are
congruent. She recommends more research is necessary in the area of
communicating values successfully.
Just as values can be used to manage and manipulate change, values
can also compete if they are not aligned with the organizational values. As
cited by Quinn and McGrath (1985), the Competing Values Approach (CVA)
is a meta theory that emerged from a series of empirical studies and
conceptual papers done at the Rockfeller Colleges Institute for Government
and Policy Studies at the State University of New York at Albany (p 317).
CVA is a theory based upon human information processing and assumes that
all abstract knowledge is organized around a consistent framework of
perceptual values and that the articulation of these values can do much to
further human understanding. The CVA theory posits that there are four
information-processing situations that are based on cues that are either novel,
recognizable, long term or short term. Dependent on a persons need for
achievement versus need for affiliation will determine if a person takes
immediate action or none on cues they are receiving. A person will choose
values dependent on the situation.

Values and Behaviors 18


Employee Satisfaction, Commitment & Departmental
Performance Outcomes. As previously discussed, communication of
values and behaviors can lead to value congruence which increases
employee satisfaction and commitment. Research past and present has
focused on departmental performance outcomes that includes overall
employee satisfaction and commitment and its impact on turnover rates and
absenteeism (Porter, Steers, Mowday & Boulin, 1974; Savery, 1989; Steers,
1977).
Porter, Steers, Mowday & Boulin (1974) performed a longitudinal study
of relationship of organizational commitment, employee satisfaction and their
relationship to employee turnover. At different time intervals, psychiatric
technicians were administered an organization commitment survey and the
job descriptive index (JDI) to measure satisfaction. Comparative analysis
was done between employees that stayed and employees that left. The
analysis revealed that there is an inverse relationship between employee
satisfaction and turnover as well as employee commitment and turnover.
There was a stronger relationship between employee commitment and
turnover.
Steers (1977) continued the research on employee commitment and
expanded the organizational outcomes to include absenteeism and employee
performance. Steers explains:
Employees who are highly committed to the goals of an organization
and have positive attitudes toward it should be more likely to have a

Values and Behaviors 19


strong desire to come to work and contribute toward goal attainment.
Finally commitment was hypothesized to be related to performance
under the assumption that committed employees would expend greater
effort the job. Steers studied hospital employees, scientists and
engineers using a model that consisted of antecedents of commitment
and outcomes of commitment. (p.48)
Through the use of questionnaires, Steers surveyed hospital employees and
a group of scientists and engineers to determine antecedents of commitment
and outcomes of commitment. The results for antecedents of commitment
included need for achievement, task identity, attitudes toward the organization
and perceived personal importance to the organization. Steers concluded,
strong support was found for the proposition that commitment is associated
with increases in an employees desire and intent to remain with an
organization. More importantly, commitment was also significantly and
inversely related to employee turnover (p. 54). Steers also noted a strong
inverse relationship between commitment and absenteeism in one of his
study groups. However, Steers found a weak relationship between
commitment and performance which he contributed to the organization being
non profit and high performance was not as relevant to employee roles.
Savery (1989) randomly surveyed 255 people to look at factors related
to job satisfaction that can be directly impacted by the management of an
organization. Savery also wanted to continue the argument that low job
satisfaction will lead to frustration, and the employee will leave if possible. If

Values and Behaviors 20


the employee does not leave, it will lead to ill health and increased
absenteeism. To measure this he collected the amount of alcohol and
tobacco that was consumed by the participants. Saverys study revealed that
employees with lower job satisfaction had poorer health, consumed more
alcohol and smoked more tobacco. Savery concludes, Low job satisfaction
for an individual may well affect the profitability of the firm as well as its
productivity, since the effect of low job satisfaction on an individual makes the
person feel unhealthy and hence more likely to need time off (p.30).
Hypotheses
Communicating values and behaviors is a common theme throughout
the previous reviewed literature. Some organizations state their corporate
values and then align their department values to them creating value
congruence while other organizations values are more implicit. By aligning
organizational, departmental and employee values and behaviors, research
has identified positive outcomes in employee satisfaction, commitment,
absenteeism, turnover, morale and perception of feeling involved in an
organizations decision-making process (Enz, 1988; Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins,
1989; Porter, Steers, Mowday & Boulin, 1974; Posner, Kouzes & Schmidt,
1985; Savery, 1989; Steers, 1977).
This research project will expand on the values and behaviors research.
Many organizations today define the values of the organization that they
expect their employees to embrace and model by stating them. This research
will examine how departments align themselves with an organizations stated

Values and Behaviors 21


values. It will look at a HCO that has stated organizational values in place
and will compare two departments performance outcomes: one department
that has defined and communicated the expected behaviors that support the
organizations values and one department that has not defined the expected
behaviors that support the organizations values. As John Gardner (1963)
described, Our problem is not to find better values but to be faithful to those
we profess(p.53). The proposed research will examine the values a HCO
professes and analyzes how individual departments or subcultures as
described by Maanen & Barley (1985) define these values, share these
values and then compare their departmental performance outcomes. This
research can contribute to an organizations understanding of communicating
stated values in the organization with the ultimate outcome of achieving
higher performance.
The research of and Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins (1989) and Posner,
Kouzes & Schmidt (1985) suggests that employee satisfaction, commitment
and morale are higher when employees values are congruent with their
supervisors and organization. Therefore, the following is suggested:
H1: Departments that clearly define and communicate organizational
values have employees that report higher job satisfaction.
H2: Departments that clearly define and communicate stated
organizational values have employees with higher morale.
Porter, Steers, Mowday, and Boulin (1974), Savery (1989) and Steers
(1977) expanded the research on employee job satisfaction and commitment

Values and Behaviors 22


to include the inverse relationship to employee turnover rate and absenteeism
which suggests the following hypotheses:
H3: Departments that clearly define and communicate organizational
values have a lower employee turnover rate.
H4: Departments that clearly define and communicate organizational
values have lower absenteeism.
Based on research of Enz (1988) and Posner, Kouzes, & Schmidt
(1985) with regards to congruent employee values and the relationship to
employees perceiving they have more power and are involved in the decision
making process, the following is proposed:
H5: Departments that clearly define and communicate stated
organizational values have employees that perceive they are more
involved and participate in decision-making.
Research done by Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins (1989), OReilly (1989)
and Saffold (1988) found a relationship between value congruence and
employee outcomes. The following hypothesis is suggested:
H6: Departments that clearly define and communicate organizational
values have higher overall employee performance ratings.

Values and Behaviors 23


CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY
Subjects
Healthcare & Stated Values. This research took place at a tertiary
care, teaching, Level 1 Trauma Center that has 950 licensed beds. This HCO
was chosen for 2 reasons:
1. They instituted stated organizational wide values 4 years ago (See
Appendix A) and senior leaderships perception is that some departments
have embraced these values and others have not.
2. The primary investigator is employed by the HCO and had easy access to
the subjects and data.
The study involved two comparison groups, the Respiratory Care
(Group A) and Radiology Departments(Group B). Purposive sampling was
used as there are particular characteristics that are needed for the study:
common stated organizational values and one department that had further
defined behaviors that support the stated organizational values. The two
groups are departments that have similar departmental profiles:
70 80 Full Time Equivalents (FTEs)
full time and part time employees;
operate 24 hours per day, 7 day per week;
service inpatients and outpatients; and
educational level ranges from high school to masters prepared.
Group A is a Respiratory Care Department that has attempted to more
clearly define and communicate specific behaviors that support the values of

Values and Behaviors 24


the organization. These behaviors are observable and measurable (See
Appendix B). When the organization initiated stated values into the
organization, this department formed a project team to assess the stated
values and their meanings for each role within their department. There are 72
FTEs and 4 roles in the Respiratory Care Department: Respiratory Care
Practitioner, Flight Respiratory Care Practitioner, Rehab Practitioner and
Office Support Staff. Each role had representatives on a project team and
they were accountable for facilitating the development of each roles specific
observable and measurable behaviors that supported the stated
organizational values. Value measurement tools were then created for each
role. Mandatory education was provided for all the staff to explain the
expected employee behaviors that supported the stated organizational values
and to communicate to them that they would be held accountable for these
behaviors. They included the assessment of these behaviors into their yearly
performance evaluations. The employees of this department evaluate each
other annually on these behaviors. This process is similar to the O.B. Mod
that was developed by Luthens and Kreitner (1995) as discussed earlier.
Group B is a Radiology Department with 78 FTEs. They have similar
roles within their department: Radiology Technicians, Radiology Support
Associate, Radiology Technician Trainer, Registered Nurse, and Office
Support Staff. They have not defined any expected behaviors that support
the organizations stated values for these roles but instead rely on the
organizational definitions.

Values and Behaviors 25


According to the hypotheses, Group A that has developed a document
that defined the behaviors to support the organizational values should report:
(1) higher job satisfaction, (2) higher morale, (3) lower employee turnover
rate, (4) lower absenteeism, (5) perceive they are more involved in decision
making and (6) have higher overall employee performance ratings.

Variables
Independent Variable. The independent variable is the defined and
communicated expected behaviors that support the stated values of the
organization. Hartford Hospital has nine stated organizational values and
conceptual definitions (See Appendix A).
Dependent Variables. The dependent variables and their definitions
include the following:
1. Turnover Rate number of employees that have left that organization
during Calendar Year 2000.
2. Employee satisfaction a departments overall employee perception of job
satisfaction.
3. Absenteeism number of hours that employees have been absent from
work during Fiscal Year 2000.
4. Employee morale Defined as a good working relationship, respect for
workers, fairness, family, trust and organizational character(Downs,
DeWine & Greenbaum, 1994, p264).
5. Involvement in decision-making a departments overall employee
perception that he/she is involved in the decision making process and that
management encourages this involvement (Downs et el, 1994)
6. Employee Performance Evaluations a departments employee ratings
based on the employees achieving their established goals, which includes

Values and Behaviors 26


exhibiting behaviors that support the stated values of the organization for
Fiscal Year 2000.

Procedures
Independent Variable. Measurement of the independent variable
was that a department had developed observable and measurable behaviors
that support the stated values of the organization. This is measured by a
department having developed and distributed a document to communicate
defined behaviors that employees are expected to embrace in support of the
stated organizational values. For example, behaviors for an employee in
Group A that support the stated value Human Resource: We support the
professional and personal growth of employees in their pursuit of the
hospitals mission include:
1. Relates specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and timely
goals to team and department goals.
2. Acts as a preceptor for new employees
3. Attends all mandatory education for JCAHO, OSHA, and the
Department of Health.
Group A has developed a list that is included in every employees
performance evaluation process (See Appendix B).
Dependent Variables. The Organization Communication Survey tool
was used to measure the dependent variables: (1) morale (2) involvement.
This tool includes 11 questions taken from the Organizational Communication
Survey (OCS) questions that measure the dimensions of morale and
involvement (See Appendix C). Questions 2 through 8 are summed to

Values and Behaviors 27


analyze the variable morale and questions 9 through 12 are summed to
analyze the variable involvement. The OCS tool subscale that measures
morale and involvement has reported Cronback alphas ranging from .63-.91
(Downs, DeWine & Greenbaum, 1994). Validity was confirmed by comparing
the scale data with 45-minute critical incident interviews and observations
(Downs et al.). Employee satisfaction was measured using a global question
taken from the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ). The
survey tool included an introductory cover letter. The survey was distributed
and collected at department wide meetings to ensure a high return rate.
The HCOs Human Resource Department collects and maintains the
data for turnover rate and the performance evaluations through the use of a
software product called HRStream. Data was entered in by Human Resource
Consultants. This data was reported at the department level with no
employee identifiers attached. Turnover rate was calculated by subtracting
the number of employees that were still working in each department at the
end of the year from the beginning of the year and dividing that by two. This
gave the average employees, which was then used as the basis of the
calculations for percent turnover.
The Finance Department at the HCO maintains the absenteeism hours
through the payroll system. Data is entered weekly on each employee as part
of the payroll process. This data include the total hours worked and the sick
hours for each department.

Values and Behaviors 28


Analysis
Comparative Analysis. The analysis included looking at the
difference between Group A and B. The dependent variables morale,
involvement and satisfaction are being measured using quantitative, interval
data. The survey results were analyzed using the Statistical Package for
Social Sciences (SPSS) version 10.0. Independent sample tests were run for
each variable by department, gender, age and education level. An
Independent sample test was not done by level of service due to the sample
size. The Levines Test for equality of variance was used due to the variance
in sample size between the two departments.
Inferential Statistics. The dependent variables, turnover,
performance evaluation and absenteeism, are also quantitative and were
analyzed for significance using the chi-square.

Values and Behaviors 29


CHAPTER 3

RESULTS
Survey Results
A total of 152 surveys were distributed. Sixty-five surveys were
distributed to group A and twenty-nine surveys were returned with a return
rate of forty-five percent. Eighty-seven surveys were distributed to the group
B with forty-five surveys returned with a fifty-two percent return rate. Overall
return rate was forty-nine percent.
The demographic information collected on the survey included gender,
age, education level and employment status. The dependent variables job
satisfaction, employee involvement and morale were all analyzed by gender,
age and education level. There was no statistical significance found in any of
the demographics.
Job Satisfaction. Group statistics revealed a slightly higher mean
for group A (see table1). The Levines test sig. was .730 therefore equal
variances were not assumed. The t-test calculated a Sig. of .198. There is
no significant difference in employee satisfaction when a department defines
and communicates the stated organizational values disconfirming H1.
Employee Morale. A higher mean was reported for Group B not
Group A. The Levines Test Sig. was .042 so equal variance can be assumed
and t-test Sig. was .585. Again no significance was found between two
departments and H2 was disconfirmed.

Values and Behaviors 30


Table 1
Variable
Satisfaction
Group A
Group B
Involvement
Group A
Group B
Morale
Group A
Group B

Mean

Levine Sig.

t-test Sig.

24
42

3.792
3.524

.730

.198

23
42

12.174
10.405

.449

.030

24
43

18.7917
19.5349

.042

.585

Employee Involvement. Group As mean, 12.174 was significantly


higher than group Bs mean of 10.405, confirming H5. The Levines Test Sig.
was .449 and the equal variances were not assumed. The t-test Sig. was
.030 and the results support H5.

Inferential Statistic Results


Turnover Rate.

During FY 2000, Group A had 8 employees

leave their department, a 9.18% turnover rate. All 8 employees left the
organization. Group B had a total of 14 employees leave their department.
However, 11 of those employees transferred and stayed in the organization.
Since only 2 employees left the organization, the turnover rate for Group B is
1.82%. Group Bs turnover rate is significantly lower than Group As turnover
rate with p < .01 (see table 2) and does not support H3.
Absenteeism. The results of the payroll data revealed no support for
H4. Absenteeism for Group A and Group B equaled two percent. Total hours
worked by Group A were 174,751.8 hours and total sick hours were 3,565

Values and Behaviors 31


hours. For Group B there were 399,448 hours worked of which 8,138.5 were
sick hours. Therefore no further analysis was completed.
Table 2
Chi Square
Expected Cell Frequencies

Group A

Group B

Total

Employees Terminated

10

Employees Stayed

84

104

188

Average # of Employees

88

110

198

Employees Terminated

10

Employees Stayed

80

108

188

Average # of Employees

88

110

198

2.67

X = 6.94
df = 1

.19

.08

p < .01

Observed Cell Frequencies

Chi Square
Employees Terminated
Employees Stayed

Employee Performance Ratings. Group B had a higher percent,


76%, of exemplary performance ratings than Group A, 57%. Effective
performance ratings for Group A were 43% and for Group B were 23%.
Group A did not have an employee with a needs improvement rating and
Group B had one employee that received a needs improvement, 1%. The
relationship between the employee performance evaluations is statistically
significant at the .027 level (see table 3) but this does not support H6.

Values and Behaviors 32


According to these findings, a department that did not clearly define and
communicate organizational values has a higher percent of employees with
exemplary performance ratings.
Table 3
Chi Square
Expected Cell Frequencies

Group A

Group B

Total

Needs Improvement

Effective

25

32

57

Exemplary

53

67

120

Total

79

100

179

Needs Improvement

Effective

34

23

57

Exemplary

45

76

121

Total

79

100

179

Observed Cell Frequencies

Chi Square
X =
Needs Improvement

7.98
Effective

3.24

2.53

df = 2

Exemplary

1.21

1.21

p < .027

Values and Behaviors 33

CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY & FUTURE DIRECTIVES


Summary
This research disconcerted all but one of the hypotheses, H5. This
finding supports that departments, Group A, that clearly define communicated
stated organizational values and behaviors report that they are more involved
and participate in decision making. In addition, the employees also reported
through the ODC survey results that their management encourages this
involvement. This further supports that research of Enz (1988) and Posner,
Kouzes and Schmidt (1985) regarding communicating values successfully
and perceived value congruence relates to employees perceiving they are
involved in the decision making process.
This research did support that Group As employees did have job
satisfaction, M= 3.792, but since it was not significantly higher than Group
Bs, M = 3.524, it did not advance the research of Melgino, Ravlin, & Adkins
(1989).
Both groups communicated the organizational values and definitions at
the organizational level that could explain the null hypothesis in H1, H2, H3,
H4 and H6. The research indicates that there is no significant difference
between the two departments in employee satisfaction, morale, and
absenteeism. In fact, the employee performance ratings and turnover rate

Values and Behaviors 34


are significantly better for Group B than Group A as previously noted.
Supporting the research of Ju and Cushman (1995), defining the values at the
departmental level may make the value too rigid and not flexible to change.
Another reason for the null hypothesis could be that Group Bs
department communicates the values of the organization in other ways that
are more effective, for example through their behavior. Group As department
defined the values at the department level but that doesnt mean that they
embraced their values through their behavior.
The tools that were used by this HCO to communicate their values
were created by an external consultant. There was lack of clarity between
values and behaviors which could cause employee confusion. If the values
are not clearly stated then it would be difficult for any organization to obtain
value congruence and obtain the departmental performance outcomes that
were hypothesized.
Also, the survey tool used to measure the dependent variables never
assessed if the employees knew the values of the organization. Participants
from both Group A and B could have taken this survey without knowing the
values of the organization.

Limitations
There were limitations in this research. One limitation was the survey
distribution. Not all employees attended their team meetings and therefore
the researcher relied on the managers to deliver the survey to the employees

Values and Behaviors 35


that were absent. Group B had better attendance at their staff meetings and
also had a higher survey return rate.
The employee performance evaluation used to measure the variable
performance outcome had many raters therefore decreasing rater reliability.
If the raters did not receive the proper education they may have made
judgments in their ratings which include central tendency, halo, recency of
events and strictness or leniency. These could account for the performance
evaluation results not being a bell shaped curve and the H6 null hypothesis.
Time was also a limitation. A longitudinal study may reveal that the
dependent variables would change as values are communicated and
embraced. Over time, employees perception of being more involved and
participating in decision-making may lead to increased employee satisfaction
and morale. Also due to time limitations only two out of twenty departments
within a HCO were included in the study.
Conclusion
Organizations, for-profit and non-profit, need to carefully review any
current value documents for clarity. They should also assess if their
employees know the values of the organization by asking them. At this HCO,
this could be done annually through their internal employee satisfaction
survey. This assessment would help an organization to understand how well
they are or are not communicating the values of the organization. Once an
assessment is done, the organization should standardize their approach to
further communicate their values. At this organization, Group A did a

Values and Behaviors 36


tremendous amount of work that used a great deal of resources, both people
and time. According to the outcomes of this research, the cost of this work
did not equal any significant benefits when compared to Group B.
Further research is needed in organizational values and how to
communicate them effectively to all employees and how that relates to
performance outcomes. This study only included two groups and future
research should include more groups within an organization. This study did
not separate the management and employee findings to see if there was a
significant difference between the two. Further research is needed to
determine if the leaderships value congruence impacts the results of these
findings greater than further defining the values at the departmental level.

Values and Behaviors 37

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Values and Behaviors 44

Appendix A
BEHAVIORS TO SUPPORT THE VALUES
The following behaviors describe the effective performance level for
Employees, Managers and Senior Managers. Senior Managers include
Collaborative Management Team members, Vice Presidents and
Management Council members. Managers include Directors, Managers,
Supervisors and Team Leaders. Employees include all others. Managers
are accountable for demonstrating Manager and Employee behaviors.
Senior Managers are accountable for demonstrating Senior Manager,
Manager and Employee behaviors.
Patient-centered Care: In all our endeavors, we are guided by the needs
of our patient, creating a partnership that is effective and personal
across the continuum of care.
Employees: Treats the patient as a partner in the medical plan of care.
Listens to and communicates clearly with the patient/customer regarding
needs and monitors their satisfaction. Follows through promptly on
patient/customer inquiries, requests and problems. Looks for opportunities to
promote patient/customer satisfaction.
Managers: Considers underlying patient/customer needs beyond what is
verbalized. Dedicates resources to meet those needs. Develops specialized
approaches when appropriate. Seeks patient/customer input and uses
information gained to drive greater organizational improvement.
Senior Managers: Incorporates consumer market research and focus group
information into strategic plan and goals. Addresses patient/customer needs
with a global, long-term focus. Recommends solutions and new approaches
based on this focus. May trade off immediate or simple solutions based on
their long-term impact.
Continuous Learning: We actively support outstanding programs of
education and research designed to encourage the acquisition of
knowledge and skills that are of value to the organization and the
community.
Employees: Takes responsibility for self-growth. Stays current with new
tools, methods or techniques that could improve organizational and individual
success. Recommends new approaches and welcomes others

Values and Behaviors 45


recommendations for change. Adapts to new practices as they are
introduced.
Managers: Assesses the applicability of current or emerging changes to
present and future organizational needs. Encourages and supports an
environment for self and others to develop.
Senior Managers: Benchmarks other organizations. Maintains and
communicates a thorough understanding of key issues that impact the
organization. Creates a vision of the future and motivates others to develop
the strategies to achieve that vision.
Community: We actively develop partnerships that will improve our
community and, as stewards of a public trust, we ensure informed and
dignified care for all patients regardless of their ability to pay.
Employees: Recognizes the importance of the publics opinion of the
organization. Participates in community activities, (e.g., wellness programs,
community boards, voluntary work, health fairs, job fairs).
Managers: Establishes and/or strengthens partnerships to meet the needs
of the public. Identifies and addresses barriers that impede the success of
partnerships. Follows through to ensure that action is implemented.
Anticipates and informs others of issues or changes in circumstances
affecting the public. Incorporates community needs into goals.
Senior Managers: Participates on the Board of Directors for community
organizations. Endorses the community assessment as part of the
environmental assessment in the strategic planning process. Identifies
community needs that exist inside and outside of the organization. Sees
interrelationships among broad community needs. Considers the global,
long-term consequences of community decisions.
Communication: We strive to acquire and understand information, and
share it clearly and effectively.
Employees: Provides information in a timely manner. Chooses appropriate
ways to provide information. Comprehends written information. Listens
actively. Speaks and writes in a clear, concise and consistent manner.
Considers the other persons point of view. Gives and asks for constructive
performance feedback.
Managers: Exchanges current information with immediate staff. Explains
the organizations vision, mission, values, goals, policies and issues to others.
Reduces complex issues to simple terms. Probes for new ideas. Ensures
communications are appropriate for the audience.

Values and Behaviors 46

Senior Managers: Presents information to the public in a manner that is


timely and that generates confidence and enthusiasm. Builds sufficient
organization-wide communication networks.
Relationships: We develop and strengthen collaborative relationships
with all our customers, including our patients, their families, our
employees, volunteers, medical staff, and our business partners.
Employees: Participates willingly in achieving goals. Respects each person
for the contribution they make to the team. Participates in team decisions and
reinforces and supports those decisions. Maintains the self-confidence of
others.
Managers: Creates an environment where people work together to achieve
goals. Seeks out and honors ideas, viewpoints, expertise and contributions of
others. Demonstrates a willingness to learn from others, including
subordinates and peers. Publicly recognizes team efforts and
accomplishments. Encourages shared ownership for team vision and goals.
Increases the participation of staff to negotiate and achieve common goals.
Senior Managers: Builds collaborative relations with managed care
organizations, regulatory bodies, state agencies, and city and state officials.
Demonstrates support for and models teamwork by personally working
cooperatively with others toward the achievement of goals.
Diversity: We recognize, respect and actively support differences
among individuals and demonstrate this philosophy through our words
and actions.
Employees: Sees self and others as a source of information and creativity.
Shows sensitivity regarding the needs of others. Takes time to understand
others as individuals. Treats others fairly and with dignity. Recognizes the
right of all people to be treated equally. Does not express opinions based on
stereotypes.
Managers: Takes swift and decisive action to stop behaviors on the part of
others that could result in discrimination or inequitable treatment. Provides
learning opportunities for self and others to understand individual differences.
Senior Managers: Incorporates into the strategic planning process current
demographics, the human resource plan for diversity management and
performance development. Ensures that these practices are implemented.
Human Resources: We support the professional and personal growth
of employees in their pursuit of the hospitals mission.

Values and Behaviors 47

Employees: Sets goals, plans how to achieve them, monitors progress and
demonstrates accomplishments. Knows strengths and opportunities for
improvement. Maintains credentials associated with role accountabilities.
Participates in mandatory education and training based on the expectations of
regulatory bodies. Supports the professional and personal growth of others.
Managers: Ensures that the competence of all employees is assessed,
maintained, demonstrated, documented and improved continually.
Encourages others to learn from their mistakes. Orients others regarding
specified roles and how the roles support goals. Encourages compliance with
mandatory training and education. Assists in managing others performance,
facilitates performance development opportunities, coaches others through
constructive feedback, takes corrective action when necessary and appraises
performance.
Senior Managers: Ensures goal alignment. Generates information that is
useful in achieving goals. Allows time and resources for self and others to
participate in growth opportunities.
Organizational Ethics: We are guided by ethical values that emphasize
honesty, fairness, dignity, and respect for the individual.
Employees: Acts in accordance with the organizations code of conduct.
Reports potential ethics violations to management. Considers the impact of
ones actions on others before taking action. Takes a stand, but is willing to
change position when provided with new information. Respects confidentiality
in all communications. Acts in the best interest of the organization.
Managers: Acknowledges the organizations Ethics Committee as a vehicle
for addressing patient ethics issues. Recognizes ethics issues in
management decisions. Encourages others to act responsibly in uncertain
situations. Follows through on promises and commitments. Displays
compassion while making difficult decisions. Considers the effects of ethics
violations on the organization, on oneself and on others. Leads by example.
Senior Managers: Interprets the organizations ethics standards, code of
conduct and other relevant policies. Creates an environment where self and
others can openly admit mistakes. Considers ethics issues as they affect
patients, customers, communities, society and the professions. Counsels
individuals in situations where ethics issues arise. Demonstrates
uncompromising responsibility for preventing harm to people and the
environment. Creates a nondiscriminatory environment.

Values and Behaviors 48

Superior Performance: We strive for superior performance in all that we


do, to preserve the hospitals clinical, organizational and financial
strength.
Employees: Accepts accountability for achieving goals. Aligns daily actions
with goals. Asks questions and continuously improves ways of doing things.
Displays pride, dependability, open-mindedness and curiosity. Approaches
challenges with confidence and perseverance. Uses appropriate information
to make decisions and take action. Does things before being asked to or
forced to by events. Adapts to changes in the workplace.
Managers: Holds self and others accountable for goals. Identifies trends,
predicts impacts, and makes appropriate modifications. Gathers data from
multiple sources, examines data from multiple perspectives and seeks
alternative ways to act quickly and decisively. Makes best use of resources.
Promotes accountability. Seeks ways for the organization to respond
appropriately to competitive challenges. Ensures that decisions are made at
the appropriate organizational level. Coaches others through the phases for
managing change. Uses technology effectively and efficiently.
Senior Managers: Introduces ideas that help the organization respond to
changing market needs. Modifies goals in response to changing market
conditions. Makes decisions based on long-term impact, not short-term
expediency. Moves easily from strategic issues to tactical ones. Visualizes
the future, including its opportunities and threats. Strives to remove
organizational constraints. Reassures others after setbacks.

Values and Behaviors 49

Appendix B
DEPARTMENT OF RESPIRATORY CARE/RCP ASSESSMENT SHEET
PATIENT-CENTERED CARE: In all endeavors, we are guided by the needs of
our patient, creating a partnership that is effective and personal across the
continuum of care.
Description: Treats the patient as a partner in the medical plan of care.
Listens to and communicates clearly with the patient/customer regarding needs
and monitors their satisfaction. Follows through promptly on patient/customer
inquire requests and problems. Looks for opportunities to promote
patient/customer satisfaction.
Effective Performance
Exemplary Performance
(2 or more to meet exemplary)
Maintains confidentiality.
Resource for >2 specialties
(e.g.:Jet, Full
Divides assignments in an appropriate
and fair manner in order to accomplish
Bronch, MEE, Consultant,
Nitric Oxide).
>90% of work ordered as staffing allows.
Assures patient continuity of care.
Seeks opportunities to
improve customer
Demonstrates knowledge of patient care
plan.
satisfaction.
Follow through with patient care plans
Assist an support clinician in
within and across teams.
role responsibilities.
Offers suggestions for changes in
therapy based on changing patient
needs.

Able to prioritize workload and


accommodate changes in assignment.
Demonstrates ability to troubleshoot
patient/clinical/equipment scenarios.
Addresses patient/customer inquires
requests, needs and problems promptly.
CONTINUOUS LEARNING: We actively support outstanding programs of
education and research designed to encourage the acquisition of knowledge
and skills that are of value to the organization and the community.
Description: Takes responsibility for self-growth. Stays current with new tools,
methods or techniques that could improve organizational and individual
success. Recommends new approach and welcome others recommendations
for change. Adapts to new practices as they are introduced.

Values and Behaviors 50


Effective Performance

Demonstrates an openness to learn &


teach peers.
Supports and contributes to a learning
environment (i.e.: team, HCT, special
projects, conference summaries).
Attends department Inservices and
required HH training.

Exemplary Performance
(2 or more to meet exemplary)
Gives formal IS

Working on posts BS degree


or has acquired degree.
Utilizes HH offered nonmandatory educational

opportunities. (e.g.: EAP,


PDC, computer)
Member of professional
organization.
COMMUNITY: We actively develop partnership that will improve our community
and, as stewards of a public trust, we ensure informed and dignified care for all
patients regardless of their ability to pay.
Description: Recognizes the importance of the publics opinion of the
organization. Participates in community activities, (e.g.: wellness programs,
community boards, voluntary work, health fairs, job fairs).
Effective Performance
Exemplary Performance
As stated above
Promotes Hartford Hospital
volunteerism.
Leadership role in community
activity.
COMMUNICATION: We strive to acquire and understand information, and
share it clearly and effectively.
Description: Provides information in a timely manner. Chooses appropriate
ways to provide information. Comprehends written information. Listens
actively. Speaks and writes in a clear, concise and consistent manner.
Considers the other persons point of view. Gives and asks for constructive
performance feedback.
Effective Performance
Exemplary Performance
Functions as TL and accurately
Proactive approach in
represent the teams needs.
communicating
problems/concerns & solving
problems.
Uploads and Downloads in a timely
manner.
Keeps co-workers informed by sharing
all relevant information in a timely
manner.
Follows 5 Basic Principles.
Attends TL meeting and accurately
represents the team needs.
Effective interpersonal

Values and Behaviors 51


skills(professionalism)
Gives thorough report demonstrating,
understanding of patient/disease
process/treatment rationale.
Communicates problems/concerns
regarding patient condition to HCT,
oncoming shift and TL, if applicable.
Communicates problems/issues
regarding staffing (e.g.: specialty
resource, oncoming shift, and additional
resource).
Consistently follows written
communication guidelines per protocol
(Progress notes, order generation).
Documents pertinent information in
patient condition or behavior.
Consistently documents care plan (e.g.:
24-hour vent sheet, cystic, rehab).
RELATIONSHIPS: We develop and strengthen collaborative relationships with
all our customers, including our patients, their families, our employees,
volunteers, medical staff, and our business partners.
Description: Participates willingly in achieving goals. Respects each person
for the contribution they make to the team. Participates in team decisions and
reinforces and supports those decisions. Maintains the self-confidence of
others.
Effective Performance
Exemplary Performance
Moves team beyond problems to
Takes a proactive approach
solutions and action.
in solving inter/intra-team
conflict.
Consistently offers to help teammates
and other teams/when appropriate.
Willingly come in/stays late to
meet department/team needs.
Accessible and accountable to
team/department/ service areas.
Collaborates with HCT for patient care
plan.
Promotes inter/intra-team collaboration.
Follows 5 Basic Principles
DIVERSITY: We recognize, respect and actively support differences among
individuals and demonstrate this philosophy through our words and actions.
Description: Sees self and others as a source of information and creativity.
Shows sensitivity regarding the needs of others. Takes time to understand
others as individuals. Treats others fairly and with dignity. Recognizes the right
of all people to be treated equally. Does not express opinions based on
stereotypes.

Values and Behaviors 52


Effective Performance
As stated above

Exemplary Performance
Acts as a Hospital interpreter
per list.
Make special arrangements
to accommodate patient
needs.
Takes a foreign language
class, sign language, or selfstudy course language.
HUMAN RESOURCE: We support the professional and personal growth of
employees in their pursuit of the hospitals mission.
Description: Sets goals, plans how to achieve them, monitors progress and
demonstrates accomplishments. Knows strengths and opportunities for
improvement. Maintains credentials associated with role accountabilities.
Participates in mandatory education and training based on the expectations of
regulatory bodies. Supports the professional and personal growth of others.
Effective Performance
Exemplary Performance
(2 or more to meet exemplary)
Relates SMART goals to
Acts as a preceptor.
team/department goals.
Provides clinical inservice to
Maintains licensure in a timely manner.
members of HCT.
Actively participates in
Attends all mandatory education for
Employee Selection
JCAHO, OSHA, HH Department of
processes.
Health.
Contributes to the ongoing
improvement of the new
employee orientation tool.

ORGANIZATIONAL ETHICS: We are guided by ethical values that emphasize


honesty, fairness, dignity, and respect for the individual.
Description: Acts in accordance with the organizations code of conduct.
Reports potential ethics violations to management. Considers the impact of
ones action on others before taking action. Takes a stand, but is willing to
change position when provided with new information. Respects confidentiality
in all communications. Acts in the best interest of the organization.
Effective Performance
Exemplary Performance
(2 or more to meet exemplary)
Is professional within healthcare
Attends 75% of team
network.
meetings.
Participates in organizational dynamics.
Department representation in
a hospital initiative.

Values and Behaviors 53

Attendance and participation at meetings


per team requirements.

Supports team decisions/policies.


Follows Department Covenant.

Committee Attendance.
Community participation, HCT
participation.
Active member of Employee
Council or Department
Committee.

SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE: We strive for superior performance in all that we


do, to preserve the hospitals clinical, organizational and financial strength.
Description: Accepts accountability for achieving goals. Aligns daily actions
with goals. Asks questions and continuously improves ways of doing things.
Displays pride, dependability, open-mindedness and curiosity. Approaches
challenges with confidence and perseverance. Uses appropriate information to
make decisions and take actions. Does things before being asked to or forced
to by events. Adapts to changes in the workplace.
Effective Performance
Exemplary Performance
Demonstrates organization,
Takes active role in developing
policies and procedures.
prioritization, and time management
skills.
Represent team/department in a
Demonstrates a full understand
of scope of the Department
professional manner.
business. Is able to translate
Ability to complete work assignment
knowledge to their role making
utilizing additional resource when
them an RCP of distinction as
needed.
recognize by team, Department
Effectively manages situations with
& all customers.
increased workloads/responsibilities.
Appropriately assesses the ability to
attend obligations in relation to
department/team needs.

Values and Behaviors 54

Appendix C
To: Respiratory Care Department Staff
From: Nancy Desjardins, Graduate Student
Date: March 27, 2001
Subject: Organizational Culture Assessment
Thank you for taking the time to read this memo. I am a student enrolled in
the Organizational Communication Masters Degree Program at Central
Connecticut State University. For my masters thesis project Im looking at
the relationship between clearly defined organizational values how they relate
to a departments performance outcomes under the supervision of Dr. Glynis
Claffey. I would like to include your department in my investigation due to the
nature of the work you do and how it impacts the entire hospital. All of your
responses will be treated in total confidence and nobody outside of the
Central Connecticut State University research team will see your individual
responses.
Your participation in this study is voluntary and if you agree to participate,
please take a few moments to fill out the questionnaire. Add your comments
as you see fit. You may at any time stop your participation in this study by not
completing or returning this survey. Please return the completed survey in
the attached envelope to Nancy Desjardins, Performance Development
Department by Friday, April 6th. Thank you for your time and participation.
Feel free to contact me if you have any questions or concerns at extension
545-1852.

Values and Behaviors 55


Please circle the response that represents the extent to which the following statements
apply to you.
1. My job gives me satisfaction.
To a very little

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

To a very great

extent

extent

2. Employees and management in my department have a productive working


relationship.
To a very little

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

extent

To a very great
extent

3. This organization motivates me to put out my best efforts.


To a very little

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

extent
4.

To a very great
extent

This organization respects its workers.

To a very little

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

extent

To a very great
extent

5. This organization treats people in a consistent and fair manner.


To a very little

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

extent

To a very great
extent

6. Working here feels like being part of a family.


To a very little
extent

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

To a very great
extent

Values and Behaviors 56


7. There is an atmosphere of trust in this organization.
To a very little

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

extent

To a very great
extent

8. This organization motivates people to be efficient and productive.


To a very little

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

extent

To a very great
extent

9. I have a say in decisions that affect my work.


To a very little

To a little extent

To some extent

To a great extent

extent

To a very great
extent

10. I am asked to make suggestions about how to do my job better.


To a very little

To a little extent

extent

To some

To a great

To a very great

extent

extent

extent

11. This organization values the ideas of workers at every level.


To a very little
extent

To a little extent

To some

To a great

To a very great

extent

extent

extent

To some

To a great

To a very great

extent

extent

extent

12. My opinion counts in this organization.


To a very little
extent

To a little extent

Values and Behaviors 57

Please circle the correct answer.


Gender:
a. Female
b. Male

Age:
a. 16-25
b. 26-35
c. 36-45
d. 46-55
e. 56-65
f. 65 or
older

Education Level
a. High School Graduate or
Equivalent
b. Partial College (at least one
year) or specialized training
c. College or University
Graduate
d. Graduate Degree
e. Other__________________

Respiratory Care Team:____________________


Additional comments:

Thank you for your participation!

Employment Status
a. Full-Time
b. Part Time
c. Per Diem
d. Volunteer
e. Other________
____

Values and Behaviors 58


Nancy Desjardins is an Organizational Development Consultant at Hartford
Hospital in Hartford, Connecticut. Prior to completing her Masters Degree in
Organizational Communication at Central Connecticut State University, she
earned a B.S. in Business and Psychology at Charter Oak State College and
an A.S. in Allied Health at Manchester Technical College. Nancy began her
career as a Respiratory Therapist in 1980 at Hartford Hospital. Nancy is a
member of the International Association of Business Communication and
New England Society for HealthCare Communication. She is married with
two children and resides in Burlington, Connecticut.