Anda di halaman 1dari 8

LIST OF SYMBOLS ACI

= depth of Whitney rectangular stress distribution from compression face of beam

ab

= depth of rectangular stress distribution for the balanced strain condition

as

= area of spiral reinforcement

= area

Ac

= shear transfer area

Acp

= area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section

Ae

= effective tension area of concrete surrounding the main tension reinforcement and

having same centroid as that reinforcement


Af

= area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting factored moment

Ag

= gross cross-sectional area

Ah

= area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural tension reinforcement, for a bracket

Al

= area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion

Ao

= area enclosed by the tube resisting torsion measured at mid thickness of wall

Aoh

= area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement

Aps

= area of prestressed reinforcement in tension zone, in.2

As

= area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement,in.2

As

= area of compression reinforcement, in.2

Ask

= area of skin reinforcement per unit height in one side face, in.2/ft.

As,min = minimum amount of flexural reinforcement,


Ast = total area of longitudinal reinforcement, (bars or steel shapes), in.2
At = area of structural steel shape, pipe, or tubing in a composite section, in.2

Av = area of shear reinforcement within a distances, or area of shear reinforcement


perpendicular to flexural tension reinforcement within a distance s for deep flexural members,
in.2
Avf

= area of shear-friction reinforcement, in.2

Avh

= area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural tension reinforcement within a distance

s2, in.2
A1

= loaded area, in.2

A2

= the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered

wedge contained wholly within the support and having for its upper base the loaded
area, and having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.
b

= width of compression face of member, in.

bo

= perimeter of critical section for slabs and footings, in.

bt

= width of that part of cross section containing the closed stirrups resisting torsion, in.

bw = web width, or diameter of circular section, in.b = width of compression face of


member,in.
b1

= width of the critical section , measured in the direction of the span for which moments

are determined, in.


b2

= width of the critical section ,measured in the direction perpendicular to b1, in.

c1

= size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular column, capital, or bracket measured in the

direction of the span for which moments are being determined, in.
c2 = size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular column, capital, or bracket measured
transverse to the direction of the span for which
moments are being determined, in.
c

= distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis, in.

cc = clear cover from the nearest surface in tension to the surface of the flexural tension
reinforcement, in.
Cm = a factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram
D

= dead loads, or related internal moments and forces

= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement, in.

db

= nominal diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing strand, in.

= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of compression reinforcement, in.

ds

= distance from extreme tension fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement, in.

dt

= distance from extreme compression fiber to extreme tension steel, in.

dp

= diameter of pile at footing base, in.

= load effects of seismic forces, or related internal moments and forces

Ec

= modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi.

Ecb = modulus of elasticity of beam concrete, psi


Ecs = modulus of elasticity of slab concrete, psi
Es

= modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi.

EI

= flexural stiffness of compression member

= loads due to weight and pressures of fluids with well-defined densities and controllable

maximum heights, or related internal moments and forces


fc

= specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

f cr = required average compressive strength of concrete used as the basis for selection of
concrete proportions, psi
fct

= average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggregate concrete, psi

fci = compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress, psi


fr

= modulus of rupture of concrete, psi

fpe = compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after allowance for
all prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally
applied loads, psi
fpu

= specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons, psi

fy

= specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement, psi

fyh

= specified yield strength of circular tie, hoop, or spiral reinforcement, psi

fyv

= yield strength of closed transverse torsional reinforcement, psi

fyl

= yield strength of longitudinal torsional reinforcement, psi

= loads due to weight and pressure of soil, water in soil, or other materials, or related

internal moments and forces


h

= overall thickness of member, in.

hv

= total depth of shearhead cross section, in.

hw

= total height of wall from base to top, in.

= wobble friction coefficient per foot of prestressing tendon

Ktr

= transverse reinforcement index = (constant 1500 carries the unit lb/in.2)

la

= additional embedment length at support or at point of inflection, in.

= live loads, or related internal moments and forces

= span length of beam or one-way slab,

Icr

= moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete,

ld

= development length

ldb

= basic development length, in.

ldh

= development length of standard hook in tension, measured from critical section to

outside end of hook (straight embedment length between critical section and start of hook
Ie

= effective moment of inertia for computation of deflection,

Ig

= moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting

reinforcement,
ln

= length of clear span in long direction of two way construction, measured face-to-face of

supports in slabs without beams and face-toface of beams or other supports in other cases,
lu

= unsupported length of compression member,in.

lv

= length of shearhead arm from centroid of concentrated load or reaction, in.

lw

= horizontal length of wall, in.

Ma

= maximum moment in member at stage deflection is computed, in.-lb

Mcr = cracking moment, in.-lb


Mc

= factored moment to be used for design of compression member, in.-lb

Mcr

= moment causing flexural cracking at section due to externally applied loads.

Mm

= modified moment, in.-lb

Mmax = maximum factored moment at section due to externally applied loads, in.-lb
Mp

= required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross section, in.-lb

Ms

= moment due to loads causing appreciable sway, in.-lb

Mu

= factored moment at section, in.-lb

Mv

= moment resistance contributed by shearhead reinforcement, in.-lb

M1

= smaller factored end moment on a compression member, positive if member is

bent in single curvature, negative if bent in double curvature, in.-lb


M1ns = factored end moment on a compression member at the end at which M1 acts, due to
loads that cause no appreciable sidesway, calculated using a first-order elastic frame
analysis, in.-lb
M1s = factored end moment on compression member at the end at which M1 acts, due to
loads that cause appreciable sidesway, calculatedusing a first-order elastic frame
analysis, in.-lb
M2

= larger factored end moment on compression member, always positive, in.-lb

M2, min = minimum value of M2, in.-lb


M2ns = factored end moment on compression member at the end at which M2 acts, due to
loads that cause no appreciable sidesway, calculated using a first-order elastic frame
analysis, in.-lb
M2s = factored end moment on compression member at the end at which M2 acts, due to
loads that cause appreciable sidesway, calculated using a first-order elastic frame
analysis, in.-lb
Nu

= factored axial load normal to cross section occurring simultaneously with Vu ; to be

taken as positive for compression, negative for tension, and to include effects of tension due to
creep and shrinkage, lb
Nuc = factored tensile force applied at top of bracket or corbel acting simultaneously with Vu ,
to be taken as positive for tension, lb
Pb = nominal axial load strength at balanced strain conditions., lb
Pc

= critical load. lb

pcp = outside perimeter of the concrete cross section, in.


ph

= perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, in.

Pn = nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity, lb


Po = nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity, lb
Pu = factored axial load at given eccentricity, lb f Pn
Q = stability index for a story
r

= radius of gyration of cross section of a compressionmember, in.

= spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction parallel to longitudinal

reinforcement,
s1 = spacing of vertical reinforcement in wall, in.
s2 = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction perpendicular to longitudinal
reinforcement or spacing of horizontal reinforcement in wall, in.
t

= thickness of a wall of a hollow section, in.

T = cumulative effect of temperature, creep,shrinkage, differential settlement, and shrinkagecompensating concrete


Tn = nominal torsional moment strength, in.-lb
Tu = factored torsional moment at section, in.-lb
U = required strength to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces
Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete, lb
Vci = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking results from
combined shear and moment, lb
Vcw = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking results from
excessive principal tensile stress in web, lb
Vd

= shear force at section due to unfactored dead load, lb

Vi

= factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously

with Mmax, lb
Vn

= nominal shear strength, lb

Vp

= vertical component of effective prestress force at section, lb

Vs

= nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, lb

Vu = factored shear force at section, lb


W

= wind load, or related internal moments and forces

wc

= unit weight of concrete, lb/ft3

wu

= factored load per unit length of beam or per unit area of slab

yt

= distance from centroidal axis of gross section, neglecting reinforcement, to extreme

fiber intension, in.


= angle between inclined stirrups and longitudinal axis of member

= angle between shear-friction reinforcement and shear plane

= constant used to compute Vc in slabs and footings

= ratio of stiffness of shearhead arm to surrounding composite slab section.

m = average value of a for all beams on edges of a panel

= ratio of clear spans in long to short direction of two-way slabs

= ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction area

= constant used to compute Vc in prestressed slabs

= fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure at slab-column connections.

= fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear at slab-column

connections = 1 _ f
= number of identical arms of shearhead
ns = moment magnification factor for frames braced against sidesway, to reflect effects
of member curvature between ends of compression member
s

= moment magnification factor for frames not braced against sidesway, to reflect lateral

drift resulting from lateral and gravity loads


o

= relative lateral deflection between the top and bottom of a story due to Vu , computed

using a first-order elastic frame analysis and stiffness values satisfying

= multiplier for additional long-term deflection

= time-dependent factor for sustained load


t = net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal strength
= ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement = As/bd

= ratio of nonprestressed compression reinforcement = As/bd

b = reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions.


= strength reduction factor.
K = stiffness reduction factor.

w ,pw ,w = reinforcement indices for flanged sections computed as for w, wp, and w
except that b shall be the web width, and reinforcement area shall be that required to develop
compressive strength of web only