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ab

as

= area

Ac

Acp

Ae

= effective tension area of concrete surrounding the main tension reinforcement and

Af

Ag

Ah

Al

Ao

= area enclosed by the tube resisting torsion measured at mid thickness of wall

Aoh

Aps

As

As

Ask

= area of skin reinforcement per unit height in one side face, in.2/ft.

Ast = total area of longitudinal reinforcement, (bars or steel shapes), in.2

At = area of structural steel shape, pipe, or tubing in a composite section, in.2

perpendicular to flexural tension reinforcement within a distance s for deep flexural members,

in.2

Avf

Avh

s2, in.2

A1

A2

= the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered

wedge contained wholly within the support and having for its upper base the loaded

area, and having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.

b

bo

bt

= width of that part of cross section containing the closed stirrups resisting torsion, in.

member,in.

b1

= width of the critical section , measured in the direction of the span for which moments

b2

= width of the critical section ,measured in the direction perpendicular to b1, in.

c1

direction of the span for which moments are being determined, in.

c2 = size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular column, capital, or bracket measured

transverse to the direction of the span for which

moments are being determined, in.

c

cc = clear cover from the nearest surface in tension to the surface of the flexural tension

reinforcement, in.

Cm = a factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram

D

db

ds

dt

dp

Ec

Ecs = modulus of elasticity of slab concrete, psi

Es

EI

= loads due to weight and pressures of fluids with well-defined densities and controllable

fc

f cr = required average compressive strength of concrete used as the basis for selection of

concrete proportions, psi

fct

fr

fpe = compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after allowance for

all prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally

applied loads, psi

fpu

fy

fyh

fyv

fyl

= loads due to weight and pressure of soil, water in soil, or other materials, or related

h

hv

hw

Ktr

la

Icr

ld

= development length

ldb

ldh

outside end of hook (straight embedment length between critical section and start of hook

Ie

Ig

reinforcement,

ln

= length of clear span in long direction of two way construction, measured face-to-face of

supports in slabs without beams and face-toface of beams or other supports in other cases,

lu

lv

lw

Ma

Mc

Mcr

Mm

Mmax = maximum factored moment at section due to externally applied loads, in.-lb

Mp

Ms

Mu

Mv

M1

M1ns = factored end moment on a compression member at the end at which M1 acts, due to

loads that cause no appreciable sidesway, calculated using a first-order elastic frame

analysis, in.-lb

M1s = factored end moment on compression member at the end at which M1 acts, due to

loads that cause appreciable sidesway, calculatedusing a first-order elastic frame

analysis, in.-lb

M2

M2ns = factored end moment on compression member at the end at which M2 acts, due to

loads that cause no appreciable sidesway, calculated using a first-order elastic frame

analysis, in.-lb

M2s = factored end moment on compression member at the end at which M2 acts, due to

loads that cause appreciable sidesway, calculated using a first-order elastic frame

analysis, in.-lb

Nu

taken as positive for compression, negative for tension, and to include effects of tension due to

creep and shrinkage, lb

Nuc = factored tensile force applied at top of bracket or corbel acting simultaneously with Vu ,

to be taken as positive for tension, lb

Pb = nominal axial load strength at balanced strain conditions., lb

Pc

= critical load. lb

ph

Po = nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity, lb

Pu = factored axial load at given eccentricity, lb f Pn

Q = stability index for a story

r

reinforcement,

s1 = spacing of vertical reinforcement in wall, in.

s2 = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction perpendicular to longitudinal

reinforcement or spacing of horizontal reinforcement in wall, in.

t

Tn = nominal torsional moment strength, in.-lb

Tu = factored torsional moment at section, in.-lb

U = required strength to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces

Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete, lb

Vci = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking results from

combined shear and moment, lb

Vcw = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking results from

excessive principal tensile stress in web, lb

Vd

Vi

= factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously

with Mmax, lb

Vn

Vp

Vs

W

wc

wu

= factored load per unit length of beam or per unit area of slab

yt

= angle between inclined stirrups and longitudinal axis of member

connections = 1 _ f

= number of identical arms of shearhead

ns = moment magnification factor for frames braced against sidesway, to reflect effects

of member curvature between ends of compression member

s

= moment magnification factor for frames not braced against sidesway, to reflect lateral

o

= relative lateral deflection between the top and bottom of a story due to Vu , computed

t = net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal strength

= ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement = As/bd

= strength reduction factor.

K = stiffness reduction factor.

w ,pw ,w = reinforcement indices for flanged sections computed as for w, wp, and w

except that b shall be the web width, and reinforcement area shall be that required to develop

compressive strength of web only

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