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The number of questions in parenthesis indicates how many questions are on the
exam for each chapter

Chapter One Understanding Wellness (Questions 11)

Health: A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely
the absence of disease.
Wellness: An integrated and dynamic level of functioning oriented toward
maximizing potential, dependent on self-responsibility.

Define healthy life expectancy

A. The number of years a person is expected to live in GOOD health.
B. United States ranks 20th.
a. Some specific groups in the U.S. have challenges
b. HIV epidemic in US
c. High Tobacco use and Cancer Incidence
d. High Rate of Coronary Heart Disease
e. High Rate of Violence (Homicide)

Explain the purpose of the publication Healthy People 2020 and the Healthy Campus
A. Healthy People 2020
a. Publication by U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services
b. Provides specific health goals and objectives for the nation to
improve health status and longevity.
i. Goals
1. Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable
disease, disability, injury, and premature death.
2. Achieve healthy equity, eliminate disparities, and
improve the health of all age groups.
3. Create social and physical environments that
promote good health.
4. Promote quality of life, healthy development and
healthy behaviors across all life stages.
B. Healthy Campus 2020

a. Establishes National Health Objectives for the nations colleges

and universities.

List 5 lifestyle habits that can reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
A. Exercise aerobically at least 4 to 5 times per week.
B. Eliminate all tobacco products
C. Limit animal fats, cholesterol, trans fats, and saturated fats in the diet.
D. Eat Fruits and Vegetables and high-fiber foods
E. Limits consumption of alcohol.
F. Balance work and personal time
G. 7-9 hours of sleep every night
H. Seat-belt
I. Safe Sex
Identify the seven dimensions of wellness and give three examples within
each dimension.
A. Physical
a. Cardiorespiratory endurance
b. Muscular Strength/endurance
c. Flexibility/ Body Composition
B. Intellectual
a. Acquiring knowledge
b. Engaging the mind in creative and stimulating mental activities
c. Curiosity and learning never stop
C. Emotional
a. Awareness/Recognizing your feelings and others
b. Acceptances/ understanding normality of human
emotion/realistically assessing personal abilities and limitations
c. Management/ the ability to control or cope with personal feelings,
know to seek help.
D. Social
a. Genuine feeling of belonging to a social unit
b. Exhibiting concern for the wellness of the community and justice
towards others.
c. Supportive relationships have the power to reduce risk,
frequency, and severity of illnesses.
E. Spiritual
a. Self-actualization, value systems, belief in a higher power,
religious expression, charity, passion for life
b. Personal search for meaning and direction
c. Why am I here?
d. What is my life about?
F. Environmental
a. Preservation of natural resources (protection of plant and animal
wild life)
b. Commitment to protecting plant/wild life species, Improving
quality of environment

G. Occupational
a. Deriving personal satisfaction from vocation
b. Maintaining a balance between work and leisure
c. Working in an environment that minimizes stress and exposure to
physical health hazards
Chapter Two Changing Behavior (Questions 10)
Identify the five stages of change in the Transtheoretical model of behavior
A. Precontemplation
a. Not even considering
b. Not informed
c. Denial
B. Contemplation
a. Sense of awareness
b. May intend to take action/ seriously thinking, but may change
c. Barriers override the benefits
C. Preparation
a. Transition to plan to action
b. Making a commitment to change effort
c. Small steps towards change
D. Action
a. Take over action to change behavior
b. Strategies used to resist temptation, cope with everyday
challenges, prevent relapse
c. Self-efficacy
d. Small attainable goals are important
E. Maintenance
a. Sustains new changed behavior for at least 6 months
b. New patterns become automatic
c. Strong efficacy
d. Increased internal reward system
Describe the elements of a well-designed behavior-change plan.
A. Make a behavior change contract
B. Identify your goal
C. Listing pros and cons
D. Identify your stage
Describe S.M.A.R.T. goal setting.
A. S- specific
B. M- measurable
C. A- achievable
D. R- reward
E. T- time-defined
What are the three contributions to relapse during attempted behavior
A. Stress

B. Social Situations
C. Cravings
Chapter Three Developing and Assessing Physical Fitness (Questions 10)
Identify the five health-related fitness components.
A. Cardiorespiratory endurance
B. Muscular Strength
C. Muscular Endurance
D. Flexibility
E. Body Composition
Describe the purpose, content, and time of the three parts of a workout
A. Purpose
a. Beginning to an exercise session
b. Temperature of muscles increase-enhance elasticity
c. Heart rate, respiration increases Blood flow to the muscles
d. Prepares body physically and mentally for conditioning
e. Reduces chance of injury
B. Content
a. Walking briskly
b. Mild stretching exercises
c. Short period-task specific activity
C. Time of the three parts
a. Static Stretching- 10-30 sec
b. Ballistic stretching
c. Task-specific activity
d. Conditioning bout 20-30 min
e. Cool-Down (End of the work out)= 5-15 min
Identify one or more tests for the cardiorespiratory components and body
composition of health-related fitness.
A. Cardiorespiratory components
a. Treadmill/bicycle in a laboratory. Heart rate and oxygen
Consumption are measured
b. Field Test
i. I mile walk, 1.4 mile run, 3 mil
bicycle test, 500 yd swim test, 500 yard water run, 3 minute
step test
B. Body Composition
a. DEXA (Dual Energy x-ray absorptiometry)
b. Hydrostatic
c. Skin fold calipers
d. Bioelectrical impendence
e. Body girth measurements
f. Waist to hip ratio or waist circumference
g. Body mass index

Chapter Four Maximizing Cardiorespiratory Fitness (Questions 6)

Define and apply the FITT prescription factors for developing physical fitness.
A. F-Frequency
a. 3-5 times per week
B. I-Intensity
a. 60-80% of hear rate reserve
C. T-Time
a. 20-60 minutes depending one intensity
D. T-Type
a. Aerobic vs. anaerobic
b. Aerobic: Continues and rhythmic
c. Anaerobic: Short duration, high intensity intermittent- Sprinting,
weight training
Calculate training heart rate by using the Karvonen formula.
A. Target Heart Rate (THR) = MHR - RHR x intensity- RHR
B. Max Hear Rate = 220 age
C. Resting Heart Rate = pulse per minute at rest
D. Intensity 60-80%
i. Ex. 20 years old with RHR 70
ii. 220-20=200 (MHR)
iii. 200-70=130
iv. 130 x .6= 78
v. 78 + RHR (70) 148 THR
How many steps per day do fitness experts recommend for weight
management and fitness improvement?
A. 10,000 steps
Chapter Seven Exploring Special Exercise Considerations (Questions 6)
Identify correct recommendations for exercise during pregnancy.
B. No exercise in a supine position after the first trimester
C. Avoid activities with a high risk of falling
D. Women with history of pre-term labor or fetal growth restrictions should
reduce activity in 2nd or 3rd trimester
E. Avoid heat injury
F. Avoid extremes of barometric pressure
G. Avoid ballistic movements
H. Dont restrict caloric intake
I. Avoid deep flexion or extension of joints
J. Warm up and cool down
K. Stay hydrated
L. Rise gradually from the floor to avoid sudden drop in blood pressure
Identify recommendations for safe exercise in hot and cold weather.
A. Hot
a. Avoid high heat exercise to prevent hyperthermia
b. Drink water before, during-after
c. Loose and light colored clothes

d. Avoid vinyl/rubber
e. Stop at first sign of heat illness (Cramps, heat exhaustion, heat
B. Cold
a. Layer clothing
b. Avoid overheating
c. Avoid overexposure (hypothermia)
d. Protect exposed body parts
e. Work with the wind
f. Exercise with caution
g. Stay motivated
h. Be safe
Type of exercise programs that would develop bone mass for older adults.
Weight barring, walking, jogging, dancing, racket sports, hiking, skipping,
jumping rope, stair climbing, squats, chair rising.
Chapter Eight Preventing Common Injuries and Caring for the Lower Back
(Questions 10)
Identify four main reasons injuries occur.

i. Increase duration no more than 10% weekly,
alternate impact activities


Improper Equipment
i. Good footwear is paramount


Weakness and inflexibility

i. Stretch tight muscles/ Strengthen weak ones
to avoid muscle imbalance


Mechanical Problems

i. Structural weaknesses affecting the legs,

knees, ankles, and especially the feet can cause injury.
Explain how muscle weakness and inflexibility contribute to injuries.
Use of same muscles leaves other week. shorten or tighten
List and explain the general recommended treatment for common injuries
A. P-Protect
a. From further injury
B. R- Rest
a. 24-72 hours
C. I- Ice
a. Reduce pain and swelling
b. 10 min with little fat
c. 15-35 min larger (Knee)

d. 3-4 hours for 48 hour to 72 (Thigh)

D. C- Compress
a. Elastic wrap to decrease swelling
E. E- Elevate
Identify the symptoms of injury that indicate the need for medical attention.
A. Injury extremely painful, doesnt feel better after a day or two
B. Joint pain lasting more than 2 days or tenderness when your press on s
specific spot
C. Loss of strength or range of motion
D. Limb gives way when used
E. Unusual shape/ lumps other than swelling
F. Numbness or tingling
Explain two vital components of rehabilitation needed to resume activity
safely without injury.
A. Move injured part as early as possible- pain free, regain flexibility
B. 80% pain free, begin to build strength
C. Gradually work your way back to your former activity level
Identify the two most important keys to preventing lower back pain.
A. Maintaining strong abdominal muscles and back flexibility
B. Sleeping fetal or on side.
Can you describe exercises recommended to reduce the risk of lower back
A. Pelvic tilt
B. Pelvic tilt with curls
C. Pelvic tilt with twist
D. Low back stretch
E. Lying hamstring stretch
F. Cat stretch
G. Upper back lift
H. Alternating arm/leg lift
Chapter Nine Maximizing Heart Health (Questions 14)
Identify the 10 primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.
1. Inactivity
2. High Blood pressure
3. High blood lipid level
4. Cigarette smoking
5. Obesity
6. Diabetes mellitus (Type1 and type 2) and prediabetes
7. Positive family history
8. Mal gender (+ postmenopausal women)
9. Race
10. Age
Identify the six secondary CVD disease risk factors.
1. Individual response to stress
2. Emotional behavior (Anger and hostility)
3. Excessive alcohol (+ some illegal drugs)

4. Metabolic Syndrome
5. C-Reactive Protein
6. Homocystiene
Identify the 12 controllable and 4 uncontrollable risk factors for CVD.

1. Inactivity
2. High Blood pressure
3. High blood lipid level
4. Cigarette smoking
5. Obesity
6. Diabetes mellitus
(Type1 and type 2) and

11. Positive family
12. Mal gender (+
postmenopausal women)
13. Race
14. Age

7. Individual response to
8. Emotional behavior
(Anger and hostility)
9. Excessive alcohol (+
some illegal drugs)
10. Metabolic Syndrome
11. C-Reactive Protein
12. Homocystiene

Define atherosclerosis.
A. Deposits of cholesterol and other lipids along with cellular debris
accumulate in the artery to form a plaque.
a. As it progresses, the artery wall becomes hard, inelastic, and
clogged and may become blocked.
b. Blockage from cell debris or blood clot or excessive stress
Explain the roles of HDL and LDL in heart health.
1. HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) can protect the system from plaques
a. Carries cholesterol from the blood back to the liver where it is
broken down for elimination from the body
2. LDL (Low-density lipoprotein) carry large amount of cholesterol from
liver out to the rest of the body.
Identify prehypertension, normal blood pressure range, and the blood
pressure reading that indicates hypertension.
1. Prehypertension: Blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 Danger
2. Normal Blood Pressure range: Less than 119/79 (115/760)
3. Blood pressure reading that indicates hypertension: 140 -159 or higher


Identify the cholesterol reading that indicates normal blood cholesterol.

1. Desirable is below 200 (160 target)
a. Ex 240 and HDL 60 (.4) risk
b. Ex 180 and HDL 30 (.6) risk


Chronic Diseases
Healthy Life Expectancy
Hypokinetic Disease
Physical Fitness
FITT Factors
Karvonen Equation
Primary Risk Factors