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THERMAX LIMITED

CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA


B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


RE VISION
: 0
DATE
: 27/ 12/2013
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1.0 SCOPE
This specification define the minimum requirement for the surface preparation material supply
& application of paint for coating of onshore plant steel structure, piping, vessel, equipment &
accessories.
2.0 Procedure Format
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0

Importance
Flow Chart of Hot Dip Galvanizing Process
Galvanizing Process
Standard Operating Cycle Time
Type of Inspection
Repair Procedure

3.0 Importance
In this type of coating application, surface is protected with molten zinc with 99.9 % of zinc
purity . To Provide the protection from atmospheric conditions. HDG coating is high corrosion
resistance & Provide higher durability life.
4.0 Flow Chart of Hot Dip Galvanizing Process
1) Optional for articles contaminated by Oil, Grease -- Degreasing
(Dipping in Degreasing solution)
2) Dipping in Hydrochloric acid bath at ambient temperature -- Pickling
to scour the steel surface and remove any rust or scale
3) To remove excess Acid neutralize its effect and obtain a clean surface Rinsing
4) Solution of Zinc Ammonium Chloride to ensure efficient flow -- Fluxing
of Zinc over the surface to ensure good bonding
5) To remove unwanted moisture and increase the steel temperature -- Drying Deck
to required level for compete coating
6) Bath of molten Zinc in a temperature range of 456 - 460 C. -- Galvanizing
Product is gradually withdrawn to allow excess Zinc to drain off.
7) For Cooling with cold water -- Quenching
8) To prevent formation of white rust. -- Dichromatic

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


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5.0 Galvanizing Process


1. After visual inspection of black material lift the material with the help of crane.
2. Dip the material in degreasing bath. Lift after 10-15 minutes & drain out the entire chemical &
again dip for 5 min.
3. Lift the material from degreasing bath & dip in water bath for flush dipping. Then send for
pickling.
4. After degreasing dip the material in pickling bath for 10-15 min. Lift the material & drain out
the chemical & dip again for 5 min. & remove the black scale from the upper layer of HCL
bath with the help of strainer.
5. Remove the material from pickling bath & dip in two water rinsing tanks for flush cleaning.
6. Remove the material from two water rinsing tanks & dip in flux bath at 60 to 80 0C for material
surface free from oxide.
7. Remove the material from flux bath & spread on hot plate for drying.
8. After material is dried completely then dip the material in molten zinc bath as per required
zinc coating & check the temperature & record. (i. e. bath temp. is 440 to 460 0C )
9.

Remove the material from zinc bath & drain out the full molten zinc from the material & dip in
quenching bath.

10.

After quenching then dip the material in chromating bath.

11.

Send the material for finishing i.e. to removing lumps, black spots, pimples etc
The chemical bath shall be monitored / discard as per instruction & record in bath history sheet .

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


RE VISION
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DATE
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6.0 Standard Operating Cycle Time


STANDARD
TIME
SR
No.

PROCESS
LOADING POINT TO PICKLING
TANK

MIN

MAX

MAX TIME
(FOR 120
MIC)

MAX TIME
(FOR 86
MIC)

10

20

15

15

10

20

15

15

10

20

15

15

10

10

10

10

38

52

45

43

DIP TIME IN PICKLING TANK No.1


2
LIFT & TITLT TIME IN PICKLING 1
3
DIP TIME IN PICKLING TANK No.2
4
LIFT & TITLT TIME IN PICKLING 2
5
DIP TIME IN PICKLING TANK No.3
6
LIFT & TITLT TIME IN PICKLING 3
7
DIP TIME IN RINSE 1 & 2.
8
DIP TIME IN FLUX
9
DRYING TIME ON HOT PLATE
10
DIP TIME IN ZINC BATH
11
LIFT & TILT TIME IN ZINC BATH
12
DIP TIME IN QUENCHING
13
DIP TIME IN DI- CHROMATING
14
TOTAL TIME (min.)

PREPARED BY

THERMAX LIMITED

CHECKED BY

APPROVED BY

CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA


B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


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7.0 Type Of Inspection

The type of inspections performed on hot-dip galvanized steel. These techniques for
each test method are specified in ASTM A 123/A 123M, A 153/A 153M, or A 767/A 767M,
depending upon the type of product being inspected. The most common inspections,
listed below, range from a simple Visual Inspection to more sophisticated tests to
determine embrittlement or adhesion.
1) Coating Thickness Gauge magnetic gauges,
2) Coating Weight Calculation of Mass Of Zinc
3) Preece Test Cu2so4 Test
4) Hammer Test
8.0 Visual Inspection

Finish and Appearance visual inspection

Bare Spots
Figure 1
Bare spots, defined as uncoated areas on the steel surface, are the most common surface defect
and occur because of inadequate surface preparation, welding slag, sand embedded in castings,
excess aluminum in the galvanizing kettle, or lifting aids that prevent the coating from forming in a
small area. Only very small areas, less than 1 inch in the narrowest dimension with a total of no
more than 0.5%of the accessible surface area, may be renovated using ASTM A 780. This means
narrow, bare areas may be repaired; however, if they are greater than one inch-square areas, the
product must be re-galvanized.

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


RE VISION
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In order to avoid bare spots, like those seen in Figure 1, the galvanizer must ensure the surfaces
are clean and no contaminants are present after pretreatment. If the size of the bare spot or total
surface area causes rejection, the parts may be stripped, re-galvanized, and then re-inspected for
compliance to the standards and specifications.

Chain and Wire Marks


Figure 2: Chain and Wire Marks
Another type of surface defect occurs when steel is lifted and transported around the galvanizing
plant using a chain or wire. These lifting aids can leave uncoated areas on the finished product that
will need to be repaired. The superficial marks, like those seen in Figure 2, left on the galvanized
coating from the lifting attachments are not grounds for rejection as long as marks can be
repaired. ASTM specifications do not allow any bare spots on the finished galvanized part.

Figure 3 Delimitation
Delimitation or peeling creates a rough coating on the steel where the zinc has peeled off. There
are a number of causes for zinc peeling. Many large galvanized parts take a long time to cool in the
air and form zinc-iron layers after theyTHERMAX
have been removed
from the galvanizing kettle.
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CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

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This continued coating formation leaves behind a void between the top two layers of the galvanized
Coating. If there are many voids formed, the top layer of zinc can separate from the rest of the
coating and peel off the part. If the remaining coating still meets the minimum specification
requirements, then the part is still acceptable. If the coating does not meet the minimum
specification requirements then the part must be rejected and re-galvanized. If delimitation, as seen
in Figure 3, occurs as a result of fabrication after galvanizing, such as blasting before painting, then
the galvanizer is not responsible for the defect

Distortion
Figure 4: Distortion
Distortion, as seen in Figure 4, is defined as the buckling of a thin, flat steel plate or other flat
material such as wire mesh. The cause of this is differential thermal expansion and contraction rates
for the thin, flat plate and mesh than the thicker steel of the surrounding frame. In order to avoid
distortion, use a thicker plate, ribs, or corrugations to stiffen flat sections or make the entire
assembly out of the same thickness steel. Distortion is acceptable, unless distortion changes the
part so that it is no longer suitable for its intended use.

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


RE VISION
: 0
DATE
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Drainage Spikes
Figure 5: Drainage Spikes
Drainage spikes or drips are spikes or tear drops of zinc along the bottom edges of the product.
These result when the surfaces of the product are processed horizontal to the galvanizing kettle,
preventing proper drainage of the zinc from the surface as the product is withdrawn from the kettle.
Drainage spikes, as seen in Figure 5, are typically removed during the inspection stage by a buffing
or grinding process. Drainage spikes or drips are excess zinc and will not affect corrosion protection,
but are potentially dangerous for anyone who handles the parts. These defects must be removed
before the part can be accepted.

Dross Inclusions
Figure 6: Dross Inclusions
Dross inclusions are a distinct zinc-iron intermetallic alloy that becomes entrapped or entrained in
the zinc coating. This is caused by picking up zinc-iron particles from the bottom of the kettle. Dross,
as seen in Figure 6, may be avoided by changing the lifting orientation or redesigning the product to
allow for proper drainage.

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


RE VISION
: 0
DATE
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If the dross particles are small and completely covered by zinc metal, they will not affect the
corrosion protection and are acceptable. If the dross particles are large, then the dross must be
removed and the area repaired.

Excess Aluminum in Galvanizing Bath


Figure 7: Excess Aluminum in Galvanizing Bath
Another type of surface defect, shown in Figure 7, is caused by an excess amount of aluminum in
the galvanizing bath. This creates bare spots and black marks on the surface of the steel. The
excess aluminum can be avoided by ensuring proper control of the aluminum level in the
galvanizing bath by means of regular sampling and analysis, and by adjusting the levels in a regular
and controlled manner. For small areas of bare spots, the part may be repaired as detailed in the
specification. If this condition occurs over the entire part, then it must be rejected and re-galvanized

Figure 8 Fish Boning


Fish boning is an irregular pattern over the entire surface of the steel part. This is caused by
differences in the surface chemistry of a large diameter steel piece and variations in the reaction
rate between the steel and zinc. These reaction differences cause the thickness of the galvanized
coating to vary in sharply defined zones across the surface. Fish boning, has no effect on the
corrosion protection provided by the zinc coating and is not cause for rejection of the hot-dip
galvanized part.

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


RE VISION
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Flaking
Figure 9: Micrograph of Flaking
Flaking results when heavy coatings develop in the galvanizing process, usually 12 mils or greater.
This generates high stresses at the interface of the steel and the galvanized coating and causes the
zinc to become flaky and separate from the surface of the steel. Flaking can be avoided by
minimizing the immersion time in the galvanizing kettle and cooling of the galvanized steel parts as
quickly as possible. Figure 9 shows a micrograph of flaking. In addition, using a different steel
grade, if possible, may also help avoid flaking. If the area of flaking is small, it can be repaired and
the part can be accepted; however, if the area of flaking is larger than allowed by the specifications,
the part must be rejected and re-galvanized.

Flux Inclusions
Figure 10: Flux Inclusion
Flux inclusion can be created by the failure of the flux to release during the hot-dip galvanizing
process. If this occurs, the galvanized coating will not form under this flux spot . If the area is small
enough, it must be cleaned and repaired; otherwise, the part must be rejected. Flux spots can
increase if the flux is applied using the wet galvanizing method which is when the flux floats on the
zinc bath surface. Flux deposits on the interior of a hollow part, such as a pipe or tube, as seen
THERMAX
in Figure 10, cannot be repaired, thus
the part must LIMITED
be rejected.
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


RE VISION
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DATE
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Any flux spots or deposits, picked up during withdrawal from the galvanizing kettle do not warrant
rejection if the underlying coating is not harmed, and the flux is properly removed.

Oxide Lines
Figure 11: Oxide Lines
Oxide lines are light colored oxide film lines on the galvanized steel surface. Oxide lines are caused
when the product is not removed from the galvanizing kettle at a constant rate. This may be due to
the shape of the product or the drainage conditions. Oxide lines, as seen in Figure 11, will fade over
time as the entire zinc surface oxidizes. They will have no effect on the corrosion performance; only
the initial appearance will be affected. This condition is not a cause for rejection of the hot-dip
galvanized parts.

Surface Contaminant
Figure 12: Surface Contamination
When surface contaminants create an un-galvanized area where the contaminant was originally
applied, a surface defect may occur. This is caused by paint, oil, wax, or lacquer not removed during
the pretreatment cleaning steps. Surface contaminants, as seen in Figure 12, should be
mechanically removed prior to the galvanizing process.

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


RE VISION
: 0
DATE
: 27/ 12/2013
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If they result in bare areas, then the repair requirements apply and small areas may be repaired, but
a large area is grounds for rejection and the entire part must be re-galvanized.

Touch Marks
Figure 13: Touch Marks
Another type of surface defect is known as touch marks, which are damaged or uncoated areas on
the surface of the product. Touch marks are caused by galvanized products resting on each other or
by the material handling equipment used during the galvanizing operation. Touch marks, as seen in
Figure 13, are not cause for rejection if they meet the size criteria for repairable areas. They must be
repaired before the part is accepted.

Zinc Skimming
Figure 14: Zinc Skimming Inclusions
Skimming deposits are usually caused when there is no access to remove the skimming during the
withdrawal of the steel from the galvanizing kettle. The skimming on the liquid zinc surface are
trapped on the zinc coating. In order to remove zinc skimming without harming the soft zinc coating
underneath, lightly brush them off the surface of the galvanized steel during the in-house inspection
stage with a nylon-bristle brush. Zinc skimming, as seen in Figure 14, are not grounds for rejection.
The zinc coating underneath is not harmed during their removal and it meets the necessary
specifications.

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


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Zinc Splatter
Figure15: Zinc Splatter
Zinc splatter is defined as splashes and flakes of zinc that loosely adhere to the galvanized coating
surface. Zinc splatter is created when moisture on the surface of the galvanizing kettle causes liquid
zinc to pop and splash droplets onto the product. These splashes create flakes of zinc loosely
adherent to the galvanized surface. Zinc splatter, as seen in Figure 15, will not affect the corrosion
performance of the zinc coating and is not cause for rejection. The splatter does not need to be

cleaned off the zinc coating surface, but can be if a consistent, smooth coating is
required.

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


GALVANIZING

CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


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8.0 Repair Procedure


The coating thickness of the repaired area must match the coating thickness of the surrounding
area. However, if zinc-rich paint is used for repair, the coating thickness must be 50% higher than
the surrounding area, but not greater than 100 microns because mud cracking tends to result when
the paint coating is too thick. The maximum sizes for allowable areas that can be repaired during inplant production are defined in the specifications as summarized below.
A) Maximum Size of Repairable Area
ASTM A 123/A 123M:
One inch or less in narrowest dimension. Total area can be no more than 0.5% of the accessible
surface area to be coated or 36 square inches per piece, whichever is less
ASTM A 153/A 153M:
The bare spots shall have an area totaling no more than 1% of the total surface area to be coated,
excluding threaded areas of the piece
ASTM A 767/A 767M:
No area given
If the coating fails to meet the requirement for finish and adherence, the bar may be stripped, regalvanized, and resubmitted
Damage done to the coating due to fabrication or handling shall be repaired with a zinc-rich
formulation
Sheared ends shall be coated with a zinc-rich formulation

THERMAX LIMITED
CHINCHWAD PUNE 411019, INDIA
B & H QUALITY ASSURANCE & CONTROL PROCEDURES

INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR


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CONTROL NO : HDG/ GCP/ 01


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B) Repair Methods
The touch-up and repair materials are formulated. Materials used to repair hot-dip galvanized
products include zinc-based solder, zinc-rich paint, and zinc spray metalizing, and are explained in
the following sections.
Zinc-Rich Paint

Zinc-rich paint is applied to a clean, dry steel surface by either a brush or spray as
seen in Figure 56, and usually contains an organic binder pre-mix. Zinc-rich paints
must contain either between 65% to 69% metallic zinc by weight or greater than 92%
metallic zinc by weight in dry film. Paints containing zinc dust are classified as organic
or inorganic, depending on the binder they contain. Inorganic binders are particularly
suitable for paints applied in touch-up applications around and over undamaged hotdip galvanized areas.
C) Surface Preparation
According to ASTM A 780, the surface to be repaired shall be blast cleaned to SSPC-SP10/NACE
No.2 near white metal for immersion applications and SSPC-SP11 for less aggressive field
conditions. When blasting or power tool cleaning is not practical, hand tools may be used to clean
areas to be reconditioned. The blast cleaning must extend into the surrounding, undamaged,
galvanized coating.

D) Application
This method of repairing galvanized surfaces must take place as soon as possible after preparation
is completed and prior to the development of any visible oxides. The spraying or brushing should be
in an application of multiple passes and must follow the paint Mfg. specific written instructions. In
addition, proper curing of the repaired area must occur before the product is put through the final
inspection process. This repair can be done either in the galvanizing plant or on the job site and is
the easiest repair method to apply because limited equipment is required. Zinc-rich painting should
be avoided if high humidity and/or low temperature conditions exist because adhesion may be