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Handover

By Mina Adly

HANDOVER .
Why we need HO
What are the types of HO
What is Soft HO
..

M.Adly

Handover types
We can classify HO in many ways below is examples
Based on technology we have Inter RAT and Intra RAT
Based on frequency we have Inter Frequency and Intra Frequency
Based on sites we have sites we have intra site and inter site
Based on connection and process we have soft softer and hard handovers
Too many too connected but too simple
For us we will use the general classification InterRat, InterFreq and IntraFreq

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Intra Frequency HO
Intra frequency is the most common type, it is soft HO (or some time softer),
within the same site or with different sites and for sure is Intra RAT
The whole process is controlled through the events reported by the UE

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Intra Frequency HO
Triggering of Event 1A
Parameters to control:
IntraRelThdFor1ACSNVP
IntraRelThdFor1ACSVP
IntraRelThdFor1APS
CIO (cell level)
CIOOffset (relation level)
HystFor1A
TrigTime1A

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Intra Frequency HO
Triggering of Event 1B
Parameters to control:
IntraRelThdFor1BCSNVP
IntraRelThdFor1BCSVP
IntraRelThdFor1BPS
CIO (cell level)
CIOOffset (relation level)
HystFor1B
TrigTime1B

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Intra Frequency HO
Triggering of Event 1C
Parameters to control:
CIO (cell level)
CIOOffset (relation level)
HystFor1C
TrigTime1C
MaxCellInActiveSet

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Intra Frequency HO
Triggering of Event 1D
Parameters to control:
CIO (cell level)
CIOOffset (relation level)
HystFor1D
TrigTime1D

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Inter Frequency or Inter Rat HO


They are the second type of handover, in this case they are hard Hos and
can happen due to the below reasons

1. Coverage based
2. QOS (in case of degraded quality scenario quality of service HO is
triggered)
3. LDR
4. Service HO
5. HCS HO

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Inter Frequency or Inter Rat HO

InterRat

InterFreq

But in order for all of this to start first we need to introduce what we call
Compressed mode

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2D triggering
InterFreqCSThd2DEcN0
InterFreqR99PsThd2DEcN0
InterFreqHThd2DEcN0
InterFreqCSThd2DRSCP
InterFreqR99PsThd2DRSCP
InterFreqHThd2DRSCP
InterRATCSThd2DEcN0
InterRATR99PsThd2DEcN0
InterRATHThd2DEcN0
InterRATCSThd2DRSCP
InterRATR99PsThd2DRSCP
InterRATHThd2DRSCP
TimeToTrig2D
HystFor2D

2F triggering
InterFreqCSThd2FEcN0
InterFreqCSThd2FRSCP
InterFreqR99PsThd2FEcN0
InterFreqR99PsThd2FRSCP
InterFreqHThd2FEcN0
InterFreqHThd2FRSCP
InterRATCSThd2FEcN0
InterRATR99PsThd2FEcN0
InterRATHThd2FEcN0
InterRATCSThd2FRSCP
InterRATR99PsThd2FRSCP
InterRATHThd2FRSCP
TimeToTrig2F
HystFor2F

Inter Frequency or Inter Rat HO


Coverage or QoS Handover Measurement Report Modes
The coverage-based and QoS-based handover use event-triggered or periodical measurement
report mode.
InterFreqReportMode: The measurement report mode of inter-frequency handover.
InterRatReportMode: The measurement report mode of inter-RAT handover.
PrdReportInterval: The periodical measurement report interval of inter-frequency handover.

InterRATPeriodReportInterval: The periodical measurement report interval of inter-RAT handover.


The advantage of periodical measurement report is that if the handover fails, the RNC
reattempts the handover to the same cell after receiving the periodical measurement report
from the UE. This increases the probability of the success of inter-frequency handover.

Based on the measurement control message received from the RNC, the UE periodically reports
the measurement quality of the target cell. Then, based on the measurement report, the RNC
makes the handover decision and performs handover
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Inter Frequency or Inter Rat HO

Inter freq HO decision

After receiving the periodical measurement report of the inter-frequency cell, the RNC descide the
target cells based on the below equation
Mother_Freq + CIOother_Freq Tother_Freq + H/2

Where Tother is defined as in the below parameters as per the MeasQuantity settings

TargetFreqCsThdEcN0

TargetFreqCsThdRscp

TargetFreqR99PsThdEcN0

TargetFreqR99PsThdRscp

TargetFreqHThdEcN0

TargetFreqHThdRscp

And the H is the HystForPrdInterFreq, considering the time to trigger criteria defined in the parameter
TimeToTrigForPrdInterFreq.
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Inter-Frequency LDR Handover


Inter freq HO decision
One of the LDR actions is the interfreq HO, which can be done either based on
the measurements or based on Blind HO which works as in below

1. For LDR interFreq Blind HO:


If LDR is triggered then the UE will perform inter frequency HO but in this case
blindly with no measuring to the target cell, for this to work the below
parameters in the relation level definition should be enabled
BlindHoFlag
ADD UINTERFREQNCELL

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BlindHOQualityCondition

turn on the blind HO


RSCP threshold on the source cell to perform Blind
HO

Inter-Frequency LDR Handover


Inter freq HO decision
One of the LDR actions is the interfreq HO, which can be done either based on
the measurements or based on Blind HO which works as in below

2. For LDR interFreq measured based HO:


The RNC selects the target cell based on the measurement results. The report
period is specified by the parameter PrdReportInterval.
The target cell must meet the following conditions:
1. The CPICH RSCP value of the target cell is larger than TargetFreqThdRscp.
2. The CPICH Ec/No value of the target cell is larger than TargetFreqThdEcN0
3. The target cell is not in the basic congestion state.

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Inter-RAT LDR Handover


InterRat Ho is also one of the actions of LDR, it only works through event
triggering process in which 3C event need to be reported, it can be
reported if the below equation is valid
MOtherRAT + CIOOtherRAT TOtherRAT + H3c/2
TotherRAT is InterRATNCovHOCSThd OR InterRATNCovHOPSThd
H3c is HYSTFOR3C

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Inter-RAT service HO
To perform the service-based 3G-to-2G handover, the RNC must turn on the
related switches for services in the CS and PS domains.
When a single CS service is initially set up by the UE, the RNC allows the 3Gto-2G service-based handover if CSServiceHOSwitch is set to ON.
When a single PS service is initially set up by the UE, the RNC allows the
service-based 3G-to-2G handover if PSServiceHOSwitch is set to ON.
For the combined services, no service-based handover is triggered.

For target selection and execution same as the LDR interrat HO

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