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Financial Management

Student: - Muhammad Tayyab Riaz
Student ID: - SC1165

Course Name: Communication Process

Program/ Major: Business Administrative Management
Research Question or Problem: Importance of Communication Process
Number of Words in the Body of the Course Paper: 1000 Words
Adviser/ Tutor: Mr. Afzal Munna
Reason for taking this course: To get the knowledge and understanding of
communication process and the strategies involve in it.

Executive Summary:This paper is aimed at discussing the impact of Communication Process. In this paper we will discuss
about the strategies involve in Communication Process.

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Table of Contents
1.0........................................................................................................... Introduction
2.0........................................................................................Types o Communication
2.1...........................Types of Communication Based on Communication Channel
2 .2..........................................Types of Communication Based on Purpose & Style
3.0.....................................................................Communicating Effectively at Work
4.0..........................................................................................Communication Barriers
4.1..........................................................................Types of Communication Barriers

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1.0 Introduction
The communication process can be defined as, The communication process is the method of
transmitting information from the sender to receiver and being able to get a feedback.
Between the first stage of the information being sent from the source there is the message,
channels, sometimes noise and we will know the communication was effective when the
receiver responds to the message.
The communication process abides of a message being sent and received. This information or
message may be verbal or non verbal. The same essential ethic assign whether human, animals and
other forms of life or aggregates of these are involved. The challenge as an instructor is to
communicate effectively.
Effective communication includes information being sent and received. It is the aspect of
assessment or feedback to guaranty that the message sent was received exactly as intended.

a) Sending the Message

There are four fundamentals associated in sending a message. First as the instructor, you formulate
a message as you intended to communicate. Nest, you concede possible barriers that may disturb
the message. This counts your experience, the terms you will use and even your feeling against the
subject. External barricades such as noise must also be acknowledged. Third you encrypt the
message that is you put the message into the words you want to use. The last step is, you clearly
communicate the message and send it.

b) Receiving the Message

There are also four aspects in receiving the message. The first is student (receiver) will first hear or
see the message you sent. Second, the message is disturbed by apparent barricades, if any one
owned internal barricades. Possible internal barricades may involve the receivers experience level,
their understanding of the term used and their attitude that how they feel about you. Third you
receiver will decode the information by the help of mental images. For instance, when you say the
word circus, the receiver does not see the letters that form the word. Instead, a mental image of
some sort appears.

2.0 Types of Communication

People communicate with each other in numerous ways that depend upon the information and its
condition in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and the style of communicating
also affect communication. So, there are various modifications in the type of communication.

2.1 Types of communication based on the

communication channels
1. Verbal Communication

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2. Nonverbal Communication

1 Verbal Communication
Verbal or expressed communication extracts to the design of communication in which message is
transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of
every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal
communication remember the acronym KISS (keep it short and simple).
When we talk to others, we consider that others understand what we are saying because we know
what we are saying. But this is not the case normally people bring their own belief, conception,
emotions and theorizations about the argument and hence creates barrier in delivering the right
So in order to deliver the right information, you must put yourself on the other side of the table and
think from your receivers point of view. Would he understand the message? How it would sound on
the other side of the table?
Verbal Communication is further divided into:

Oral Communication

Written Communication

Oral Communication
In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It involves face-to-face communications, speech,
telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication,
communication is esteem or control by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.

Advantages of Oral communication

It brings quick feedback.

In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language one can guess
whether he/she should trust whats being said or not.

Disadvantage of oral communication

In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about what he is delivering.

Written Communication
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written information
may be printed or hand written. In written communication information can be disseminated through
email, letter, report, memo etc. A memorandum, in written communication, is channeled by the
vocabulary and grammar used, writing style, affective and clarity of the language used.

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Advantages of written communication

Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is actually sent.

Written communication provides record for every message sent and can be saved for later

A written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate feedback.

Disadvantages of written communication

Unlike oral communication, written communication doesnt bring instant feedback.

It takes more time in composing a written message as compared to word-of-mouth and

number of people struggles for writing ability.

2 Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of inarticulate messages. We can say that
communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or
facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the
body language of speaker.
Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal
signals reflect the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response
contradicts verbal communication and hence affects the effectiveness of message.
Nonverbal communication has the following three elements:


Body language


Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings

Body Language
facial expressions, gestures, postures

Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate

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2.2 Types of Communication Based on Purpose

and Style
Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bears
their own characteristics. Communication types based on style and purpose are:
1. Formal Communication
2. Informal Communication

Formal Communication
In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed while communicating
information. Formal communication appears in formal and official style. Usually experienced settings,
corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern.
In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is
required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication.

Informal Communication
Informal communication is done using means that are in comparison with formal communication
channels. Its just a improvised talk. It is established for societal affiliations of members in an
organization and face-to-face discussions. It happens among friends and family. In informal
communication use of slang words, foul language is not restricted. Usually informal
communication is done orally and using gestures.
Informal communication, unlike formal communication, doesnt follow authority lines. In an
organization, it helps in finding out staff afflictions as people express more when talking informally.
Informal communication helps in building relationships.

3.0 Communicating Effectively at Work

Whether its an executive overseeing a large staff, an employee working by the side of several coworkers or a firm representative dealing with clients, effective communication is the best way to
complete the job correctly and avoid disputes. Following are the key steps for the effective
Be completely forthright, even if it doesn't paint you in the best light. Let your executive
know if you're having complications with a task, if you've made a mistake that may
affect the company's bottom line or if you can't clarify the conflict.
Make yourself alert of how your access, tone of voice and mannerisms affect your coworkers. Speaking to people with an affront tone of voice or displaying a negative

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gesture will create an uncomfortable work environment. Ensure your instructions are
clear, helpful and upbeat to encourage respect and cooperation.
Maintain eye contact with the person to inspire them that you're listening attentively.
Hear him out completely before formulating an answer. Rephrase what he's said in
your answer so he knows that you understood his question or request.
Leave a line of communication open so you'll be able to handle problems before they
amplify. If you are working with a team, for example, schedule regular progress reports
so everyone will be up to date and accountable for their actions. Follow up once you've
completed a task to ensure all parties are satisfied.
Familiarize yourself with your co-workers' non-verbal signs so you'll be able to tailor
your behaviour accordingly. Learn to stop asking so many questions when your boss
starts flipping through his planner or checking his watch, for example.

4.0 Communication Barriers

Communication is a process beginning with a sender who encrypts the information and passes it
through some means to the receiver who decodes the information. Communication is fruitful if and
only if the information sent by the sender is interpreted with same meaning by the receiver. If any sort
of disturbance blocks any step of communication, the message will be destroyed. Due to such
disturbances, managers in a firm face severe problems. Thus the managers must locate such
barriers and take steps to get rid of them.
There are different types of barriers that affect the flow of communication in an organization. These
barriers disturb the flow of communication from the sender to the receiver, thus making
communication useless. It is essential for managers to overcome these barriers. The main barriers of
communication are summarized below.

4.1 Types of Communication Barriers

Perceptual and Language Differences:
Attitude or perception is generally how each individual clarify the world around him. All generally want
to receive information which is significant to them. But any information which is against their values is
not accepted. A same event may be taken differently by different individuals. For example: A person is
on leave for a month due to personal reasons. The HR Manager might be in confusion whether to
retain that employee or not, the immediate manager might think of replacement because his teams
productivity is being hampered, the family members might take him as an emotional support.

Information Overload:
Managers are surrounded with a pool of information. It is essential to control this information flow else
the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. As a result communication is
less effective.

At times we just not listen, but only hear. For example a traveler may pay attention to one NO
PARKING sign, but if such sign is put all over the city, he no longer listens to it. Thus, repetitive
messages should be ignored for effective communication. Similarly if a superior is engrossed in his

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paper work and his subordinate explains him his problem, the superior may not get what he is saying
and it leads to disappointment of subordinate.

Time Pressures:
Often in organization the targets have to be achieved within a specified time period, the failure of
which has adverse consequences. In a haste to meet deadlines, the formal channels of
communication are shortened, or messages are partially given, i.e., not completely transferred. Thus
sufficient time should be given for effective communication.

Communication is also affected a lot by noise to distractions. Physical distractions are also there
such as, poor lightning, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room also affects communication in a
meeting. Similarly use of loud speakers interferes with communication.

Emotional state at a particular point of time also affects communication. If the receiver feels that
communicator is angry he interprets that the information being sent is very bad. While he takes it
differently if the communicator is happy and jovial (in that case the message is interpreted to be good
and interesting).

Complexity in Organizational Structure:

Greater the hierarchy in an organization (i.e. more the number of managerial levels), more is the
chances of communication getting destroyed. Only the people at the top level can see the overall
picture while the people at low level just have knowledge about their own area and a little knowledge
about other areas.

Poor retention:
Human memory cannot function beyond a limit. One cant always retain what is being told specially if
he is not interested or not attentive. This leads to communication breakdown.

5.0 References