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ReliabilityAnalysisofPower

PlantUnitOutageProblems
G.MichaelCurley
President
GenerationConsultingServices,LLC

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Agenda
Whatisourobjectiveandwhy?
Whattoolsdowehaveavailable?
Reliableoutageinformation
Measurements(statistics)

Howcanwereachtheobjectives?
Unitlevelbenchmarking
Componentlevelbenchmarking

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WhatisOurObjectiveandWhy?

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Definition
Reliability isthecharacteristicsofanitem
expressedasaprobabilitythatitwillperformits
requiredfunctionsunderspecifiedconditionsfor
aspecifiedperiodoftime.
Maintainability isthecharacteristicsofdesign
andinstallationexpressedastheprobabilitythat
anitemwillberetainedinorrestoredtoa
specifiedconditionwithinaspecifiedperiodof
timewhenmaintenanceisperformedin
accordancewithprescribedproceduresand
resources.
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Definition
Availability isthecharacteristicofanitem
expressedasaprobabilitythatitwillbe
operationalatarandomlyselectedfuture
instantintime.
Availability

Reliability

Maintainability

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GamePlan
Tosimplyfindwaysthateitheroutage
frequency,outageduration,orboth,canbe
reducedandkeptatalevelconsistentwith
minimumgenerationcostsandload
managementobjectives.

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WhatToolsDoWeHaveAvailable?

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ReliabilityDatabases
Severaldatabasestochoosefrom:
GeneratingAvailabilityDataSystem(GADS) NERC
OperationalReliabilityAnalysisProgram(ORAP)
StrategicPowerSystems,Inc.
KraftwerkInformationSSYstem(KISSY) VGBofEssen,
Germany
PowerReactorInformationSystem(PRIS)
InternationalAtomicEnergyAgency(IAEA) ofAustria
CanadianElectricityAssociation(CEA) Ottawa,
Canada
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WhatisGADS?
GeneratingAvailabilityDataSystem(GADS)
OffshootoftheEdisonElectricInstitutedatabase
introducedin1960sbytheEEIPrimeMoversCommittee
GADSwasintroducedtotheindustryin1982.

Databaseforcollectingandanalyzingpowerplant
equipmentfailures
Benchmarking
Settingrealisticgeneratingunitgoals
Improvingunitoutputandreliability

Foundationfordeterminingthereliabilityofthebulk
powersystemasrelatedtogeneratingunits
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WhyMandatoryGADS?
WhenNERCbecametheElectricReliabilityOrganization
(ERO)undertheEnergyPolicyActof2005(Section215),
itwasgiventhemandatetomonitorthereliabilityofthe
bulkpowersystem:
Transmission
Generatingfacilities
Notdistributionsystems

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WhyMandatoryGADS?
Historically
Reliabilityassessmentreportsandmodeling
Lossofloadexpectationstudiesandmodeling

NewChallenges
Astheresourcemixchanges,NERCanditsstakeholders
willneedtounderstandhowthechangesinresource
performancetranslatesintoPlanningReserveMargins.
Understandingtheperformanceofexistingandnew
resourcetechnologiesisessentialtocomprehendingthe
reliabilityoftheprojectedbulkpowersysteminNorth
America.

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GeneratingUnitsReportingtoGADS
8000
7000
6000

7028
5841

5952

6014

7445

5650

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013*

*Projected2013Value
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GADSUnitsbyUnitType
GADS2012Data
Combined
Cycle
9%

Hydro/PS
41%

Other
2%
Fossil
25%

Nuclear
2%
GT/Jet
18%

Diesel
3%
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NewConstruction20042013
34

Other

208

CombinedCycle
153

Hydro/PS
60

Diesel

261

GT/Jet
0

Nuclear

32

Fossil
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

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MWGenerated
GADS2012Data
Other
2%

Combined
Cycle
29%

Fossil
50%
Hydro/PS
12%

Diesel
0%

GT/Jet
2%

Nuclear
5%
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WhatDataDoesGADSCollect?
Designdata
Identifythevariousunittypes
SeparateunitsintogroupsbyMWsize,fuels,age,etc.

Eventdata
Insightsintoequipmentproblems
Essentialforevaluatedunitdesignssuchaspressurized
versesbalanceddraftfurnaces

PerformanceData
Performancedataprovidesinformation,inasummarized
format,pertainingtooverallunitoperationduringa
particularmonthinagivenyear.
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UnitState Active

DetailsofreportingatGCSGADSWorkshop.Seehandout.

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PrimaryCauseofEvent
GADScollectsdetailsregardingthesystem,major
component,orpieceofequipmentprimarilyresponsible
forcausingtheoutageorderatingevent.
Primarydetailsarerequired;secondarydetailsare
optional.
Important detailsofeventoutagecauseconsistsof:

System/Componentcausecodes(causecodes)
CauseCodeAmplificationCode(ampcodes)
EventContributionCode
VerbalDescription
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BasisofGADSDatabase
IEEE762camefrom
olderEdisonElectric
Institute(EEI)
documentsdeveloped
duringthe1970s.
IEEE762wasdeveloped
andtestedin1982;
revisedin1987,2006
andreaffirmedfor10
yearsin2010.
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GeneralOverview
Unweighted(timebased) equationsusetime

Weighted(energyorcapacitybased) equationsbased
onMWsizeoftheunits

1,000MW

100MW

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IEEE762Indices Factors
DiscussionoftheMostCommonUsesIEEE762Factorsand
WhyTheyAreImportanttothePowerIndustry

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EquivalentAvailabilityFactor(EAF)
ByDefinition:
Thefractionofnetmaximumgenerationthatcouldbe
providedafteralltypesofoutagesandderatings(including
seasonalderatings) aretakenintoaccount.
Measurespercentofmaximumgenerationavailable over
time
Notaffectedbyloadfollowing
ThehighertheEAF,thebetter
DeratesreduceEAFusingEquivalentDeratedHours

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TheEintheEquationName
WhenyouseeanEinthestatisticsname,itstandsfor
EquivalentsuchasEquivalentAvailabilityFactor(EAF)
orEquivalentForcedOutageRate Demand(EFORd).
Thesestatisticscontainderatings aswellasfulloutages.
DeratingsonlyappearinGADSfromeventrecords,not
performancerecords.Soitisimportanttoincludeall
deratingsinyourreporting!

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WhatareEquivalentDeratedHrs.?
Thisisamethodof
convertingderatingsinto
fulloutages.
Theproductofthe
DeratedHoursandthe
sizeofreduction,divided
byNMC.
100MWderatefor4
hoursisthesamelossas
400MWoutagefor1
hour.
100MWx4hours=400MWx1hour

400

300

200

100

400

300

200

100

1234

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ScheduledOutageFactor(SOF)
ByDefinition:
Thepercentoftimeduringaspecificperiodthataunitis
outofserviceduetoeitherplannedormaintenance
outages.
Outagesarescheduled.
PO WellinAdvance
MO Beyondthenextweekend
Ameasureoftheunitsunavailabilityduetoplannedor
maintenanceoutages.
ThelowertheSOF,thebetter.

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NetCapacityFactor(NCF)
ByDefinition:
Measurestheactualenergygenerated asafractionofthe
maximumpossibleenergyitcouldhavegeneratedat
maximumoperatingcapacity.
Showshowmuch theunitwasusedovertheperiodof
time
Theenergyproducedmaybeoutsidetheoperators
controlduetodispatch.
ThehighertheNCF,themoretheunitwasusedto
generatepower(movingtobaseload).

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NetOutputFactor(NOF)
ByDefinition:
Measurestheoutputofageneratingunitasafunctionof
thenumberofhoursitwasinservice(synchronizedtothe
grid).
Howhardwastheunitpushed
Theenergyproducedmaybeoutsidetheoperators
controlduetodispatch.
ThehighertheNOF,thehighertheloadingoftheunit
whenonline.

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ComparingNCFandNOF
NCF = 100% x (Net Actual Generation)
[PH x (Net Maximum Capacity)]
NOF = 100% x (Net Actual Generation)
[SH x (Net Maximum Capacity)]
NCF measures % of time at full load.
NOF measures the loading of the unit when operated.

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Whatcanyoulearnfromthischart?
EAF

NCF

NOF

Nuclear

87.19

88.36

98.96

Fossil,coal

83.33

63.62

81.15

Fossil,gas

84.17

12.53

35.98

Fossil,oil

83.83

8.12

39.81

Gasturbines

88.54

2.51

69.69

Hydro

84.61

40.67

67.43

(Datafromthe20082012GADSBrochure)
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IEEE762Equations Rates
DiscussionoftheMostCommonUsesIEEE762Ratesand
WhyTheyAreImportanttothePowerIndustry

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ForcedOutageRate
ByDefinition:
Thepercentofscheduledoperatingtimethataunitisout
ofserviceduetounexpectedproblemsorfailures.
Measuresthereliabilityofaunitduringscheduled
operation
Sensitivetoservicetime
(reserveshutdownsandscheduledoutagesinfluence
FORresults)
Bestusedtocomparesimilarloads:
baseloadvs.baseload
cyclingvs.cycling
ThelowertheFOR,thebetter.

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ForcedOutageRate
Calculation:
FOR =

FOH
FOH + SH + Syn Hrs. + Pmp Hrs.

x 100%

Comparison: unit with high SH vs. low SH


(SH = 6000 hrs. vs. 600 hrs.; FOH = 200 hrs.)
FOR =

200
= 3.23%
200 + 6000

FOR =

200
200 + 600

= 25.00%

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EquivalentForcedOutageRate
ByDefinition:
Thepercentofscheduledoperatingtimethataunitisout
ofserviceduetounexpectedproblemsorfailuresAND
cannotreachfullcapabilityduetoforcedcomponentor
equipmentfailures.
Theprobabilitythataunitwillnotmeetitsdemanded
generationrequirements.
Goodmeasureofreliability
ThelowertheEFOR,thebetter.

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EquivalentForcedOutageRate
Calculation:

EFOR =
FOH + EFDH
.
(FOH + SH + Syn Hrs. + Pmp Hrs. + EFDHRS)
where EFDH = (EFDHSH + EFDHRS)
EFDHSH is Equivalent Forced Derated Hours
during Service Hours.
EFDHRS is Equivalent Forced Derated Hours
during Reserve Shutdown Hours.
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EquivalentForcedOutageRate
As an example:
FOH = 750, EFDH = 450, SH = 6482, EDFHRS=0,
Syn Hrs. = 0, Pmp Hrs. = 0

EFOR =

FOH + EFDH
.
(FOH + SH + EFDHRS )

EFOR =

750 + 450 . = 16.6%


(750 + 6482 + 0 )
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EquivalentForcedOutageRate
Demand(EFORd)
Markovequationdevelopedinthe1970s
Usedbytheindustryformanyyears
PJMInterconnection
SimilartothatusedbytheCanadianElectricityAssociation
BeingusebytheCEA,PJM,NewYorkISO,ISONew
England,andCaliforniaISO

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EquivalentForcedOutageRate
Demand(EFORd)
Interpretation:
Theprobabilitythataunitwillnotmeetitsdemandperiods for
generatingrequirements.
Bestmeasureofreliabilityforallloadingtypes(base,cycling,
peaking,etc.)
Bestmeasureofreliabilityforallunittypes(fossil,nuclear,gas
turbines,diesels,etc.)
Fordemandperiodmeasuresandnotforthefull24hourclock.
ThelowertheEFORd,thebetter.

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EquivalentForcedOutageRate
Demand(EFORd)
12
1

11

10

4
7

EFORdwillallowyouto
measurethe
probabilityofaforced
eventduring
demand times.Inthis
example,between1&
4pm.

5
6
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EFORdEquation:
EFORd= [(FOHd) + (EFDHd)] x 100%
[SH + (FOHd)]
Where: FOHd = f x FOH
f=
[(1/r)+(1/T)]
[(1/r)+(1/T)+(1/D)]
r= FOH/(# of FOH occur.)
T= RSH/(# of attempted Starts)
D= SH/(# of actual starts)
EFDHd = fp x EFDH
fp = SH/AH
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ExampleofEFORdvs.EFOR
EFOR vs. EFORd
General Trend
140
Percent EFOR & EFORd

120
100
80

EFOR, range from 6.2 to 130.0%


EFOR
EFORd

60
40

EFORd, range from 4.7 to 30.7%

20
0
Increasing RSH / Decreasing SH
(All other numbers in calculation are contant.)

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ExampleofEFORdvs.EFOR
EFOR vs. EFORd
Gas Turbines
100
90

Percent EFOR & EFORd

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Corresponding EFOR & EFORd Values
EFORd

EFOR

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Whatcanyoulearnfromthischart?
FOR

EFOR

EFORd

SH

RSH

Nuclear

3.34

3.94

3.94 7,788.59

Fossil,coal

6.12

8.30

7.52 6,150.41 1,265.64

Fossil,gas

14.41

16.64

9.68 2,358.66 4,459.50

Fossil,oil

15.23

17.31

12.71 1,810.89 5,432.38

Gasturbines

63.09

62.79

10.65

5.79

5.99

Hydro

1.67

208.89 7,693.79

5.43 5,226.12 1,532.32

(Datafromthe20082012GADSBrochure)

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EAF+EFOR=100%?
Given: PH = 8760, SH = 10, RSH = 8460. FOH = 290. No deratings.

EAF = AF = AH
PH

EFOR = FOR =

EAF = 8470
8760

EFOR =

EAF = 97.7%

EFOR = 97.7%

FOH__
(SH+ FOH)

290____
(290 + 10)

Factors and rates are not additive


and not complementary!
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OutsideManagementControl(OMC)
Thereareanumberofoutagecausesthatmayprevent
theenergycomingfromapowergeneratingplantfrom
reachingthecustomer.Somecausesareduetotheplant
operationandequipmentwhileothersareoutsideplant
managementcontrol(OMC).
GADSneedstotrackalloutages butwantstogivesome
creditforOMCevents.

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WhatareOMCEvents?
Gridconnectionorsubstationfailure
Actsofnaturesuchasicestorms,tornados,winds,
lightning,etc.
Actsofterrorsortransmissionoperating/repairerrors
Lackoffuels
Waterfromriversorlakes,coalmines,gaslines,etc.
BUTNOToperatorelectedtocontractforfuelswherethe
fuel(forexample,naturalgas)canbeinterrupted

Laborstrikes
BUTNOTdirectplantmanagementgrievances
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ComparingEAF,WEAF,XEAF,etc.
EAF = (AH - ESDH - EFDH - ESEDH) x 100%
PH
WEAF = NMC(AH - ESDH - EFDH - ESEDH) x 100%
NMC (PH)
XEAF = (AH - ESDH - EFDH - ESEDH) x 100%
PH
XWEAF = NMC(AH - ESDH - EFDH - ESEDH) x 100%
NMC (PH)
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ComparingEAF,WEAF,XEAF,etc.
Fossil (All
sizes), Coal

Nuclear

Gas Turbines

EAF

84.64%

86.15%

90.28%

WEAF

84.25%

86.64%

90.06%

XEAF

85.21%

86.50%

90.76%

XWEAF

84.74%

86.98%

90.56%

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HowCanWeReachtheObjectives?

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WhatIsBenchmarking?
BusinessDictionary.comdefinesitas
Ameasurementofthequalityofanorganizations
policies,products,programs,strategies,etc.,and
theircomparisonwithstandardmeasurements,or
similarmeasurementsofitspeers.
Theobjectivesofbenchmarkingare:(1)to
determinewhatandwhereimprovementsare
calledfor;(2)toanalyzehowotherorganizations
achievetheirhighperformancelevels;and(3)to
usethisinformationtoimproveperformance.

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ModesofTransportation

Therearedifferentwaystotravel.Inbenchmarking,therearedifferent
waystodeterminepeergroupsandcompareyourgeneratingunits.

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WhyBenchmark?
Benchmarkingishelpingutilities

Setgoals
Developincentives
Identifyimprovementopportunities
Quantifyandmanagerisks
Createincreasedawarenessofthepotentialforandthevalue
ofincreasedplantperformance

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BenchmarkingShouldbeSMART!
Specific tothetypeandoperationoftheunit.
Measurable toshowactualchanges(+/)
Achievableand
Reasonable Improvementsarepossible.Dont
expectresultsthatareoutsidereasonable
expectations.
Tested thatthemethodofbenchmarkinghas
beentestedtobeasound,proventechnology.

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PeerSelectionCriteria
LargePopulation

NERCGADSDatabase7000+units
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PeerSelectionCriteria
Exact Match

x x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

Number of Exact Matches

x
x

x
x

x
0

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PeerSelectionCriteria

Large Population

Exact Matches

Must Balance Criteria


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EasyPeerGroupSelection
BagofMarbles

GolfBallsandBBPellets

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EasyPeerGroupSelection
Shouldnotcomparenuclearunitstogas
turbines.
Shouldnotcompareunitsconstructed40
yearsagotonewunitswithoneyear
operation.
Shouldnotcomparebaseloadedunitsto
thoseonlyusedoccasionally(peakers).

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ChallengingPeerGroupSelection
BagofMarbles

SameSize,DifferentColor

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ChallengingPeerGroupSelection
Arecoalfiredunitsreallydifferentthanoil or
gasfiredunits?
Isthereastatisticalmethodtoshowthat199
MWunitsaredifferentthan200MWunits?
HowdoyoudeterminewhenoneMWsizeof
unitsendsandasecondgroupbegins?
DoestheperformanceofmanufacturerAdiffer
significantlyfromthatofmanufacturerB?
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BenchmarkingGoal
Identifygeneratingunits(individually)that
canbegroupedbasedonboth
Unitdesign
Operatingexperience

Question:
Aretheselectedbenchmarkingcriteriadifferent
enoughtobedifferent(golfballsandBBs)or
Aretheselectedbenchmarkingcriteriadifferent
yet thesame(samesizemarbles)?

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WhatistheBestBenchmarkingMetric?
Inthebenchmarkingdefinition,itstates
Ameasurementofthequalityofanorganizations
policies,products,programs,strategies,etc.,and
theircomparisonwithstandardmeasurements,or
similarmeasurementsofitspeers.

Whatisthebestmeasureforcomparing
withpeers?

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PossibleMetricsforBenchmarking
EquivalentAvailabilityFactor(EAF)
Measuresthepercentoftimetheunitiscapable
offullloadoperation.
Measureofoverallunitperformanceandhas
beenthecomparativemeasuringmetricforpower
plantsforyears.
Notinfluencedbydispatch
Influencedbyoutagerepairs PO,MOandFO
Nottotallyindependentofexternalinfluences
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PossibleMetricsforBenchmarking
NetCapacityFactor(NCF)
Measuresthepercentoftimetheunitwasatfull
loadoperation.
Usedasameasureofoverallunitloading
capabilityforcategoriessuchasbaseloaded,
cycling,etc.
Nottotallyindependentofexternalinfluences
Influencedbydispatch
Influencedbyoutagerepairs
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PossibleMetricsforBenchmarking
EquivalentForcedOutageRate(EFOR)
Measurestheprobabilityofexperiencingaforced
outageorforcedderating.
Designedforunitsoperatedcontinuallywithlittle
ornoreserveshutdowns(baseload).
Independentofexternalinfluences
Notinfluencedbydispatch
Notinfluencedbymaintenanceorplannedoutage
repairs,notforcyclingorpeakingunits.
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PossibleMetricsforBenchmarking
EquivalentForcedOutageRateDemand(EFORd)
Measurestheprobabilityofexperiencingaforced
outageorforcedderatingduringdemandperiods.
Designedforunitsinalloperatingstates(baseload,
cycling,peaking,etc.).
Notinfluencedbydispatch
Notinfluencedbymaintenanceorplannedoutage
repairs
Bestreliabilitymetric RECOMMENDED!
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HowManyPeerUnits?
Itishighlyrecommendedthataminimumof30
generatingunitsshouldbeusedtocompare
againstyourunit(orgroupofunits.)
Lessthan30unitscanresultinabias(highorlow).
Adistributionofthebenchmarkingmetriccan
identifyanybias.

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BenchmarkingOptions
Unitbenchmarking
Reviewtheentiregeneratingunitasawholeand
lookforwhatmakestheunitunique.

Componentbenchmarking
Reviewthemajorcomponent/groupof
componentsasawholeandlookforwhatmakes
thecomponent(s)unique.

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UnitBenchmarkingOption#1
Traditionalmethodwhereuserselectswhat
optionsareimportantandwhatoptionsare
thesame.
Samesteamturbinemanufacturer
Samefuelsburned
UsingGADSreportfordeterminingMWsizeofthe
group
100199MW
400599MW
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UnitBenchmarkingOption#1
Advantages
Manypeopleuseit
Quickdeterminationofwhattouseascriteria
basedongutfeeling

Disadvantages
Nostatisticalbackupastoprovethatonecriteria
isbetterthananother.

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UnitBenchmarkingOption#2
StatisticalAnalysis
Method

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PeerSelectionCriteria
Etc.
Firing

Fuel

Vintage

Boiler
Manufacturer

ASSUME
Size

Etc.

Etc.

Duty
Age

Criticality
Etc.

Etc.

Draft

Turbine
Manufacturer

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PeerSelectionCriteria
Etc.
Firing

Fuel

Vintage

Boiler
Manufacturer

ANALYSIS
Size

Etc.

Etc.

Duty
Age

Criticality
Etc.

Etc.

Draft

Turbine
Manufacturer

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PeerSelectionCriteria
SignificanceTesting
Subcritical

Supercritical

EFORd

Base load Duty

Cyclic Duty

EFORd
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PeerGroupsSelectCriteria
FossilUnits
All Fossil Units
CRITICALITY
Super

Sub

VINTAGE
<1972

MODE OF OPERATION
1972

Cycling

Base load

Size
Draft Type
Fuel

Boiler Mfr.
Draft Type
Size

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SomeFindings
GolfballsandBBs
Nuclearvs.simplecyclegasturbines
Subcriticalvs.supercriticalpressures
Balancedvs.pressurizedboilers

Samesizemarbles
Gasvs.oilfiredboilers
SteamturbinemanufacturerAvs.B

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DoesPeerSelectionMakeaDifference?
SUPERCRITICAL FOSSIL UNIT TECHNOLOGY
EARLY VINTAGE
EFORd (mean)
EFORd (median)
EFORd (best quartile)

15.60%
12.17%
8.14%

RECENT VINTAGE
9.68%
8.08%
5.47%

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DoesPeerSelectionMakeaDifference?
EFORd PLANTA
OLD CRITERIA
(Coal; 100-199MW)

NEW CRITERIA

% DIFFERENCE

mean

6.47%

5.53%

-14%

median

4.78%

5.07%

+6%

best quartile

2.65%

3.26%

+23%

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ReliabilityBenchmarkingResults
42PeerUnits
Peerunitselectioncriteria
Subcritical
Reserveshutdownhourslessthan963hoursper
year
Naturalboilercirculation
Primaryfuel=coal
Singlereheat
Netoutputfactorgreaterthan85.6%
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PeerUnitEFORdDistribution
100
90
CumulativePercent

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

2
4
6
8
10
12
EquivalentForcedOutageRate Demand(EFORd)

14

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PeerUnitSOFDistribution
100
90
80

CumulativePercent

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

12

14

16

ScheduledOutageFactor(SOF)

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PeerUnitEAFDistribution
100
90
CumulativePercent

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
70

75

80
85
90
EquivalentAvailabilityFactor(EAF)

95

100

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GamePlan
Tosimplyfindwaysthateitheroutage
frequency,outageduration,orboth,canbe
reducedandkeptatalevelconsistentwith
minimumgenerationcostsandload
managementobjectives.

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MotherLodeShoppingList
ListofTop10CausesofForcedOutages
Rank

Occurrenceper MWHper MWHper


UnitYear
Occurrence UnitYear

CauseCode Description

1050

SecondSuperheaterLeaks

1.01

19,697.83 19,987.16

1000

Waterwall(furnaceWall)

0.43

25,896.34 11,226.20

1040

FirstSuperheaterLeaks

0.28

26,940.82

7,443.75

1060

FirstReheaterLeaks

0.19

27,473.08

5,235.04

4520

Gen.StatorWindings;Bushings;AndTerminals

0.02

221,062.64

4,212.39

1080

EconomizerLeaks

0.17

24,105.14

4,133.95

3620

MainTransformer

0.07

54,428.70

3,889.31

3659

OtherDcPowerProblems

0.03

124,869.58

3,569.12

4470

DifferentialExpansion

0.04

92,785.69

3,536.10

10

1090

OtherBoilerTubeLeaks

0.10

34,137.96

3,252.52

DatafromNERCpcGARsoftware.

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Conclusions
Benchmarkingishelpingutilitiesby

Helpingsetreasonablegoals
Identifyingimprovementopportunities
Quantifyingandmanagingrisks
Creatingincreasedawarenessofthepotentialandvalueof
increasedplantperformance

Properpeergroupselectionisessential!

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Questions?

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GenerationConsultingServices,LLC
GADSDataReportingWorkshops
Nashville,Tennessee
August1315,2013

Charlotte,NorthCarolina
October2223,2013

SoldOut!!!!

RegisterNow
LimitedSeating

Thankyou!
G.MichaelCurley
President
GenerationConsultingServices,LLC
(801)8556575
mike@generationconsultingservices.com

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