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* Yangco sent Rallos a letter inviting the latter to be the consignor in buying and selling
leaf tobacco and other native products. Terms and conditions were also contained in the letter.
* Accepting the invitation, Rallos proceeded to do a considerable business with Yangco
trhough the said Collantes, as his factor, sending to him as agent for Yangco a good deal of produce
to be sold on commission.
* Rallos sent to the said Collantes, as agent for Yangco, 218 bundles of tobacco in the leaf
to be sold on commission, as had been other produce previously.
* The said Collantes received said tobacco and sold it for the sum of P1,744. The charges
for such sale were P206.96, leaving in the hands of said Collantes the sum of 1,537.08 belonging
to Rallos. This sum was, apparently, converted to his own use by said agent.
* It appears, however, that prior to the sending of said tobacco Yangco had severed his
relations with Collantes and that the latter was no longer acting as his factor. This fact was not
known to Rallos; and it is conceded in the case that no notice of any kind was given by Yangco of
the termination of the relations between Yangco and his agent, Collantes.
* Yangco thus refused to pay the said sum upon demand of Rallos, placing such refusal
upon the ground that at the time the said tobacco was received and sold by Collantes, he was acting
personally and not as agent of Yangco.
ISSUE: W/N Collantes is an agent of Yangco. If so, Yangco as principal must refund to Rallos the
said sum brought by the sale of the produce
Yangco, as principal is liable. Having advertised the fact that Collantes was his agent and
having given special notice to Rallos of that fact, and having given them a special invitation to
deal with such agent, it was the duty of Yangco on the termination of the relationship of the
principal and agent to give due and timely notice thereof to Rallos.
Failing to do so, he is responsible to them for whatever goods may been in good faith and
without negligence sent to the agent without knowledge, actual or constructive, of the termination
of such relationship

* Gregorio Jimenez filed this action to recover from Rabot, a parcel of land situated in
Alaminos, Pangasinan
* The property in question, together with two other parcels in the same locality originally
belonged to Jimenez, having been assigned to him as one of the heirs in the division of the estate
of his father
* It further appears that while Gregorio Jimenez was staying at Vigan, Ilocos Sur, his
property in Alaminos was confided by him to the care of his elder sister Nicolasa Jimenez.

* He wrote his sister a letter from Vigan in which he informed her that he was pressed for
money and requested her to sell one of his parcels of land and send him the money in order that he
might pay his debts. The letter contains no description of the land to be sold other than is indicated
in the words one of my parcels of land.
* Acting upon this letter, Nicolasa approached Rabot and the latter agreed to buy the
property for the sum of P500. P250 was paid at once, with the understanding that a deed of
conveyance would be executed when the balance should be paid.
* Nicolasa admits having received this payment but there is no evidence that she sent it to
her brother
* After one year, Gregorio Jimenez went back to Alaminos and demanded that his sister
surrender the piece of land to him, it being then in her possession.
* She refused upon some pretext or other to do so and as a result, plaintiff instituted an
action to recover the land from her control
* Meanwhile, Nicolasa executed and delivered to Rabot a deed purporting to convey to
him the parcel of land
ISSUE: W/N the authority conferred on Nicolasa by the letter was sufficient to enable her to bind
her brother of the sale made in favor of Rabot
As a matter of formality, a power of attorney to convey real property ought to appear in a
public document, just as any other instrument intended to transmit or convey an interest in such
property ought to appear in a public document
Art. 1713 of the Civil Code requires that the authority to alienate land shall be contained
in an express mandate
Subsection 5 of section 335 of Code of Civil Procedure say that the authority of the agent
must be in writing and subscribed by the party to be charged
SC: the authority expressed in the letter is a sufficient compliancw tih both requirements
The purpose in giving a power of attorney is to substitute the mind and hand of the agent
for the mind and hand of the principal; and if the character and extent of the power is so defined
as to leave no doubt as to the limits within which the agent is authorized to act, and he acts within
those limits, the principal cannot question the validity of his act
The general rule here applicable is that the description must be sufficiently definite to
identify the land either from the recitals of the contract or deed or from external facts referred to
in the document, thereby enabling one to determine the identity of the land and if the description
is uncertain on its face or is shown to be applicable with equal plausibility to more than one tract,
it is insufficient.