Anda di halaman 1dari 35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview
Journals

Books

Shopping cart

Sign in

Help

Materials&Design
Volume40,September2012,Pages304313

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:
Areview
M.M.Davoodia,b, , ,S.M.Sapuanb,A.Aidyc,N.A.AbuOsmana,A.A.Oshkoura,
W.A.B.WanAbasa
Showmore
doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2012.03.060

Getrightsandcontent

Abstract
Bumperbeamabsorbstheaccidentalkineticenergybydeflectioninlowspeedimpact
andbydeformationinhighspeedimpact.Thesafetyregulationslow,andhighspeed,
andpedestrianimpactsalongwithnewenvironmentalrestrictionsendoflifevehicles
increasedthecomplexitylevelofbumpersystemdesign.Thenewbumperdesignmust
beflexibleenoughtoreducethepassengerandoccupantinjuryandstayintactinlow
speedimpactbesidesbeingstiffenoughtodissipatethekineticenergyinhighspeed
impact.Thereinforcementbeamplaysavitalroleinsafetyanditmustbevalidated
throughfiniteelementanalysis(FEA)andexperimentaltestsbeforemassproduction.
Thecarefuldesignandanalysisofbumperbeameffectiveparameterscanoptimizethe
strength,reducetheweight,andincreasethepossibilityofutilizingbiodegradableand
recyclablematerialstoreducetheenvironmentalpollution.Developingthecorrect
designandanalysisprocedurespreventsdesignremodification.Ontheotherhand,
analysisofthemosteffectiveparametersconducivetohighbumperbeamstrength
increasestheefficiencyofproductdevelopment.Crosssection,longitudinalcurvature,
fixingmethod,ribthickness,andstrengtharesomeofthesignificantdesignparameters
inbumperbeamproduction.Thisstudycriticallyreviewstherelatedliteratureonbumper
designtocomeupwiththeoptimalbumperbeamdesignprocess.Itparticularlyfocuses
ontheeffectiveparametersinthedesignofbumperbeamandtheirmostsuitablevalues
orrangesofvalues.Theresultscanhelpdesignersandresearchersinperforming
functionalanalysisofthebumperbeamdeterminantvariables.

Highlights
Theprocessofnewbumperbeamdevelopmentforpassengercarisdiscussed.A
newbumpersystemhasbeenaddedtothepreviousdevelopedbumpersystems.The
flowchartofdesignandanalysisofbumperbeamisshown.Differentanalysisfor
developingnewbumperbeambeforeproductionisdiscussed.Theprocessof
materialselectioninbumperbeamisdiscussed.

Keywords
DevelopingprocessBumperbeamDesignparameters

1.Introduction
Designisthepreliminarystageofproductdevelopmentandanalysis.Theembodiment
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

1/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

stageofthedesignprocessfairlypredictsthefailure(s),ifany,beforemassproduction.
Passengervehiclesmakeupover90%ofthefleetofregisteredvehicles.In2009itwas
estimatedthat9,640,000vehicleswereinvolvedinpolicereportedcrashes,95%
(9,161,000)ofwhichwerepassengervehicles.Furthermore,there,45,435vehiclesof
thesewereinvolvedinfatalcrashesandeightypercentofwhich(36,252)were
passengervehicles.Morethan23,000passengervehicletravelerslosttheirlivesin
trafficcrashesin2009andanestimated1.97millionpersonswereinjured[1].Therefore,
vehiclesafetyrequirementsforcedbyGovernmentsandinsurancecompaniesincrease
frequently[2].Inmostoftheaccidents,thebumpersystemisthefirstvehiclepartthat
receivesthecollisionandwhichmaytosomeextentprotectthecarbodyand
passengers.Thissystemcomprisesthreemainparts:fascia,energyabsorber,and
bumperbeam[3].Thefasciaisanonstructuralaestheticscomponentthatreducesthe
aerodynamicdragforcewhiletheenergyabsorberdissipatespartofthekineticenergy
duringcollision.Thebumperbeamisastructuralcomponentwhichabsorbsthelow
impactenergybybendingresistanceanddissipatesthehighimpactenergybycollision
[4].
Therearesomeinvestigationsofnewmaterialdevelopment,propertyimprovement,and
FEAofbumperbeamstructuresbyresearchersandcarmanufacturers.Theseparties
aremainlyinterestedinsubstitutingtheconventionalmaterialwithlighterandstronger
material[5].RenaultusedSMCinapassengercarbumperin1972insteadofsteel[6]
andGeneralMotors(GMs),usedthesheetmoldingcompound(SMC)beaminPontiac
BonnevilleCadillacSevilleandCadillacEldoradoinsteadofsteelwhichwasusedin
previousmodels[7].Cheonetal.[8]foundthatthepolymercompositebumperbeam
offers30%lessweightthansteelwithoutscarifyingthebumperbeamsbendingstrength.
Wakemanetal.[9]foundthatholdingtimepressureisthemosteffectiveparameter
amongfiveprocessingparametersinmicrostructureandmacrostructurepropertiesof
glassmatthermoplastic(GMT)inabumperbeam.Petersonetal.[10]fromAzdel
companydevelopedtheGMTwithahighsurfacefinishforaestheticcomponents.
RaghavendranandHaque[11]alsodevelopedalightweightGMTcompositecontaining
longchoppedfiberstrandstobeusedinheadlinerandotherautomotiveinterior
applications.Suddinetal.[12]usedtheweightanalysismethodtoselectfasciafora
desiredvehicle.Heusedtheknowledgebasedsystem(KBS)approachtoselectthe
materialforbumperbeamdevelopment[13].Sapuanetal.[3]studiedtheconceptual
designandmaterialselectionfordevelopmentofapolymericbasedcomposite
automotivebumpersystem.Hosseinzadehetal.[14]studiedtheshape,material,and
impactconditionsofthebumperbeamandcomparedtheresultswithconventional
metalslikesteelandaluminium.HefoundthatGMTcanreplaceSMCasarecyclable
material.Kokkulaetal.[15]experimentallystudiedbumperbeamperformanceat40%
offsetimpactcrashworthinessandconcludedthatmaterialswithmoderatestrain
hardeningpropertiesarepreferableoverthehigherstrainhardeningmaterialsforhis
studiedsystem.Hambalietal.[16]studiedemployedtheanalyticalhierarchyprocess
(AHP)inconceptselectionofbumperbeamduringtheconceptualdesignstageof
productdevelopment.Marzbanradetal.[17]studiedbumperbeamcrashworthiness
improvementbyanalyzingbumperbeammaterial,thickness,andshapeaswellas
impactconditionparameters.HefoundthatamodifiedSMCbumperbeamispreferable
totheribbedGMTbumperbeamastheformerhasthepotentialtominimizethebumper
beamdeflection,impactforce,andstressdistributionandtomaximizetheelasticstrain
energywhileexhibitingalmostthesameenergyabsorptionoftheunribbedSMCbumper
beam.Parketal.[18]developedanoptimizedbumperbeamcrosssectionthatsatisfies
boththesafetyrequirementsforafrontrigidwallimpactandlowerleginjuriesina
pedestrianimpacttest.Mostoftheabovementionedresearchemphasizesonmaterial
andconceptselectionfor,andnumericalanalysisof,bumperbeam.However,noarticles
regardingprocedure(s)fornewbumperbeamdevelopmentcouldbefoundintheopen
literature.Thisstudythereforefocusesontheprocessofbumperbeamdevelopmentand
summarizesthemethodofdesignandanalysisofthenewbumperbeaminnewvehicle
developmentbasedonthepreviousresearchandtheauthorspersonalexperiences.In
consequence,thisarticlehelpsthedesignertofollowtherightprocedureforbumper
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

2/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

beamdevelopment.Itemphasizesontheparametersthathavetobeconsideredinthe
designofbumperbeamsandillustratestheprocedureforFEanalysisthebumper
system.

2.Bumpersystem
2.1.Bumpersystemdefinition
Abumpersystemisasetofcomponentsinthefrontandrearpartsofthevehicle
designedfordampingthekineticenergywithoutanydamagetothevehicleinlowspeed
impactandforenergydissipationinhighspeedimpactconditionsbesidesserving
aestheticandaerodynamicpurposes[19]and[20].Abumpersystemmainlycomprises
threecomponents:fascia,energyabsorber,andbeam[3].Thebumpersystemhas
changedoverthelastthreedecadesduetonewgovernmentsafetyregulationsand
stylingconcepts.Theabilitytomaintainthevehicleintactathighspeedimpact
conditionsandtodampthekineticenergyarethemostimportantfactorsinbumper
systemselectionbesidesitsweight,manufacturability,cost,reparability,andformability
ofmaterials[21](Fig.1).

Fig.1.
Commonbumpersystems.
Figureoptions

TheAmericanIronandSteelInstitute[22]offeredfourproposalsforbumpersystems:(1)
metalfacebar,(2)plasticfasciaandreinforcingbeam,(3)plasticfasciareinforcingbeam
andmechanicalenergyabsorbers,and(4)plasticfasciareinforcingbeamandfoam,or
honeycomb,energyabsorbers.Accordingtothenewregulation,thepedestrianleg
impacttestwasduetobeenactedandimplementedstartingfrom2010.Someresearch
hasbeencarriedouttooffermethodsforcomplyingwiththepedestrianimpacttest.The
energyabsorptiondensityinthelowimpacttestapproximatelydoubledincomparison
withthepedestrianimpact[23].Choietal.[24]cameupwiththeconceptoflocatingthe
energyabsorberbetweenthebumperfasciaandthereinforcementbeamtoabsorbthe
impactenergywhenthesecondenergyabsorberissubjectedtoanimpactgreaterthan
itscriticalelasticforce.Therefore,thisconcept(tobereferredtohereafterasconcept
number5orconceptNo.5)canbeaddedtothefourbumpersystemcomponentswhich
theAmericanIronandSteelInstitute(AISI)offeredin2003(Fig.2)whichisaschematic
viewofaconceptNo.5systemmodifiedfromAISIforcarbumpersystem.Inthismethod,
twotypesofenergyabsorbersareconsidered:firstly,alowstiffenerabsorber,whichis
calledthereversibleabsorber,isdesignedforprotectionagainstlowandpedestrian
impactandsecondly,theirreversibleenergyabsorber,whichcomprisesthebeamand
thecrushableenergyabsorberandisusuallylocatedatthebackofthebeamand
attachedtothemainfacebar.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

3/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview
Fig.2.
Pedestrian,lowimpactandcrashimpactsystem.
Figureoptions

2.2.Bumperbeamdefinitionandfunction
Thebumperbeamisthebackboneoftheenergyabsorptionmechanismofthebumper
system[8].Itisusuallylocatedinthefront,andsometimesintherear,sidesofthe
vehicles.However,thetestingprocessforbothsidesisalmostthesametheforward
systemshouldbestrongerthanthebackwardonefordriversafety.Ontheotherhand,
thecurrenttrendsinbumperdesignfocusonaerodynamicefficiencywherethedesigned
curveshouldbeembracedwiththesamestyleinotherpartsofthebumpersystem[22].
So,theconformablecompositematerialsolvesthisdilemmabyprovidingtherequired
curvatureandloweringthemanufacturingcost,e.g.,bymultistagestampingofthe
metallicbumperbeam,anddecreasesthebeamweight[25].
Dissipationofenergybythebumperbeamcanbedeterminedbothbymaterialand
structuralenergyabsorption[26].Theeffectiveparametersinenergyabsorptionof
compositematerialsdependontypeoffibre[27],matrix[28],fibreorientation[29],
fabricatingconditions[30],interlaminarbondquality[31],andtoughness[32].The
effectiveparametersofstructuralenergyabsorptionarelongitudinalcurvature,cross
sectionprofile[33],strengtheningribs[34],thickness[35],andtheoveralldimensionsof
thecrosssection[36].Theenergyabsorptionofmaterialandstructurewasinvestigated
by[37]and[38].Thecrashworthinessofthevehicleandbumpersystem,whichidentifies
thesafetyandperformanceofthevehicleinresponsetoimpactload,isachallenging
issue.Theenhancedperformanceofcrashworthinesspresentslowdamagetothe
vehicleandtooccupants[39].Theimpactenergyinthebumpersystemcanbe
dissipatedreversibly(lowimpact)orirreversibly(crashworthiness)[40].Ifthemagnitude
oftheloaddoesnotexceedtheelasticregionlowimpactcondition,thenthestructure
returnstoitspreviouspositionafterreleasingtheload[4].However,iftheimpactload
goesbeyondtheelasticregioncrashworthiness,thenmostofthecollisionloadis
absorbedbyplasticdeformation(irreversibleenergyabsorption).Thebumpersystem
shouldovercomebothscenariosandsustaintheintenseloadwhichresultsinlarge
deformation,strainhardening,andvariousinteractionsbetweendifferentdeformation
modessuchasbendingandstretching[41](Fig.3).

Fig.3.
GMTbumperbeamofSamand[42].
Figureoptions

Theproportionofenergyreversiblyabsorbedbythebumperbeamshouldbeconfined
andthehighkineticenergyshouldbepreferablydissipatedbyplasticdeformation.
Otherwise,thecollisionenergymaximizesthestructuralstrainenergyandreleasethe
samekineticenergyinreturn,whichcausessubsequentdamagetotheoccupantsor
adjacentvehicles.Accordingly,thestructuralstrainenergyofthebumperbeamshould
beoptimizedduringthedesignprocess.Besides,ductilityofmaterialimprovesthe
plasticenergyabsorption.Withinthiscontext,plasticcomposites,polymerfoams,and
aluminiumalloysarecommonlyusedinthebumpersystemswhenplasticenergy
dampingandweightarecriticaldesignandperformancecriteria[41]and[43].

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

4/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

2.3.Bumperbeamdesignparameters
Thestreamofnewmaterials,products,andprocessdevelopmenthasenforceda
rethinkingoftheroleofstructuraldesignandoftheeffectiveparametersfortheir
improvement.Thebumperbeamcanbeimprovedbyadjustinganumberofeffective
parameters.Theefficiencyoftheparameterscanbeidentifiedbyanyofanumberof
methodssuchasdesignofexperiments(DOE)[44],reliabilitybaseddesignoptimization
(RBDO)[45],anddesignsensitivityanalysis.However,thecurrentstudyisnotintended
toidentifytheviabilityoftheparameters.Variablessuchasthickness,bumperbeam
curvature,ribstrength,andcrosssectionprofilearesomeofthemostimportant
parameterswhichcanimprovetheenergyabsorptionofthebumperbeamandsustain
thedesireddeflectionofthebumpersystemasdefinedintheproductdesign
specifications(PDSs).Theoptimalthicknessofabumperbeamcanconstructabalance
betweentheweightandstrengthofthestructureinordertoprovidefurthereffective
energyabsorption[46].Thenominalthicknessofthebumperbeamis4mm.However,it
isnotcompletelyconstantinallbeamparts.Surplusthicknessofthepolymerproducts
hassomemanufacturingconstraints.Asanillustration,itincreasesthecoolingtimeand
makeswarpsintheflatsurfacesandsinkmarksonthesurfaceoftheribsinterface,
whichisnotsuitableinvisibleproducts.
Strengthenedribsincreasesdistortionresistance,rigidity,andstructuralstiffness
throughusinglittlematerialintheslenderwalls[47]andprovidingtherequiredimpact
severity[48].Pattern,thickness,tip,andendfilletoftheribsshouldbedesigned
accordingtoloaddirection,impactposition,material,andthemanufacturingprocess
available.Sincethematerialthicknessishighattheribscontactarea,itcausessink
marks,butthisisnotmuchimportantaconsideration,asanonaestheticpart,forthe
bumperbeam.Ithasbeenreportedthatthestrengthenedribsincreasetheimpact
energyby7%anddecreaseelongationby19%[14],[17]and[49].Zhangetal.[20]
showedthattheoptimizedreinforcedribshavehigherenergyabsorptionperformance
thantheemptyandfoamfilledbeams.
Optimizingthecrosssectionofabumperbeammagnifiesitsstrength,dimensional
stability,anddampingcapability.Ithassignificanteffectsontheenergydampingrate
andbendingresistancecomparedwithotherparameters[27]and[37].Therightcross
sectioncanincreasebumperbeamstrengthanddimensionalstability.KimandWon[50]
foundthatthesectionheightisthemosteffectivevariableintorsionalstiffnessofthe
bumperbeam.Additionalstrengthpermitsmoreenergyabsorptionwithlessconsequent
bumperbeamdistortion[51].
Frontalcurvatureincreasestheroombetweenfixingpointsandtopextremitybeam
curvatureandincreasesthestabilityofthebeamandtheenergyabsorption.Itenhances
thebeamstabilityandextendstherequiredcollisiondisplacement.Besidestheaesthetic
purposes,thecurvefacilitatesadditionalloadimpactdistributionthroughthefrontal
beamandfixingpointsduringtheenergydampingprocess.Whenanimpactloadis
appliedtothebumper,thebeaminitialcurvaturetendstorestoreitsoriginalshape.So,
somedesignersmountedabarlinkbetweenthebeamfixingpointsinordertostrengthen
theoutwardmotionandtheenergyabsorptiontendency[51]and[52].Thebumperbeam
isanoffsetofthefrontbumperfasciathatisintendedtoprovideaconsistentlevelof
protectionacrossthevehicle[53].

3.Materialselectionsteps
Selectingasuitablematerialinbumperbeamdevelopmentiscrucialandbadselection
maycausepoorperformance,frequentmaintenanceorfailure.Propermaterialselection
forbumperbeamrequiresinformationabouttypeofloading(axial,bending,torsionor
theircombination),modeofloading(static,dynamic,fatigue,impact),operating
environment(temperature,humidity,chemicalconditions),manufacturingprocess,cost
(rawmaterial,manufacturing,assembly)[54].
Environmentalconstraints,economicaldemands,andperformanceenhancementare
mainissuesformaterialselection[55].Materialusuallyshouldbefinalizedinpreliminary
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

5/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

designstage,whilethematerialpropertiesrequirementsarecoupledwithmainstructural
function[56].Theproductfunctionrequirementsusuallyidentifythroughproductdesign
specification(PDS)priortodevelopmentprocesstoguidethedesignerforprecise
selectionofdesignparametersandmaterialselection.Thenbasedonthetranslatedof
productdesignspecification,constraints,objectives,geometryandprocess,whichhave
interactiontogetherthelistofmaterialshouldbenarrowdowntothebestcandidateto
complywiththedefinedproperties[57].
Physical,chemical,andmechanicalpropertiesalongwithmanufacturingandeconomic
issuesshouldbeconsideredinselectionofafavoritematerialforabumperbeam[58].
Propermaterialselectioncanbeachievedbyconstructingabalanceorcompromise
betweenfunction,material,shape,andprocess[57].Thegeneralproperties,processing,
andperformanceofmaterialsareconsideredintheconceptualdesignphaseandare
refinedintospecificrequirementsinthesubsequentstepstoensuretheperformanceof
thefinalproduct.Materialselectionofabumpersystemusuallyconsidersnew
environmentalconstraints,safetyregulations,costreduction,reliabilityimprovement,
andperformanceenhancement.Normally,theresultsofthefailureanalysisofprevious
productsenablethedesignertobemoreawareofmaterialselectionforthenextproduct
(Fig.4).

Fig.4.
Materialselectioninbumperbeamdesignprocess[57],[59]and[60].
Figureoptions

Therearetwoapproachesformaterialselectionofthebumperbeam.Since
manufacturingofthebumperbeamiscostly,thedesignersusuallyattempttofindthe
mostconsistentmaterialfortheavailableprocessthatoffersthedesiredproperties.
Otherwise,thematerialisselectedinitiallyandtheoptimizedfavorablemanufacturing
processisdevelopedtomeetthedesiredperformance.Incorrectmaterialselectionand
manufacturingmethodmayleadtoproductfailure,performancereduction,andcost
increase.
Thematerialselectionprocessrequiresknowledgeaboutstructuralmechanics,material
strength,materialthermalproperties,economics,andmarketdemand.Itentails
knowledgeofthetypesofloading(axial,bending,torsion,oracombinationofallorany
two),modeofloading(static,fatigue,orimpact),environmentalconditions(temperature
andhumidity),manufacturingprocesses(structureorcomponents)andcostof
manufacturingandassembly[54].
Reviewoftheliteraturepointsoutthattherearesomestudieswherediscussionof
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

6/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

materialselectionofautomotiveproductshasbeenbeprovided.Forinstance,Sapuan
[61]selectedtheappropriatematerialforpolymericbasedcompositeautomotivepedal
boxsystemusinganexpertsystemwithacomfortablegraphicaluserinterface.He
developedaprototypeKBSformaterialselectionofceramicmatrixcompositesfor
enginecomponentssuchasthepiston,connectingrod,andpistonring[62].Inanother
example,Sudinetal.[13]usedtheKBSformaterialselectioninbumperbeamdesign.

4.Designprocessofbumperbeam
Thedesignprocessisthesolutionstepsfordevelopingnewproductsinaveryspecific
waytopreventreworkandreducetheproductiontimeandcost.Itcompromisesbetween
marketrequirementsandproductionandconvertsthecustomerrequirementsintoa
productwithintheoptimumeconomicconditions.Theengineeringdesigniscombination
ofknowledgeforgeneratingnewideas,evaluatingtheseideas,andselectingthebest
concept.Asuccessfulbumperbeamdesignneedsinterdisciplinaryteamwork,mainly
involvingproductdesignengineer,manufacturingengineer,materialsspecialist,quality
assurancespecialist,andananalyst[63].
Asuccessfulbumperbeamdesignstartswithmarketresearchandcustomer
requirementinvestigationsoastodevelopanideaabouttheavailableproductsandtheir
manufacturingtechnologies.Theserequirementsarethenfinalizedbyconvertingthe
customersrequirementsintotechnicaldemands,i.e.,PDSs.Thedesignprocessusually
startswithconceptualdesigngenerationfollowedbyparameteridentificationinorderfor
conceptevaluationtocomeupwithreliableandfeasibleconcept[64].Inalaterstagethe
designembodimentdesignstage,theseparatedcomponents,configurationof
subassemblies[65],andlayoutofthenewbumperbeammustberefinedandevaluated
againsttherelatedtechnicalandeconomiccriteria.Inthelaststage,detaileddesign,
precisedimensioning,tolerancing,materialspecification,configuration,andweightmust
befinalized[66]and[67].Thismeansthatbythisstagethefinaldrawingofthewhole
partswiththespecifiedmaterialsanddimensionsisobtained.
Sincethebumperbeamsurfaceshouldfollowthestyleofthefascia(innersurface),the
newconceptofthebumperbeamwillbereleasedwhenthefinalversionoffasciasurface
isissued.Atthefinalstageofvehicledevelopment,thelatestclaymodelofthevehicle
(fullscale)isreleasedandtheoutersurfaceisscannedwithadigitizerandaseparation
lineforeveryvisiblecomponentisidentifiedaswell.Then,the3Dmodelofevery
separatedpart,whichisextractedfromtheclaymodelafterreconstruction,istransferred
totheappointedoriginalequipmentmanufacturer(OEM)[68].TheappointedOEM
makestheinnersurface(Bsurface)anddesignsothercomponentssuchasbumper
beam,absorbers,brackets,andbumpergrillsinadditiontospecifyingthemethodof
fixingthemtothebodyinwhite(BIW),mainframe,orelementstogether.Thepositions
andfixingmethod(s)ofthefoglamps,toecap,andrubbingstripstooshouldbe
consideredduringthebumperdesignstage.Besides,designforassembly(DFA),design
formanufacturing(DFM),maintenance,andotherparametershavetobeconsidered
[69].Toreleasethefinalproduct,finiteelementanalysisshouldbeemployedtovirtually
validatethestructuralstrengthofthedevelopedproductunderworkingconditions.
However,itisessentialtomakethesoftmoldforthemainpartstofabricatesome
samplesundersimilarproductionconditionswiththeselectedmaterialsoastoobtainthe
exactshrinkageandconducttheactualstructuraltest(Fig.5).

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

7/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

Fig.5.
Bumperbeamdesignprocessflowchart.
Figureoptions

4.1.Productdesignspecifications(PDSs)
Thedesignvalidationofthebumperbeamissubjecttomaterialandstructural
acceptanceandshouldbepresentedinfunctionalapprovalunderworkingconditions.
Thedesigncriteriacompromisebetweenthemarginsofsafetyvalue,damagecriteria,
environmentalissues,manufacturingprocess,andmaintenance[70].Thenew
compositestructureshouldbepreciselyanalyzedbeforegoingthroughthefabrication.It
mustbeassuredthatallcriteriaandcustomerrequirements(thats,PDSs)aresatisfied.
ThefinalizeddesignedstructureshouldbeanalyzedbyFEAsoftwarefollowedby
productionofaprototypeforrealtestandanalysisbeforemassproduction.
ThePDSsarealistoftheproductspecificationscorrespondingtocustomers
requirementsorexpectationscompiledinadetailedtechnicaldocument[71].ThePDSs
mustpresentthemarginorexactvalueofeachpropertyclearly.Itisquitedifficultto
prepareperfectPDSsintheearlystageofproductdevelopmentwhereinknowledgeof
designrequirementsisimpreciseandincomplete[72].ThePDSsarepreparedbya
disorganizedbrainstormingteamwithvariousspecialitiesandexperiences,e.g.,
manufacturing,design,sales,assembly,andmaintenance.Nonetheless,thePDSscan
bemodifiedinresponsetounforeseenchangesinproductormanufacturing
specificationsorconstraints.Inthecaseofthebumperbeam,thePDSsaddresssafety,
performance,weight,size,cost,environmentalissues,andappearance(Fig.6).Inother
respects,thePDSparametersingeneralcanbeclassifiedintothreemainsubdivisions:
material,manufacturing,anddesign.Sinceenergyabsorptionofdifferentbumperbeam
ideasanddesignsisthecorecompetencyofthisstudy,itisemphasizedinthesafety
parametersofthePDSs.Someofthespecificationsofthemechanicalandphysical
propertiespresentedherehasbeendrawnfromexperimentalresultswhileotherswere
managedfromexistingPDSdata.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

8/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

Fig.6.
Productdesignspecificationofbumperbeam[12]and[73].
Figureoptions

Safety:Anumberofdifferentbumpersafetyregulationsforpassengerscarshavebeen
issuedbygovernmentalsafetyorganizations,insurancecompanies,orOEMs[74].
Insurancecompaniesusuallyoffermorerigorousconditionsthanotherengaged
organizationsinordertodecreasetheirownmonetarylosses.Examplesonsafety
regulationsforthepassengerscarsbumpersystemsincludethoseissuedbyTheUnited
NationsEconomicCommissionforEurope(ECE)RegulationNo.42[75]the
InternationalHighwayTrafficSafetyAdministration(NHTSA)[1]andtheCanadian
MotorVehicleSafetyRegulation(CMVSR)[76].Size:Dimensionsofthebumperbeam
dependonthesizeandweightofthevehicleandonthetargetvalueofenergy
absorption.Maintenance:DesignforassemblyandDFMshouldbeconsideredduring
productdesign.Performance:Thedefinedgoaloftheproductshouldbeattainable[77].
Installation:Designformanufacturingandassembly(DFMA)helpsinminimizingthe
bumpercomponentsintheproductorassemblytoallowforeasyassemblingwith
optimizedfixingpoint.Thematerialshouldbeselectedaccordingtothepresetproperties
ordesiredproblemsolution.Materialsofthebumpershouldbelight,costcompetitive,
accessible,producible,recyclable,andratherbiodegradable.
4.2.Conceptualdesignofthebumperbeam
Thepreliminarystageofeveryproductdevelopmentstartswithconceptualdesign,which
isderivedfromthecustomerrequirementsvoiceofthecustomer[65]and[78],inorder
tofindasolutionthatsatisfiesthedesigncriteria[64].Inaccurateengineeringcalculation
inbumperbeamdesignandmaterialselectioncanleadtoanincreaseofupto70%ofthe
totalproductcostforredesigning,selectingmaterial,orchangingthemanufacturing
equipment[79].Inotherwords,thedesignerhastoselectthemostsuitableideafrom
differentpossiblesolutionstomeetthedesiredPDSsineachdesignstage,i.e.total
design,subsystemorcomponentsleveltotaldesign,andsubsystemlevel[77]and[80],
todecreasethereworkexpensestolessthantwicethedesignandmanufacturingcosts
[80],[81]and[82].Therefore,bumperbeamdesignconceptselection(DCS)hasrecently
beenunderfocusofthedesigners.ManytoolshavebeendevelopedforDCStoevaluate
andcompromisedifferenteffectivefactorssuchascustomerrequirements,designer
intentions,andmarketdesiretoeventuallyproposethebestconceptualdesign.
4.2.1.Conceptdesignselection
Developingdifferentconceptsdrivesdecisionmakerstonarrowdowntheselected
conceptstothebestfeasiblesolutionandtocuttheredesigncostandproductiondelayin
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

9/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

theearlystageofthedesignprocess.Thepreviousresearchpresenteddifferent
approachestoselectionofthebestconcepts.Thedecisionmatrixbasedmethods(e.g.,
Pughsmethod[77])offeraqualitativecomparisonandqualityfunctiondeployment
(QFD)toperformthebestconceptselection[83].Selectingthemostsuitableconceptby
analysisandmanipulationofexperimentaltestsalongwithcomparisonswiththeproduct
standardshelpthedesignerinselectingtheoptimalsolutionwiththeminimumrisk[84].
ThefuzzyANPbasedapproachisusefulforvaluationofasetofconceptualdesign
alternativestosatisfybothcustomerssatisfactionandtheengineeringspecifications
[85].TheAHPdevelopedamathematicallybasedtechniqueforanalyzingcomplex
situations[86].Multicriteriadecisionmaking(MCDM)isaneffectivemethodforsingle
selectionwhenmixedcriteriaareinvolved.Themultiattributedecisionmaking
technique(MADM)wasdevelopedtosolveconflictingpreferencesamongcriteriafor
singledecisionmakers.TheTOPSISisatechniquewellsuitedtodealingwithmulti
attributeormulticriteriadecisionmaking(MADM/MCDM)problemsinrealworldideal
solutions[87].Itsmethodologyisbasedontheprincipleofselectinganalternativehaving
theshortestdistancefromthepositiveidealsolutionandthefarthestdistancefromthe
negativeidealsolution.Ithelpsinorganizingproblemsandincomparingandranking
alternativestosearchforbetteroptions[88].Thismethodhasbeenusedtoselectthe
bestconceptinthisresearch.
4.2.2.Embodiment
Intheembodimentdesignstage,thebumperbeamisinvestigatedwithreferenceto
technicalandeconomiccriteria.Itmakeshighlyaccuratemodelingofthevaluesofforces
whenanalyzingthefinaldimensionsofcomponents.Theappropriatefunctionandsafety
requirementsmustbeapprovedbeforeevaluatingotherparameterssuchaseaseof
productionlowinvestmenteaseofassembly,transportation,maintenancematerial
recyclabilityandcost.
Thebestshape,size,arrangements,andlayoutsstemfromthecombinedideasand
solutionsfromotherprofessionspointsofview.Thiscaneliminatetheweakspotor
combinetheappropriatesolutionstoproposethebestlayout.Itisoftencrucialthatthe
designerproducesseveralpreliminarymethodsofbumpersystemlayoutwithwhole
componentstoanalyzeandcomparetheiradvantagesordisadvantagesandselectthe
mostproperone.Thebestlayoutistheonethatcanfulfilltherequiredfunctionwiththe
minimumparts,process,andoptimumpossiblestandardpartsinordertodecreasethe
productioncost.Theselectedmaterialshouldhavethedesiredstrength,corrosion
resistance,energyabsorption,servicelife,availability,andrecyclability.
4.2.3.Detaileddesign
Inthedetaileddesignphase,alltheinformationaboutthepartsmustbeplacedonthe
drawing.Alltheindividualcomponentdrawingsofthebumpersystemmusthavethe
requiredmanufacturingdimensions,materialspecifications,tolerance,surface
roughness,partlist,andbillofmaterial(BOM)[89].Useof3DCADsoftwarefacilitates
implementationofthevariousprocessesinvolvedinthedetaileddesignphasesinceby
thisstageallpartshavebeenmodeledwiththerealdimensionsintheirpositionandwith
therequiredfittingtolerance.Hence,a2Ddrawingcanbeextractedeasilyfromthe
assemblymodelandfullydimensioned.Moreover,itallowsforusingthedatafor
manufacturing,productionplanning,andtollmaking.Thedetaileddesignmustbe
criticallycheckedandapprovedbyanexperienceddesignertovalidatethefitand
functionofthefinaldesignandpreventanyerrorinthefabricationphase.However,the
perfectdetaileddesigncannotcoverthepoorconceptualdesign,ifany,andinvestigation
showedthatmostoftheerrorsduringproductionarecausedbyflawedconceptual
design[66]and[90].
Shrinkage(moldshrinkage,postmoldingshrinkage,andenduseshrinkage)[91]ofthe
polymermaterialdependsonavarietyofparameters(thickness,geometry,temperature,
flowingspeed)andcannotbeexactlyestimatedincomplicatedparts.Themolding
operationcouldnotmakeauniformtemperatureinthefabricatedproducts.Asmallscale
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

10/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

deviationinshrinkagepercentageinhugepartssuchasbumperresultsinunfitnessin
theadjacentpartsafterproduction.Consequently,itisessentialtomakearealsample
fromthebigpartsbysoftmoldwiththesamematerialandproductionconditionsinorder
tofindtheexactvalueofshrinkage,provideaproofofconcept,andimplementa
mechanicaltestaswell[92].

5.Analyzingthebumperbeam
Twomainanalysesofabumperbeamshouldbecarriedoutin.First,thedesignermust
beconfidentaboutthattheselectedmaterialfulfillsthedefinedPDSproperties(material
properties).Then,itmustbeassuredthatthestructuredevelopedwiththeselected
materialcanachievethemainfunctions,safetyparameters,andthedesired
performance.
5.1.Analysisofmaterial
Basedonthedesiredproductdesignspecifications(PDSs)theplanfortestingthe
materialshouldbewrittentoconfirmthatthetestmethodaddressesloadingsequence,
gaugeplacementandacceptancecriteriaofthematerial[69].Thetestplanisusually
preparedbyamaterialdeveloperandapprovedbyanauthorizedcertifyingagency.
Sincetheperformanceofthematerialiscloselyrelatedtothemanufacturingconditions,
themanufacturingparametersshouldbesettoachievetheanticipatedspecification.
However,thefinalapprovalofthebumperbeamcanbeissuedafterthestructuraltest.
Sometimesamanufacturermodifiestheproductionparametersfordifferentapplications
orvariousconditions.Totally,thetestmayincludemechanicaltestssuchastensileand
compressivestrength,yieldstrength,andtoughness[93]withaconsiderationofthe
environmentalconditions,likehumidity(20%95%)andtemperature(30Cto85C)
[94],towhichthebumperbeammaybeexposed.Besides,advancesinnumerical
methodsforproductanalysisandmaterialprocessinganalysismadeitpossibleto
optimizetheproduct,manufacturingprocess,andstructuralcomponents.
5.2.Structuralanalysis
Thenextstepinbumperbeamanalysisistoensuretheproperstructuralperformanceof
theselectedmaterial.Themostreliablemethodistofabricatethesamplesfromselected
materialsandappointedproductionmethodsandtocarryoutthetestunderreal
conditions,whichiscost,andtimeconsuming.TheFEanalysisdoesnotoffer100%
reliableresults,butitscostisconsiderablylessthanthatoftheexperimentaltest.
Numericalanalysisofthedevelopedbumperbeamisthepreliminarystageofapproving
thebumperbeam.Thefinalgeometrywithdefinedlongitudinalcurvature,thickness,
crosssectionprofile,material,ribstrength,andoveralldimensionsshouldbeperformed
toobtainthefinalgeometryofthebumperbeamFEmodel.Areasonablepredictionof
thebumperbeamperformancedependsontheaccuracyofthesimulatedgeometry,i.e.,
thelongitudinalcurvature,crosssection,thickness,ribs,andmaterialmodel.However,
therealscaledbumperbeamwithdefinedmaterialandgeometryshouldbetestedunder
actualconditionsforfinalverification.Thevalueofnumericalanalysisisstrongly
dependentonavalidatedmodelingtechnologywithaccuratematerialmodelsand
fracturecriteria.
5.2.1.Lowspeedimpacttest
TheprocedureoflowspeedimpacttestinEuropeancountriesisdifferentcomparewith
Americancountries.Threelowspeedimpacttestswiththeircriteriaexplainedasfollows.
ThecriteriaforthelowimpacttestinEuropeancountriesisapendulumtestat4.0km/h
(2.5mph)withnodamagetothebumper,andintheUSAandNorthAmerica,itisthe
sametestat8km/h(5mph),butdamagetothefasciaisnotconsidered[1],[75]and[95].
TheUnitedNationsEconomicCommissionforEurope(ECE)RegulationNo.42:
Requiresthatacarssafetysystemscontinuetooperatenormallyafterthecarhasbeen
impactedbyapendulumormovingbarrieronthefrontorrearlongitudinallyat4km/h
(about2.5mph)andonthefrontandrearcornerat2.5km/h(about1.5mph)at455mm
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

11/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

(about18in.)abovethegroundunderloadedandunloadedconditions,whichcallsforno
seriousdamage(lightbulbsmaybechanged)[75].
NationalHighwayTrafficSafetyAdministration(NHTSA)Code49Part58:Longitudinal
pendulumimpacttest4km/hatthecurbpositionofbumperand2.5km/hbumperatthe
corner[96].
CanadianMotorVehicleSafetyRegulation(CMVSR):Canadiansafetyregulationhas
thesamelimitationandsafetydamageasNHTSA(pendulumtest4km/hofbumperface
and2.5km/hbumpercorner),butthespeedisdouble[96].
Afterthetest,anydamagetobumpervisualandfunctionalshouldnotoccur.Thelights,
bonnet,boot,doorsoperateinthenormalmanner,andalltheessentialfeaturesforsafe
operationofthevehiclemuststillbeserviceable.EUregulationallowsgreaterdamagein
thecarinlowimpacttestcomparewithUSregulation.Moreover,USregulationuses
lowerspeed,permitsrunninglamps,foglampsandequipmentonthebumperfacebarto
beremoveiftheyareoptionalandrequiresnovisualdamagetoallnonbumperparts,
whileCanadianuseshigherregulationspeed,anddoesnotallowanythingtobe
removed,anditrequiresnodamagetosafetyandfunctionalitems.
5.2.2.Highspeedimpacttest
Besidesthelowimpacttest,thebumpersystemhastobeabletoabsorbenoughenergy
inhighspeedimpacttomeettheOEMsinternalbumperstandardindesignstage.The
newbumpersystemsarenotdesigntoovercomeentireofthehighspeedimpactenergy.
However,systemsarebeingdevelopedthatcandampabout15%ofenergyunderthe
highspeedimpact.Thedesigncriterionforahighspeedimpactforbumpersystemis
definedasfollows[22]:

Nobumperdamageoryieldingafter8km/h(5mph)frontalimpactintoaflat,rigid
barrier.Thiscriteriondoesnotapplytolowspeedbumpers,wherecontrolled
yieldinganddeformationarebeneficial.

Nointrusionbythebumpersystemrearwardoftheenginecompartmentrailsforall
impactspeedslessthan15km/h(9mph).

Minimizethelateralloadsduringimpactsinordertoreducethepossibilityoflateral
bucklingoftherails.

FullcollapseofthesystemduringDanner(RCAR),NCAP,andIIHShighspeed
crashwithoutinducingbucklingoftherails.

Absorb1%ofthetotalenergyeverymillisecondand15%ofthetotalenergyinthe
NCAPcrash,includingenginehit.

5.2.3.Pedestrianimpacttest
Thepedestrianimpacttestneedslowerstiffnessindissipationofimpactenergyovera
longertimespan.Bumpersystemrequireselasticenergyabsorptionbeforeanyplastic
yieldingofthebumperbeamtakesplace.
Thesecondphaseofpedestrianimpacttestconsistsofthreetestproceduresandeach
usingdifferentsubsystemimpactors.

Alegformimpactorrepresentingtheadultlowerlimbtoindicatelateralkneejoint
sheardisplacementandbendingangle,andtibiaacceleration,causedbycontactof
thebumper.

Anupperlegformimpactorrepresentingtheadultupperlegandpelvistorecord
bendingmomentsandforcescausedbycontactofthebonnetleadingedge.

Childandadultheadformimpactorstorecordheadaccelerationscausedbycontact
withthebonnettop[23]and[97].

Inpedestrianlegimpacttest,alegformimpactorispropelledtowardastationary
vehicleslongitudinalvelocityof40km/hparalleltothevehicleslongitudinalaxis.The
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

12/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

testcanbeperformedatanylocationacrossthefaceofthevehiclebetweenthe30
bumpercorners(Fig.7).

Fig.7.
Pedestrianlegforminjurycriteria[23].
Figureoptions

Theaboveregulationisdefinedforbumpersystemnotspecificallyforbumperbeam,but
sincethebumperisthemaincomponentsinenergyabsorption,sotheregulationcanbe
extendedforbumperbeam.Itmightbeusedanothermechanismbetweenbumperbeam
andfasciatofulfillthepedestriancriteria.

6.Futuretrendinautomotivebumper
Theautomotivesafetyandenvironmentallegislationsbecamemorestringentinlastfew
decades.Ontheotherhand,thehighproductiondemandbesidesraisingthecostofthe
petroleumresourcesencouragetheautomakertoexploitthenaturalresourcesintheir
newproductsforstayinginthecompetitiveedge.Otherimpactforfuturebumperisnew
safetyregulation.Therearetotallytwoparalleltrendsforfuturebumpersafetysystem.
Passivesafetywhichemphasizeonhelpingtotheoccupantsduringthecrashesby
improvinghestructureofthevehicles,bumperdampingsystem,seatbeltsandprimarily
airbagsandactivesystemtopreventofcrashbyusingintelligentmechanism.
Developmentofnewmaterialtocomplywithsafetyandenvironmentalregulations,and
developmentofvariousintelligentprecrashsystemstopreventordecreasetheinjury
(pedestrianimpacttest)byfullyautomatedcontrolledofcarsafetymechanism(Fig.8)
[99].Infirstapproaches,basedontheenvironmentalregulation,automakers
investigatedtoutilizethenaturalfiberintheirnewproduct,butpoormechanical
propertiesofnaturalfibersdonotallowtobeusedinautomotivestructuralcomponents.
Thereisplentyofresearchtoimprovethemechanicalpropertiesofnaturalfibersinorder
toimprovetheirperformance.Increasingtheinterfacialadhesionbetweenfiberand
matrix[100],incorporatingZdirectionfibers(3Dcomposite)[101],improvingthe
propertiesofthematrix[102],andmanufacturingmethod[103].Theinvestigationtrends
showsthatinearlyfuturethenaturalfiberwillbeusedinautomotivestructural
components.

Fig.8.
Automotiveintelligentprecollisionsystem[98].

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

13/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview
Figureoptions

InsecondapproachesbasedontheEUParliamentregulation,automakersshoulduse
theadvancedemergencybrakingsystemsfromNovember2015forallnewlightand
heavycommercialvehicles.AlsoNationalHighwayTrafficSafetyAdministration
(NHTSA)beganstudyinglanedeparturewarningsystemsandfrontalcollisionwarning
systemsonvehicles[104].Theserecentinvestigationsareanintelligentpreventing
system(precrashsystem)withnoncontactsafetymechanismtoreducetheseverityof
anaccident.However,itisnotmoresufficienttopreventinjuryordamageathigher
operatingspeeds[105].

7.Conclusions
Thenewsafetyregulationsconcerningbumpersystemspecificationsbesidesthe
automakerenvironmentallegislations(endoflifevehicle)makeitquitecomplicatedand
muchcostlyforthedesignofthisstructuretofulfillallbroadrequirements.Findingthe
bestprocedureforbumperbeamdevelopmentposesextraloadsonthedesignerand
mayinfluencehis/herperformance.Thepreviousresearchdiscussedthedesign
process,materialselection,andanalysisandverificationofthedevelopedproduct
functionalitybyFEMtools,butthereislimitedinformationabouttheapproachesto
bumpersystemdevelopment.Thepresentstudyconcentratedonthebumperbeam
developmentprocessbasedonfindingsofpreviousstudies.Itanalyzedcomprehensive
informationtodeterminetheoptimummethodforbumperbeamdevelopmentandto
identifythesettingsfortheeffectivestructuralvariables(thickness,ribstrength,cross
section,andfrontalcurvature)conducivetotheoptimalbumperbeamstrength.

References
[1]

NationalHighwayTerafficSafetyAdministration(NHTSA).Laboratorytestprocedureforregulation
Part581bumperstandardsafetyassurance1990.

[2]

M.Huang
Vehiclecrashmechanics
CRCPress(2002)

[3]

S.Sapuan,M.Maleque,M.Hameedullah,M.Suddin,N.Ismail
Anoteontheconceptualdesignofpolymericcompositeautomotivebumpersystem
JMaterProcessTechnol,159(2005),pp.145151
Article|

[4]

M.M.Davoodi,S.M.Sapuan,R.Yunus
Conceptualdesignofapolymercompositeautomotivebumperenergyabsorber
JMaterDes,29(2008),pp.14471452
Article|

[5]

PDF(362K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(19)

PDF(846K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(16)

G.S.Cole,A.M.Sherman
Lightweightmaterialsforautomotiveapplications
MaterCharact,35(1995),pp.39
Article|

PDF(659K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(196)

[6]

J.Murphy
Thereinforcedplasticshandbook
Elsevier,Oxford(1998)

[7]

General.Motors
SMCbumperbeamsimproveproductivityforGM
ReinfPlast,36(1992),p.7
ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(2)

[8]

S.Cheon,J.H.Choi,D.G.Lee
Developmentofthecompositebumperbeamforpassengercars
ComposStruct,32(1995),p.4919
ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(1)

[9]

M.Wakeman,T.Cain,C.Rudd,R.Brooks,A.Long
Compressionmouldingofglassandpolypropylenecompositesforoptimisedmacroand

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

14/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview
micromechanicalproperties1commingledglassandpolypropylene
ComposSciTechnol,58(1998),pp.18791898
Article|

PDF(633K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(80)

[10] PetersonCW,SpencerDO,RosinJ,HauqeE.Highconsistencyglassmatreinforcedthermoplastic
(GMT):thinwallstructuralapplicationswithsurfacerequirements.SAEtechnicalpaperseries2001
010098.
[11] RaghavendranV,HaqueE.Developmentoflowdensityglassmatthermoplasticcompositesfor
structuralapplications.SAEtechnicalpaperseries.2001010100.
[12] M.N.Suddin,M.S.Salit,N.Ismail,M.Abd,S.Zainuddin
Totaldesignofpolymercompositeautomotivebumperfascia
JSciTechnol,12(2004),pp.3945
ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(2)
[13] M.N.Sudin,M.R.Harun,A.T.Hamzah,S.Anuar
AprototypeofKBSformaterialselectioninbumperbeamdesign
JSciTechnol,14(2007),pp.215222
[14] R.Hosseinzadeh,M.Shokrieh,L.Lessard
Parametricstudyofautomotivecompositebumperbeamssubjectedtolowvelocityimpacts
ComposStruct,68(2005),pp.419427
Article|

PDF(517K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(41)

[15] S.Kokkula,M.Langseth,O.Hopperstad,O.Lademo
Offsetimpactbehaviourofbumperbeamlongitudinalsystems:experimentalinvestigations
IntJCrashworthiness,11(2006),pp.299316
ViewRecordinScopus|FullTextviaCrossRef|Citingarticles(11)
[16] A.Hambali,S.Sapuan,N.Ismail,Y.Nukman
Applicationofanalyticalhierarchyprocessinthedesignconceptselectionofautomotive
compositebumperbeamduringtheconceptualdesignstage
SciResEssay,4(2009),pp.198211
ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(21)
[17] J.Marzbanrad,M.Alijanpour,M.Kiasat
Designandanalysisofanautomotivebumperbeaminlowspeedfrontalcrashes
ThinWalledStruct,47(2009),pp.902911
Article|

PDF(949K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(29)

[18] D.Park,C.Jang,S.Lee,S.Heo,H.Yim,M.Kim
Optimizingtheshapeofabumperbeamsectionconsideringpedestrianprotection
IntJAutomotTechnol,11(2010),pp.489494
ViewRecordinScopus|FullTextviaCrossRef|Citingarticles(4)
[19] W.Johnson,A.Walton
Anexperimentalinvestigationoftheenergydissipationofanumberofcarbumpersunder
quasistaticlateralloads
IntJImpactEng,1(1983),pp.301308
Article|

PDF(638K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(11)

[20] Z.Zhang,S.Liu,Z.Tang
Designoptimizationofcrosssectionalconfigurationofribreinforcedthinwalledbeam
ThinWalledStruct,47(2009),pp.868878
Article|

PDF(851K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(20)

[21] A.Alghamdi
Smartfrictionalimpactenergyabsorber
Download PDF
Export
IntJCrashworthiness,5(2000),pp.169178
Search ScienceDirect

Article outline

Show full outline

ViewRecordinScopus|FullTextviaCrossRef|Citingarticles(4)

Advanced search

Abstract
[22] AISI.Steelbumpersystemsforpassengercarsandlighttrucks.Southfield:AmericanIronandSteel
Keywords
Institute2006.
1. Introduction
Bumper system
[23]2.SchusterPJ.Currenttrendsinbumperdesignforpedestrianimpact.SAEtechnicalpaperseries.
3.2006010464.
Material selection steps
4. Design process of bumper beam
[24]5.ChoiWJ,ShinDW,KimNH.Bumpersystem.GooglePatents2004.
Analyzing the bumper beam
[25] A.Miravete
6. Future trend in automotive bumper

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

15/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview
7.ICCM/9:compositespropertiesandapplications
Conclusions
References
WoodheadPubLtd.,Zaragoza(1993)
[26] P.Tan,S.Reid,J.Harrigan,Z.Zou,S.Li
Dynamiccompressivestrengthpropertiesofaluminiumfoams.PartIIShocktheoryand
Figures
and tables
comparisonwithexperimentaldataandnumericalmodels
JMechPhysSolid,53(2005),pp.22062230
Article|

PDF(715K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(130)

[27] G.Jacob,J.Fellers,S.Simunovic,J.Starbuck
Energyabsorptioninpolymercompositesforautomotivecrashworthiness
JComposMater,36(2002),p.813
ViewRecordinScopus|FullTextviaCrossRef|Citingarticles(128)
[28] G.L.Farley
Effectoffiberandmatrixmaximumstrainontheenergyabsorptionofcompositematerials
JComposMater,20(1986),p.322
ViewRecordinScopus|FullTextviaCrossRef|Citingarticles(83)
[29] H.Hamada,S.Ramakrishna,H.Sato
Effectoffiberorientationontheenergyabsorptioncapabilityofcarbonfiber/PEEKcomposite
tubes
JComposMater,30(1996),p.947
ViewRecordinScopus|FullTextviaCrossRef|Citingarticles(31)
[30] T.Turner,N.Warrior,F.Robitaille,C.Rudd
Theinfluenceofprocessingvariablesontheenergyabsorptionofcompositetubes
ComposPartA:ApplSciManuf,36(2005),pp.12911299
Article|

PDF(571K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(10)

[31] J.K.Kim,Y.W.Mai
Engineeredinterfacesinfiberreinforcedcomposites
ElsevierScienceLtd.,Oxford(1998)
[32] M.Davoodi,S.Sapuan,D.Ahmad,A.Aidy,A.Khalina,M.Jonoobi
Effectofpolybutyleneterephthalate(PBT)onimpactpropertyimprovementofhybrid
kenaf/glassepoxycomposite
MaterLett,67(2012),pp.57
Article|

PDF(601K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(9)
ADVERTISEMENT

[33] M.Davoodi,S.Sapuan,D.Ahmad,A.Aidy,A.Khalina,M.Jonoobi
Conceptselectionofcarbumperbeamwithdevelopedhybridbiocompositematerial
JMaterDes(2011)
[34] M.Davoodi,S.Sapuan,A.Ali,D.Ahmad
Effectofthestrengthenedribsinhybridtoughenedkenaf/glassepoxycompositebumperbeam
LifeSciJ(2012),p.9
[35] L.Daniel,P.Hogg,P.Curtis
Therelativeeffectsofthroughthicknesspropertiesandfibreorientationonenergyabsorption
bycontinuousfibrecomposites
CompositesPartB.,30(1999),pp.257266
Article|

PDF(542K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(19)

[36] H.Kurtaran,A.Eskandarian,D.Marzougui,N.Bedewi
Crashworthinessdesignoptimizationusingsuccessiveresponsesurfaceapproximations
ComputMech,29(2002),pp.409421
ViewRecordinScopus|FullTextviaCrossRef|Citingarticles(148)
[37] W.Johnson,S.Reid
Metallicenergydissipatingsystems
ApplMechRev,31(1978),pp.277288
ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(192)
[38] P.Beardmore,C.Johnson
Thepotentialforcompositesinstructuralautomotiveapplications
ComposSciTechnol,26(1986),pp.251281
Article|

PDF(2269K)|ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(65)

[39] W.Johnson

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

16/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview
Theelementsofcrashworthiness:scopeandactuality
ProcInstMechEng,204(1990),pp.255273
ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(11)
[40] M.M.Davoodi,S.M.Sapuan,R.Yunus
Developmentoffiberreinforcedepoxycompositeenergyabsorberforautomotivebumper
system
JPolymMater,25(2008),pp.1521
ViewRecordinScopus|Citingarticles(2)
[41] G.Lu,T.Yu
Energyabsorptionofstructuresandmaterials
WoodheadPub.(2003)

[42] MehrCamPars.GMTbumperbeamofSamand2003.

[43] E.J.Hearn
Mechanicsofmaterials:anintroductiontothemechanicsofelasticandplasticdeformationof
solidsandstructuralmaterials
ButterworthHeinemann(1997)

[44] E.Isaksson,P.Jonsn,K.Sundin,M.Oldenburg
Correlationofvehiclecrashmodelparameterstocarpropertiesinlowspeedcollisions:a
designofexperimentsapproach
IntJCrashworthiness,15(2010),pp.241249

[45] Y.Fu,C.H.Chuang,G.Li,R.Yang
Reliabilitybaseddesignoptimizationofavehicleexhaustsystem
SAETrans,113(2004),pp.507518

[46] BaccoucheR,MahmoodH,MadasamyC,WagnerD.Lightweightbumperforautomobiles.2007.

[47] A.AlAshaab,K.Rodriguez,A.Molina,M.Cardenas,J.Aca,M.Saeed,etal.
Internetbasedcollaborativedesignforaninjectionmouldingsystem
ConcEng,11(2003),p.289

[48] HaqueE,BassettW,LewisT.ISectionautomotivebumperformedfrommineralfilledglassmat
thermoplastic(GMT)composite2001.

[49] J.A.Brydson
Plasticsmaterials
ButterworthHeinemann,NewDelhi(1999)

[50] K.Kim,S.Won
Effectofstructuralvariablesonautomotivebodybumperimpactbeam
IntJAutomotTechnol,9(2008),pp.713717

[51] StewartR,OstermanA,JalbertD.Vehicleandbumperbeamcombination.GooglePatents1992.

[52] StewartR,OstermanA,JalbertD,NultyJ.Vehiclebumperbeam.GooglePatents1994.

[53] N.Sharpe,R.Vendrig,K.Houtzager
Improveddesignforfrontalprotection
TNOAutomot(2001)

[54] P.K.Mallick
Fiberreinforcedcomposites:materials,manufacturing,anddesign
CRCPress,BocaRaton(2008)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

17/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

[55] K.Edwards
Strategicsubstitutionofnewmaterialsforold:applicationsinautomotiveproductdevelopment
JMaterDes,25(2004),pp.529533

[56] Y.M.Deng,K.Edwards
Theroleofmaterialsidentificationandselectioninengineeringdesign
JMaterDes,28(2007),pp.131139

[57] M.F.Ashby
MaterialsSelectioninMechanicalDesign
ButterworthHeinemann,Oxford(2005)

[58] S.M.Sapuan
Acomputeraidedmaterialselectionfordesignofautomotivesafetycriticalcomponentswith
novelmaterials
MalayJComputSci,12(1999),pp.3746

[59] S.Lampman
Materialsselectionanddesign
ASMInternational(1997)

[60] B.S.Mitchell
Anintroductiontomaterialsengineeringandscienceforchemicalandmaterialsengineers
JohnWiley,Hoboken(2004)

Recommended articles

Design and analysis of an automotive bumper bea


2009, Thin-Walled Structures

more

Concept selection of car bumper beam with develo


2011, Materials & Design

more

Parametric study of automotive composite bumper


2005, Composite Structures

more

View more articles

Citing articles (5)

Related book content

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

18/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

19/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

20/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

21/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

22/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

23/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

24/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

25/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

26/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

27/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

28/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

29/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

30/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

31/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

32/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

33/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

34/35

8/31/2015

Developmentprocessofnewbumperbeamforpassengercar:Areview

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306912002348

35/35