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Globalization and Bangladesh

What is Globalization:
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and
governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and
aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on
political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in
societies around the world.
According to Oxford Dictionary Globalization is the fact that different cultures and
economic systems around the world are becoming connected and similar to each other because,
of the influence of large multinational companies and of improved communication.
According to Wikipedia (an web encyclopedia) Globalization refers to increasing global
connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural,
political, and ecological spheres.
Shahzaman Mozumdar (IT Professional and Freedom Figher) says, "Globalization
evokes different feelings to different people. Some look at globalization as "the panacea,"-the
elixir that will eradicate all poverty, remove disparity, and enable the global citizens to enjoy a
decent lifestyle-the lure of globalization. Others view globalization as "the evil" that will further
enslave them to the rich
In the broadest sense, Globalization implies integration of economies and societies across
the globe through flows of technology, trade and capital. Integration of production, accelerated
cross-border investments and more trade are the logical outcomes of this process. It is a
phenomenon of 21st century.

History of Globalization:
Globalization is referred to the process of going to a more interconnected world. It can also be
interpreted as the transition from regional or national economies to global economies. In this
networking of trade and transportation, communication plays a vital role. There is also a term
economic globalization where the integration national economies into international economies
come into play.
Digging the history of globalization, Oxford English Dictionary states that word globalization
was first put into action in 1930. It was then used in education to denote a holistic view of human

experience in education. Charles Taze Russell, the American entrepreneur-turned-minister was

the first one to give a description for globalization. In 1897, he coined the term corporate giants
which was used by the social scientists and economist only in the 1960s.
Though globalization means the reduction and eradication of barriers between national borders to
enhance a free flow of services and goods, this term can be used in a number of ways. The pace
of globalization which was begun in the nineteenth century was slowed by the impact of the First
World War. Since many countries wanted to protect their economies they started looking into
their economies attributing to an inward-looking policy. However, globalization started to boom
in the fourth quarter of the twentieth century.

Effects of Globalization:
Analyzing the effects of globalization, one can look in to the industrial, financial, economical,
political, informational, and the ecological aspects of globalization.
The worldwide production has emerged as a result of globalization which created broader access
to a range of products from different countries. The movement of goods between national
boundaries has been improved which promised a significant growth in the international trade.
For instance, if you look in to the Chinas trade with Africa in recent years it has been rose
sevenfold which shows the wonder of globalization.
The worldwide financial markets emerged creating better access to external borrowers. For
example, to support the extended levels of trade and investment $1.5 trillion in national
currencies were traded.
In term of the economic relations, world is presumed as a global village where there should
freedom of exchange of goods and capitals. The only drawback in linking the markets of
different countries is that the economic collapse in a particular country may affect all other
countries. There will also be a shift of jobs to locations where there are lowest wages which may
result in least work protection and health benefits for the employers.
In terms of politics, globalization is meant to create a world government which will monitor the
relationships among governments and promise the rights of the social and economical

Globalization in Bangladesh:
Bangladesh has a reputation as one of the poorest countries in the world. We struggle with
poverty and hunger, but globalization gives us more freedom to fight poverty and hunger.

However, Bangladesh has become a modern country after opening its borders to free trade and
The idea of globalization and modernization was born out of the capitalist market mentality in
the age of technology. Globalization occurs when an organization extends its activities to other
parts of the world, actively participates in other markets, and competes against organizations
located in other countries (Holton p.36). Bangladesh allows foreign companies to enter into our
market. Our companies are also allowed to enter foreign markets. Globalization makes
international borders vanish and increases competition in the market place. In the modern world,
globalization also has an impact on our culture and social life. For example, MacDonalds
introduced American fast food to other parts of the world. Foreign media introduces different
cultures to the different nations. In my last essay, I discussed the disadvantages of globalization
in Canada. Other countries, like Bangladesh benefit from opening their borders for trade and
investment by increasing their modernity.
Our history says that we have been behind from the modern world during the colonial rule, for
our anti-globalization movement. Both Britain and Pakistan ruled Bangladesh for 200 years and
23 years respectively. They used their power to exploit the Bangladeshi people and there was no
democracy or freedom. This kept us separate from the rest of the world and made it impossible
for us to become a modern country. The birth of Bangladesh in 1971 was the first instance of an
ethnic linguistic nationalist movement succeeding in creating a new state in the post-colonial
period (Jahan, p12). Our independence gave us the opportunity to share knowledge with other
nations and led us towards modernity.
Globalization is increasing the living standards of poor people in Bangladesh. Industries from
foreign investments create employment opportunities for a large number of people including
young women who, for the first time, can visibly enter the male dominated public space. Because
of the traditional cultural norms of behaviour for young women, they were not allowed to show
their faces in pre-modernized Bangladesh. Foreign investment creates 10,000 new jobs every
year in Bangladesh (Jahan, p.64). Foreign and export oriented industries are changing the
economic and social scenario of Bangladesh which, results in an increase of living standards. Mr.
Temple, World Bank Country Director for Bangladesh examined the 1990 average ratio of trade
to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in Bangladesh and explained that it has risen from 19 percent
to 35 percent. He also described the story of a village woman whose life was changed for
Hosne Ara Begum, a 40-years-old garments worker at Dekko Apparels Ltd hardly had a
chance for a decent job Now [she] can not only to survive physically, but also dream of a
future in which her school-going children [will] have much better prospects. Hosne Ara is not
looking back anymore. She is striding forward to the future. For a Hosne Ara, the [introduction]
of Bangladeshs garments industry to the global market was a blessing. (Temple)
There are many women like Hosne Ara who have found a better way of life. In most cases, these
jobs have empowered women, who are now in greater demand for marriage and they receive
more respect in their families because of their monthly income. Our women have made our
society modern by breaking the traditional cultural norms.

Increasing globalization is motivating the Bangladeshi people and increasing the modernity in
our society. Motivation refers to the forces within a person that effect his direction, intensity,
and persistence of voluntary behavior. (McShane, p62). Foreign investments create high paying
jobs, which require more knowledge and skill, therefore motivating people to work for a higher
education. Bangladeshi students are performing better than before. Advertisements for foreign
products also motivate people. Globalization allows foreign companies to advertise their
products in our country. When people watch advertisements for expensive foreign products, they
want to buy them even if they dont have the ability. This motivates people to strive for a higher
education to increase their skill level thereby increasing their income. Personally I am motivated
since I grew up in the Bangladeshi global environment. I came a long way for a higher education
to fulfill my dream for a higher standard of living. Motivated Bangladesh people are making our
country modern.
Bangladesh has largely benefited from the transfer of technology. One nation cannot produce
everything, because it has limited resources. Globalization gave us the opportunity to use modern
technology. We got world-class telecommunication technology, which was not possible without
foreign investment. Foe example, a telephone company that had been monopolizing mobile
telecommunication services since 1992, was diminished by the global movement. At that time
only a few people were able to use it, for it was incredibly expensive and their services were
below average. They also provided very few jobs in that sector. When some other foreign
companies entered our market, the monopolist company lost its power. Now the competitive
activity of many telephone companies has increased competition, peoples income levels, and
employment opportunities, which in turn has substantially reduced poverty. Modern
telecommunication technology connected us to the rest of the world. In comparison with the
modern world, our country is also getting technological advantages like computers and the
Internet, transportation and online banking. We are earning foreign currency and creating many
new jobs by exporting computer software. Globalization has made a big social and economic
change in Bangladesh. There can be no doubt that the result of globalization in Bangladesh has
been positive.

Impact Of Globalization On Bangladesh:

Globalization has become a buzzword in the new era of international relations. Basically it is a
process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world by creating a frontier-less market.
But now it has had a far-reaching effect on many aspects of life. With the development of hi-tech
communication media and rapid transportation facilities, the hole world has squeezed and people
have come closer to one another. Now we can learn in an instant what is happening in the
farthest corner of the globe. In fact, globalization is currently understood mainly in terms of
mutual relationship of nations and region of economic domain, in particular, trade, financial
flows and traditional corporations. In other words globalization is seen as an economic parallel to
internationalization in the form of the universal market, notwithstanding the fact that there has
been an interlined process of political and cultural globalization exemplified by increasing

democratization, spread of English, television schedule and movies and wide awareness of global
environment problems.
Impact of globalization is obvious in the following spheres :

Impact On Communication: With the impact of high-tech communication media and

ultramodern transportation facilities, the world has come closer. Now we can learn
instantly what is happening in the farthest region. Countries of the world have become
like families in a village. They can share their joys and sorrows like next-door neighbors.

Impact On The Economy: The Impact Of globalization on Bangladesh economy

cannot be denied. Like the developing countries of the world our country is getting
benefit out of border-less market. Our GDP has increased. Garment industries are
considered the foreign exchange earner. In terms of investment, employment and exports,
the functioning EPZs(Export Processing Zones) have been greatly successful.

Today the World Look Like A Global Village

Impact on Environment: There is no doubt that the future of Bangladesh is

inextricably bound up with the fate of the natural environment. The country is already
facing severe environmental hazards. These include: intense cultivation that threatens soil
fertility and swamps the country with agro chemicals, excessive extraction of water for
irrigation that depresses the water level, flood control measures that block fish migration
paths, and commercial fish farming that floods agricultural land with saltwater.
Added to these is the high density of population (about twelve thousand people per
square kilometer), the pollution from human excreta and industrial production, and a host
of other issues from deforestation to shrinking biological diversity to the threat of
inundation resulting from global warming, and Bangladesh has the making of an
environmental crisis. Recently, arsenic has been detected in tube-well waters in most
areas of the countryside in Bangladesh. By this time thousands of people were affected by
the intolerable levels of arsenic in the water. If it is not checked, it may invade the whole
of Bangladesh within a very short time. This is mainly because the water level has gone
down alarmingly. Environmental concerns have only come to the fore relatively recently.
But evidence of the seriousness with which they have been taken is clear from the
National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP). It started its functioning in
1992 with financial support from UNDP, and NGOs helped organize workshops all over
the country. This program has also attracted considerable foreign donor support. The
UNDP, for example, has a US $20 million Sustainable Environment Management
Program to support the governments efforts to manage environmental hazards.

Impact On Modern Technology: Globalization is now largely based on a strong

technological foundation. The electronic transfer of information via the internet has now
created an instantaneous and inter-connected world of information resulting in a 24-hour
trading network. This technology has largely changed banking and financial activities.
Worldwide money transfer and transaction of businesses have now become a matter of
clicking the mouse of a computer. Some products like software and TV schedules are also
amenable to digital of electronic transmission. We can now buy and sell goods through
the electronic screen. Globalization is now only what technology makes possible.

Impact On Politics: After the fall of Soviet Union Communism fell down and the east
-west conflict was resolved. Moscow was no mote rival to Washington. Each and every
country turned into competitive economic market. The wave of globalization has also
touched our politics. We can learn the democratic norms and values now. Bangladesh has
got the taste of democracy.

Impact On Sports And Recreation: Sports play an important role in the

development of international relationship. Many international sporting events are
organized from time to time. These events are telecast worldwide by satellite and people
all over the world watch them live. The sports venue becomes a meeting place of people
from different countries. They come closer to each other, sharing views, opinions and
friendship. Bangladesh is also the beneficiary of this opportunity.

Impact On Education: Like other developing countries of the world, Bangladesh has
identified education as the key to prosperity and progress. Donor countries are
contributing to the progress of our literacy rate and overall education. Various
international organizations have responded dramatically with their generous aid in
education sector. Many non-formal schools are being run. Meritorious students are
availing themselves of the foreign study scholarship.

Impact On Our Culture: Although globalization is mainly connected with business,

trade and international relations, it is no longer viewed from that perspective alone. The
tide of globalization is now encroaching into other spheres too. Satellite Television
channels and the Internet are bringing all sorts of different customs and behavior into our
homes. Under the influence of globalization, global culture are steadily getting integrated
with local cultures. Different cultures are constantly interacting. As an independent
nation, we have our own traditional social values, beliefs and attitudes. But in the
globalizing process, many foreign customs and beliefs are intruding on them

Impact On Family: Globalization exerts influences on our concepts of family.

Commercialization and rapid urbanization have resulted in breakdown of traditional large
families into nuclear ones. Expanded rate of female education is another example of the
impact of globalization.

Taking the advantage of the idea of globalization, capitalist countries are exploiting and
impoverishing the workers of the developing countries. In the name of help and co-operation, the
industrially developed capitalist countries are exploiting the cheap labor available in poorer
countries. This actually paves the way for a lasting poverty so that the capitalists can continue to
have a poor of cheap labor to draw from. The exploited and impoverished workers of the
developing countries are no much for a globalizing powerful capitalism. As a result, the gap
between wealth and poverty is ever widening. Globalization has put the people of the world on
the same vessel but in different cabins.
It is true that globalization has produced a window of opportunity for more countries to join the
mainstream of world economy. Through globalization process, the world can be knit together,
cross-fertilization of culture can take place and transfer of knowledge can become a reality. It has

the hazards too and in the ultimate analysis no country is safe from the hazards of globalization.
We can conclude by quoting the Apollo-7 astronaut that, "The thing that impressed me about
looking to the earth from outer space was that the borders between countries were not visible."
National borders are virtually meaningless today. If we want to be advanced, we should have cooperation and interdependence but not conflict and dependence. If we can build up an
atmosphere of mutual understanding and co-operation through the globalization process, our
world can certainly be a better place to live in.