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EXERCISE6

TheIntegumentarySystem
TimeAllotment:1hours.
MultimediaResources:SeeAppendixBforGuidetoMultimediaResourceDistributors.
SeeExercise5forhistologylistings.
TheSenses:SkinDeep(FHS:26minutes,DVD,3yearstreamingwebcast)
Skin(FHS:20minutes,DVD,3yearstreamingwebcast)
TheSkin(NIMCO:28minutes,DVD)
PracticeAnatomyLab3.0(PAL)(PE:DVD,Website)
Solutions:
LugolsIodine(IKI)
20gramspotassiumiodide
4gramsiodinecrystals
Dissolvepotassiumiodidein1literdistilledwater.Addtheiodinecrystalsandstir
todissolve.Storeindarkbottles.

LaboratoryMaterials
Orderinginformationisbasedonalabsizeof24students,workingingroupsof4.Alistofsupply
houseaddressesappearsinAppendixA.
24compoundmicroscopes,
lenspaper,lenscleaning
solution
Modeloftheskin
24slidesofhumanscalp
24slidesofskinofpalmor
sole

1sheetof#20bondpaper
Adhesivetape
24pairsofscissors
24Betadineswabsor24
cottonswabsand6
dropperbottlesofLugols
iodine

Datacollectionsheets
Disposablegloves
Porelonfingerprintpador
portableinkingfoils
Inkcleaningtowelettes
Indexcards(4in.6in.)
24magnifyingglasses

AdvancePreparation
1. Setoutmodelsoftheskin,preparedslidesofhumanscalpwithhairfolliclesandskinofpalmor
sole,lenspaper,andlenscleaningsolution.Havecompoundmicroscopesavailable.
2. Terminologyforlayersoftheepidermisdiffersfromtexttotext.Decideontheterminologytobe
used,andinformthestudentsattheonsetofthelaboratorysessionifthereisadiscrepancybetween
thelaboratorymanualandthetext.
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3. Setout#20bondpaperruledin1centimetersquares,scissors,Betadineswabs,orLugolsiodine
(Carolina,orseeabove),cottonswabs,andadhesivetape.

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4. Prepareadatacollectionsheetforpalmandforearmsweatglanddata.
5. Setout4in.6in.indexcards,Porelonfingerprintpadorportableinkingfoils,inkcleaning
towelettes,andmagnifyingglasses(allavailablefromSirchieFingerprint&ForensicSupplies,
18003567311orwww.sirchie.com).

CommentsandPitfalls
1. Studentsmayhavedifficultyfindingthearrectorpilimusclesandsweatglands.Somestudentswill
confusethefibersofthedermis(densefibrousirregularconnectivetissue)withsmoothmuscle.
2. Slidesofthepalmarorplantarskinprovideagoodcontrasttoslidesofskinwithhairfollicles.
3. Tosavetime,cutthesquaresofbondpaperbeforethelabbegins.
4. Thescientificmethodcanbereinforcedinthislab.Askstudentstodevelopandjustifyhypotheses
aboutthedistributionofsweatglands,observeclassdata,anddrawconclusions.

AnswerstoPreLabQuiz(p.77)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

d,siteofvitaminAsynthesis
epidermis,dermis
d,stratumcorneum
five
b,Carotene

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

c,melanocytes
True
d,shaft
sebaceous
Apocrine

AnswerstoActivityQuestions
Activity2:DifferentiatingSebaceousandSweatGlandsMicroscopically(p.82)
Eccrinesweatglandshavelong,straight,orundulatingductswithtwistedcoilsattheirbase.
Incontrast,sebaceousglandshaveshortductsleadingfromafanshapedbase.Sebaceous
glandsareusuallyassociatedwithhairfollicles.
Activity3:PlottingtheDistributionofSweatGlands(p.82)
6. Thepalmtypicallyhasagreaterdensityofsweatglandsthantheforearm.
Activity5:ComparingHairyandRelativelyHairFreeSkinMicroscopically(p.84)
1. Thestratifiedsquamousepitheliumoftheskiniscomprisedofseveralrecognizablelayers,
theoutermostofwhicharekeratinized.
Bothtypesofepitheliaareprotective,buttheskinepitheliumalsoprotectsagainstwaterloss
totheexternalenvironment,UVdamage,andchemicaldamage,inadditiontoprotectingagainst
mechanicaldamageandbacterialinvasion.
2. Thethicknessoftheskincanbeattributedtothepresenceofafifthepitheliallayer,thestratum
lucidum,andathickerstratumcorneumanddermis.Thickskinlackshairfollicles,arrectorpili
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muscles,andsebaceousglandsthatarepresentonthinskinofthescalp.

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Activity6:TakingandIdentifyingInkedFingerprints(p.86)
7. Sometimesitwaseasytoclassifytheprints;atothertimesitwasdifficult.
Thishastodowiththeclarityoftheprintstakenandthefactthatmoreinformationonfingerprints
isnecessarytomakeaccurateidentifications.
Thesameindividualwouldprobablyaffectthefingerprintingprocessinthesamewayeachtime.

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REVIEWSHEET
EXERCISE6
TheIntegumentarySystem
Name________________________
LabTime/Date_________________
BasicStructureoftheSkin
1. Completethefollowingstatementsbywritingtheappropriatewordorphraseonthecorrespondingly
numberedblank:
Thetwobasictissuesofwhichtheskiniscomposedaredenseirregularconnectivetissue,which
makesupthedermis,and1,whichformstheepidermis.Thetoughprotectiveproteinfoundinthe
epidermalcellsiscalled2.Thepigmentsmelaninand3contributetoskincolor.Alocalized
concentrationofmelaninisreferredtoasa4.
1. stratifiedsquamousepithelium
2. keratin
3. carotene
4. freckle
2. Namefourprotectivefunctionsoftheskin:
a.Preventsdessication
b.Preventsbacterialinvasion

c.Protectsagainstthermaldamage
d.ProtectsagainstUVradiation

3. Usingthekeychoices,chooseallresponsesthatapplytothefollowingdescriptions.Sometermsare
usedmorethanonce.
Key: a. stratumbasale
b. stratumcorneum
c. stratumgranulosum

d. stratumlucidum
e. stratumspinosum
f. papillarydermis

g. reticulardermis
h. epidermisasawhole
i. dermisasawhole

d;stratumlucidum1. layeroftranslucentcellscontainingdeadkeratinocytes
b;stratumcorneum
d;stratumlucidum2. twolayersofdeadcells
f;papillarydermis3. dermallayerresponsibleforfingerprints
i;dermis(orf,g)4. vascularregionoftheskin
h;epidermis 5. majorskinareathatproducesderivatives(nailsandhair)

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a;stratumbasale6. epidermallayerexhibitingthemostrapidcelldivision
b;stratumcorneum7. layerincludingscalelikedeadcells,fullofkeratin,thatconstantly
sloughoff
e;stratumspinosum8. layerofmitoticcellsfilledwithintermediatefilaments
i;dermis(org)9. hasabundantelasticandcollagenicfibers
a;stratumbasale10. locationofmelanocytesandtactileepithelialcells
e;stratumspinosum11. areawhereweblikeprekeratinfilamentsfirstappear
f;papillarydermis12. layerofareolarconnectivetissue
4. Labeltheskinstructuresandareasindicatedintheaccompanyingdiagramofthinskin.Then,
completethestatementsthatfollow.

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a. Lamellargranulescontainglycolipidsthatpreventwaterlossfromtheskin.
b. Fibersinthedermisareproducedbyfibroblasts

.
c. Glandsthatrespondtorisingandrogenlevelsarethesebaceous(andapocrinesweat)glands.
d. PhagocyticcellsthatoccupytheepidermisarecalleddendriticorLangerhanscells.
e. Auniquetouchreceptorformedfromastratumbasalecellandanervefiberisatactile
epithelialcell.
f. Whichlayerispresentinthickskinbutnotinthinskin?Stratumlucidum

g. Whatcelltocellstructuresholdthecellsofthestratumspinosumtightlytogether?
Desmosomes


5. Whatsubstanceismanufacturedintheskin(butisnotasecretion)toplayaroleelsewhereinthe
body?
VitaminD
6. Listthesensoryreceptorsfoundinthedermisoftheskin.Freenerveendings(forpain,
temperature),tactilecorpuscles
(fortouchinhairlessskin),lamellarcorpuscles(forpressure)

7. Anursetellsadoctorthatapatientiscyanotic.Definecyanosis.Abluecasttotheskin

Whatdoesitspresenceimply?Inadequateoxygenationoftheblood



8. Whatisabedsore(decubitusulcer)?Localizedareaoftissuenecrosisanddeath

Whydoesitoccur?Pressureareas(pointsofincreasedpressureoverbonyareas)restrictthe
bloodsupplytothearea.
AccessoryOrgansoftheSkin
9. Usingthekey,matchthetermswiththeappropriatedescriptions.Sometermsareusedmorethan
once.
Key: a. arrectorpili
b. cutaneousreceptors
c. hair

d. hairfollicle
e. nail
f. sebaceousgland

g. sweatglandapocrine
h. sweatglandeccrine

f;sebaceousgland1. producesanaccumulationofoilymaterialthatisknownasa
blackhead

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a;arrectorpili2. tinymuscles,attachedtohairfollicles,thatpullthehairupright
duringfrightorcold
h;sweatglandeccrine3. sweatglandwitharoleintemperaturecontrol
d;hairfollicle 4. sheathformedofbothepithelialandconnectivetissues
g;sweatglandapocrine5. lessnumeroustypeofsweatproducinggland;foundmainly
inthepubicandaxillaryregions
d;hairfollicle
f;sebaceousgland6. foundeverywhereonthebodyexceptthepalmsofhandsand
solesoffeet
c;haire;nail 7. primarilydead/keratinizedcells
b;cutaneousreceptors8. specializednerveendingsthatrespondtotemperature,touch,etc.
f;sebaceousgland9. itssecretionisalubricantforhairandskin
e;nail10. sportsalunuleandacuticle
10. Describetwointegumentarysystemmechanismsthathelpregulatebodytemperature.(1)When
capillarybloodflowtotheskinisenhanced(bynervoussystemcontrols),heatradiatesfromthe
skinsurface;restrictionofbloodflowconservesbodyheat.(2)Activityofsweatglands,i.e.,when
perspirationevaporatesfromtheskinsurface,heatislost.

11. Severalstructuresorskinregionsarelistedbelow.Identifyeachbymatchingitsletterwiththe
appropriateareaonthefigure.
a. adiposecells
b. dermis
c. epidermis
d. hairfollicle
e. hairshaft
f. sloughingstratumcorneumcells

PlottingtheDistributionofSweatGlands
12. Withwhatsubstanceinthebondpaperdoestheiodinepaintedontheskinreact?Thestarch

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13. Onthebasisofclassdata,whichskinareatheforearmorpalmofhandhasmoresweatglands?
Palm

Wasthisanexpectedresult?Yes

Explain.Formostpeople,handssweatmorethantheforearm.

Whichotherbodyareaswould,iftested,provetohaveahighdensityofsweatglands?Face,
axillae

14. Whatorgansystemcontrolstheactivityoftheeccrinesweatglands?Nervoussystem(sympathetic
division)
Dermography:Fingerprinting
15. Whycanfingerprintsbeusedtoidentifyindividuals?Everyonesfingerprintsaregenetically
distinct.
16. Namethethreecommonfingerprintpatterns.
loops

,arches

,andwhorls

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