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EXERCISE9

TheAppendicularSkeleton
TimeAllotment:2hours.
MultimediaResources:SeeAppendixBforGuidetoMultimediaResourceDistributors.
AnatomyofaRunner(StructureandFunctionoftheLowerLimb)(DE:38minutes,DVD)
AnatomyoftheHand(FHS:14minutes,DVD,3yearstreamingwebcast)
AnatomyoftheShoulder(FHS:18minutes,DVD,3yearstreamingwebcast)
BonesandJoints(FHS:20minutes,DVD,3yearstreamingwebcast)
InteractiveFootandAnkle(ET:CDROM)
InteractiveShoulder(ET:CDROM)
PracticeAnatomyLab3.0(PAL)(PE:DVD,Website)

LaboratoryMaterials
Orderinginformationisbasedonalabsizeof24students,workingingroupsof4.Alistofsupply
houseaddressesappearsinAppendixA.
612disarticulatedskeletons
2articulatedskeletons(one
male,onefemale)

1articulatedmalepelvis
1articulatedfemalepelvis

Xraysofbonesofthe
appendicularskeleton

AdvancePreparation
Havearticulatedskeletons(maleandfemale)available.
Setoutdisarticulatedskeletons.Onepergroupof34studentsisideal.
Setoutmaleandfemalearticulatedpelvesinademonstrationarea.
Setoutpipecleaners,bluntprobes,orunsharpenedpencilswitherasersforuseduring
boneidentification.Cautionstudentsagainstmarkingboneswithpencilsormarkers.
5. SetoutXraysofbonesoftheappendicularskeleton.
1.
2.
3.
4.

CommentsandPitfalls
1. Studentsmayhavetroubledistinguishingbetweenrightandleftsamplesofbones.
Remindthemtoreviewthebonemarkingsbeforecheckingthearticulatedskeleton.
2. Stresstheimportanceofbonylandmarksformusclelocationandidentification.

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AnswerstoPreLabQuiz(p.133)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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appendicular
pectoral
scapulae
b,humerus
metacarpals

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Female
a,femur
patella
True
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REVIEWSHEET
EXERCISE9
TheAppendicularSkeleton
Name________________________
LabTime/Date_________________
BonesofthePectoralGirdleandUpperLimb
1. MatchthebonenamesormarkingsincolumnBwiththedescriptionsincolumnA.Theitemsin
columnBmaybeusedmorethanonce.
ColumnA

ColumnB

g;deltoidtuberosity

1. raisedareaonlateralsurfaceofhumerus
towhichdeltoidmuscleattaches


i;humerus

2. armbone

d;clavicle,
q;scapula

3. bonesoftheshouldergirdle

d. clavicle

p;radius,
t;ulna

4. forearmbones

e. coracoidprocess

a;acromion

5. scapularregiontowhichthe
clavicleconnects

f. coronoidfossa

6. shouldergirdlebonethatdoesnotattach
totheaxialskeleton

h. glenoidcavity

q;scapula
d;clavicle
h;glenoidcavity
e;coracoidprocess

a. acromion
b. capitulum
c. carpals

g. deltoidtuberosity

i.
7. shouldergirdlebonethattransmitsforces
j.
fromtheupperlimbtothebonythorax
k.
8. depressioninthescapulathatarticulates
l.
withthehumerus
9. processabovetheglenoidcavitythat
permitsmuscleattachment

humerus
metacarpals
olecranon
olecranonfossa

m. phalanges
n. radialstyloidprocess

d;clavicle10.

thecollarbone

o. radialtuberosity

s;trochlea11.

distalcondyleofthehumerusthat
articulateswiththeulna

p. radius

t;ulna12.

medialboneofforearminanatomical
position

r. sternum

b;capitulum13.

roundedknobonthehumerus;adjoins
theradius

t. ulna

f;coronoidfossa14.

anteriordepression,superiortothetrochlea,
whichreceivespartoftheulnawhenthe
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q. scapula
s. trochlea

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forearmisflexed
t;ulna15.

forearmboneinvolvedinformationoftheelbowjoint

c;carpals16.

wristbones

m;phalanges17.

fingerbones

j;metacarpals18.

headsofthesebonesformtheknuckles

q;scapula,r;sternum

19.

bonesthatarticulatewiththeclavicle

2. Howisthearmheldclearofthewidestdimensionofthethoraciccage?Theclavicleactsasastrut
toholdtheglenoid
cavityofthescapula(thereforethearm)laterallyawayfromtheribcage.

3. Whatisthetotalnumberofphalangesinthehand?14

4. Whatisthetotalnumberofcarpalsinthewrist?8

Namethecarpals(medialtolateral)intheproximalrow.Pisiform,triquetral,lunate,scaphoid

Inthedistalrow,theyare(medialtolateral):Hamate,capitate,trapezoid,trapezium

5. Uselettersfromthekeytoidentifytheanatomicallandmarksandregionsofthescapula.
Key:
a. acromion
b. coracoidprocess
c. glenoidcavity
d. inferiorangle
e. infraspinousfossa
f. lateralborder
g. medialborder
h. spine
i. superiorangle
j. superiorborder
k. suprascapularnotch
l. supraspinousfossa

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6. Matchthetermsinthekeywiththeappropriateleaderlinesonthedrawingsofthehumerusandthe
radiusandulna.Alsodecidewhetherthebonesshownarerightorleftbonesandwhethertheview
shownisananteriororaposteriorview.
Key:
a. anatomicalneck
b. coronoidprocess
c. distalradioulnarjoint
d. greatertubercle
e. headofhumerus
f. headofradius
g. headofulna
h. lateralepicondyle
i. medialepicondyle
j. olecranon
k. olecranonfossa
l. proximalradioulnarjoint
m. radialgroove
n. radialnotch
o. radialstyloidprocess
p. radialtuberosity
q. surgicalneck
r. trochlea
s. trochlearnotch
Circlethecorrecttermforeachpairinparentheses:

t. ulnarstyloidprocess
Thehumerusisthe(right/left)bonein(ananterior/aposterior)view.Theradiusandulnaare
(right/left)bonesin(ananterior/aposterior)view.
BonesofthePelvicGirdleandLowerLimb
7. Comparethepectoralandpelvicgirdlesbychoosingappropriatedescriptivetermsfromthekey.
Key:

a. flexibilitymostimportant
b. massive
c. lightweight

d. insecureaxialandlimbattachments
e. secureaxialandlimbattachments
f. weightbearingmostimportant

Pectoral:a

,c,
dPelvic:
b
,e

,
f
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8. Whatorgansareprotected,atleastinpart,bythepelvicgirdle?Uterus(female),urinarybladder,
smallintestine,rectum
9. Distinguishthetruepelvisfromthefalsepelvis.Thetruepelvisistheregioninferiortothepelvic
brim,whichisencircled
bybone.Thefalsepelvisistheareamedialtotheflaringiliacbonesandliessuperiortothepelvic
brim.
10. Uselettersfromthekeytoidentifythebonemarkingsonthisillustrationofanarticulatedpelvis.
Makeaneducatedguessastowhethertheillustrationshowsamaleorfemalepelvis,andprovide
tworeasonsforyourdecision.
Key:
a. acetabulum
b. anteriorsuperioriliacspine
c. iliaccrest
d. iliacfossa
e. ischialspine
f. pelvicbrim
g. pubiccrest
h. pubicsymphysis
i. sacroiliacjoint
Thisisamale(female/male)pelvisbecause:

j. sacrum

Acetabulaareclosetogether;pubicangle/archislessthan90;narrowsacrum,heartshaped
pelvicinlet.
11. Deducewhythepelvicbonesofafourleggedanimalsuchasthecatorpigaremuchlessmassive
thanthoseofthehuman.
Thepelvicgirdledoesnothavetocarrytheentireweightofthetrunkinthequadrupedanimal.

12. Apersoninstinctivelycurlsoverhisabdominalareaintimesofdanger.Why?Abdominalarea
organsreceivetheleastprotectionfromtheskeletalsystem.

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13. Forwhatanatomicalreasondomanywomenappeartobeslightlyknockkneed?Thepelvisis
broaderandtheacetabulaandiliaaremorelaterallypositioned.Thus,thefemurrunsdownwardto
theknee
moreobliquelythaninthemale.
Howmightthisanatomicalarrangementcontributetokneeinjuries?Themoreobliqueanglein
femalescausesgreaterforcesontheanteriorcruciateligament(ACL)duringkneerotation,and
thesmallerfemaleintercondylarnotchcanpinchtheACLduringtwistingorhyperextended
movements.BotheventscancauseatearorruptureoftheACL
14. Whatstructuralchangesresultinfallenarches?Aweakeningofthetendonsandligaments
supportingthearchesofthefoot
15. MatchthebonenamesandmarkingsincolumnBwiththedescriptionsincolumnA.Theitemsin
columnBmaybeusedmorethanonce.
ColumnA

ColumnB

i;ilium,k;ischium,and

a. acetabulum

t;pubis1. fusetoformthecoxalbone

b. calcaneus

k;ischium2. inferoposteriorboneof
thecoxalbone

c. femur

s;pubicsymphysis3. pointwherethecoxalbones
joinanteriorly

e. glutealtuberosity

h;iliaccrest4. superiormostmarginofthe
coxalbone
a;acetabulum5. deepsocketinthecoxalbone
thatreceivestheheadofthe
thighbone
u;sacroiliacjoint6. jointbetweenaxialskeletonand
pelvicgirdle
c;femur7. longest,strongestboneinbody
d;fibula8. thinlaterallegbone

d. fibula
f. greaterandlessertrochanters
g. greatersciaticnotch
h. iliaccrest
i. ilium
j. ischialtuberosity
k. ischium
l. lateralmalleolus
m. lessersciaticnotch
n. lineaaspera

x;tibia9. heavymediallegbone

o. medialmalleolus

c;femur,
x;tibia

10. bonesformingkneejoint

p. metatarsals

y;tibialtuberosity11. pointwherethepatellar
ligamentattaches

q. obturatorforamen

r;patella12. kneecap
x;tibia13. shinbone

r. patella
s. pubicsymphysis
t. pubis
u. sacroiliacjoint

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v. talus

o;medialmalleolus14. medialankleprojection
l;lateralmalleolus15. lateralankleprojection

w. tarsals

b;calcaneus16. largesttarsalbone

x. tibia

w;tarsals17. anklebones
p;metatarsals18. bonesformingtheinstepofthefoot

y. tibialtuberosity

q;obturatorforamen19. openinginhipboneformedbythepubicandischialrami
f;greaterand
20.
e;glutealtuberosityandlessertrochanters

sitesofmuscleattachmentonthe
proximalfemur

v;talus21. tarsalbonethatsitsonthecalcaneus
x;tibia22. weightbearingboneoftheleg
v;talus23. tarsalbonethatarticulateswiththetibia
16. Matchthetermsinthekeywiththeappropriateleaderlinesonthedrawingsofthefemurandthe
tibiaandfibula(sometermsmaybeusedmorethanonce).Alsodecidewhetherthesebonesareright
orleftbonesandwhetheritistheiranteriororposteriorviewthatisillustrated.
Key:
a. foveacapitis
b. glutealtuberosity
c. greatertrochanter
d. headoffemur
e. headoffibula
f. inferiortibiofibularjoint
g. intercondylareminence
h. intertrochantericcrest

i. lateralcondyle
j. lateralepicondyle
k. lateralmalleolus
l. lessertrochanter
m. medialcondyle
n. medialepicondyle
o. medialmalleolus
p. neckoffemur
q. superiortibiofibularjoint
r. tibialanteriorborder
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s. tibialtuberosity

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Circlethecorrrecttermforeachpairinparentheses:
Thefemurisa(right/left)bonein(ananterior/aposterior)view.Thetibiaandfibulaare(right/left)
bonesin(ananterior/aposterior)view.
SummaryoftheSkeleton
17. Identifyallindicatedbones(orgroupsofbones)inthediagramofthearticulatedskeleton(page
151).

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