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F175

5BA
ATUR
RAJA
A CEM
MENT
T PR
ROJEC
CT
(PL
LANT
T II)

S
STRUC
CTUR
RE CA
ALCUIIATIO
ON RE
EPORT
T
FOR
71-C
CEMENT SIILO (F
FOUN
NDATIION)

C
STR
RUCTURE CALCUIATI
C
ION REPOR
RT FOR
F175-CE
EMENT SIL
LO(FOUNDA
ATION)

B
A
0
Rev

199/08/2015
Date

W
WuLingyu
Prep. by

Songguiqianng
Chkd. By

Page
75 71 SC 001
F17

Rev
0

Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 General......................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2Building description...................................................................................................................................... 1
2. Design criteria................................................................................................................................................ 3
2.1Design priciples and basis ............................................................................................................................ 3
2.2Design local conditions................................................................................................................................. 3
2.2.1Geological conditions ................................................................................................................................ 3
2.2.2Earthquake response acceleration .............................................................................................................. 5
2.2.3Wind pressure ............................................................................................................................................ 5
2.2.4 Weather condition ..................................................................................................................................... 5
2.3Design load ................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.3.1 Dead load .................................................................................................................................................. 5
2.3.2Live load .................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.3.3Chart of vertical load ................................................................................................................................. 6
2.3.4Wind load................................................................................................................................................... 8
2.3.5Seismic load ............................................................................................................................................. 12
2.3.6Stored material load ................................................................................................................................. 15
2.3.7Load combination .................................................................................................................................... 27
2.4Building material ........................................................................................................................................ 28
2.4.1Reinforcement ......................................................................................................................................... 28
2.4.2Concrete ................................................................................................................................................... 29
2.5Structure scheme ......................................................................................................................................... 29
2.5.1Foundation ............................................................................................................................................... 29
2.5.2Superstructure .......................................................................................................................................... 29
2.6 Structure calculation .................................................................................................................................. 29
3. 3Danalysis model(FEM) .............................................................................................................................. 30
4. Load sketch of the silo ................................................................................................................................. 32
5. Structure analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 33
5.1Effective modal masses ratio ...................................................................................................................... 33
5.2Base reaction............................................................................................................................................... 35
6.Foundation Design ........................................................................................................................................ 40
6.1Foundation dimension ................................................................................................................................ 40
6.2 Design of punching shear and shear reinforcement ................................................................................... 44
6.2 Design of flexural reinforcement ............................................................................................................... 48
6.2.1 Full silo ........................................................................................................................................... 48
6.2.2 Empty silo ....................................................................................................................................... 70
7. Inner Column Design ................................................................................................................................... 71
7.1Design internal force from FEM analysis result ......................................................................................... 71
7.2Design of inner column .............................................................................................................................. 74
8. Lower Silo Wall(t=350mm) Design............................................................................................................. 78
8.1Design vertical reinforcement..................................................................................................................... 79
8.2Design hoop reinforcement......................................................................................................................... 80
8.3Openings added reinforcement ................................................................................................................... 81

1. Introduction
1.1 General
This document is used for the foundation design of the cement silo workshop of Baturaja project.
The document is to show how the structures are calculated and designed,and it includes the below
parts:
1. Introduction
2. Design criteria
3. 3D analysis model(FEM)
4. Load sketch of the silo
5. Structural analysis
6. foundation design
7. Inner Column Design
8. Lower Silo Wall(t=350mm) Design

1.2Building description
The Cement silo have a storage capacity of 10400 ton and 9200 ton respectively.The silo is designed
to be circular in shape and consists of post tensionedpre-stressed walls above the silo bottom level
andnon pre-stressed wall below the silo bottom level which is rested on a ring shallow foundation.The
raft foundation thickness is 2000mm. The height and inner diameter of the cement silo are 51.00m and
18.00m respectively.Wall thickness of the cement silois considered as 350 mm over the bottom slab and
inner column down to the foundation,The silo roof is a flat RC floor with metal deck resting on the steel
beams. The calculations of the sheet roof will be submitted in a separate document .The bottom level of
the bottom slab is 16.00m and 19.5m respectively and the thickness of the bottom slab is 1500 mm. The
static and dynamic analysis of the cement silois performed by SAP2000.The analysis and design are
made according to the AMERICAN CODE.
The document is to show how the structures` foundation are calculated and designed.
The sketch of the silo structure as follows:

LayOut Plan

Section of the silo

Plan0.000

2. Design criteria
2.1Design priciples and basis
1.Codes of practice and standards
(1)ASCE/SEI-7-10: Minimum Design Loads for Buliding and Other Structures.
(2)ACI313-97: Standard Practice for Design and Construction of Concrete Silos andStacking Tubes
for Stroring Materials (ACI313-97)and Commentary-ACI313R-97.
(3)ACI318-14: Buliding Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI318-08)and Commentary.
2.Contract and minutes of meeting
(1) The provisions to civil and steel works in the contract.
(2) KICK OFF MEETING BTA II. Date:25-30 April,2015.
3. Geotechnical report
Binder-Soil Investigation Report for Baturaja II Project_April 2015(2015-04-30)
4. Reference drawings
Process drawings :

F175- 71 - PD- 001


F175- 71 - PD- 002
F175- 71 - PD- 003

Structure drawings :

F175- 71SC-001~005

5. Design service life


The design service life shall be a minimum of 50 years.

2.2Design local conditions


2.2.1Geological conditions
1. Site conditions

PT. Semen Baturaja proposed to construct the new Cement Baturaja Plant Project5000
TPDproduction line-II at Baturaja, the south Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Theproject closed to the
3

existing Cement Baturaja plant the 1st Line at north side. The overallEngineering Procurement and
Construction (EPC) to be contracted by SINOMA TianjinCement Industry Design and Research Institute
co., LTDTCDRI). An advanced for therequirements of geotechnical investigation works of the project,
SINOMA TCDRIinstructed PT. Soilens to perform soil investigation works of the proposed plant siteunder
the Contract No: F175(S)002.2.

Allowable bearing capability of soil:

3. Groundwater conditions
No groundwater was observed within 35m depth of the surface in any of the 78explorations drilling
conducted at the site. However, it should be noted that perchedgroundwater could develop in the future
due to changes in the site drainage or antecedentrainfall.
4. Corrosivity of the soil
4

Based on the water levels monitored and recorded during the field works, no water levelswere
observed within 35.42m in the boreholes. Therefore, there is no need to consider thecorrosiveness of
ground water to reinforcement and concrete.
2.2.2Earthquake response acceleration

The 0.2 sec. spectral response acceleration (Ss) is 0.52, and the 1 sec. spectral response acceleration
(S1) is 0.33.
2.2.3Wind pressure
As per the contract and the local regulation, all structures shall be designed to withstand wind
pressure resulting from the basic wind velocity v(at a height of 10m, with return period of 50 years). The
value of W0 should be:
Wo=0.4KPa;
2.2.4 Weather condition
Site conditions are tropical and humid for the whole of the year.
Normal max ambient temperature C 33
Normal min ambient temperature C 23
Average annual ambient temperature C 30
HumidityAverage 83%
Rainfall mm/month228 typical
Rainfall main season - November to April

2.3Design load
2.3.1 Dead load
1. Density of materials
lean concrete22 kN/ m3
reinforced concrete25 kN/ m3
brick masonryto be determined
steel78.5 kN/ m3
backfill18 kN/ m3
cement mortar20 kN/ m3
Bulk material(Cementl)16 KN/m
2. Utilitiesaccording to requirement
2.3.2Live load
1. Industrial concrete or steel floor in process buildings,
5

5 kN/m2

2. Dust accumulation on roofs (uniform load)

1.0 KN/ m

2.3.3Chart of vertical load

2.3.4Wind load
1.Wind load calculation will be according to ASCE7-10.
2.As per the ASCE7-10.,section6, The fundamental value of the basic wind velocity, v, is the
characteristic 3 second mean windvelocity, irrespective of wind direction and time of year, at 10 m above
ground level in open countryterrain with low vegetation such as grass and isolatedobstacles with
separations of at least 20obstacle heights.
Based on the definition of term ,v, in the ASCE code, and as per the contract ,the basic wind
velocity should be converted.
3. The calculation of wind load acting on silos follow the below steps:

10

11

2.3.5Seismic load
1. The calculation of the earthquake effects is in accordance with the ASCE7-10.
2. Design response spectrum
The 0.2 sec. spectral response acceleration (Ss) is 0.52, and the 1 sec. spectral response
acceleration (S1) is 0.33.
3.. Site class.
As per the Chapter 11&20 and Soil investigation, the site should classified as Site class C.
4. Site coefficient Faand
Fa

Fv(see table 11.4-1 & 11.4-2)

=1.31; Fv = 1.81

5. Risk-targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters.


12

See Section 11.4.3


SMs = FaSs=1.31x0.52=0.681; SM1 = Fv S1=1.81x0.33=0.597.
6. Design Spectral Acceleration Parameters. See Section 11.4.4
SDS=2/3 Sms/Ra=0.454/Ra.

SD1=2/3 Sm1/Ra =0.398/Ra.

Where:
Ra: for concrete silo and kiln, Ra=3,Ie=1;
SDS=0.454/(Ra/Ie)=0.151; SD1=0.398/(Ra/Ie)=0.133
7: Design Response Spectrum. See Section 11.4.5

8. Effective value of gravity load W

Gk , j :Dead load
Qk ,i : Live load

E ,i :Combination coefficient of live loads


For the buildings of material storage, the value of E ,i equal to 0.8.
9. Mode response spectrum method analysis
1The response of all modes of vibration contributing significantly to the global response shall be
taken into account. The requirement may be deemed to be satisfied if either of the following can be
demonstrated
athe sum of the effective modal masses for the modes taken into account amounts to at least
90% of the total mass of the structure.
ball modes with effective modal mass greater than 5% of the total mass are taken into
13

account.
2If the requirements specified in (1) cannot be satisfied(e.g. in buildings with a significant
contribution from torsional modes),the minimum number k of modes to be taken into account in a
spatial analysis should satisfy both the following conditions:

where:

n the number of storeys above the foundation


Tk the period of vibration of mode k
2combination of modal responses

SRSS method (Square Root of Sum of Square): Adopted when all relevant modal responses
may be regarded as independent of each other, and their period satisfy T j 0.9Ti .

CQC method (Complete Quadratic Combination): Adopted when the relevant modal responses
can not be regarded as independent..

For the anti-sesmic design of the project,the CQC method is recommended,take into account
the relation between the relevant modal reponses

10. The calculation of seismic load acting on silos follow the below steps:

14

2.3.6Stored material load

1material load for bottom slab level 16.000

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

2material load for bottom slab level 19.500

22

23

24

25

26

2.3.7Load combination
1. The load combination will be as per theMinimum Design Loads for Bulidings and Other
StructuresASCE7-10;
2. Load combinations of the silo design
The load combination of the projectfor silo calculation are as followed: D dead
load ,Eearthquake effect ,Llive load, ,Lrroof live load,Wwind loadP- prestressing load,
PPm-material loadTtemperature load
1) Basic Combination(LRFD)
1U=1.4D
2U=1.2D+1.2P+1.6 Pm+0.5Lr
2aU=1.4D+1.2 P+1.4T+1.7 Pm+0.5LrACI313-97
3U=1.2D+1.2P+1.6Lr+Pm
4U=1.2D+1.2P+1.6Lr+0.8Wempty silo
5U=1.2D+1.0W +Pm +0.5Lr
6U=1.2D+1.0E+Pm
7U=0.9D+1.0Wempty silo
8U=0.9D+1.0Eempty silo
2) Serviceability limit states
The characteristic combinations
1U=D+P+ Pm+Lr+T
2U= D+P+0.5Pm+0.7W
The quasi-permanent combination
U=D+P+0.5Pm
3) Load combinations for determination of the size of the foundations or pile numbers. (ASCE
7-10,section2.4.1, as the soil report is done according to the ASTM)
1U= D+L+Pm
2U=D+0.6W
3D+0.75W+0.75Pm
27

40.6D+0.6W
5D+0.7E
6D+0.525 E+0.75Pm
70.6D+0.7E

2.4Building material
2.4.1Reinforcement
1. Reinforcement OriginIndonesian, comply with SNI07-2052 1997.
2.The reinforcement characteristic value of the yield strength

f yk =235Mpa(BJTP24),

f yk

=390Mpa(BJTS40), material partial coefficient s =1.15, the design value of reinforcement strength f yd =

f yk / s =235/1.15Mpa390/1.15Mpa =204Mpa339Mpa, the elastic modulus of thereinforcement Es


=200 Gpa
3.The type of the reinforcementfor BJTP24 is diameter 810mm,for BJTS40 is diameter 1316
1922252932mm.
4. The symbol of reinforcement in the drawings will be
8 10

BJTP24

D13D16D19D22D25D29D32BJTS40
5.Normal value of strength of prestressing tendon (Chinese type) shall be as follows(to be
determined):

Type

Normal Value of

Design Value of

Diameter

Strength of

Tensile Strength

(mm)

Prestressing

of Prestressing

Tendon(N/mm2)

Tendon(N/mm2)

8.6
1X3
Steel
strand
1X7

1860

1320

12.9

1960

1390

9.5

1860

1320

1960

1390

Design Value of
Crushing
Strength of
Prestressing

YoungsModulus
(x105N/mm2)

Tendon(N/mm2)

10.8

390

12.7
15.2
17.8

The 1X7 ,diameter 15.2 prestressing tendon shall be used tin the silo wall design.

28

1.95

2.4.2Concrete
1. The strength of the concrete should comply with chinese code.
2. The concrere quality used in the silo design is as follows:
Silo wall C40
Silo bottom slab and raft foundation C40
Silo roof slab C30
4. The Poisson ratio of concrete is 0.2

2.5Structure scheme
2.5.1Foundation
1. Shallow raft foundation shall be adopted in the silo foundation design.
2.5.2Superstructure
The silo is designed to be circular in shape and consists of post tensioned walls above the silo
bottom level non pre-stressed wall resting on a raft foundation .

2.6 Structure calculation


1.The program SAP2000 V15.1 is used for all the structure calculation in design.
2.Linear analysis is used to the analysis of the structure.

29

3. 3Danalysis model(FEM)

FEM MODAL FOR BOTTOM SLAB LEVEL 19.500

30

FEM MODAL FOR BOTTOM SLAB LEVEL 16.000

31

4. Load sketch of the silo

Load sketch
Selfweight of the silo concrete has been taken into account by the sap2000 software.
Bulk material load used to calculate the pile foundation is Pvmax,the value is 300.041KN/mfor bottom slab
level 16.000. the value is 291.152KN/mfor bottom slab level 19.500.
Wind pressure acted on the silo wall is as follows
see 2.3.3
z

qp(z)

(m

(KN/m)

16/19.5-51

1.617

0-16/19.5

1.267

Roof live load :5KN/m(include the equipment live load).


Roof dead load :3.4KN/m(the steel beam and steel truss weight and the equipment weight are been taken
into account).
Seismic load adopts mode response spectrum method analysis by the Sap2000 software.
32

5. Structure analysis
5.1Effective modal masses ratio
1. Bottom slab level 19.500
The Full silo:

The sum of the effective modal masses for the modes taken into account >90% of the total mass of the
structure.
The Emptysilo:

33

The sum of the effective modal masses for the modes taken into account >90% of the total mass of the
structure.
2. Bottom slab level 16.000
The Full silo:

The sum of the effective modal masses for the modes taken into account >90% of the total mass of the
structure.
34

The Emptysilo:

The sum of the effective modal masses for the modes taken into account >90% of the total mass of the
structure.

5.2Base reaction
1. Bottom slab level 19.500
The Full silo:

35

The Emptysilo:

36

37

2. Bottom slab level 16.000


The Full silo:

38

The Emptysilo:

39

6.Foundation Design
6.1Foundation dimension
1. Bottom slab level 19.500

40

41

2. Bottom slab level 16.000

42

43

6.2 Design of punching shear and shear reinforcement


Bottom slab level 16.000 (the most infavourable case)

44

45

46

V23kN/m

V23kN/m
47

6.2 Design of flexural reinforcement


6.2.1 Full silo
The Fem analysis result as follows:
The silo for the bottom level 16.00m.
1.The most unfavorable Load combination-1:

ULS1.2D+1.6Pm-pfmax

48

Hoop bending moment cloud picture

Section out (through the inner column)

Section out (Not through the inner column)

49

Radial bending moment cloud picture

Section out (through the inner column)

Section out (Not through the inner column)

50

2.The most unfavorable Load combination-2:

ULS1.2D+1.6Pm-pvmax

Hoop bending moment cloud picture

Section out (through the inner column)

Section out (Not through the inner column)


51

Radial bending moment cloud picture

Section out (through the inner column)

Section out (Not through the inner column)


52

3. The most unfavorable Load combination-3:

ULS1.2D+1.0Pm-pfmax +1.0Ex

Hoop bending moment cloud picture

Section out (through the inner column)

Section out (Not through the inner column)


53

Radial bending moment cloud picture

Section out (through the inner column)

Section out (Not through the inner column)


54

4.The most unfavorable Load combination-4:

ULS1.2D+1.0Pm-pfmax+1.0Ey

Hoop bending moment cloud picture

Section out (through the inner column)

Section out (Not through the inner column)


55

Radial bending moment cloud picture

Section out (through the inner column)

Section out (Not through the inner column)


56

5.Conclusion:
5-1:The bottom reinforcement:
Under the Silowall:
The most unfavourable load combination is 1.2 D+1.0Pm-pfmax+1.0Ey
Hoop bending

moment: M11=1955 kNm/m

Radial bending

moment: M22=5463kNm/m

Ast1=3880mm(hoop reinforcement need D29@170 (As=3885mm).


Ast2=9200.3mm(Radial reinforcement need 2D32@164(As=9822 mm).

57

The loaction at 2m distance from the silowall:


Radial bending

moment: M22=1850kNm/m

Ast2=3880 mm(Radial reinforcement need D32@200 (As=4032 mm).


58

Under the Column:


The most unfavourable load combination is1.2 D+1.6Pmvmax+0.5Lr
Hoop bending
Radial bending

moment: M11=1997kNm/m
moment: M22=3383kNm/m

Ast1=5619.5 mm(hoop reinforcement need D32@200+D32@400 (As=6034.3 mm).


Ast2=3880mm(Radial reinforcement need D29@150 (As=4403mm).

59

At the Edge of foundation:


According to the minimum reinforcement.
Hoop reinforcement need D29@170 (As=3885mm).
Radial reinforcement need D32@200(As=3880 mm).

At the centre of foundation( R<3m )


According to the minimum reinforcement.
Horizontal and vertical reinforcement need D25@120(As=4091mm).

60

5-2:The top reinforcement:


At the Edge of foundation:
According to the minimum reinforcement.
Hoop reinforcement need D29@170 (As=3885mm)..
Radial and hoop reinforcement need D32@200(As=4021 mm).

Under the Silowall:


The minimum reinforcement control the top reinforcement.
Hoop reinforcement need D29@170 (As=3885mm).
Radial reinforcement need D32@164(As=4911 mm).

The location: R=8m


According to the minimum reinforcement.
Hoop reinforcement need D29@170 (As=3885mm).
Radial reinforcement need D32@143(As=5623 mm).

Under the Column:


The minimum reinforcement control the top reinforcement.
Hoop reinforcement need D29@170 (As=3885mm).
Radial reinforcement need D32@200(As=4023 mm).

Between

the R=3m location and the R=4.3m

The location: R=4.3m


The most unfavourable load combination is1.2 D+1.6Pmvmax+0.5Lr
Hoop bending
Radial bending

moment: M11=3026kNm/m
moment: M22=2286kNm/m

Ast1=5014.9 mm(horizontal reinforcement need D32@150(As=5361 mm).


Ast2=3880mm (Radial reinforcement need D32@176(As=5329.1mm).

61

R=3m:
The most unfavourable load combination is1.2 D+1.6Pmvmax+0.5Lr
Hoop bending
Radial bending

moment: M11=3125kNm/m
moment: M22=3118kNm/m

Ast1=5182.3 mm(horizontal reinforcement need D32@120 (As=6702 mm).


Ast2=5170.5mm(Vertical reinforcement need D32@120 (As=6702 mm).

62

At the centre of foundation:


The most unfavourable load combination is1.2 D+1.6Pmvmax+0.5Lr
Hoop bending
Radial bending

moment: M11=3805kNm/m
moment: M22=3877kNm/m

Ast1=6337.9mm(horizontal reinforcement need D32@120 (As=6702 mm).


Ast2=6461mm(Vertical reinforcement need D32@120 (As=6702 mm).

63

64

The 1#silo(the bottom slab level is 19.500)foundation flexual calculation process as follows.
The reinforcement see the drawings.

65

66

67

68

69

6.2.2 Empty silo


The base reaction of the emty silo see 5.2Base reaction.
From the base reaction table ,we know there is no uplifting force of the foundation due to earthquake, so the
reinforcement of foundation for the full silo is satisfied.

70

7. Inner Column Design


7.1Design internal force from FEM analysis result
1. Bottom slab level 16.000
Inner column :

Inner column and silo bottom slab FEM model


The mostunfavorable load combination: 1.2D+1.6PVmaxi,the internal force is as follows:

71

Axial force(KN)
The most axial compressive force of column is 14777.55KN.

72

Bending moment -2axis (M2)(KN.m)

Bending moment -3axis (M3)(KN.m)


73

Shear force-3axis (V3)(KN)

7.2Design of inner column


C3(800x1200)

74

75

Reinforcement area (mm)


Required reinforcement :

As=19978mm

Choose 28D32(22517.6mm);
Reinforcement rario:

2.35%

Links: D13@200

C4(800x1000)
Required reinforcement :

As=18022mm

Choose 24D32(19300.8mm);
Reinforcement rario:

2.41%

Links: D13@200

76

2. Bottom slab level 19.500

Reinforcement area (mm)


C1(800x1200)
Required reinforcement :

As=17061mm

Choose 28D29(18494.6mm);
Reinforcement rario:

1.93%

Links: D13@200
C2(800x1000)
Required reinforcement :

As=14538mm

Choose 24D29(15852.5mm);
Reinforcement rario:

1.98%

Links: D13@200

77

8. Lower Silo Wall(t=350mm) Design


The thickness of lower silo wall is 350mm.

Lower silo wall FEM Model for bottom slab level 16.00

78

Lower silo wall FEM Model for bottom slab level 19.50
8.1Design vertical reinforcement
For bottom slab level 16.00
The most unfavorable load combination:1.2D+1.6Pmpfmax,the internal force is as follows:

79

The vertical internal forceF22 contour


The silowall internal force :
The maximum vertical force of silo wall:

Ned=-5270KN/m

Choose 2D16@200(2011mm);
Reinforcement rario:

0.57% >0.2% =Asmin

Axial compression ratio:Ned/fcA=0.64

ok!

8.2Design hoop reinforcement


The hoop internal force is as follows corresponding to F11 :

80

The horizontalp internal forceF11 contour


The hoop reinforcement is2D16@200,according to the minimum reinforcement(0.2%).

8.3Openings added reinforcement


1.opening 1 (4100mmx5050mm)

81

The horizontal internal force F11 arround the opening


The maximum horizontal tensile force :2595KN/m on the top of the opening.
As=F11/fyd=2595KN/m /339.13MPa=7652mm
Need reinforcement:14D29 (9247.3mm)

The maximum horizontal tensile force :2378KN/m at the bottom of the opening.
As=F11/fyd=2378KN/m /339.13MPa=7012.1mm
Need reinforcement: 16D29 (10568.32mm)

The hoop reinforcement of the lower silo wall(t=350mm) adopts 2D16@200. The opening height is
5050mm,Cutting-off reinforcement area is 5050mm/200mmx2x201.1mm=10055mm,so the top/bottom of the
opening need 0.6x10055mm(6033mm) at least. The choosed reinforcement area is satisfied.

82

The vertical internal force F22 arround the opening


The maximum vertical force :8937KN/m at the openingside.
As=(F22-Acxfcd)/fyd=(8937KN-900mmx600mmx0.8x0.65x0.85x31.6MPa) /339.13MPa=4112.6mm
Need reinforcement:12D25(5892mm)

The vertical reinforcement of the lower silo wall(t=350mm) adopts 2D16@200 The opening width is
4100mm,Cutting-off reinforcement area is 4100mm/200mmx2x201.1mm=4122.5mm,so the side of the opening
need 0.5x4122.5mm(2061.3mm) at least. The choosed reinforcement area is satisfied.

83

2.opening 2 (3500mmx4050mm)

The horizontal internal force F11 arround the opening


The maximum horizontal tensile force :2596KN/m on the top of the opening.
As=F11/fyd=2596KN/m /339.13MPa=7658mm
Need reinforcement:14D29 (9247.3mm)

The maximum horizontal tensile force :2413KN/m at the bottom of the opening.
As=F11/fyd=2413KN/m /339.13MPa=7118mm
Need reinforcement: 13D29 (8586.8mm)

The hoop reinforcement of the lower silo wall(t=350mm) adopts 2D16@200. The opening height is
4050mm,Cutting-off reinforcement area is 4050mm/200mmx2x201.1mm=8044mm,so the top/bottom of the
opening need 0.6x8044mm(4826.4mm) at least. The choosed reinforcement area is satisfied.

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The vertical internal force F22 arround the opening


The maximum vertical force :9230KN/m at the openingside.
As=(F22-Acxfcd)/fyd=(9230KN-800mmx600mmx0.8x0.65x0.85x31.6MPa) /339.13MPa=858mm
Need reinforcement:12D22(4561.2mm)

The vertical reinforcement of the lower silo wall(t=350mm) adopts 2D16@200 The opening width is
3500mm,Cutting-off reinforcement area is 3500mm/200mmx2x201.1mm=3019.25mm,so the side of the
opening need 0.5x3019.25mm(1508.25mm) at least. The choosed reinforcement area is satisfied

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