Anda di halaman 1dari 85


Recruitment & Selection Life Cycle Process of
Vodafone Spacetel India Ltd.
Submitted In partial fulfilment towards the award
of the Degree in Master of Business Administration of UP Technical University
Submitted by:Name Sumaira Farooq
Roll No. 1313370125
Batch 2013 2015
Under the supervision of:
Mr. Gouri Shankar Sharma

Noida institute of engineering and Technology (NIET)

19, knowledge park- ||, Institutional Area, Greater Noida
Gautam Buddha Nagar (UP), India- 201306




Certificate by the institute

Certificate by the company

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction of the study
1.2 Objective of the study
1.3 Need and Scope of the study
1.4 Methodology
1.4 Limitations

Chapter 2

2.1 History
2.2 About the organization
2.3 Products/Services

Pg 8 12
Pg 14 46

2.4 Organization structure

Chapter 3


Pg 48 91

3.1 Meaning


3.2 Process of Recruitment


3.3 Sources of Recruitment


3.4 Techniques of Recruitment


3.5 Selection


3.6 Selection Process


3.7 Research Methodology

Pg 85 91

3.4.1 Objective of the Study

3.4.2 Research design
3.4.3 Sampling Size
Pg 93 -105

Chapter 4
4.1 Analysis
Chapter 5

4.2 Interpretation
5.1 Finding
5.2 Suggestion

Pg 107110

5.3 Conclusion


Pg 111 116



Pg 117


I Sumaira Farooq hereby declare that this project is an original piece of research work carried out by
me under the guidance and supervision of Mr. Gouri Shankar Sharma, internal Guide, and
Department of Management Studies. NIET. The information has been collected

from genuine and

authentic source. This work has been submitted to partial fulfillment for the course of MBA taken up
in NIET, Greater Noida.


Sumaira Farooq


It gives me great pleasure and satisfaction for the successful completion of this project. Every
successful piece of work has many invisible helping hands. For the completion of the project report
many people directly and indirectly assisted me. I would like to thank with immense gratitude to Dr
Dileep Singh, The Head of Management Studies for allowing me to undertake this project. I have
immense pleasure in expressing my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Gauri Shankar , ProfessorMBA, Department of Management studies for his valuable guidance,

time, co-operation and

support, without which this project report would have not been completed.

At last I would like to thank my family and friends for their wholehearted support for the
completion of this project.


This project of RECRUITMENT & SELECTION in VODAFONE ESSAR, will give us the
complete information about the VODAFONE ESSAR DIGILINK Ltds Recruitment & Selection
We can enter the record of new Employees and retrieve the details of Candidates
available in the company.
We can recruit the candidates and select them and maintain their records and can also check how
many candidates are selected and available in the Organization. In this project we can maintain
all process of Data Base managed in Recruitment & Selection.
Throughout the project the focus has been on presenting information and comments in an easy
and intelligible manner.
The project is very useful for those who want to know about Recruitment & Selection Process.
In the last, we gratefully acknowledge and express our gratitude to all staff members of
Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. who supported us in preparing this project.


Introduction of the study

Objective of the study
Need of the study
Methodology of the study
Limitations of study


Management thesis is a detailed study of an activity being performed. The topic of my thesis is,
the Recruitment and Selection Process life cycle adopted in Vodafone Essar Spacetel Ltd. It is
the study of the procedure that is imbibed in the organization to attain the best talent present in
the society.
It includes the various methods that are used to draw the suitable candidates for the job, the
decision taken by the management in regard to the date, venue and time of the interview, the
procedure adopted in informing the candidates about their selection and the formalities
While performing the above mentioned responsibilities, the management faces certain problems
but they expeditiously resolve them and carry out their responsibilities effectively.
Although recruitment has always held an important place within organizations, the growing
demand for highly skilled staff has meant that effective recruitment practices are now becoming
a considerable source of competitive advantage.
The business environment is changing rapidly and so the organizations need to stay alert and be
Hence, it is important to have a well-defined recruitment and selection procedure, which can be
executed effectively to get the best fits for the required positions.
Selecting the wrong candidate or rejecting the right candidate could turn out to be costly mistake
for the organization.


This Project Report has chosen the topic Recruitment & Selection in Vodafone Essar Digilink.
Ltd. which is a Private Organization. (MNC).
Enterprise, keeping in views its diversified nature of work and the need of manpower
accordingly. The main objective of the study was to accomplish the following objectives:

Achieving the organizational goal.

Improving its productivity.

Improving the motivation and morale of employees.

Recruiting & selecting right person at the right place for the right job.

Recruiting manpower according to need of the organization keeping in view the present
Technological changes.

To know how the company fulfill its manpower requirements.


Human Resources Management is concerned with human beings, who are the energetic elements
of management. The success of any organization or an enterprise will depend upon the ability,
strength and motivation of persons working in it.
The Human Resources Management refers to the systematic approach to the problems in any
organization. It is concerned with recruitment, training and development of personnel. Human
Resource is the most important asset of an organization. It ensures sufficient supply, proper
quantity and as well as an effective utilization of human resources.
In order to meet human resource needs, an organization will have to plan in advance about the
requirement and the sources. The organization may also have to undertake recruiting, selecting
and training processes. Human Resources Management includes the inventory of
present manpower in the organization. In cases sufficient number of persons is not available in
the organization then external sources are also identified for employing them. Human Resources
Management lays emphasis on better working conditions and also ensures the employment of
proper work force.
A part of Human Resources Management is assigned to personnel who perform some of the
staffing function. The staffing process is a flow of events, which result in a continuous managing
organizational position at all levels from the top management to the operative level. This
process includes manpower-planning, authorization for planning; developing sources of
applicants, evaluation of applications, employment decision (selection) offers (placement),
induction and orientation, transfers, demotions, promotions and separations.
Manpower planning is a process of analyzing the present and future vacancies as a result of
retirement, discharges, transfer, promotion, absence or other reasons.
Recruitment is concerned with the process of attracting qualified personnel for different jobs.
This includes the identification of existing sources, development of new sources and the need for
attracting large number potential applications so that good selections may be possible.
Selection process is concerned with the development of selection policies and procedure and the
evaluation of potential employees in terms of job specifications. This process includes the
development of application blanks, valid and reliable tests, interview techniques, employee
reversal systems, evaluations and selections of personnel in terms of jobs specifications the
making up of final recommendations to the hire management and the sending of offers and
rejection letters.



The study was confined to territorial division of VODAFONE ESSAR SPACETEL LTD,J&K
With special reference to its Recruitment and Selection process.
The study was conducted with sample size of 60 employees selected at random from
both supervisory and management staff of VODAFONE ESSAR LTD
Primary data:
A detailed and well-structured questionnaire was presented to the managerial staff at
VODAFONE ESSAR, LTD. Copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the employees at
random to obtain their views followed this.
Further discussions regarding the recruitment policies were held with the HRD manager to have
In-depth knowledge and future plans of the company for its effective implementation.
Secondary data:
Secondary data was gathered from academic texts and company profile from companys website.
The data collected through questionnaires distributed to the employees was analyzed and
interpreted using the MS-EXCEL.



While making this project following limitation were encountered:

The training time period is very short to analyze the Recruitment &
Selection procedure of Vodafone Essar.

Data is collected from the certain secondary sources also whose

reliability is not certain.

The project work contains details only of Vodafone Essar Digilink

Ltd., Lucknow while the Recruitment & Selection procedure of other
Vodafone Essar branch may varies.

The project was divided in zones, therefore I was limited to

particular area & so the survey was quite difficult.

The selection of employees to cover the various aspects of the topic

was tedious and time consuming.

Getting accurate responses from the respondents was difficult. They

were partial and at times refused to co-operate.

Some employees refused to give any information for the survey

because they thought it to be waste of time.



About the organization
Products/ Services
Organization structure




Vodafone was the brainchild of Racal Electronics Ltd, a modestly prosperous U.K
electronics firm, and Millicon a U.S communication company developed as a joint venture
during the early 1980s Vodafone was granted a license to develop a cellular network in the
United Kingdom and was introduced under the auspices of Racal in January 1985.
The new subsidiaries success was stunning. The corporate sector was quick to
appreciate the advantages of mobile telecommunication and individuals were equally quick
to spot the status symbol potential of new technology, fueled by business need and Yuppie
culture, the demand for mobile phones skyrocketed.
In 1988 Racal Telecommunications Group Ltd, as Vodafone and the related
subsidiaries were officially known, was by far the most successful player on the Racal
Electronics team. But however three years later Racal Electronics reconsidered and Racal
Telecom was separated from its parent company in 1991, at which the name was changed
to Vodafone Group Ltd
A digital system that allowed international calls between participating countries was
introduced in the early 1990s called the Global system for mobile communications (GSM).
It was first used by Vodafone.
In 1994 the company acquired a 10 % stake in Global Star, as international
consortium formed to develop satellite-based network that would allow mobile
Telecommunications to operate everywhere in the world (except the polar ice caps) by
As of 1994 Vodafone operated one of the worlds largest cellular networks, with over
one million subscribers. This combined with the companies increasingly high international
profile made it a safe bet that Vodafone would continue. As primarily Vodafone had equity
positions in a number of other Europe and Asian cellular companies. And it is proved that it
play a prominent role in the expanding mobile telecommunications industry.
Chris Gent, who had sat on a Vodafones broad for a dozen of years, was appointed
as CEO in January 1997. He had never attended college but won a reputation as a shrewd
businessman in the Banking and Computing industries. The company introduced a new
corporate identity in summer of 1997, uniting the six cellular providers it had acquired
(Vodac, Talk land, Vodacom, Voda call, Astec and Peoples phone) under the Vodafone
brand. Vodafone began to reconstruct its network, laying off 250 employees. Its 300 retail
outlets dropped competitors products after. For the first time Chris Gent hoped to use the
German companys established ground-based Internet services to grow Vodafones own new
Wireless-based Internet services.

Historical Background of the Company


Vodafone Essar, it is the Indian subsidiary of Vodafone Group and commenced operations in
1994, when its predecessor Hutchison Telecom acquired the cellular license for Mumbai.


All organization is basically human resource organizations. They need people to carry out the
organizational mission, goals and objectives. Every organization needs to recruit people.
The recruitment policy should therefore, address itself to the key question; what are the
personnel/human resource requirement of the organization in terms of number, skills, levels etc.
to meet present and future needs of production and technical and other changes planned or
anticipated in the next few years.

Meaning of Recruitment


Recruitment is process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for
jobs in the organization. To recruit means to enlist replenish or reinforce.
It refers to the process of bringing together prospective employees and employer with a view to
stimulate and encourage the former to apply for a job with the latter.
The primary purpose of recruitment and selection is to achieve one desired aim i.e. picking the
right person for the right job.
The recruitment process begins when an employee is to be transferred or promoted to another
post, notice of resignation or dismissal is given or retirement is planned.
The five key ways to develop top quality people:


- Getting the right people in the right job.

Developing People

- Through training and development.


- To ensure long term development & performance.

Developing Managers

- Ensuring that these key people are delivering what the

Managing for performance

- Techniques that ensure top quality performance.

Definition of Recruitment:
According to Fllipo: Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and
stimulating them to apply for jobs.
Dale S Breach said that Recruitment is the development and maintenance of adequate
manpower resources. It involves the creation of a pool of available labor upon whom the
organization can draw when it needs additional employees.
Yoder defines Recruitment as a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the
requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that
manpower in adequate members to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.



The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situation:
Vacancies due to promotions, transfer, retirement, termination, permanent disability, death and
labor turnover.
Creation of new vacancies due to the growth, expansion and diversification of business activities
of an enterprise. In addition, new vacancies are possible due to job specification.

Purpose and importance of Recruitment

Determine the present and future requirements of the organization on conjunction with its
personnel-planning and job analysis activities. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum
cost. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly
under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the
organization only after a short period of time.
Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force.
Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.
Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term.
Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job
Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the
organization and interested candidates are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of
Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. It is
through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company, and eventually decided
whether they wish to work for it. A well-planned and well-managed recruiting effort will result in
high quality applicants, whereas, a haphazard and piecemeal efforts will result in mediocre ones.


Such a policy asserts the objectives of the recruitment and provides a framework of implementation of
their recruitment program in the form of procedures.
As Yoder and other observe:Such a policy may involve a commitment to broad principles such as filling
vacancies with the best qualified individuals. It may embrace several issues such as extent of promotion
from within, attitudes of enterprise in recruiting its old employees, handicaps, minority groups, women
employees, part-time employees, friends and relatives of present employees.
It may also involve the organization system to be developed for implementing recruitment program and
procedures to the employed. Therefore, a well considered and pre-planned recruitment policy, based on
corporate goals, study of environment and the corporate needs, may avoid hasty or ill-defined procedures.
Considered decisions may go a long way to man the organization with the right type of personnel.
A good recruitment policy must contain these elements:
a) Organizations objectives - both in the short-term and long-term -must be taken into
consideration as a basic parameter for recruitment decisions and needs of the personnel -areawise, job-family-wise.
b.) Identification of the recruitment needs to take decisions regarding the balance of the
qualitative dimensions of the would be recruits, i.e., the recruiters should prepare profiles for
each category of workers and accordingly work out the main specifications, decide the sections,
departments or branches where they should be placed and identify the particular responsibilities
which may be immediately assigned to them.
c.) Preferred sources of recruitment, which would be tapped by the organization, e.g., for skilled
or semi-skilled manual workers, internal sources and employment exchanges may be preferred;
for highly specialized categories and managerial personnel, other sources besides the former,
may be utilized.
d.) Criteria of selection and preferences: These should be based on conscious thought and serious
deliberations. In some cases trade unions may be consulted in working out the recruitment
policy. In others, management may take the unilateral decision.
e.) The cost of recruitment and financial implications of the same.


A recruitment policy, in its broadest sense, involves a commitment by the employer to such
general principles as:

1. To find and employ the best qualified persons for: each job.
2. To retain the best and most promising of those hired.
3. To offer promising opportunities for life-time working careers.
4. To provide programs and facilities for personal growth on the job.
According to Yoder, the recruitment policy is concerned with quantity and qualifications
and Q1 and Q2) of manpower. It establishes broad guidelines for the staffing process. Generally,



following factors are involved in a recruitment policy.

1. To carefully observe the letter and spirit of the relevant public policy on hiring, and, on the whole,
employment relationship;
2. To provide individual employees with the maximum of employment security, avoiding, frequent lay-off or
lost time;
3. To provide each employee with an open road and encouragement in the continuing development of his
talents and skills;
4. To assure each employee of the organization interest in his personal goals and employment objectives;
5. To assure employees of fairness in all employment relationships, including promotions and transfers;
6. To avoid cliques this may develop when several members of the same household or community are
employed in the organization;
7. To provide employment in jobs which are engineered to meet the qualifications of handicapped workers
and minority sections; and
8. To encourage one or more strong, effective, responsible trade unions among the employees.



The recruitment policy of an organization must satisfy the following conditions:

1. It should be in conformity with its general personnel policies;
2. It should be flexible enough to meet the changing needs of an organization;
3. It should be so designed as to ensure employment opportunities for its employees on a long-term basis
so that the goals of the organization should be achievable; and it should develop the potentialities of
4. It should match the qualities of employees with the requirements of the work for which they are
5. It should highlight the necessity of establishing job analysis.
The nature and extent of the recruitment program depends on a number of factors, including the skills
required, the state of the labor market, general economic conditions, and the image 'of the employer.
A Company which has a reputation of paying fair wages, providing good employee benefits and taking
interest in employee welfare activities would attract a larger number of applicants than it needs without
making any extra recruiting effort.
Small companies which hire few people each year may not need to spread the word around the plant or
office that a vacancy exists. However, as a result of regulations and pressures from society and the
government, the recruitment program now requires the employers to go out and actively seek job
applicants from groups of those who may not otherwise apply for employment.


Factor Affecting Recruitment:

In the recruiting new employees management must consider the nature of labor market, what
sorts of potential labor are available and how do they Look for works.
The factors affecting can be summed up under the following heads:

Labor market boundaries.

Available skills.

Economic conditions.

Attractiveness of the Company


Labor Market Boundaries: The knowledge of the boundaries helps management in estimating
the available supply of qualified personnel from which it might recruit.
A labor market consists of a geographical area in which the forces of demand and supply interact
and thus affect the price of labor.

Available Skills: Companies must locate the areas where they can find employees who fit the
jobs according to their skills.

Economic Conditions: Economic conditions also effect recruitment. A new plan located in a
depressed labor market may be swamped by unemployed workers whereas a firm trying to
establish it or to expand in an area where a few qualified workers are out of work has quite a
different recruitment problem.

Attractive of the Company: The attractiveness of the company in terms of higher wages clean
work better fringe benefits and rapid promotions serves as an influencing factor in recruitment.


Recruitment begins by specifying the human resource requirements, initiating activities and
actions to identify the possible sources from where they can be met, communicating the
information about the job, terms and conditions and prospects they offer, and enthuse the people
who meet the requirement to respond to the invitation by applying for jobs.
The Recruitment process can be examined as follows:

Determining the vacancies.

Sourcing strategy.

Preparing and publishing information.

Processing and assessing applications.



The recruitment function of the organizations is affected and governed by a mix of various
internal and external forces.
The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organization. And the
external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organization.
The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organization are:



Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from
two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organization itself
(like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are
known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources
(like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of the recruitment.
Internal Recruitment:
This is a practice of filling vacancies from within; through transfers and promotions. All transfer
decisions are usually taken by the management and communicated to those concerned.
In case of promotion however, information about the vacancies is communicated through internal
advertisement. Alternatively, organization may prepare seniority cum merit or seniority list and
consider the eligible candidates for internal promotions. The possibility of filling vacancies
internally should always be given very careful consideration for the following reasons:
Existing employees are known to the organization and generally familiar with its customs and
practices. The cost and the time that external recruitment, selection and induction procedures
consume can be significantly reduced. Internal recruitment to fill vacancies may be used as a
means of career development, widening opportunities and stimulating motivation among existing


External Recruitment:
When the organization has to use external sources, there are two main means of conducting the
search for employees:
Through employment consultancies and agencies. These include specialist agencies and headhunters as well as governmental and institutional, and private commercial agencies of varying
By conducting the public directly through advertisement in newspaper journals, posters, on
radio, on television and on the internet.
A combination of these media may be used. The three main avenues available are described and
evaluated below.




Professional Agencies:
Several different kinds of agencies are included under this heading. The features they have in
common are that they are all agencies set up by particular organizations to help their own
members or ex-members find employment and that they are generally non-profit making.
The agencies of this kind that employers are likely to need and use most regularly are:

Career services of academic institutions: Universities and similar institutions maintain

the full-time careers advisory service.

They serve as an employment agency for graduating or recently graduated students and are
centers of information for graduates employment opportunities and for employment who are
seeking potential managers or professional specialists.

Employment service of professional institutions: A number of professional institutions,

such as those representing accounts, engineers, etc. have an employment advisory
services whereby a register is kept of members seeking employment and information is
collected from employers seeking staff in particular professions.

Employment Exchange: Employment exchange is providing by the state service for

young people provides a regular liaison between employers and unemployed youth.

Private Employment Agencies:

These agencies have the largest share of the market and are now quite well known to most people
from personal experience of local offices and advertisements in the press.
Local employment agencies deal with clerical, junior administrative, shop staff, it professional
etc. the other type of agency concentrates on recruitment and sometimes, the initial stages of
selection of middle and senior manager or of professional and specialist staff in field such as law,
accountancy, engineering, etc.
Private agencies provide at times a very valuable service, especially in recruiting staff in
situations where there is a shortage of the particular types of employees required.
However, since they exist to make a profit, employers have to pay for any employees they may
recruit in this way.
There has been a growth of so called Head-Hunters or recruitment consultants.


As terms suggest, these are private firms and agencies of recruitment consultant who earn fees by
meeting the needs of organizations for specialist and senior managerial staff.
Much of their work is carried on by means of on informal network of contacts, whereby they
keep records of career profiles of people likely to be in constant demand and obtain information
about the needs of employers for appointments to be filled.
This method has provided its value to the employer and employee clientele of these agencies.
Advertisements in the Press or other Media:
This is the most common method by which employers carry out their search for suitable staff.
Apart from the use of the national and local press and to a limited extend television and radio,
professional and trade journals are an important source of recruitment by this means.
When specialist staff are needed this is a very convenient and appropriate method for attracting
the attention of those most likely to be produced for publication whether the organization uses an
agency or places its own advertisements.
The Internet:
There has been a growth in the use of the internet to attract applicants. Survey shows that many
organizations use the internet.
Benefits from this method are the speed by which applicants can be obtain information about
organization and application document may be made whether the advertising method.

Whilst the internet was initially was suitable for professional and technical
vacancies, one suspects that the spread of personal computing to all potential
applicant groups will see this tool develop further.
Preparing and publishing Information:
This aspect the recruitment process requires very special attention and skill. Its objectives are to
publish information that fulfills the following conditions:

It is succinct and yet gives a comprehensive and accurate description of the job and its


It is likely to attract the attention of the maximum no. of potentially suitable candidates
(i.e. published through the right media).

It gives a favorable image of the organization in terms of efficiency and its attitude
toward the people-including the values of the organizations, its product or services.

The preparation and publication of this information is based on two simple questions that any
applicant would normally ask:

What are the details of the job in terms of duties, opportunities, rewards, conditions and
special circumstances?

How should application be presented?

The preparation of the information needed the first question is based on the data produced by the
job analysis.
There is not much point in waxing eloquently, as some job advertisements do, about the personal
qualities needed.
On the other hand, it could well be relevant to mention any special features, such as aptitudes or
personal circumstances that are important to the job.
The part of the advertisement advising applicants on the presentation of their applications varies
in practices. Sometimes a personal letter covering the applicants curriculum vitae (CV) is the
only form together with information on requirement for testimonial and referees reports.

A letter of application or a CV sometimes is used as a kind of selection device. Personal

application of this kind may even be passed to graphologists for a personality assessment.
The use of an application form has the particular advantage that employer can ensure that the
information provided by the applicant is on the whole, relevant to the job requirements.
At the same time, some flexibility and can cover every possible contingency. Ample space
should be included, therefore for any additional special point that applicants may wish to make.


The Job Advertisement:

The advertisement needs to cover information derived from the job description and person
specification in such broad areas:
The work organization: its main occupation and location. The job its title; main duties, location.
Position: The job title, its position in the hierarchy and for whom it is responsible ought to be
recorded. A simple organization charts may be useful for this purpose.
Main Duties: A list of key tasks may be written out, standards that need to be reached and
maintain must also be maintained. Methods of recording, assessing and recording the key tasks
must be determined.
The Work Environment: Study the physical and social environment in which the work is
carried out because the work environment influences the quantity and quality of work.
Drafting a Job Description: After job analysis, job description is made. Job description
describes the job. The job description decides upon the exact knowledge skill and experience
needed to the job.
Qualification and experience: Personal requirements; especially professional qualification,
experience, aptitudes, etc. Reward and opportunities: Basic salary and other emoluments; any
other benefits opportunities for personal development.
Application: form of application; closing date; address for forwarding.

The Application Form:

The design of an appropriate application form will clearly depend on particular situation and
needs, but there are some basic principles that are universally relevant.
Different forms may be necessary for different kinds of work. If economy or any other reasons
require the use of a general form for all appointments, then the form has to be sufficiently
comprehensive and flexible to cover all possible situations.
The items that will normally need to be included in application forms are:

Job Title

Applicants Full Names

Date of Birth

Address and Telephone Number




Academic Qualification

Professional Qualification

Present Employment details of present post, duties, accountabilities, skills used.

Previous Employment with details of achievement in each post.

Main current interest, pursuits and achievements outside work.


Court Convictions

Additional Information


Source of information about vacancy.

Processing and Assessing Application:

When all the applications have been received by the due date, the next task is to select those
applicants, who on the evidence available, to be the most suitable as future employees of the
organization, and therefore worth the time and the cost of further examination in the selection
This will be based on the published requirements for the job and involves a painstaking and
scrupulous study of the information provided by applicants, a comparison of this information
with those job requirements and finally, a decision whether to accept or reject at this stage.
To systematize the process, it is normally useful to carry a preliminary sift to produce three
categories of applicants: suitable, not suitable and marginal.
With this method the main efforts can then be concentrated on deciding which of the doubt
applicants should be accepted and rejected.
To start with the general approach, those responsible for processing applications need to be very
throughout, first, that they have responsibility to their employers to be careful and through as
possible in selecting the most suitable of the applicants and second, that they have a


responsibility to the applicants themselves to examine their applications conscientiously and

It is the first hurdle that the applicant has to overcome in obtaining employment with an
organization and is in effect, the first stage in the selection procedure.
In deciding, therefore that an applicants is unsuitable entirely on documentary evidence, the
employing organization needs to be as certain as it can be about its reasons for rejection at this
A further important point that has to be made concerns the need for flexibility in making the final
decisions about acceptance or rejection.
This relates to the previous comment on the problems of making decisions solely on the basis of
documentary information.
It is best not to stubbornly inflexible or over precise about matters as length of experience, age
When job requirements are being established, room must always be left to decide individual
cases on their merits, as we balance and weight various attributes.
Finally, a word needs to be said about the use of testimonials and referees reports.
Report of this kind will regularly be used as evidence to assist in the final decision of the
selection procedures.
Referee report helps in assessment of candidates during the selection procedure.


Dunn and Stephens summarize the possible recruiting methods into three categories :
1. Direct Method
2. Indirect Method
3. Third Party Method
These include sending travelling recruiters to educational and professional institutions,
employees contacts with public, and manned exhibits. One of the widely used direct methods is
that of sending of recruiters to colleges and technical schools. Most college recruiting is done in
co-operation with the placement office of a college.
The placement office usually provides help in attracting students, arranging interviews,
furnishing space, and providing student resumes. For managerial, professional and sales
personnel, campus recruiting is an extensive operation.
Persons reading for MBA or other technical diplomas are picked up in this manner. For this
purpose, carefully prepared brochures, describing the organization and the jobs it offers, are
distributed among students, before the interviewer arrives.
The DCM, TATAs, and other enlightened firms maintain continuing contacts with institutions'
placement officials with a view to recruiting staff regularly for different responsible positions.
Sometimes, firms directly solicit information from the concerned professors about students with an
outstanding record.
Many companies have found employees' contact with the public a very effective method. Other direct
methods include sending recruiters to conventions and seminars, setting up exhibits at fairs, and using
mobile offices to go to the desired centres.
Indirect methods involve mostly advertising in newspaper, on the radio, in trade, and
professional journals, technical magazines and brochures.


Advertising in newspapers and/or trade journals and magazines is the most frequently used
method, when qualified or experienced personnel are not available from other sources. Senior
posts are largely filled by such methods when they cannot be filled by promotion from within.
Advertising is very useful for recruiting blue-collar and hourly workers, as well as scientific,
professional, and technical employees. Local newspapers can be a good source of blue-collar workers,
clerical employees, and lower-level administrative employees.
The main point is that the higher the position is in the organization, or the more specialized the skills
sought, the more widely dispersed advertisement is likely to be. The search for top executive might include
advertisements in a national periodical; while the advertisement of blue-collar jobs is usually confined to
the daily newspaper or regional trade journals.
The classified advertisement section of a daily newspaper or the Sunday weekly edition of The Hindustan
Times, The Times of India, The Tribune, Bharat Jyoti, The National Herald, The Free Press Journal, The
Pioneer, Amrit Bazar Patrika.
The Economic Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express etc., carry advertisements for all types of positions.
Such advertisements enable prospective candidates to screen themselves in order to find out whether they
are fit for the job for which the advertisement has been issued.
In order to be successful, an advertisement should be carefully written. If it is not properly written, it may not
draw the right type of applicants or it may attract too many applicants who are not qualified for the job.
It should be so framed as to attract attention -for example, by the use of different sizes and types of print.
The first line should limit the audience somewhat and the next few lines should further screen out the
readers who do not possess the necessary qualifications.
It should provide specific information on job requirements and opportunities for advancement, the benefits
to be enjoyed by working in the company; and it should emphasize facts related to the dignity of the job
and to its professional aspects.
Frilly advertisements, containing exaggerated claims and gimmicky appeals, are to be avoided.
Advertising can be very effective if its media are properly chosen.
According to Advertisement Tactics and Strategy in Personnel Recruitment, three points need to be borne
mind before an advertisement is inserted.



First, to visualize the type of applicant one is trying to recruit.

Second, to write out a list of the advantages a company offers; in other words, why the reader should
work for the company.
Third, to decide where to run the advertisement, not only in which area but in which newspaper having
a local, state or nation-wide circulation.
Many organizations often place what is referred to as a blind advertisement, one in which there is no
identification of the organization. Respondents are asked to reply to a Post Office Box Number or to a
consulting firm that is acting as an intermediary between the applicant and the organization.
The large organizations with regional or national reputation do not usually use blind advertisements.
Other methods include advertising in publications, such as trade and professional journals, and radio or
television announcements, as is done by many Indian manufacturers. Professional journals are read by
people with specialized backgrounds and interests. Therefore, advertisements in these are generally
The best management policy regarding recruitment is to look first within the organization. If that source
fails, external recruitment must be tackled.
These include the use of commercial or private employment agencies, state agencies, and placement
offices of schools, colleges and professional associations, recruiting firms, management consulting firms,
indoctrination seminars for college professors, and friends and relatives.
Private employment agencies are widely used. They charge a small fee from an applicant. They specialize
in specific occupations: general office help, salesmen, technical workers, accountants, computer staff,
engineers and executives. These private agencies are brokers who bring employers and employees together.
The specialization of these agencies enhances their capacity to interpret the needs of their clients, to seek
out particular types of persons and to develop proficiency in recognizing the talent of specialized personnel.
State or public employment agencies also known as Employment or Labor Exchanges, are the main
agencies of public employment. They provide a clearing house for jobs and job information. Employers
inform them of their personnel requirements, while job-seekers get information for them about the types
of jobs that are referred to by employers. These agencies provide a wide range of services -counseling,


assistance in getting jobs, information about the labor market, labor and wage rates.
Schools, Colleges and Professional Institutions offer opportunities for recruiting their students. They
operate placement services where complete bio-data and other particulars of the students are available.
The companies that need employees maintain contact with the Guidance Counselors of Employment
Bureaus and teachers of business and vocational subjects. The prospective employers can review
credentials and interview candidates for management trainees or probationers. Whether the education
sought involves a higher secondary certificate, specific vocational training, or a college background with
a bachelors, masters, or doctoral degree, educational institutions provide an excellent source of potential
employees for entry-level positions in organizations. These general and technical/professional institutions
provide blue-collar applicants, white-collar and managerial personnel.
Sometimes, the organizations provide Work Study Program to the students or summer jobs for undertaking
a project in the establishment so as to get them interested in the organization in question, and after
completion of this, they may be absorbed by the companies concerned.
Professional organizations or recruiting firms or executive recruiters maintain complete information records
about employed executives. These firms are looked upon as head hunters, raiders and pirates by
organizations which lose personnel through their efforts. However, these same organizations may employ
executive search firms to help them find executive talent. These consulting firms recommend persons of
high caliber for managerial, marketing, and production engineers posts.
Indoctrination seminars for colleges professors are arranged to discuss the problem of companies and
employees. Professors are invited to take part in these seminars. Visits to plants and banquets are arranged so
that the participant professors may be favorably impressed. They may later speak well of a company and help
it getting the required personnel.
Employee Referrals: Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which
employees may be drawn. When the labor market is very tight, large employers frequently offer their
employees bonuses or prizes for any referrals that are hired and stay with the company for a specific length
of time. Some companies maintain a register of former employees whose record was good to contact them
when there are new job openings for which they are qualified. This method of recruitment, however, suffers
from a serious defect that it encourages nepotism, i.e., persons of one's community or caste are employed
that may or may not be fit for the job


Trade Unions also provide manual and skilled workers in sufficient numbers. Under agreement,
they may agree as to who is to be given preference. But in case of adverse industrial relations,
this technique may create difficulties.
Casual Labor or Applicant at the Gate: Most industrial units rely to some extent on the casual
labor, which presents itself daily at the factory gate or employment office. However, this source
is uncertain, and the candidates cover a wide range of abilities. Even then, many of our industries
make use of this source to fill up casual vacancies.
Unconsolidated Applications: For positions in which large number of candidates are not
available from other sources, the companies may gain in keeping files of applications received
from candidates who make direct enquirys about possible vacancies on their own, or may send
unconsolidated applications.
The information may be indexed and filed for future use when there are openings in these jobs. If
necessary, the candidates may be requested to keep the organization posted with any change in
their qualifications, experience or achievements made.
Voluntary Organizations, such as private clubs, social organizations, might also provide employees handicapped, widowed or married women, old persons, retired hands, etc. in response to advertisements.
Computer Data Banks: When a company desires a particular type of employee, job specifications and
requirements are fed into a computer, where they are matched against the resume data stored therein. The
output is a set of resumes for individuals who meet the requirements. This method is very useful for
identifying candidates for hard-to-fill positions, which call for an unusual combination of skills.



In human resource planning, we identified our personnel needs. Once these needs were
established a job analysis was conducted, which clarified the characteristics of jobs being done
and the individual qualities necessary to do these jobs successfully.
This information was then used to recruit a pool of qualified applicants. It help in assessing
applicants against the criteria established in job analysis in order to predict which job applicant
will be successful if hired.

To select means to choose. Selection involves a series of steps by which the candidates are
screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant jobs.
The basic purpose is to chosen the individual who can most successfully perform the job from
the pool of qualified candidates.


The purpose of selection is to choose right type of candidates to man various positions in the
organization. In order to achieve this purpose, a well organized selection procedure involves
many steps and at each step, unsuitable candidates are rejected. In other words, the aim of
selection process is to reject the unsuitable candidates.


To predict which job applicants would be successful if hired.

To inform and sell the candidates on the job and the organization.

To ensure all selection procedures comply with the Equal Opportunity Policy.

To ensure that all appointments are made on merit.

To attract sufficient applications from potential candidates for appointment with the
skills, abilities, qualities, experience and competencies deemed as being necessary to
the job.

To develop and maintain procedures which will assist in ensuring the appointment of
the most suitable candidate.

To ensure that recruitment procedures are clear, valid and consistently applied by those
involved in recruitment and that they provide for fair and equitable treatment for those
who apply for employment.

To base selection decisions and criteria directly on the demands and requirements of the
job and the competencies identified as necessary for satisfactory performance.

Provide psychometric tests, personality profiling, and run assessment centers.

Introduce recruitment related analysis, allowing you to evaluate your strategy.


The selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant information about an applicant. This
information is secured in a number of steps of stages. The objective of selection process is to determine
whether an applicant meets the qualifications for a specific job and to choose the applicant who is most
likely to perform well in that job. Selection is a long process, commencing from the preliminary interview
of that applicants and ending with the contract of employment.
The hiring procedure is not a single act but it is essentially a series of methods or steps or stages by which
additional information is secured about the applicant. At each stage, facts may come to light, which may
lead to the rejection of the applicant. A procedure may be compared to a series of successive hurdles or
barriers, which an applicant must cross.
These are intended as screens, and they are designed to eliminate an unqualified applicant at any point in
the process. This technique is known as the successive hurdles technique. Not all selection processes
include all these hurdles. The complexity of a process usually increases with the level and responsibility
of the position to be filled.
According to Yoder, the hiring process is of one or many go, no-go gauges. Candidates are screened by the
application of these tools. Qualified applications go on to the next hurdle, while the unqualified are
eliminated.Thus, an effective selection program is a non-random process because those selected have
been chosen on the basis of the assumption that they are more likely to be better employees than those
who have been rejected.
Selection processes or activities typically follow a standard pattern, beginning with an initial screening
interview and concluding with the final employment decision. The traditional selection process includes:
preliminary screening interview; completion of application form; employment tests; comprehensive
interview; background investigations, physical examination and final employment decision to hire.



While formulating a selection policy, due consideration should be given to organizational requirements as
well as technical and professional dimensions of selection procedures. Yoder and others have suggested
goals, technological issues, cost factors, extent of formality, etc. In other words, an effective policy must
assert the why and What aspects of the organization objectives.
The selection procedure adopted by an organization is mostly tailored made to meet its
particular needs. The thoroughness of the procedure depends upon three factors:
First, the nature of selection, whether faulty or safe, because faulty selection affects not only the training
period that may be needed, but also results in heavy expenditure on the new employee and the loss that
may be incurred by the organization is case the job-occupant fails on his job.
Second, the policy of the company and the attitude of the management. As a practice some companies
usually hire more than the actual number needed with a view to removing the unfit persons from the jobs.
Third, the length of the probationary or the trial period. The longer the period, the greater the uncertainty
in the minds of the selected candidate about his future.
The hiring process can be successful, if the following preliminary requirements are satisfied:
1. Someone should have the authority to hire. This authority comes from the employment requisition, as
developed by an analysis of the Work-load and work force.
2. There must be some standard or personnel with which a prospective employee may be compared, i.e.,
there should be available, before hand, a comprehensive job description and job specifications as developed
by a Job Analysis.
3. There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees may be



Selection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be successfully cleared before the
applicants proceeds to the next. The time and emphasis placed on each steps will of course vary
from organization to organization and indeed from job to job in one organization.
The above figure outlines the important steps in the selection process of a typical organization.

The first step starts with the receipt of applications. In order to attract people with talents, skill
and experience a company has to create a favorable impression on the applicants right from the
stage of reception.
Employment possibilities must be presented honestly and clearly.
If no jobs are available at that point of time, the applicant may be asked to call back the
personnel department after sometime.



In culmination of our recruiting efforts, we should be prepared to initiate a preliminary review of
potentially acceptable candidates. This screening is, in effort, a step procedure:

The screening of inquiries,

The provision of screening interview

If our recruiting effort has been successful, we will be confronted with a number of potential
Based on the job description and job specification, some of these respondents can be eliminated.
The screening interview is also an excellent opportunities for management to describe the job in
enough detail so the candidates can consider whether they are really serious about making
Another important point during the initial screening phase is opening is to identify a salary range.
Most candidates are concerned about their salaries, and while a job opening may sound exciting,
a low salary may preclude an organization from obtaining excellent talent.
During this phase, if proper HRM activities have been conducted, there should be no need to
masquerade the salary. Without the salary, only time and money are wasted.
Application blank or from is most common methods used to collect information on various
aspects of the applicants academic, social, demographic, work related background and
It is a brief history sheet of an employees background usually containing the following things:

Personal Data

Marital Data

Physical Data

Educational Data

Employment Data

Extra Curricular Activities Data




In the step selection tests or employment tests that attempt to assess intelligence, abilities,
personality trait and other traits are administered.
The real value of the tests lies in eliminating those applicants who have very little chance of job
success than in selecting applicants who will definitely be successful in jobs. Test is a
standardize, objective measure of a persons behavior, performance or attitude.
It is standardized because the way the test is carried out and the way the individual scores are
calculated are uniformly applied. It is objective in the sense that it tries to measure individual
differences in a scientific way.

Some of the commonly used employment tests are:

Intelligence Tests: These tests are used to judge the mental capacity of the applicants. They
measure the individuals learning abilities, i.e. ability to catch or understand instructions and also
ability to make decision and judgment.
Intelligence tests are widely used in the selection of personnel for almost every kind of job from
the unskilled to the skilled.
Personality Tests: Personality tests probe the qualities of the personality as a whole, the
combination of aptitude interest and usual mood and temperament.
It is very difficult to devise and use personality tests they are concerned with discovering clues to
an individuals value system, his emotional reactions, maturity, etc.
Achievement Tests: These are designed to measure what the applicant can do on the job
currently i.e. whether the applicant knows what he or she claims to know.
Interest Tests: Interest tests identify patterns of interests that are areas in which the individual
shows special concern, fascination and involvement.
These tests will suggest what types of jobs may be satisfying to the employees. Interest tests are
more often used for vocational guidance also. They help the individuals in selecting occupations
of their interest.


Those individuals who are still viable applicants after the initial screening, application form, and
required tests have been completed are given a comprehensive interview.


The applicant may be interviewed by personnel department interviewers, executives within the
organization, a potential supervisor or some combination of these.

This comprehensive interview is designed to probe in areas that cannot be addressed by the
application form or tests.

These areas usually consist of assessing ones motivation, ability to word under pressure, and
ability to fit in within the organization.
However this information should be job related. Interview gives the recruiter an opportunity:

To size up the candidate personality.

To ask questions that is not covered in tests.

To make judgment on candidates enthusiasm and intelligence.

To assess subjective aspects of the candidate like his facial expressions and appearance.

To give facts to the candidate regarding the company, its policies etc. and promote goodwill
towards the company.

Types of Interview:
Several types of interviews are used depending on the nature and importance of position to be
filled within an organization.

Non-Directive Interview: In it the recruiter asks questions as they come to his mind.
There is no special format to be followed.

Patterned Interview: In this interview, a series of questions which can illuminate the
significant aspects the applicants background and standardized in determining who is to
be selected.

During the interview, the standard questions are asked as they are written; the order may be
varied but not the phrasing of the questions. The interviewee is supposed only to answer the
questions put by the interviewer.

Structured Interview: In a structured interview there are fixed job related questions that
are presented to each applicant.


Panel Interview: In a Panel Interview several interviewers question and seek answers
from one applicant.

Stress Interview: Such interviews are designed to create a difficult environment where
the applicants confidence level and the ability to stand erect in difficult situations are put
to test.

Appraisal Interview: In an Appraisal Interview a superior and a sub-ordinate sit together

after the performance appraisal to discuss the subordinates rating and possible remedial

Dos and Donts of the INTERVIEW.



Prepare for the interview.

Be unprepared for the








Comfortable and relaxed.


Allow the candidate to talk and


gather all relevant information.








inadequate information.
Ask open-ended questions.

Ask leading and demanding


Ask more questions and probe



only if necessary.







Make note of the relevant points

Rely on your memory to assess

during the interview for accurate








Stick to plan of the interview.






interview to follow the plan.


The next step in the selection process is to undertake an investigation of those applicants who
appear to offer potential as employees.
This may include contacting former employers to confirm the candidates work record and to
obtain their appraisal of his or her performance, contacting other job related and personal
references, and verifying the educational accomplishments shown on the application.
Certain jobs require physical qualities like clear vision, perfect hearing, unusual stamina,
tolerance of hard working conditions, clear tone etc.
Medical examination reveals whether or not a candidate possesses these qualities. Medical
examination can give the following information:

Whether the applicants is medically suitable for the specific job or not;

Whether the applicants has health problems or psychological attitudes likely to interfere
with work efficiency;

Whether the applicant suffers from bad health, which should be corrected before he can
work satisfactorily;

Whether the applicants physical measurements are in accordance with the job
requirements or not.


The line manager concerned has to make the final decision now-whether to select or reject the
candidate after soliciting the required information through different techniques.
The line manager has to take adequate care in taking the final decision.
A true understanding between line managers and personnel managers should be established as to
facilitate good selection decisions.
After taking the final decision the organization has to intimate this decision to the successful as
well as unsuccessful candidates.


After selecting the candidate, he should be placed on a suitable job. Placement is the actual
posting of an employee to a specific job. It involves assigning a specific rank and responsibility
to an employee.
The placement decisions are taken by the line manager after matching the requirements of a job
with the qualification of the candidate.
Most organizations put new recruits on probation for a given period of time after which their
services are confirmed.
Placement is an important human resource activity. If neglected, it may create employee
adjustment problems.
Therefore, proper placement is important to both the employee and the organization. The benefits
of placement may be summarized thus:

The employee is able to.

Show good results on the job.

Get along with people easily.

Avoid accidents and mistakes.

Keeps his spirits high.


Induction is the process through which a new employee is introduced to the job and the
In the words of Armstrong, Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee
when he first joins the company and giving him the basic information he needs to settle down
quickly and start work.
OBJECTIVES: Induction serves the following purposes:

Removes fears.

Creates a good impression of the organization.

Acts as a valuable source of information.


The recruitment for various posts in the Company will be made:

By Direct Recruitment

From among the management trainees available within the Company

From reputed Management institutes through Campus Interviews.

Notification of Vacancies: The first step in Direct Recruitment starts from notification.
Procedure for Advertisement: Where it is proposed to advertise the vacancies the following
procedure shall be followed:
The vacancies are advertised in those newspapers as may be decided by the appointing authority
on his representatives.
If suitable candidates are not available, these posts may be advertised again in the other
newspapers as may be decided by the appointing authority.

Selection Tests: For selection to any post in the Company, selection interview are held by the
appropriate selection committee and in addition, for such posts regarding which the management
of the company considers it desirable to follow any or all of the following procedures:

Written Tests.

Aptitude Tests.

Psychological Tests.

Panel of Selected Candidates: The selection committee prepares a panel of selected candidates
in the order of merit.
The recommendations of such committee are regarded as final and normally accepted by the
authority competent.


Where in exceptional cases such authority does not accept the recommendations of selection
committee, that authority, for reasons to be recorded in writing, modifies or sets aside its
Medical Examination: No person is appointed by the Company unless he is declared medically
fit by the Companys Medical officer or any other medical authority as prescribed by the
appointing authority in accordance with medical standards laid down.
Medical examination fee paid by the candidate is reimbursed by the Company.
Checking for References: It is not necessary to complete verification of character before
appointing a candidate from the approved panel.
Appointment is subject to verification of character but action to verify character and antecedents
is taken expeditiously. A report on the candidates character is obtained from his previous
employer or from any other reference as specified in his application form.
Offer of Appointment: All appointment to Companys services is made by the HR department.
The appointment order contains general terms and conditions.
Induction: In Vodafone Essar after giving the letter of appointment an induction programmed is
conducted for the new employees. In induction programmed relevant information of the
organization is given to the employees.
Placement: In Vodafone Essar manpower has been distributed at various levels in the required
degree suiting to the companys need to bring out success even in the most complex projects.
After the induction process posting of new employees is done at the right place, on the basis of
manpower requirement at various branches of Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd.



Research has been defined in a number of different ways.
A broad definition of research is given by Martyn Shuttleworth - "In the broadest sense of the word, the
definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of
Another definition of research is given by Creswell who states that - "Research is a process of steps used to
collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps:
Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or
examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of
facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new
or revised theories or laws".

Objective of the study:

The objectives of the study was accomplished by conducting a systematic design, collection,
analysis, and reporting of data and findings that are relevant to different marketing situations
facing the company.
The marketing research process adopted in the study consisted of the following stages:

Defining the problem and the research objective: The research objective states what
information it needed to solve the problem.


The objective of the research was to see the change in the Training Process due to the
management change.

Developing the research plan: Once the problem is identified, the next step is to prepare a
plan for getting the information needed for the research.

The present study adopted the exploratory approach where there was a need to gather
large amount of information before making a conclusion.

Collection and sources of Data: Market research requires two kinds of data i.e., Primary
Data and Secondary Data. Well-structured questionnaires were prepared for employees.

There were personal interview surveys mostly in office. The questionnaire contained both openended and closed-ended questions.
Here, open-ended questions were more useful as it was an exploratory research that was
conducted in which the main objective was to get an insight into how people think in a particular

Analyze the collected information.

Report research findings.

Regarding the Research

Close ended Method:
Multiple choice
Open Ended Method:
Completely unstructured
Sentence completion
For the Project:

Descriptive research
Applied research
Qualitative research
Conclusion oriented

Scientific method
Sample survey
Computer application


Method of Data Collection:

Collection of data through questionnaire

Data collection through schedule
Descriptive Research:
Descriptive research includes surveys and fact finding enquires of different kinds. The major
purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.
Qualitative Research:
Qualitative research on the other hand is connected with Qualitative phenomenon i.e.,
phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind. For instance when we are interest in
investing from the reasons for human behavior i.e., why people think or do certain things.
Conclusion Oriented:
While doing conclusion-oriented research, awareness is free to pick up a problem redesigning
enquires as the proceeds and is prepared to Conceptualize as he wishes.
Scientific Methods:
The scientific method is one and same in the branches (of sciences) and that method is the
method of all logically trained minds.
The utility of all sciences consists alone in its methods, not its material: the man who classifies
facts of any kind whatever, who sees their mutual relation, and describes their sequences, is
applying the scientific method and is a man of science.
Sample Survey:
The respondents selected should be as representative of the total population as possible in order
to produce a miniature cross section.
The selected respondents constitute what is technically called a Sample and the selection
process is called Sampling Technique. The survey so conducted is known as Sample Survey.
Observations and Formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of ones interest and following that
subject area to conduct subject related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it
requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher
intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified
by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic.
Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.
Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts.


Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/
assessed in the study.
Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from
and/or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection
must be valid and reliable.
Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data in order to draw conclusions about
Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures and pictures, and then described in
words .Test, revising of hypothesis, Conclusion, reiteration if necessary
A common misconception is that a hypothesis will be proven (see, rather, Null hypothesis). Generally a
hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the
outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected (see falsifiability). However, if
the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful
language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the
observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving
rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true.
A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction
will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide
an accurate prediction. In this case a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that
the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. Researchers can
also use a null hypothesis, which state no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent
variables. A null hypothesis uses a sample of all possible people to make a conclusion about the population.
Historical method
German historian Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886), considered to be one of the founders of
modern source-based history.
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical
sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history
guidelines that are commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external


criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. This includes lower criticism and sensual criticism.
Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts
are part of most formal historical research:

Identification of origin date

Evidence of localization

Recognition of authorship

Analysis of data

Identification of integrity

Attribution of credibility

Research methods
The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may
be obscure):
Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. There
are two major types of research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose
qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate
and the research questions they aim to answer:
Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other scientist of the 20th
Qualitative research
Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and
collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc that is analyzed and searching for themes. This type
of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to


potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it
can be expensive and time consuming, and typically limited to a single set of research subjects. Qualitative
research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research
hypotheses. Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social

Quantitative research
Systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. Asking a
narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative
research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive).Statistics derived from
quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between
variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.
The Quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection
instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. These methods produce
results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize. Quantitative research is concerned with
testing hypotheses derived from theory and/or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.
Depending on the research question, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments (this is
the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment). If this is not feasible, the
researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics in order to statistically control for
their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research
participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.
In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher(s) may collect primary or secondary data.
Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires.
Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is
good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.
Mixed-method research, i.e. research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both primary
and secondary data, is becoming more common.


Difference between Recruitment and Selection

1. Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective candidates and motivating them to
apply for job in the organization. Whereas, selection is a process of choosing most suitable
candidates out of those, who are interested and also qualified for job.
2 In the recruitment process, vacancies available are finalized, publicity is given to them and
applications are collected from interested candidates. In the selection process, available
applications are scrutinized. Tests, interview and medical examination are conducted in order to
select most suitable candidates.
3. In recruitment the purpose is to attract maximum numbers of suitable and interested
candidates through applications. In selection process the purpose is that the best candidate out of
those qualified and interested in the appointment.
4. Recruitment is prior to selection. It creates proper base for actual selection. Selection is next to
recruitment. It is out of candidates available/interested.
5. Recruitment is the positive function in which interested candidates are encouraged to submit
application. Selection is a negative function in which unsuitable candidates are eliminated and
the best one is selected.
6 Recruitment is the short process. In recruitment publicity is given to vacancies and applications
are collected from different sources Selection is a lengthy process. It involves scrutiny of
applications, giving tests, arranging interviews and medical examination.


7 In recruitment services of expert is not required Whereas in selection, services of expert is

8. Recruitment is not costly. Expenditure is required mainly for advertising the posts.
9.Selection is a costly activity, as expenditure is needed for testing candidates and conduct of


Data Analysis
Data collected in Vodafone Essar Ltd
Selection Method Standards



ANALYSIS: The data collected and compiled was analyzed to find out the various aspects of
recruitment and selection procedures as existing in Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. and the way in
which it could be made the best so that it could help in achieving the goals of Vodafone Essar.
The questionnaire (Annexure-I) was issued to, in all 100 employees
Their views/suggestions on the various aspects of recruitment and selection were analyzed on the
basis of the questionnaire. Each question was weighed on a certain aspect.
The opinions of the respondents were totaled under their respective heads. The totals were
further used for calculating the percentage of people expressing their views on various aspects.



Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the
goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making.
Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a
variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.
Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on modeling and knowledge
discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes.
Business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing on
business information.
In statistical applications, some people divide data analysis into descriptive statistics, exploratory
data analysis, and confirmatory data analysis.
EDA focuses on discovering new features in the data and CDA on confirming or falsifying
existing hypotheses.
Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical or structural models for predictive
forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural
techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured
All are varieties of data analysis. Data integration is a precursor to data analysis, and data
analysis is closely linked to data visualization and data dissemination.
The term data analysis is sometimes used as a synonym for data modeling, which is unrelated to
the subject of this article.


Data Collected in Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd.





Profile Name

Manager (Prepaid

Manager (Postpaid

Area Sales

Total Candidates


















Pilot Sales

Customer Service

Training Executive/
Training Manager










Sources for Collecting Resumes/ CVs: Internet

*Interview in process



1. Are you aware that in which department of Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. has
generates maximum number of vacancies?








Customer service Department


Other (please Specify)







Customer Service


Influence: In the Survey, I found that Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. has Maximum Number of
vacancies in Sales Department i.e., 45%. Then further it move to Customer Service Department
i.e., 25%. Marketing and Finance Department, they both have same Number of Vacancies i.e.,
10%. then Administration and HR department has 5% of vacancies.


2. Are you aware of any position/profile which comes in department of Vodafone Essar
Digilink Ltd.?
No. of respondent 100











Influences: In the survey I find that more than 80% employee says Yes and second more 20%
employee says No.


3. In your opinion,
What type of selection procedure will help in selecting the right kind of Candidate?
Written Test.
Group Discussion.
No. of respondent 100



Written Test




Group Discussion



Written Test



Group discussion

Influences: In the survey I find that more over 60% employee are in favor of interview, 20%
employees are in favor of written test and 20% employees are in favor of group discussion.


4. Do you think references play a crucial role in the selection process?

No. of respondent 100










Influences: In the survey I find that more over 60% employee says Yes and second more 40%
employee says No.


Do you think,
If there is a need to bring any suggestions for improvement in the Recruitment &
Selection process being followed in Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd.?
No. of respondent - 100









Influences: In the survey I find that more 40% employee says Yes and second more 60%
employee says No.


5. Do you agree that Induction programmed play a vital role in motivating the employees?
No. of respondent 100









Influences: In the survey I find that more over 95% employee says Yes and second more 05%
employee says No.



Do you think the Selection through campus interview is most appropriate and is
beneficial to the Company?

No. of respondent 100










Influences: In the survey I find that more over 30 % employee says Yes and second more 70%
employee says No.


7. In your opinion what should be the mode of Recruitment for Managerial Post in Vodafone
Essar Digilink Ltd.?
Management Trainees.
Open Advertising.
From Employment Agencies.
No. of respondent 100


Management Trainees


Open Advertising


From Employment Agencies



Management Trainees

Open Advertisement


From Employment Agencies

Influences: In the survey I find that more over 65% of employee are in favor of Open
Advertisement while 05% are in favor of Management Trainees and 30% from Employment


8.In your opinion,

While recruiting staff from outside the organization which type of recruitment
Process helps in Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd.?
Open Advertisement (Advertising in News Papers).
Campus recruitment.
Job Sites.



Open Advertisement


Campus Recruitment




Job Sites


open advertisement

campus recruitment


internet job sites

Influences: In the survey I find 30% of employees are in favor of Consultancies, while Campus
Recruitment i.e. 10% and Open Advertisement are in favors of 20% and Job Sites i.e. 40%.





On the basis of the questionnaire and its analysis the result has came up to certain conclusions
which are interpreted under the following heads:
The first question was framed to find the awareness of the employees about department
of Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. which has generates maximum number of vacancies. In
this Survey, I found that Maximum Number of vacancies is in Sales Department i.e.,
45%. Then further in Customer Service Department i.e., 25%. Where Marketing and
Finance Department, they both have same Number of Vacancies i.e., 10%. Then
Administration and HR department has 5% of vacancies. (Here its mention about the all
departments of the company).

In the next step, to find out the awareness about the positions which comes in
departments of Vodafone? Mostly Internal candidates are aware of this and by influence
some are not aware about the position/profile of Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. In this
survey, I find that more than 80% employee says Yes and second more 20% employee
says No.

Where next was framed to seek the suggestions of respondents regarding the type of
selection procedure which would be useful in selecting the right type of Candidate. The
results reveal that most of the employees at both the levels feel that a mix of a
questionnaire, interview and psychometric tests would serve the purpose. In this, survey I
find that more over 60% employee are in favor of interview, 20% employees are in favor
of written test and 20% employees are in favor of group discussion.
The next Question asks about the references while interviews in Vodafone Essar Digilink
Ltd. If they play a crucial role in the selection process then most employees are agree
with it. And In this survey I find that more over 60% employee says Yes to reference
while second more 40% employee says No.
In next, we tried to frame that if there should any change in Recruitment & Selection
Process of Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. then by this Survey I find that more 40%
employee says Yes and second more 60% employee says No.
In other step, we ask about Induction program, while it plays a vital role in motivating the
employees. And this is recommended by 95% candidates among 100. Almost all the


employees at top level as well as middle level agree to the point that induction
programmed plays a vital role in motivating new employees. And In this survey I find
that more over 95% employee says Yes and second more 05% employee says No.

In the further question, the quiery framed that if Campus Recruitment is beneficial for the
Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. recruitment process then candidates are not Satisfy with
Campus selection. Here In this survey I find that more over 30 % employee says Yes and
second more 30% employee says No to Campus Selection.

The Second last question was taking candidates in mode of recruitment for managerial
post in Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. While from management trainee, open
advertisement & employment agencies to different departments, In this survey I find that
more over 65% of employee are in favor of Open Advertisement while 05% are in favor
of Management Trainees and 30% from Employment Agencies.

In the Last question, we ask about that which type of Recruitment process help in the
Company while selecting the staff from outside the organization. Then In this survey I
find that 30% of employees are in favor of Consultancies, while Campus Recruitment i.e.
10% and Open Advertisement are in favors of 20% and where Job Sites i.e. 40%.



On the basis of the results and findings of the survey, I have given certain suggestions after
weighing the pros and cons of the present recruitment and selection procedure followed in
Vodafone Essar. The recommendations are as follows:

The analysis reveals that Vodafone Essar does not make forecast of the future Candidates
requirements. However, the forecast of Candidate requirement helps in proper planning
which would lead to better recruitment and selection in the organization. These forecasts
may be based on past trends, future Candidates needs etc.

A company like Vodafone Essar where candidates requirement is need based i.e. it
depends upon the projects in hand; Vodafone Essar must forecast its Candidate need for a
period of 1-2 years.

Employment exchange as a mode of recruitment for non-managerial personnel is

generally used in the organization. According to the survey, open market operations
would be the most suitable mode of recruitment because most of the recruiters do not
register their names with the Employment Exchange.

At present in selection procedure in Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd., psychometric test are
not commonly used. The psychometric test serves as an objective measure in evaluating a
candidate aptitude, intelligence, etc. So their applicability must be given more weight age
in the selection procedure.

After discussion with the various employees during the survey it was found that most of
them were not aware of the induction programmed, only the employees in Personnel
Division had the knowledge about it.

The company must look into this wide gap of opinion. This would help in drawing out
certain useful recommendations about how recruitment policy could be improved to help
in the achievement of organizational goals.



The summer training Report topic I had got at Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd. was Recruitment
& Selection of Vodafone Employees.
This was something which I had never seen happening practically and had only read in the
At Vodafone I was given the opportunity to prepare the TNA Sheet through PP&R Forms of all
the Employees of Vodafone.
The project has been accomplished with full hard work, honesty and dedication.
It is a sincere effort from my side to successfully design the Recruitment & Selection Process
and carry out the process effectively.
The project was successfully completed under the wise guidance of Mr. NITIN JOSHI. H.R.
Executive and Mrs. NEHA KAPOOR Executive of Human Resource Operations.
Without the immense help and cooperation of these people my project would not have been a


The recruitment and selection life cycle adopted in Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd.
Employees opinion :




Contact No

1) Which department generates maximum number of vacancies?

Customer Service Department
2) In which month the Recruitment process generally starts and how long is the
recruitment cycle in Info Edge (India) Ltd.?

3) If Employee is aware about the job profile given in the Company?




4) A strictly followed formal policy is followed in the organization.

a. True
b. Very True
c. Partly True
d. Not True

5) Which type of selecting Procedure which should follow in the company for selecting the
right kind of Candidate?
Witten Test


Group Discussion

6) What key capabilities/skills do you basically look for in the prospective employees?

7) When recruiting staff from outside the organization, which method do you prefer to use
to offer candidates?
Open Advertisement (Advertising in Newspapers)
Management Trainee
Consultancies (Employment Agencies)
Job sites
8) Do you agree that Induction Program play a vital role in Motivating the Employees?



9) Does Reference plays a Crucial Role in Selection process being followed by Vodafone
Essar Digilink Ltd.?


10) Do you think that selection through Campus Interview is most appropriate and
beneficial for the Company?


11) if any Suggestions for improvement in the process Recruitment & Selection to bring
some change which is being followed by Vodafone Essar Digilink Ltd.?


12) Which of the following recruiting sources is mostly used for recruiting in your
a. Internal Source?
b.External sources
13) Which of the following external sources are more effective in recruitment?
a. Vacancy advertisement in Newspaper
b. Consultancies
c. Job portal (e-recruitment)
d. Employee Referrals
14) Which source of recruitment is effective for recruiting executive level employees?
a. Campus Recruitment
b. Consultancies


c. Job portals
d. Head Hunters or Other sources.
16) External recruiting brings out more desirable employees than the internal recruiting.
a. True
b. Very True
c. Partly True
d. Not True
17) Recruiting from Top institutions is bringing desirable employees to organization.
a. True
b. Very True
c. Partly True
d. Not True
18) Does your organization measure the effectiveness of the Recruitment sources?
a. Yes
b. No
19) Does the organization compare the number of job openings and workforce projections
with the HR departments recruitment and selection capacity?
a Yes
b. No
20) The internal recruitment sources are primarily considered for recruitment.
a. True
b. Very True


c. Partly True
d. Not True
21) The reference checks are properly conducted by efficient employers.
a. True
b. Very True
c. Partly True
d. Not True
22) All the processes related to Recruitment are maintained in a single department of the
a. True
b. Very True
c. Partly True
d. Not True
23) Mode of recruitment currently employed fulfills the manpower needs of the
a. True
b. Very True
c. Partly True
d. Not True
24) Manpower planning is efficiently working in identifying the vacant positions
a. True
b. Very True


c. Partly True
d. Not True
25) The effectiveness of the Recruitment process is measured every year in the
a. True
b. Very True
c. Partly True
d. Not True
26) What are the unique features you identified in the Recruitment Policy of the
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27) Your suggestions to make the Recruitment strategy more efficient.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28) The objectives of the Recruitment are completely fulfilled through present Recruitment
a. True
b. Very True
c. Partly True
d. Not True


1. Robbins,S.P- Organizational Behavior,9th & Edition 11th (Printice Hall Publication)
2. Luthens, Fred- Organizational Behavior 9th Edition (Tata Macgrath Hill Publication)
3. Kothari C.R- Research Methodology