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EE5104 Adaptive Control Systems

Part I

Dr Shuzhi Sam GE
Department of Electrical Engineering
National University of Singapore
Singapore 119260

Tel: 874 6821


Fax: 779 1103
E-mail: elegesz@nus.edu.sg
Office: E4-05-26F
http://vlab.ee.nus.edu.sg/~sge

References
1. K.J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark, Adaptive Control, Addison
Wesley, 1989 (1995).
2. K.S. Narendra and A.M. Annaswamy, Stable Adaptive Systems,
Prentice-Hall, 1989.
3. G.C. Goodwin and K.S. Sin, Adaptive Filtering, Prediction and
Control, Prentice, 1984.
Adaptive Control Systems --2-- S. Ge

Contents No. of
Hours
1 Introduction 3
Adaptive schemes. Adaptive control theory. Applications.
Situations when constant Gain feedback is insufficient.
Robust control. The adaptive control problem.

2 Model Reference Adaptive Systems 8


The model following problem. MRAS based on stability theory.
Model following when the full state is measurable. Direct MRAS
for general linear systems. Prior knowledge in MRAS. MRAS for
partially known systems. Use of robust estimation methods in
MRAS.
3 Self-Tuning Regulators 8
The basic idea. Indirect self-tuning regulators. Direct Self-tuning
regulators. Linear Quadratic STR. Adaptive Predictive control.
Prior knowledge in STR.
4 Real-Time Parameter Estimation 8
Linear-in-the-parameters model. Least squares estimation.
Experimental conditions. Recursive estimators. Extended least
squares. Robust estimation methods (dead zone, projection).
Implementation issues.
5 Auto-Tuning 3
PID Control. Transient response methods. Methods based on
relay feedback. Relay oscillations.
6 Gain Scheduling 3
The Principle. Design of Gain-scheduling Regulators. Nonlinear
Transformations. Applications of Gain-scheduling.

7 Alternatives to Adaptive Control 3


Situations where adaptive control should not be used. Robust
high gain feedback control. Self-oscillating adaptive systems.
Variable structure systems.
Adaptive Control Systems --3-- S. Ge

Pre-requisites for this course


 

•  Linear Systems Theory

1. Controllability, Observability
2. General Observer Theory

• Digital Techniques

1. Digital filter design (e.g. Butterworth) and implementation


considerations)
2. Sampling considerations
3. Implementation of compensators, issues of finite word length
coefficient representation, and rounding errors

The course will assume that you are already very familiar with these
topics.
Adaptive Control Systems --4-- S. Ge

A simple adaptive control problem

(Narendra & Annaswamy, pp.111-114)


(Astrom & Wittenmark, pp.126-127)

Consider a system to be controlled

y = G yu u

with transfer function

kp
G yu ( s ) =
s −ap
In time domain
( p − a p ) y (t ) = k p u (t )
where we use the notation
d
p≡
dt
for the differential operator.

Thus

y& (t ) = a p y (t ) + k p u (t ) (1)

We usually refer to the system to be controlled as the “plant”.


Adaptive Control Systems --5-- S. Ge

Control Objective:

• Drive y(t) to follow some reference command trajectory


y m (t )

For example, y m (t ) may be generated by a reference system

y& m (t ) = am y m (t ) + k m r (t )

a m < 0 , i.e. stable reference model.


Adaptive Control Systems --6-- S. Ge

Consider a control input of the form

u (t ) = θ ∗ y (t ) + k ∗ r (t )

Then, the plant together with control (the closed-loop system) is

y& (t ) = a p y (t ) + k p {θ ∗ y (t ) + k ∗r (t )}

= ( a p + k pθ ∗ ) y (t ) + k p k ∗r (t )

If
am − a p km
θ∗ = and k ∗ =
kp kp
then
y& = a m y + k m r

and the plant together with the control will match the reference model
exactly because

e = y m − y , e& = ame

PROBLEM: We do not know a p and k p !


Adaptive Control Systems --7-- S. Ge

Adaptive Control: Find a way to achieve this automatically.

• Estimate a p and k p on-line, and try to use these estimates;


(Will work most of the time); and

• Use a rigorous procedure to “evolve” to the right values (Very


powerfull but applies only to restricted classes).
Adaptive Control Systems --8-- S. Ge

In the course we will look at both types of approaches.

For now, let us consider the rigorous approach.


Since θ ∗ , k ∗ not known, consider instead

u(t ) = θ (t ) y (t ) + k (t ) r(t ) , Time-varying controller gains!

How to choose {θ (t ), k (t ), t ∈[ 0, ∞)}?

Adaptive law

θ&(t ) = − sgn( k p )γ 1e(t ) y (t ); γ1 > 0

k& (t ) = − sgn( k p )γ 2 e (t ) r (t ); γ2 > 0

(Nonlinear updating mechanisms!)

Thus, adaptive controllers contain both time-varying and nonlinear


dynamics!!
Adaptive Control Systems --9-- S. Ge

Because of the NLTV characteristics, analysis and design usually


difficult.

For this system, consider the quadratic form (recall your 3rd year
mathematics!)

V (e, φ ,ψ ) = [
1 2
2
(
e + k p γ 1−1φ 2 + γ 2−1ψ 2 )]

with

e = y − ym , φ = θ −θ ∗, ψ = k − k∗

Re-membering that θ ∗ and k ∗ are constants


φ& = θ& − θ& = − sgn( k p )γ 1ey
ψ& = k& − k& ∗ = − sgn( k p )γ 2 er
Adaptive Control Systems --10-- S. Ge

Note that
Reference Model:
y& m = am y m + k mr
Plant:
y& = a p y + k p u = a p y + k pθy + k p kr

= a p y + k p (φ + θ * ) y + k p (ψ + k * ) r
= (a p + k pθ * ) y + k pφy + k pψr + k p k *r
we have
e& = y& − y& m = ame + k pφy + k pψr

Consider derivative of quadratic form V


[
V& = ee& + | k p | γ 1−1φφ& + γ 2−1ψψ& ]
[
= am e 2 + k pφey + k pψer − | k p | sgn( k p )φey + sgn( k p )ψer ]
= am e 2 ≤ 0

Collecting together the intermediate results:

• Quadratic form V (e, φ ,ψ ) =


1 2
2
[ (
e + | k p | γ 1−1φ 2 + γ 2−1ψ 2 )]
results in V& = a m e 2 ≤ 0

• This means that


e 2 is bounded, φ 2 is bounded, and ψ 2 is bounded
Adaptive Control Systems --11-- S. Ge


• φ (t ) = θ (t ) − θ ∗

ψ (t ) = k (t ) − k ∗

∴ θ (t) and k(t) are bounded


• e (t ) = y (t ) − y m (t )
y m (t ) is a reference signal, and obviously bounded
∴ y(t) is bounded

• V(e, φ,ψ) positive definite

V& = a m e 2 ≤ 0
∴ V is bounded over all time

t t
∫ V& (e (t ), φ (t ),ψ (t ) )dτ = ∫ ame (τ )dτ
2
0 0
t
⇒ −am ∫ e 2 (τ )dτ = V (e (0), φ (0),ψ ( 0) ) − V (e (t ), φ (t ),ψ (t ) )
0
Adaptive Control Systems --12-- S. Ge

Since V (e (t ), φ (t ),ψ (t ) ) is always bounded,

t
lim ∫ e 2 (τ ) dτ ≤ c1 a constant
t→∞ 0

n e& = a m e + k p φy + k pψr
∴ e& (t ) is bounded ∀t

e& bounded 
∞ 
n  ⇒ lim e (t ) = 0
∫ e (τ )dτ ≤ c1  t → ∞
2
0 

i.e. lim {y (t ) − y m (t )} = 0
t →∞

The adaptive controller achieves the designed objective!

Rigorous analysis of adaptive control is typically as difficult.


Adaptive Control Systems --13-- S. Ge

Summary

Plant: y& (t ) = a p y (t ) + k p u (t )

Reference Model: y& m (t ) = am y m (t ) + k m r (t ); am < 0

Control Law: u(t ) = θ (t ) y(t ) + k (t ) r (t ) , Time varying

Adaptive Law: θ&(t ) = − sgn( k p )γ 1e(t ) y (t )

k& (t ) = − sgn( k p )γ 2 e(t ) r(t )


e (t ) = y (t ) − y m (t )
θ ( 0) = k ( 0) = 0 , Arbitrary starting gains

Result:
If the adaptive controller is applied to the plant, then all signals
{y, u, θ, k} are bounded and lim [ y (t ) − y m (t ) ] = 0
t →∞
Adaptive Control - 14- S.Ge

A user-friendly picture

Gm

Model
Regulator parameter
Adjustment
mechanism

r u y

Regulator Plant

Figure 4.1 Block diagram of a model-reference adaptive system


(MRAS)
Adaptive Control - 15- S.Ge

Lyapunov’s Direct Method

l Enables one to determine whether or not the equilibrium state


of system
x& = f ( x, t ) (2.1)
is stable without actually determining the solution x (t ; x0 , t0 ) .

l Involves finding a suitable scalar function V(x,t) and examining


its time derivative V& ( x , t ) along the trajectory of the system.

We will only need one result from this method, which we will state
without proof.

Theorem (Uniform Stability)

Assume that a scalar function V(x,t), with continuous first partial


derivatives w.r.t x and t, exists and that V(x,t) satisfies the
following conditions:

(i) V(x,t) is positive-definite, i.e.,∃ a continuous non-


decreasing scalar function α such that α (0) = 0 and
V ( x, t ) ≥ α ( x ) > 0 ∀t and all x ≠ 0 ;
Adaptive Control - 16- S.Ge

(ii) V(x,t) is decrescent, i.e., ∃ a continuous non-decreasing


scalar function such that β (0) = 0 and β ( x ) ≥ V ( x, t ) for
all t;

(iii) V& ( x , t ) is negative semi-definite, i.e.,


∂V
V& ( x , t ) = + (∇ V ) T f ( x , t ) ≤ 0
∂t

(iv) V(x,t) is radial unbounded, i.e.,


α ( x ) → ∞ as x → ∞

then

(a) (i) and (iii) imply that the origin of differential equation (2-1)
is stable;

(b) (i), (ii) and (iii) imply the origin of d.e.(2-1) is uniformly
stable;

(c) (i) - (iv) imply that the origin of d.e. (2-1) is uniformly stable
in the large.
Adaptive Control - 17- S.Ge

LTI System and Lyapunov Stability

Consider
x& = Ax ; x (t 0 ) = x 0

Theorem 2-2 (Narendra ….)

All solutions of the above equation tend to zero as t → ∞ if and


only if all the eigenvalues of A have negative real parts,

Such a matrix A is referred to as an asympototically stable matrix.

Theorem 2-10 (Narendra, …)

The equilibrium state x=0 of the LTI system


x& = Ax

is asymptotically stable if and only if, given any symmetric positive


definite matrix Q , there exists a symmetric positive definite matrix
n(n + 1)
P which is the unique solution of the linear equations
2
AT P + PA = −Q

Proof: See Narendra & Annaswamy pp.60.


Adaptive Control - 18- S.Ge

Stability theory, in general, is a very wide field.

• See Narendra &Annaswamy, Chap.2 for a more comprehensive


overview.

• We have only summarized the concepts and results that we need


for adaptive control.
Adaptive Control - 19- S.Ge

Adaptive control of plants with all state-variables measurable

(A similar treatment can be found in Narendra and Annaswamy


pp.128 ff. However, note that some aspects are different.)

Assume that the plant is described by

x& p = Ap x p + gbu
x p ∈ ℜ n , u ∈ ℜ1

A p is ( n× n) , b is ( n × 1)

b is known

This is possible in many situations.


Adaptive Control - 20- S.Ge

Example 2.1: b is known

y = G yu u
g
G yu ( s ) =
s 2 + a1s + a2

Assume that position and velocity measurements are available.

Then, a suitable state-variable description is

x1 = y
x&1 = x2
x& 2 = &y& = − a1x 2 − a2 x1 + gu

or

 x&1   0 1   x1  0
 x&  =  − a − a1   x 2 
+ g 1 u
 2  2  

0
Thus b=  is known exactly.
1
Adaptive Control - 21- S.Ge

Consider plant:
x& p = A p x p + gbu (1)

Non-adaptive case:

T
u = θ x∗ x p + θ r∗r (2)

[ ]
∆ T
θ ∗x = θ1∗ θ 2∗ L θ n∗

Then


T

( )
x& p =  Ap + gbθ x∗  x p + b gθ r∗ r

Assume that for these * values, the feedback control (2) achieves
model matching in the sense that

(n × n) 
T
A p + gbθ x∗ ≡ Am
 Matching conditions
gθ r∗ ≡ gm scalar 

Thus, control gains θ x∗ ∈ ℜn , and θ r∗ ∈ ℜ exist to guarantee that


the closed-loop system match the reference model

x& m = Am xm + g mbr
Adaptive Control - 22- S.Ge

Example 2-1 (continued)

Choice of reference model

For example, the following might be desirable

y m = G ym r r

ω n2
Gymr (s) =
s 2 + 2ξω n s + ω n2

• unity steady-state gain


• speed of response defined by natural frequency ω n
• damping specified by damping coefficient ξ

State-variable form

 x&1m   0 1   x1m  2 0 
 x&  = − ω 2 − 2ξω n   x2 m 
+ ω n  r
 2m   n 1
Adaptive Control - 23- S.Ge

Step Response

Title:
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MATLAB, The Mathworks, Inc.
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Impulse Response
Title:
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Creator:
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Adaptive Control - 24- S.Ge

Adaptive Case:

To adaptive match the reference model, consider the control law

u(t ) = θ xT (t ) x p (t ) + θ r (t )r (t )

Define parameter errors


φ x (t ) = θ x (t ) − θ ∗x

φ r (t ) = θ r (t ) − θ r∗

Then, the control law applied to the plant results in

{
x& p = Ap x p + gb θ xT x p + θ r r }
=  A p + gbθ x∗  x p + gbφ xT x p + gbθ r r
T
 
= Am x p + gbφ xT x p + gbθ r r

Compared with
x& m = Am xm + g mbr
= Am x m + gbθ r∗ r

where g m = gθ r∗ .
Adaptive Control - 25- S.Ge

Consider state error


e = x p − xm

Then

e& = Am e + gbφ Tx x p + gbφ r r


= Am e + gbφ T x

where
∆ φ  ∆ x 
φ = x ; x = p 
φ r  r 

For a reference model, Am must be chosen to be a stable matrix.


Thus, it satisfies the Lyapunov equation.

AmT P + PAm = −Q

i.e., for any symmetric positive definite matrix Q, there exists a


symmetric positive definite P satisfying the above equation.

(From Linear Systems theory, or see Narendra & Annaswamy


pp.60)
Adaptive Control - 26- S.Ge

Consider a Lyapunov function candidate

V (e (t ), φ (t ) ) = e (t )T Pe (t ) + | g | φ (t ) T Γ −1φ (t )

where
Γ is a symmetric positive definite (s.p.d.) matrix

We will sometime write V (e(t ),φ (t )) as V(t) for short.

Evaluate V& along the trajectory of the system

V& = 2eT Pe& + 2 g φ T Γ −1φ&


{ }
= 2e T P Am e + gbφ T x + 2 g φ T Γ −1φ&
= 2e T PAme + 2 geT Pbφ T x + 2 g φ T Γ −1φ&
(
= e T Am )
P + PAm e + 2 geT Pbφ T x + 2 g φ T Γ −1φ&
T T

= −eT Qe + 2 geT Pbφ T x + 2 g φ T Γ −1φ& (3)


Adaptive Control - 27- S.Ge

l − eT Qe term always ≤ 0

l Use the design

& θ&x 
θ =   = − sgn( g )Γxe T Pb
&
θ r 
and note that
φ = θ −θ ∗ , ⇒ φ& = θ&

Equation (3) becomes

V& = −eT Qe + 2 geT Pbφ T x − 2 g sgn( g )φ T xeT Pb


= −eT Qe ≤ 0
Adaptive Control - 28- S.Ge

We can go through a similar analysis to show that


• V (t ) is positive definite and V& (t ) ≤ 0 ⇒ V (t ) is bounded

• e,φ (hence θ ) are bounded

• e& is bounded


• ∫ e T Qed τ ≤ c1
0

• lim e = 0 (or lim x p − x m = 0 )


t →∞ t →∞
Adaptive Control - 29- S.Ge

Summary
Plant
x& p = A p x p + gbu

with x p ∈ ℜ n measurable, and b known

Matching Conditions
T
A p + gbθ ∗x = Am
gθ r∗ = g m
Reference Model
x& m = Am x m + g mbr
Control Law
u (t ) = θ x T (t ) x p (t ) + θ r (t ) r (t )

Adaptive Law
e = x p − xm
ATm P + PAm = −Q Choose Q s.p.d., Calculate P s.p.d.
θ&x  x p  T
&  = − sgn( g ) Γ  r  e Pb
θ
 r  

{ }
Result: All signals x p , θ x , θ r are bounded, and lim x p − x m = 0
t →∞
Adaptive Control - 30- S.Ge

Exercise 1

Consider the plant y = G yu u


where
g
G yu ( s ) =
s 2 + a1s + a2
with a1 = 0, a2 = 1, y and y& measurable.

Design an adaptive controller to match the reference model


y m = G ym r r

ω n2
Gymr (s) =
s 2 + 2ξω n s + ω n2

with ω n = 2 rad/s and ξ = 0.9 .

Simulate and verify your design using MATLAB.


Adaptive Control - 31- S.Ge

Incorporation of integral control with all state variables


measurable

Plant:
x& p = Ap x p + gbu
y = x1 = [1 0 L 0]x p

Matching condition:
T
Ap + gbθ ∗x = Am

Integral control can be incorporated easily. Consider an additional


state
x& I = y − r
t
r(t) is the reference signal and x I = ∫ ( y − r ) dτ
0

Then, augmented plant

 x& p   A p 0  x p  b 0


=
 x&  1 0 ... 0 0  x  + g 0 u +  − 1 r
 I   I     
Adaptive Control - 32- S.Ge

Consider

T
u = θ x∗ x p + θ I∗ x I

The closed-loop system is

 x& p   A p + gbθ x∗ gbθ I∗   x p  +  0  r


T

 x&  =     
 I   1 0 ... 0 0   x I   − 1

Thus, an additional matching condition is


 A + gbθ ∗T gbθ I∗  = A
 p x  m
 1 0 ... 0 0 

and
0
x& m = Am x m +   r
 − 1
Adaptive Control - 33- S.Ge

For the corresponding adaptive controller, consider


u (t ) = θ x (t ) T x p (t ) + θ I (t ) x I (t )
and a reference model

0
x& m = Am x m +   r ; xm ∈ ℜ n +1
 − 1
Adaptive Control - 34- S.Ge

Define

x p 
x p = K 
 
 x I 
For e = x p − x m , we have

b 
(
e& = Ame + g K φ Tx x p + φ I x I
 
)
 0 
= Ame + gb φ T x

Clearly, it is now a well-known error equation, and


b
b = K is known
 
 0 
as b is known.

The adaptive law should be

AmT P + P Am = −Q
1st choose Q , 2nd calculate P

θ&x  x p  T
&  = − sgn( g ) Γ  x e Pb
θ
 I  I
Adaptive Control - 35- S.Ge

Adaptive control with all state-variables measurable:


Incorporation of integral control

Example
Consider a plant

y& p = a p y p + gu
To incorporate integral control, we know we must augment the
state with
x& I = y p − r

The state of the new “plant” (including the augmented variable)


is

 x&1   a p 0  x1  1 0


 x&  =  1 0  x 2 
+ g 0 u + − 1 r
 2     
with x1 ≡ y p and x 2 = x I
Adaptive Control - 36- S.Ge

The feedback control is of the form

u(t ) = θ 1 (t ) x1 (t ) + θ 2 (t ) x 2 (t )

(Refer to earlier notes.)

Consider constant gain feedback first. The plant with feedback is

 x&1  a p + gθ 1 gθ 2   x1   0 
 x&  =     +  r
0   x 2   − 1
 2  1

This means that the reference model used must have the form

 x&1m  a1m a2m   x1m   0 


 x&  =  1 +
0   x 2m  − 1
r
 2m  

• This is the only class of reference model that can be matched


-------“matching conditions”.

• The analysis then proceeds in the normal way.


Adaptive Control - 37- S.Ge

Exercise 2

Consider the plant y = G yu u


where
g
G yu ( s ) =
s 2 + a1s + a2
with a1 = 0, a2 = 1, y and y& measurable.

Design an adaptive controller incorporating integral action.

Explain carefully how you choose the reference model to track.

In the limit as t → ∞ , what is the equivalent relationship between


y(t) and r(t)?

(Express this in transfer function form.)


Adaptive Control - 38- S.Ge

Exercise 3: Proportional plus integral adaptation

Consider the plant

y& = a p y + u

and the reference model

y& m = a m y m + r

Then, the adaptive controller

e = y − ym
u = θy + r
θ& = −γye γ >0

will result in asymptotic tracking.

Astrom (pp.136,137) has suggested an adaptive law of the form

t
θ (t ) = −γ 1 ye − γ 2 ∫ y (τ )e (τ )dτ
0

Using the methods we have presented, analysis this adaptive law.


Adaptive Control - 39- S.Ge

Positive Real Transfer Function

Definition: A rational transfer function H with real coefficients is


positive real (PR) if Re H(s)>0 for Re s>0.

A transfer function H is strictly positive real (SPR) if H(s-ε) is


positive real for some real ε>0.
Astrom…p129
s s1 s
Narendra…p65

PR SPR s = s1 + ε

Kalman Yakuborich Lemma, Lemma 2.3 (Narendra … p66)


Given a scalar γ ≥ 0 , a vector h, an
asymptotically stable matrix A, a vector
b such that (A, b) is controllable, and a
x& = Ax + bu
positive definite matrix L, there exist a
scalar ε>0, a vector q and a symmetric 1
y = hx + γu
positive-definite matrix P satisfying 2
AT P + PA = −qqT − εL
Pb − h = γ q
1
∆ ( A, b, c , d ) = ( A, b, h, γ )
1
if and only if H ( s ) = γ + hT ( sI − A) −1 b
2
2
is SPR.
Adaptive Control - 40- S.Ge

Lemma 4-2 (Astrom p129) is a special case of preceeding with

γ =0

Positive real functions have been used extensively in network


analysis.

The use of the concept in adaptive control is relatively recent.

A passive network (consisting only of inductance, resistance and


capacitance) is positive real. If in addition, the network is
dissipative due to the presence of resistors, then the impedance
function is strictly positive real.

Viewed from realization, any PR (SPR) impedance function can be


realized by a passive (dissipative) network.
(Narendra pp.63)

H : is said to be passive if ∃ β ∈ R such that


t
< Hx , x >t = ∫ ( Hx )T xdτ ≥ β , ∀t ∈ R +
0
t
( < y , x > t = ∫ y T xdτ ≥ β , ∀t ∈ R + )
0
When H is a linear invariant operator, if H is passive, then H is
PR.
(Narendra pp.71)
Adaptive Control - 41- S.Ge

Continuous-time adaptive control using only input-output


measurements

• Theory of SPR function will be used to prove stability.

References: Narendra……Chapter 5
Astrom………Section 4.5

Consider a system described by

R p ( p ) y (t ) = k p Z p ( p )u (t ) (1)

where
d
p≡
dt

R p ( p) = p n + a1 p n−1 + L + a n

Z p ( p ) = p m + b1 p m−1 + L + bm

R p is monic (i.e. leading coeff=1)


deg( R p ) = n, deg( Z p ) = m

Define “relative degree” n ∗




n =n−m (i.e. excess poles over zeros.)
Adaptive Control - 42- S.Ge

Consider “Diophantine” identity

T ( p) R m ( p) = R p ( p ) E ( p ) + F ( p)

deg( T ) = n  Design polynomials, chosen to



deg( Rm ) = n∗  be stable, and monic

For given plant, i.e. R p , and specified T and Rm


E and F are unique, and
deg( E) = n∗ , E monic , deg( F ) = n − 1

T ( p) = p n + t1 p n −1 + ...+ tn −1 p + t n
Adaptive Control - 43- S.Ge

Plant: R p ( p ) y = k p Z p ( p )u

ER p y = k p EZ p u
i.e.
TRm y = Fy + k p EZ p u = k p ( F y + G u)
F
( F= , G = EZ p )
kp
F G
Rm y = k p ( y + u) (5)
T T

Note that (a) Z p monic, and E monic, ∴ G monic;

(b) deg( G ) = deg( Z p ) + deg( E ) = n

Accordingly, we have
G G
= 1+ 1
T T
where
G1 ( p) = g1 p n−1 + g 2 p n −2 + L + g n

Similiarly, we can write

F ( p) = f 1 p n −1 + f 2 p n −2 + L + f n
Adaptive Control - 44- S.Ge

Equation (5) then becomes

F G
Rm y = k p ( y + 1 u + u) (7)
T T

1 1
Define y f1 = y, u f1 = u
T T

[
θ ∗ = − f1 ,− f 2 , L − f n , − g1 , − g 2 , L − g n , k ∗ ]
T

[
ω = p n −1 y f1 , p n −2 y f1 , L , y f1 , p n −1u f1 , p n− 2 u f1 , L , u f1 , r ]
T

and r(t) is the set-point signal.

Consider
F G
u (t ) = − y − 1 u + k ∗ r = − F y f1 − G1u f1 + k ∗ r
T T (8)
∗T ∗T ∗T
=θ ω = θ u ω u + θ y ω y + k ∗r

Equation (7) becomes

Rm y = k p k ∗ r

= kmr for k pk ∗ = km
Adaptive Control - 45- S.Ge

The choice of the input (8) ensure that the plant with feedback
becomes

R m ( p ) y (t ) = k m r (t )

In other words, the plant output will track a reference output


(reference model) given by

R m ( p ) y m (t ) = k m r (t ) ⇒ Ym k
= m
R Rm (s )

Remember,
deg( Rm ) = n∗
Rm is a design polynomial you choose.

Example:

n∗ Choice

n ∗ = 1, Rm ( s ) = ( s + a m )
k m = am ;

n∗ = 2 Rm ( s) = s 2 + 2ξω n s + ω n2
k m = ω n2
Adaptive Control - 46- S.Ge

However,

while we can construct the signals in ω ,


we do not know the desired controller parameters θ ∗ .

Try using

u (t ) = θ (t ) T ω (t )

and adaptively determine θ (t ) in some way.

This is possible. Two separate cases:

(i) n ∗ = 1, convergence proof easy (relatively)


(ii) n ∗ > 1, convergence proof possible but very difficult
Adaptive Control - 47- S.Ge

Recall equation (7)

F G 
Rm y = k p  y + 1 u + u 
T T 
F G  
= k p   y + 1 u − k ∗r  + k ∗r + u 
 T T  

= k p  − θ ∗ ω + k *r + u 
T

 

Control law:
u (t ) = θ (t )T ω (t )

Define parameter error


φ (t ) = θ (t ) − θ ∗

Then above becomes

(
Rm y = k p φ (t )T ω (t ) + k *r (t ) )
Comparing with reference model

Rm y m = k mr = k p k *r

gives error equation

Rme1 = k pφ (t )T ω (t )

where e1 = y − y m .
Adaptive Control - 48- S.Ge

At this point, remembering n* = 1 and deg( Rm ) = n*

we have Rm (s ) = s + am (stable reference model)

It is straightforward to check that

ym k k
= Wm = m = m ; km > 0
r Rm ( s ) s + am
is SPR.

We will use this property together with the Ralman-Yakubovich


Lemma to prove stability and convergence of e1 (t ) to zero.

However, we need first a state realization which includes


[
ω (t ) = p n −1 y f1 , p n − 2 y f1 ,..., y f1 , p n −1u f1 , p n − 2 u f1 ,..., u f1 ]
T

as states (in order to prove boundedness of all state variables).


Adaptive Control - 49- S.Ge

Proposition 1: The vector ω (t ) is the state of a realization


(nonminimal) of the plant
R p y (t ) = k p Z pu (t )
Proof:

Recall that, T = p n + t1 p n −1 + ... + t n −1 p + tn


Tu f1 = u (1)
and clearly
R p y f1 = k p Z p u f1 (2)
Further, since deg( T ) = deg( R p ) = n , clearly

y = Ty f1 = Ty f1 + 0
( )
(3)
= T − Rp y f1 + k pZ p u f1

Equations (1), (2) and (3) form the basis for a 2n-dimensional
state representation of the plant.
From (1), we have

 u f1   u f1 
   f1 
d  pu f1 
= AT   +b u
pu
dt  M   M  n
 n −1 f   n −1 f 
 p u 1   p u 1 
where
 0 I ( n −1)× ( n −1) 0
AT =  and b =
L − t1  1
n
− tn − t n −1  
Adaptive Control - 50- S.Ge

This can be combined with (2) and (3) to give

d A Ak pZ p  0
ω (t ) =  R p ω ( t ) + b  u(t )
dt 0 n× n AT   n

[ ]
y (t ) = t n − an , t n −1 − an −1 , L , t1 − a1 ,0, L ,0, k pbm , L , k p b1 ω (t )

The forms of the n × n matrices A R p and A k p Z p should be


obvious. The above is a state realization of the plant with ω (t ) as
the state.

QED
Adaptive Control - 51- S.Ge

Proposition 2: For the state realization given previously, there


exist controller gains θ ∗ such that the closed-loop poles are at the
roots of the 2n degree polynomial TRm Z p .

Proof:
Most of the materials have been introduced already. It only
remains to put it into a formal basis.

Recall the Diophantine identity

TRm = R p E + F
and the plant equation
R p y = k p Z pu

From earlier, recall that our control law was


T
u = θ ∗ ω + k *r (1)

and it is equivalent to

F y f1 + G u f1 = k * r (2)

wih k pF = F .

[Why?
T F G
p.44, u(t ) = θ ∗ ω + k ∗r = − y − 1 u + k ∗r ⇒
T T
F G F G
y + (1 + 1 )u = k ∗ r ⇒ y + u = k ∗r
T T T T

]
Adaptive Control - 52- S.Ge

Observe that

TRm Z p = R p EZ p + FZ p
= RpG + Z p F (3)
= RpG + k p Z p F

If the control law (1) or equivalent (2) is applied to the plant, we


have:

Plant: R p y = k p Z pu

R p y f1 = k p Z p u f1

From (2) R pG y f1 = k p Z p G u f1
{
= k p Z p k *r − F y f1 }
or
(R pG + k p Z p F )y f 1
= k pk ∗Z p r

From (3) TRm Z p y f1 = k m Z p r

i.e. the closed loop poles are at TRm Z p .

In addition, if T and Z p are stable, then the closed-loop transfer


function is

Rm y = k m r

QED
Adaptive Control - 53- S.Ge

Corollary:

The reference model

R m ( p ) y m (t ) = k m r (t ) i.e., Ym k
= m
R Rm (s )

admits a 2n dimensional state-representation

ω& m = Amω m + bm r
y m = c Tmω m

Proof:

Straightforward by combining previous two propositions.

----------------------------------------------------------------
Note that:

Rm y m = k m r ⇒ ym km
Wm = =
r Rm
ω& m = Amω m + bm r ⇒ y
Wm = m = k m
T
( sI − Am ) −1bm
y m = c Tmω m r


km
Wm = k m
T
( sI − Am ) −1 bm =
Rm
Adaptive Control - 54- S.Ge

Stability Analysis

Use the 2n-dimensional state-representation

ω& = A pω + b p u
y = cTp ω

Consider

u = θ (t ) T ω = θ (t )T ω + k (t ) r

{ }T {
= θ ∗ + φ (t ) ω + k * + φ k r }
Then, C.L.


T


( )
ω& =  A p + b pθ * ω + bp φ T ω + φ k r + k *b p r

y = c pω
T

For the exact values θ * , k * , the plant with feedback matches the
reference model,

T
Ap + b pθ * = Am ; k *b p = bm
and c p = c m
Adaptive Control - 55- S.Ge

Consider now the state error



e =ω − ωm, e1 = y − y m

Then
1
e& = Ame + bmφ T
ω
e1 = c Tm [sI − Am ]−1
* bm
k
*
φ T
ω
e1 = c Tme k

Noting that ( Am , bm , c m ) is a state representation of the reference


model, we have
k
c Tm (sI − Am ) bm = m
−1
Rm

1 km
This is strictly positive real, as is c Tm ( sI − Am )−1 bm = .
* *
k k Rm
Consider Lyapunov function condidate

V (e, φ ) = e T Pe + φ T Γ −1φ

where

ATm P + PAm = −Q

Then

1
V& = −eT Qe + 2e T P ∗ bmφ T ω + 2φ T Γ −1φ&
k
Adaptive Control - 56- S.Ge

 
 1 
Since  Am , * bm , cm  is SPR, KY-Lemma ensures that
 k 
 
1
P bm = cm
k∗

which means that


V& = −eT Qe + 2eT c m sgn( k * )φ T ω + 2φ T Γ −1φ&
= −e T Qe + 2e T sgn( k * )φ T ω + 2φ T Γ −1φ&
1
If
θ& = φ& = − sgn( k * )Γω e1 = − sgn( k p )Γω e1 as k m > 0
we have
V& = −eT Qe ≤ 0

Thus

(a) e, φ (hence ω , θ ) are bounded;



(b) e& bounded, ∫ e (τ )T Qe (τ ) dτ ≤ c1
0

∴ lim e (t ) = 0
t→∞

⇒ lim e1 (t ) = 0
t →∞
Adaptive Control - 57- S.Ge

Case n* = 1 , Summary

Plant:
R p y = k p Z pu

Control:
1 1
y f1 = y, u f1 = u
T T


[
ω (t ) = p n −1 y f1 , p n − 2 y f1 , L , y f1 , p n −1u f1 , p n − 2u f1 , L , u f1 , r ]
T

u (t ) = θ (t )T ω (t )

Adaptive law

θ& = − sgn( k p ) Γωe1


e1 = y − y m

Result: If
(a) order of R p , n, is known;
(b) Z p is stable polynomial;
(c) sgn( k p ) is known;

then the above system leads to y(t), u(t), θ (t ) bounded, and


lim ( y (t ) − y m (t ) ) = 0
t→∞