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Contents

What is Matlab?
Matrices

MATLAB Tutorial

Numerical Arrays
String Arrays

Elementary Math

Based on IPLab@SUT
Matlab Tutorial
1

Logical Operators
Math Functions

Importing and Exporting Data

Contents

What is MATLAB?

Continued

Graphics Fundamentals

high-performance software

2D plotting
Subplots
3D plotting

Computation
Visualization
Easy-to-use environment.

Editing and Debugging M-files

high-level language

Script and Function Files


Basic Parts of an M-file
Flow Control Statements
M-file Programming
Data Types

Data types
Functions
Control flow statements
Input/output
Graphics
Object-oriented programming capabilities

Calculations at the Command

Line

MATLAB as a calculator

-5/(4.8+5.32)^2
-5/(4.8+5.32)^2
ans
ans ==
-0.0488
-0.0488
(3+4i)*(3-4i)
(3+4i)*(3-4i)
ans
ans ==
25
25
cos(pi/2)
cos(pi/2)
ans
ans ==
6.1230e-017
6.1230e-017
exp(acos(0.3))
exp(acos(0.3))
ans
ans ==
3.5470
3.5470

General Functions
Assigning Variables
aa == 2;
2;
bb == 5;
5;
a^b
a^b

Semicolon
suppresses
screen output

ans
ans ==
32
32

Results
assigned to
ans if name
not specified

xx == 5/2*pi;
5/2*pi;
yy == sin(x)
sin(x)
yy ==
11
zz == asin(y)
asin(y)
zz ==

whos: List current variables


clear: Clear variables and functions
from memory
cd: Change current working
directory
ls: List files in directory

() parentheses for
function inputs

1.5708
1.5708

A Note about Workspace:


Numbers stored in double-precision floating point format

10

Getting help

Matrices

help command
lookfor command
Printable Documents

(>>help)
(>>lookfor)

Matlabroot\help\pdf_doc\

11

12

The Matrix in MATLAB

Entering Numeric Arrays


a=[1
a=[1 2;3
2;3 4]
4]
aa ==
11
33

Row separator
semicolon (;)

Use square
brackets [ ]

22
44

A=

b=[-2.8,
b=[-2.8, sqrt(-7),
sqrt(-7), (3+5+6)*3/4]
(3+5+6)*3/4]
bb ==
-2.8000
-2.8000

00 ++ 2.6458i
2.6458i

Column separator b(2,5) = 23


b(2,5) = 23
space / comma (,)

Any MATLAB expression can be entered as a matrix


element
Matrices must be rectangular. (Set undefined elements to zero)

Creating sequences:
colon operator (:)

Utility functions for


creating matrices.

15

0.6068
0.6068
0.4860
0.4860

11

16

21

1.2

12

17

25

22

7.2 3

13

18

11 23

0.5

14

19

56

24

23

83

10

13

15

20

10

25

Use [ ] to combine
existing arrays as
matrix elements

11
22
33
44
yy == 2:-0.5:0
2:-0.5:0
yy ==
2.0000
2.0000 1.5000
1.5000 1.0000
1.0000
zz == rand(2,4)
rand(2,4)
zz ==
0.9501
0.9501
0.2311
0.2311

0.8913
0.8913
0.7621
0.7621

A (2,4)

A (17)

Rectangular Matrix:
Scalar: 1-by-1 array
Vector: m-by-1 array
1-by-n array
Matrix: m-by-n array

Numerical Array
Concatenation

w=[1
w=[1 2;3
2;3 4]
4] ++ 55
ww ==
66
77
88
99
xx == 1:5
1:5
xx ==

10

14

Entering Numeric Arrays


Scalar expansion

Columns
(n)
3
4

Rows (m) 3
00
00
00 23.0000
23.0000

1
2

10.5000
10.5000

bb ==
-2.8000
-2.8000 00 ++ 2.6458i
2.6458i 10.5000
10.5000
00
00
00

13

Entering and Generating Matrices


Subscripts
Scalar Expansion
Concatenation
Deleting Rows and Columns
Array Extraction
Matrix and Array Multiplication

11
33

22
44

Use square
brackets [ ]

cat_a=[a,
cat_a=[a, 2*a;
2*a; 3*a,
3*a, 4*a;
4*a; 5*a,
5*a, 6*a]
6*a]
cat_a
cat_a ==
11
22
22
44
33
44
66
88
Column separator:
33
66
44
88
4*a
99
12
12
16
space / comma (,)
12
12
16
55
10
6
12
10
6
12
15
20
18
24
15
20
18
24

Row separator:
semicolon (;)

55

0.5000
0.5000

a=[1
a=[1 2;3
2;3 4]
4]
aa ==

00

0.4565
0.4565
0.0185
0.0185

16

Note:
The resulting matrix must be rectangular

Array Subscripting / Indexing

Deleting Rows and Columns


A=[1
A=[1 55 9;4
9;4 33 2.5;
2.5; 0.1
0.1 10
10 3i+1]
3i+1]
AA ==
1.0000
1.0000
4.0000
4.0000

5.0000
5.0000
3.0000
3.0000

0.1000
0.1000
A(:,2)=[]
A(:,2)=[]
AA ==

10.0000
10.0000

1.0000
1.0000
4.0000
4.0000

9.0000
9.0000
2.5000
2.5000

9.0000
9.0000
2.5000
2.5000

A=

1.0000+3.0000i
1.0000+3.0000i

A(3,1)
A(3)

0.1000
1.0000
0.1000
1.0000 ++ 3.0000i
3.0000i
A(2,2)=[]
A(2,2)=[]
???
Indexed
empty
matrix
assignment
??? Indexed empty matrix assignment is
is not
not allowed.
allowed.

17

10

1.2 7

7.2

0.5 9

23

11

16

9 12

17

25 22

13

18

11 23

4 14

19

56 24

83 10 1315

20

10 25

21

A(1:5,5) A(1:end,end)
A(:,5)
A(:,end)
A(21:25) A(21:end)

A(4:5,2:3)
A([9 14;10 15])

18

Matrix Manipulation Functions

Matrix Multiplication
aa == [1
[1 22 33 4;
4; 55 66 77 8];
8];
bb == ones(4,3);
ones(4,3);
cc == a*b
a*b

[2x4]*[4x3]

zeros: Create an array of all zeros


ones: Create an array of all ones
eye: Identity Matrix
rand: Uniformly distributed random numbers
diag: Diagonal matrices and diagonal of a matrix
size: Return array dimensions
repmat: Replicate and tile a matrix

[2x4]
[4x3]
[2x3]

cc ==
10
10
26
26

10
10
26
26

10
10
26
26

a(2nd row).b(3rd column)

Array Multiplication
aa == [1
[1 22 33 4;
4; 55 66 77 8];
8];
bb == [1:4;
[1:4; 1:4];
1:4];
cc == a.*b
a.*b
cc ==
11
55

44
12
12

99
21
21

16
16
32
32

c(2,4) = a(2,4)*b(2,4)

19

20

Matrix Manipulation Functions

Elementary Math

det: Matrix determinant


inv: Matrix inverse
eig: Evaluate eigenvalues and eigenvectors
rank: Rank of matrix

Logical Operators
Math Functions
Polynomial and
Interpolation

21

25

Elementary Math Function

Logical Operations
= = equal to
>

greater than

<

less than

>= Greater or equal


<= less or equal
~

not

&

and

or

abs, sign: Absolute value and Signum


Function
sin, cos, asin, acos: Triangular functions
exp, log, log10: Exponential, Natural and
Common (base 10) logarithm
ceil, floor: Round toward infinities
fix: Round toward zero

Mass
Mass == [-2
[-2 10
10 NaN
NaN 30
30 -11
-11 Inf
Inf 31];
31];
each_pos
each_pos == Mass>=0
Mass>=0

each_pos
each_pos ==
00
11
00
11
00
11
11
all_pos
all_pos == all(Mass>=0)
all(Mass>=0)
all_pos
all_pos ==
00
all_pos
all_pos == any(Mass>=0)
any(Mass>=0)
all_pos
all_pos ==
11
pos_fin
pos_fin == (Mass>=0)&(isfinite(Mass))
(Mass>=0)&(isfinite(Mass))
pos_fin
pos_fin ==
00
11
00
11
00
00
11

isfinite(), etc. . . .
all(), any()
find

26

Note:
1 = TRUE
0 = FALSE

27

Elementary Math Function

Elementary Math Function

round: Round to the nearest integer


sqrt: Square root function
real, imag: Real and Image part of
complex
rem: Remainder after division

max, min: Maximum and Minimum of arrays


mean, median: Average and Median of arrays
std, var: Standard deviation and variance
sort: Sort elements in ascending order
sum, prod: Summation & Product of Elements

28

Input/Output for Text File

Importing and Exporting Data

Read formatted data, reusing the


format string N times.

Using the Import Wizard

[A1An]=textread(filename,format,N)
[A1An]=textread(filename,format,N)

Using Save and Load command

save
save fname
fname
save
save fname
fname xx yy zz
save
save fname
fname -ascii
-ascii
save
fname
save fname -mat
-mat

32

Import and Exporting Numeric Data


with General ASCII delimited files

load
load fname
fname
load
load fname
fname xx yy zz
load
load fname
fname -ascii
-ascii
load
fname
load fname -mat
-mat

MM == dlmread(filename,delimiter,range)
dlmread(filename,delimiter,range)

33

Graphics

Graphics
Fundamentals

Basic Plotting
plot, title, xlabel, grid,
legend, hold, axis

Editing Plots

Property Editor

Mesh and Surface Plots


meshgrid, mesh, surf,
colorbar, patch, hidden

Handle Graphics
35

36

Sample Plot

2-D Plotting
Syntax:

Title

plot(x1,
plot(x1, y1,
y1, 'clm1',
'clm1', x2,
x2, y2,
y2, 'clm2',
'clm2', ...)
...)

Example:
x=[0:0.1:2*pi];
x=[0:0.1:2*pi];
y=sin(x);
y=sin(x);
z=cos(x);
z=cos(x);
plot(x,y,x,z,'linewidth',2)
plot(x,y,x,z,'linewidth',2)
title('Sample
title('Sample Plot','fontsize',14);
Plot','fontsize',14);
xlabel('X
xlabel('X values','fontsize',14);
values','fontsize',14);
ylabel('Y
values','fontsize',14);
ylabel('Y values','fontsize',14);
legend('Y
legend('Y data','Z
data','Z data')
data')
grid
grid on
on

37

Ylabel

Legend
38

Subplots
Syntax:

Grid

Xlabel

Surface Plot Example


xx == 0:0.1:2;
0:0.1:2;
yy == 0:0.1:2;
0:0.1:2;
[xx,
[xx, yy]
yy] == meshgrid(x,y);
meshgrid(x,y);
zz=sin(xx.^2+yy.^2);
zz=sin(xx.^2+yy.^2);
surf(xx,yy,zz)
surf(xx,yy,zz)
xlabel('X
xlabel('X axes')
axes')
ylabel('Y
ylabel('Y axes')
axes')

subplot(rows,cols,index)
subplot(rows,cols,index)
subplot(2,2,1);
subplot(2,2,1);

subplot(2,2,2)
subplot(2,2,2)
...
...
subplot(2,2,3)
subplot(2,2,3)
...
...
subplot(2,2,4)
subplot(2,2,4)
...
...

39

40

3-D Surface Plotting

Specialized Plotting Routines


bar-bar3h-hist-area-pie3-rose

contourf-colorbar-plot3-waterfall-contour3-mesh-surf

41

42

Editing and Debugging M-Files

Debugging

What is an M-File?
The Editor/Debugger
Search Path
Debugging M-Files

Select
Workspace
Set AutoBreakpoints

Types of Errors (Syntax Error and Runtime


Error)
Using keyboard and ; statement
Setting Breakpoints
Stepping Through

tips

Continue, Go Until Cursor, Step, Step In,


Step Out

Examining Values

Selecting the Workspace


Viewing Datatips in the Editor/Debugger
Evaluating a Selection

43

44

Script and Function Files


Script Files

Programming and
Dubugging

Work as though you typed commands into


MATLAB prompt
Variable are stored in MATLAB workspace

Function Files

45

46

Let you make your own MATLAB Functions


All variables within a function are local
All information must be passed to functions as
parameters
Subfunctions are supported

Basic Parts of a Function M-File


Output Arguments

Function Name

Flow Control Statements


if Statement

Input Arguments

if
if ((attendance
((attendance >=
>= 0.90)
0.90) && (grade_average
(grade_average >=
>= 60))
60))
pass
pass == 1;
1;

Online Help

end;
end;

function y = mean (x)


% MEAN Average or mean value.
% For vectors, MEAN(x) returns the mean value.

while Loops

% For matrices, MEAN(x) is a row vector


% containing the mean value of each column.

eps
eps == 1;
1;
while
while (1+eps)
(1+eps) >> 11

[m,n] = size(x);

Function Code

if m == 1

eps
eps == eps/2;
eps/2;
end
end
eps
=
eps*2
eps = eps*2

m = n;
end
y = sum(x)/m;

47

48

Flow Control Statements


for Loop

M-file Programming Features


SubFunctions
Varying number of input/output
arguments
Local and Global Variables
Obtaining User Input

aa == zeros(k,k)
zeros(k,k) %% Preallocate
Preallocate matrix
matrix
for
for mm == 1:k
1:k
for
for nn == 1:k
1:k
a(m,n)
a(m,n) == 1/(m+n
1/(m+n -1);
-1);

end
end

end
end

switch Statement

Prompting for Keyboard Input


Pausing During Execution

method
method == 'Bilinear';
'Bilinear';
switch
switch lower(method)
lower(method)

Errors and Warnings

case
case {'linear','bilinear'}
{'linear','bilinear'}
disp('Method
disp('Method is
is linear')
linear')

Displaying error and warning Messages

case
case 'cubic'
'cubic'
disp('Method
disp('Method is
is cubic')
cubic')

Shell Escape Functions (! Operator)


Optimizing MATLAB Code

otherwise
otherwise
disp('Unknown
disp('Unknown method.')
method.')

49

end
end
Method
Method is
is linear
linear

50

Function M-file
function
function rr == ourrank(X,tol)
ourrank(X,tol)
%% rank
rank of
of aa matrix
matrix
ss == svd(X);
svd(X);
if
if (nargin
(nargin ==
== 1)
1)
tol
tol == max(size(X))
max(size(X)) ** s(1)*
s(1)* eps;
eps;
end
end
rr == sum(s
>
tol);
sum(s > tol);

Data Types
Multiple Input Arguments
use ( )
r=ourrank(rand(5),.1);

function
function [mean,stdev]
[mean,stdev] == ourstat(x)
ourstat(x)
[m,n]
[m,n] == size(x);
size(x);
if
m
==
1
if m == 1
m = n;
[m std]=ourstat(1:9); endm = n;
end
mean
mean == sum(x)/m;
sum(x)/m;
stdev
stdev == sqrt(sum(x.^2)/m
sqrt(sum(x.^2)/m mean.^2);
mean.^2);

Numeric Arrays
Multidimensional Arrays
Structures and Cell Arrays

Multiple Output
Arguments, use [ ]

51

Vectorizing loops
Preallocating Arrays

52

Multidimensional Arrays

Structures

The first references array dimension


1, the row.

Arrays with named data containers called fields.


patient.name='John
patient.name='John Doe';
Doe';
patient.billing
patient.billing == 127.00;
127.00;
patient.test=
[79
75
patient.test= [79 75 73;
73;

AA == pascal(4);
pascal(4);
The second references dimension 2, A(:,:,2) = magic(4)
A(:,:,2) = magic(4)
the column.

The third references dimension 3,


The page.

0
16

5
1
9
2
4
3

1
1

53

20 30 130
110 100 80
1
1
70 60 120
3
4
14 15
1
6 10

10

Page N

0
0

20

A(:,:,1)
A(:,:,1) ==
11
11
11
11
22
33
11
33
66
11
44
10
10
A(:,:,2)
A(:,:,2) ==
16
22
33
16
55
11
10
11
10
99
77
66
44
14
15
14
15
A(:,:,9)
A(:,:,9) ==
diag(ones(1,4));
diag(ones(1,4));

180
180 178
178 177.5;
177.5;
220
220 210
210 205];
205];

11
44
10
10
20
20

Also, Build structure arrays using the struct function.


Array of structures
patient(2).name='Katty
patient(2).name='Katty Thomson';
Thomson';
Patient(2).billing
Patient(2).billing == 100.00;
100.00;
Patient(2).test=
[69
25
Patient(2).test= [69 25 33;
33; 120
120 128
128 177.5;
177.5; 220
220

13
13
88
12
12
11

Page 1

Cell Arrays
Array for which the elements are cells and can hold
other MATLAB arrays of different types.
A(1,1)
A(1,1) == {[1
{[1 44 3;
3;

00 55 8;
8;
77 22 9]};
9]};
A(1,2)
A(1,2) == {'Anne
{'Anne Smith'};
Smith'};
A(2,1)
A(2,1) == {3+7i};
{3+7i};
A(2,2)
A(2,2) == {-pi:pi/10:pi};
{-pi:pi/10:pi};

54

210
210 205];
205];

Next Tutorial Session


Image Processing Toolbox
Movie Making
Problem Set 1

Using braces {} to point to elements of cell array


Using celldisp function to display cell array
55

Questions?

Getting more help


Contact http://www.mathworks.com/support
You can find more help and FAQ about
mathworks products on this page.
Getting started with Matlab

http://www.indiana.edu/~statmath/math/matlab/gettings
tarted/index.html

Matlab Primer
http://math.ucsd.edu/~driver/21d-s99/matlabprimer.html

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