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Leadership is very important for any organization or group that there are those who
arrange and organize everything in order to achieve a particular goal or objective
(Jamil, 2002).


Definition of Accountability

i. Accountability can be defined as the person responsible or responsible for

ii. Accountability as the obligation to perform the tasks entrusted by law and
regulations to ensure that tasks are carried out to achieve the objectives that
they state (Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia, 2012).
iii. The context of teaching, accountability can be summarized as responsible for
teaching professionalism (Mok, 2002).
iv. Accountability refers to behavior that occurs when a person shows a particular
behavior, the predictions can be made and accountability will exist (Ismail,


Concept of Accountability

The concept of accountability is also a personal responsibility and has become a

reference in the speeches at political rallies and seminars (Grant & Keohane (2005).
Elements contained in the accountability are:
(i) Comply with the mission or a clear direction
(ii) When given power, the implementation based on personal integrity
(iii) Honest, trustworthy, steadfast and wise
(iv) Desired to outcomes or results can be achieved with effectively


Accountability and Leadership in Education


Accountability to the field

ii. Accountability for schools

iii. Accountability for students
iv. Accountability for behavior
Etiquettes - Courteous teacher behaviour will greatly respected by his
Compassion - Students very desire need of psychological needs such as
attention, compassion and service and it can be filled by teachers who have
a sense of kindness and compassion.
Patience - Being teacher needs patience very high. Teachers should not be
quick to anger when students ask something or give the wrong answer.
Honesty and Integrity - Teachers need to be professional in performing their
duties with honesty and sincerity and enjoys his career as a teacher.
Efficiency - In the context of teaching, teacher efficiency means delivering
an exciting and enjoyable and effective way for students.
Consideration - Make a correct judgment is necessary skills possessed by


Accountability Of Profession

Accountability of teachers to the teaching profession can be done through the

following (Meng, 1991):
1) Teachers should always keep an eye out to prevent discredit the profession
and that will lead to the public's trust in the profession.
2) Teachers should carry out their duties with honestly.
3) The main responsibility teacher is the student. This means students are
teachers priorty.
4) Teachers shall provide teaching and services to all students regardless of
race, religion or belief.

Akauntabiliti Kepimpinan

5) Teachers should not behave impolite towards students because this act may
ruin teachers profession.
6) Teachers should promotes a good attitude among the students, so that they
grow up to be useful citizens and loyal to his family and country.
7) Teacher should not promote themselves in order to get higher rank in
teaching profession


Practice Teacher Accountability


Accountability Teacher through National

A teacher must have accountability for carrying out tasks such as
spreading the ideals and goals of the National Education Philosophy
and Rukun Negara clearly.
Teachers need also to show good moral values and attitudes, and in
accordance with the multi-racial society in the spirit of students and
guide them to become citizens loyal, responsible and useful.
As a teacher it is necessary to fulfill their responsibilities as a citizen
of Malaysia to participate actively in community activities and strives
to enhance friendship among students, teachers and parents (Rashid,
Contribution given by teachers have volunteered to society and the
state and always been the nature of polite and behave well in all social
activities, in order to create harmony in the society and the state.


Accountability teacher through Education Program


Accountability of teachers on students and parents


Accountability of teachers on Community

Akauntabiliti Kepimpinan


Advantages and Disadvantages of Accountability

There are many pros and cons of accountability (Song et al. 2009).


1. The idea of accountability is too

1. Ensure that all students learn at

their own capabilities and
beneficial for a small group of
students are weak.
2. Students will have a strong
motivation to learn.
3. Emphasis on performance to
motivated teachers to try out new
approaches through teaching.

easily so that teachers can not control

the behavior of students outside of
school. Therefore, parents should be
responsible for maintaining behavior.
2. Teachers have worked hard to
produce students who are proficient
in a particular field of expertise.
3. Accountability overemphasize test
scores or achievement. Teachers tend
to teach students with the aim to pass
exams. Aspects of education are


The Challenge of Accoubtability

There are many challenges in accountability term on education site (Ramaiah, 1992).
Most of them are:
i. Expertise in Information and Communication Technology
ii. Use of English
iii. Gain more Knowledge
iv. Establish and equip infrastructure
v. Strengthening Leadership School

Akauntabiliti Kepimpinan


Grant, R. W., & Keohane, R. O. (2005). Accountability and abuses of power in

world politics. American political science review, 99(01), 29-43.
Ismail, N. (2004). Pak Lah Kepimpinan Berteraskan Akauntabiliti. Selangor:
Thinkers Library Sdn Bhd.
Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia. (2012). Akauntabiliti & Integriti Utem.
Retrieved from
Jamil, A. Z. (2002) Melayu, Bahasa dan Budaya. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Meng, A. A (1991). Pendidikan Di Malaysia untuk Guru Pelatih. Petaling Jaya: Fajar
Bakti Sdn. Bhd.
Mok, S. S. (2002). UKELP Bahagian C: Inventori Sahsiah Keguruan (3rd) Subang
Jaya. Kumpulan Budiman Sdn Bhd.
Ramaiah, (1992). Kepimpinan Pendidikan: Cabaran Masa Kini. Petaling Jaya: IBS
Buku Sdn Bhd.
Rashid, A. R. (2005). Profesionalisme Keguruan Prospek dan Cabaran. Kuala
Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Song, R., Spradlin, T., & Plucker, A. (2009). The advantages and disadvantages of
multiage classrooms in the era of NCLB accountability.Education Policy
Brief, 7(1), 1-8.

Akauntabiliti Kepimpinan