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# Chapter 1 : MATTER

## 1.1 Atoms and Molecules

1.2 Mole Concept
1.3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 1 : MATTER
1.1 Atoms and Molecules
1.2 Mole Concept

1.3 Stoichiometry

Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, you should be ABLE to:
(a) Describe proton, electron and
neutron in terms of mass and charge
(b) Define proton no, nucleon no
and isotope

## (c) Write isotopic notation

(d) Define relative atomic mass and
relative molecular mass
(e) Calculate average atomic mass of
an element

MATTER

Mixtures

Solutions

What is matter?
Anything that occupies space/has volume and
has mass.
Example:
Air, gases, liquid, solid.

..

## Matter consists of 3 types of particles: atoms,

molecules or ions.
Give an example of non-matter. Give your reason.
5

3 Types of Particles
ATOMS

MOLECULES

IONS

An atom is the
smallest unit of a
chemical
element/compound.

A molecule consist of a
small number of atoms
joined together by bonds

An atom or molecule
with a net electric
charge due to the
loss or gain of one or
more electrons.

Examples:
Na, Cu, Ne

Example: Cu

Examples:
O2, CO2, H2O

Examples:
Na+, NH4+,
O2-, NO3atom
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Atoms

Diatomic Molecules

Atomic Structure
(n)

(e)

An atom consist of 3
subatomic particles:
Proton (p)
Neutron (n)
Electron (e)

(p)
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Subatomic Particles
Subatomic
particle

Electron
(e)
Proton
(p)

Mass
(gram)

9.1 x

10-28

Charge
(coulomb)

Relative
charge

-1.6 x 10-19

-1

Neutron
1.67 x 10-24
(n)

+1

0
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## Proton number (Z) & Nucleon number (A)

Proton number (Z) :
The total number of proton in the nucleus of an atom.
..

## Nucleon number (A) :

The total number of proton and neutron in the nucleus of an atom.

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## An atom can be represented by an isotope

notation (atomic symbol) :

Nucleon
number
(p + n)

Proton
number
(p only)

Element
symbol
(can be an
atom or an
ion!!!)

12

Isotope Notation

13

Nucleon number of
mercury, A = 202

Total charge
on the ion

The number of
neutrons
=AZ
= 202 80
= 122

proton number of
mercury,
Z = 80

* No of e = 80 -2 = 78
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Isotopes
An atom that has the same proton number but different in the number

..............................................................................................
of the neutron in the nucleus of an atom.

..............................................................................................
............................................................................................

Examples:
2
1
3
1

202
80

200
80

Hg

Hg

235
92

238
92

U
15

## Ions (cation & anion)

Cation
(+ ion)

Atom
loses e

NaNa+ + e
Z = 11
e = 11

Z = 11
e = 10

Atom
(neutral)

Atom
accepts e

Anion
(- ion)

Cl + e ClZ = 17
e = 17

Z = 17
e = 18
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Exercise 1
Give the number of protons, neutrons, electrons
and charge in each of the following species:

Symbol

Number of :

Charge

Proton

Neutron

Electron

Hg

80

200-80=120

80

63
29

Cu

29

34

29

17
8

O2

10

-2

27

32

24

+3

200
80

59
27

Co

17

Exercise 2
Write the appropriate notation for each of the
following nuclide :
Number of :
Species

Notation
for nuclide

Proton

Neutron

Electron

10

2A

+
1B

1C

14 D37

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Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, you should be ABLE to:

## (a) Describe proton, electron and

neutron in terms of mass and charge
(b) Define proton no, nucleon no
and isotope

NEXT.

## (c) Write isotopic notation

(d) Define relative atomic mass and
relative molecular mass
(e) Calculate average atomic mass of
an element

19

Relative Mass
Relative Atomic
Mass (Ar)

Relative Molecular
Mass (Mr)

## A mass of one molecule

atom of an element

of a compound compared

compared to 1/12

## mass of one 12C atom

with the mass 12 g.

atom
of 12C with the mass
12 g.

Amu =
atomic mass unit

Relative Mass

Relative Atomic
Mass (Ar)

Relative Molecular
Mass (Mr)

in the compound.

## Both Ar and Mr are dimensionless; have no unit.

Example 1
Determine the relative atomic mass of an element Y if the
ratio of the atomic mass of Y to carbon-12 atom is 0.45.

Ar

## Average mass of one atom of Y

1 Mass of one atom of C - 12
12

= 12 x 0.45
1
= 5.4

## the relative atomic masses of all atoms in a molecular formula.

EXAMPLE 2:

NaOH

Ar of Na = 23.0
Ar of O = 16.0
Ar of H = 1.0
Mr of NaOH= 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0
= 40

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Example 3 :
Calculate the relative molecular mass (Mr) of C5H5N

Mr

= 5 X 12 + 5 X 1 + 14
= 79

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Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, you should be ABLE to:

## (a) Describe proton, electron and

neutron in terms of mass and charge
(b) Define proton no, nucleon no
and isotope

## (d) Define relative atomic mass and

relative molecular mass
(e) Calculate average atomic mass of
NEXT.
an element

25

Mass Spectrum

## Mass Spectrum of Magnesium

The mass spectrum of Mg
shows that Mg consists of
3 isotopes : 24Mg, 25Mg
and 26Mg.

63

8.1

24

% or
Ratio or
Fraction

9.1

25 26
m/e
(mass, amu)

m/e =
mass/charge

## The height of each line is

proportional to the
abundance of each
isotope.
24Mg is the most abundant
of the three isotopes.

## How to calculate the average atomic mass

from mass spectrum?

Average
atomic =
mass

Total of Q

Amu =
atomic mass unit

Q=
m=

## the relative / fractional / ratio / percentage

abundance of isotopes of the element in the mixture
the isotopic mass of the element in unit amu.

## The unit of average atomic mass is amu

Example 1
Copper, Cu consists of two isotopes which is 69%
63Cu

65Cu

Relative
abundance
(%)

69
31
62.9

64.9

m/e (amu)

SOLUTION:

Average
atomic mass =

Qi mi
Qi

69 + 31
= 63.52 a.m.u

Example 2

Relative
abundance

18
7
85

87

m/e
(amu)

## a. What isotopes are present in Rb?

b. What is the percentage abundance of each isotope?
c. Calculate the relative atomic mass (Ar) of Rb.

Relative
abundance

SOLUTION
18
7
85

87

m/e
(amu)

## (a) 85Rb and 87Rb

(b) % abundance 85Rb
=
18 X 100 = 72%
(18+7)
% abundance 85Rb
= 7
X 100 = 28%
(18+7)
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CONTINUE SOLUTION

C.

Qi M i
Average mass of Rb
Qi
(18x85) (7 x87)

25
85.56 amu
85.56 amu
A r of Rb
1 x12.00 amu
12
85.56

Example 3
The ratio of relative abundance of naturally occurring of chlorine
isotopes is as follow :
35

Cl
3.127
37
Cl
Based on the carbon-12 scale, the relative isotopic mass of
35Cl

## = 34.9689 and 37Cl = 36.9659. Calculate the Ar of

chlorine.

SOLUTION
Ar = 34.9689 X 3.127 + 36.9659 X 1
3.127 + 1
= 35.4528 amu

CONTINUE SOLUTION

Example 4
6
The relative atomic mass of 3 Li and

7 Li
3

## What is the percentage abundance of each

isotope if the relative atomic mass of Li is
6.94?

SOLUTION

CONTINUE SOLUTION

Recap
What have you learnt today?

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