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Week 13: Sickle cell and insulin


4 parts are needed to make the hemoglobin protein functional as a complex.

Its function is to carry the oxygen and travels through the arteries and vein.

CO 2 is given as a waste. When CO 2 is present, the protein hemoglobin will misfold

and will bind to CO 2 instead of O 2 .
Fenestration: (black circle)
- When the body cells work, they create CO 2 as a waste.
- CO 2 leaves the cells
- Once in the blood, CO 2 forces the O 2 out of the hemoglobin complex.

Fenestrations of arteries are holes that can let things enter the arteries. CO 2 can
enter the bloodstream and bind to the hemoglobin there.
Hemoglobin can bind to O 2 or CO 2 . It prefers to bind to CO 2 . So, if CO 2 is present,
hemoglobin will bind to CO 2 rather than binding to O 2 . O 2 will, then, be leaving the
bloodstream and be useful to other cells.


Iron is important. Binding site of the O 2 . 4 iron sites therefore hemoglobin can bind
to 4 O 2 molecules at a time.
Sickle cell: the sickle cell shape will cause clots. Clots the blood.



Normally, there is a T nucleotide coding for an A nucleotide. However, in sickle cell,

there is a point mutation causing an A instead of a T and therefore the mRNA codes
it for a U nucleotide.
Normal: T A codon made Glutamine
Sickle cell: instead of T there is A and therefore A U codon made Valine
Hemoglobin and malaria:
Natural selection in real time in the real world
Protection from malaria is in favor to heterozygous individuals. However, this
means more sickle cell diseases.
Sickle cell can protect from malaria.
Africa, South India, and South Europe
Gulf coast.


In the spleen, there is the Islet of Langerhans. Insulin is made there and can be
released into the bloodstream. In the bloodstream, if there are fenestration, then the
insulin can exit and bind into other cells outside the bloodstream.
If the wrong type of insulin is made, then an individual may get diabetes.
Diabetes happens because of the wrong shape, bad function, any kind of mutation,
not enough or too much insulin made. Any wrong steps from the mechanism can
cause diabetes. (Why are there so many types of diabetes?)

Glycolysis is needed to make ATP.

Mitochondria and chloroplast make electricity from waste.
Voltage/Potential difference: electron separation from proton.
ATP synthase Watch video under photosynthesis

Extra credit: quantum mechanics

This is how the proteins absorb the light energy and transfer to use the electrons.
This is the only place in nature (photosynthesis) that actually uses quantum
mechanics. This is why photosynthesis is so efficient. Everything else is normal

Methylation of DNA in CpG Island turns of gene. This allows s to have multiple cell
Cancer can happen via:
- External chemicals, which then cause methylation.
- Proteins that can do methylation. They can be activated by stress.
- Protein can also de-methylate.
If a normal cell divides, the two new cells will keep the same methylation.
If a somatic cell has methylation, the gamete cells will have different genes turned
on and off different methylation.
In epigenetics, one may be born without a disease. However, an external error from
the environment affects the individual and leads to a disease. Now, the disease may
be passed on to the gametes/children.
Methylation (common) can cause epigenetic effects
Protein (new) proteins can affect the genetic material of a cell if they are made
incorrectly. Therefore, the gametes will have an altered genetic material as well.