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SURFACE FINISHES

A world of possibilities
Outokumpu Surface Finishes

Contents
We offer a wide range of surface finishes for enhanced product appeal and functional
applications. Whether straight from the mill or further processed by our service centres,
our products come with industry-leading quality. Choosing the surface finish is an integral
part of the design process read on to learn more.

A world of possibilities

Surface finishes for all industries

Standard mill finishes

Service centre finishes

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A leader in stainless. Globally.

17

Decorative finishes

18

Activating your ideas


Wide range of surface finishes
straight from the mill

Extensive surface finishing


capabilities in our service centers

Prefabrication options
Testing & material selection advice

Welcome to a world
of possibilities

Stainless steel is the material of the future. It is strong, hygienic, 100% recyclable and
can be worked into a world of applications. Outokumpu finishes whether matt, bright,
mirror-like or decorative offer an important source of competitive advantage across a
wide spectrum of industries.

Case highlights

Shining with
stainless
The BMW Welt building
in Munich delivers the
ultimate showroom
experience thanks to
Outokumpu stainless
steel. See page 9.

Industry-leading technical support

Quality in transport
World-leading supplier
of passenger trains
relies on Outokumpu
stainless steels also
for a graffiti-resistant
surface. See page 9.

Smoothness that
makes the difference

Brushed to
perfection

More than half of the


stainless steel chemical
tankers in service today
have been built using
Outokumpu hot rolled
plate. See page 14.

Cooker hood manufacturer relies on


Outokumpu stainless
steel with special
finishing provided by
our service centres.
See page 15.

Powered by the sun


Todays thin-film
solar cells are made
using stainless steel of
exceptional flatness and
surface quality.
See page 16.

Surface finish appeal, function and


more!

Choosing the right surface finish can often involve


consideration not only of the desired surface appearance, but also other requirements such as corrosion
resistance, hygiene and fabrication. The process of
making and choosing the right surface finish is
art based on science, and it is both in the art and the
science that we excel. Let us activate your ideas.

From the eye-catching shapes on the cladding of


high-rise buildings to the shiny surfaces of household
appliances, surface finish plays an important role in
enhancing product appeal. In other applications, for
example in food processing, surface finish has the
much more practical role of ensuring process hygiene
and therefore the safe arrival of food on the table.

2B A cold rolled, heat treated, pickled, skin passed


finish. The process includes a final light rolling using
highly polished rolls to give the surface a smooth, reflective,
grey lustre. The finish is used as it is in many applications
and is the basis for most polished and brushed finishes.

2BB This finish, which is available for grade Outokumpu


4016, is perfect for applications where a bright surface
combined with good mechanical properties are a key issue.

DB Dry brushed finishes are not only pleasing to the eye


but also easy to clean, which has made them especially
popular for household appliances and many applications
seeking a decorative effect.

4N Wet ground finishes are smooth with a satin-like look,


which provides for easy cleaning. Typical uses include interior surfaces and household appliances.

be delivered straight from the mill. Our service centres


not only have extensive surface finishing capabilities,
but also the expertise to provide you with the surface
finish that is tailored to your needs. This involves taking
into account all the relevant requirements, such as
appearance, surface roughness, corrosion resistance etc.,
with deliveries also possible in small batches.

to be brighter than austenitic counterparts. Our


technical staff are available to assist you in selecting
the right material and surface finish for your needs.

Global expertise.
Surface finishes for all industries.
We have over the decades gained distinct
expertise in a diverse range of industries
and have streamlined our organisation to
make sure this expertise is being put to
use for your benefit. This means that we
are here to help you with everything from
grade selection advice and technical support through to choosing and delivering
the right surface finish for your needs
across a wide spectrum of applications.

In some cases the production route that produces the


surface finish also raises the mechanical strength of the
steel. There are plenty of possibilities let us help you
find the optimal surface finish for your needs.
Mill finishes efficiency and more
In many cases one of our standard mill finishes is
perfect for the specified use. For example, if your needs
involve railway cars or structural material for bridges,
it might simply be enough to choose one of our mill
finishes for example 2B, 2BB or 2E. We can deliver
these to you either directly from our mills or from our
stock & process locations with minimal lead times for
optimised production flow and efficiency.

Plenty of possibilities
Considering the many operations that can be performed
on the surface of stainless steel, there is plenty of room
for creativity in choosing a surface finish best suited to
your needs. Finishes appealing to the eye are important
in architecture and household appliances, while smooth
finishes are valued especially in food processing and similar applications due to their hygiene and easy cleaning.

Custom finishes from our service


centres
Many stainless steel applications especially decorative ones require a special surface finish that cannot

Outokumpu in a nutshell
International stainless steel company

Making the right choice

Some 7,500 employees in more than 30 countries

The kind of surface finish you choose affects the properties of the stainless steel and it is therefore important
that both the stainless steel grade and surface finish
are chosen with care. It should be borne in mind that
a smoother surface roughness may assist the corrosion
resistance, while a temper rolled finish (2H) not only
produces a special surface, but also enhances the materials mechanical properties. Moreover, the same surface
finish on different stainless steel types might produce
differing appearances, and especially ferritic steels tend

Serving customers in a wide range of industries


Service centres in the key markets
Widely regarded as a leader in sustainability &
technical support

Aiming to be the undisputed no. 1 in stainless

Duplex weight savings and more

Outokumpu 2E with a brushed and directional finish


is significantly smoother than 1D. Ra values are in a
similar range as for the 2B finish. In-line brushing in
the pickling line provides good cleanability and the
finish is easy to polish due to low surface roughness.

Our Duplex stainless steel grades are fast making their


mark in diverse applications. This is due not only because of the increased corrosion resistance offered by
duplex grades, but also their much higher mechanical
strength, often allowing thinner material to be specified, leading to considerable savings in weight and
cost. Our duplex grades are available with 1D and
2E finishes. A few selected duplex grades are available
with 2B and 2R finishes.

Outokumpu RAPTM 2E is available in the standard


stainless steel grades and the brushed 2E is available
in the special grades. Outokumpus other 2E products
are available in both the standard grades and most
special grades.

The workhorse finish 2E

How to specify surface appearance?

The finish 2E is a general-purpose finish offering advantages in a wide variety of applications from tube
manufacturing to bridge construction. Outokumpu
offers 2E in unique versions depending on the production route. Outokumpu VKS and RAPTM 2E involve
mechanical descaling by shot blasting, whereas
Outokumpu 2E utilises either mechanical descaling
by shotblasting or mechanical descaling by brushing
with each process creating its own distinct properties. Mechanical descaling by brushing produces a
much smoother finish.

Specifying the surface appearance of stainless steel can


be an intricate process. This is partly because surface
finish standards define the production process, rather
than the surface finish itself (see table 1). The result is
that the surface appearance of material having the
same designation (e.g. BA, 2B or 2E) can vary considerably between mills. This applies equally to the
European (EN) and American (ASTM) standards.
Further finishing is performed by our service centres.
The service centres can supply a surface with a specific
roughness, Ra, defined as the average variation of the
surface level from a centre line. Other ways to specify
a finish, such as grit or gloss, may also be possible.
Our service centres can sometimes also provide a
verification sample.

Outokumpu VKS and RAPTM 2E are shotblasted


finishes with cold band tolerances and less roughness
than a 1D finish. This has made the finish especially
popular among tube manufacturers, for example,
because the low roughness causes less wear to their
machinery than normal 1D finishes.

All you need.


Ready-for-use finishes straight from the mill.
Smooth, bright finishes

In many cases you will find the finish you


need straight from one of our mills.
The benefit is that you need not embark
upon additional surface finishing activities.
Our mill offerings include the major finishes
1D, 2E, 2B, 2R and 2H for the main stainless
steel grades.

We offer the smooth, bright and mirror-like finishes


2R and 2BB for applications where either high lustre
or an exceptionally hygienic surface is required.
The 2R finish is used in applications requiring high
image clarity or an ultra-smooth surface that is easy
to clean. The 2BB finish is used in applications where
a bright surface combined with good mechanical
properties are a key issue. Typical 2BB applications are
washing machine drums, inside parts of dishwashing
machines etc. Thanks to low surface roughness, the
2BB finish is a perfect material for further polishing,
while the smooth surface makes it both hygienic and
easy to clean.

Straight from the mill is convenient


Our mills produce for your convenience a wide variety of
stainless steel grades in the main surface finish designations. These are used by our customers in a world of
applications. Getting the right kind of surface finish, for
example a smooth, matt or reflective look, can deliver
true benefits for your particular application whether
this involves aesthetics, hygiene or improved product
functionality.

2E Our brushed 2E surface is a slightly directional finish.


It is much smoother than shot-blasted finishes and can replace the standard cold rolled finish 2B in many applications
where good cleanability is an advantage. Our brushed 2E
surface is available in thickness up to 3 mm for a selection
of special grades.

1D A hot rolled, heat treated and pickled finish. The surface


is slightly coarse with very low reflectivity. It is primarily
used for non-decorative purposes.

Table 1.

Outokumpu offering of standard finishes typically available straight from the mills
The surface finish is defined by the process route as indicated.
Standard
EN/ASTM*

Outokumpu
product

Type of process route

Surface finish

Notes

1D

Hot rolled, heat treated,


(shot blasted) and pickled.

Rough and dull.

Standard for most steel types to ensure


good corrosion resistance; also common
finish for further processing.

RAP2E
VKS

Cold rolled, heat treated,


mechanically descaled
followed by pickling.

Rough and dull.

A relatively rough shotblasted finish with


cold band tolerances and less roughness
than a 1D finish.

Rough and dull when


shot blasting is used
for descaling. Smooth
and directional finish
when brushing is used
(only Nyby).

Descaling through brushing gives a finish


that is directional and significantly smoother than 1D.

Hot Rolled

1D

Semi-cold Rolled

2E

Cold Rolled

2E

2E

Cold rolled, heat treated,


mechanically descaled
followed by pickling.

2D

2D

2D

Cold rolled, heat treated,


pickled.

Smooth.

Good ductility; surface not as smooth as


2B or 2R.

2B

2B

2B

Cold rolled, heat treated,


pickled, skin passed.(Skin
passing may be by tension
leveling.)

Smoother than 2D.

Smooth surface with low lustre.

2B

2B

2BB

Cold rolled, heat treated,


bright pickled, skin passed.

Smooth and reflective.

Smoother and brighter than 2B, higher


image clarity. Available on ferritic grades,
only.

2R

BA

2R

Cold rolled, bright annealed.

Smooth, bright,
reflective.

Smooth, mirror-like surface with high


image clarity.

Bright.

Cold worked by rolling to obtain higher


strength level.

2H

TR

2H

Work hardened.

* Note: surface roughness value, or surface sample, is required to verify exact specification.

Courtesy of AnsaldoBreda.

case: BMW Welt, Munich

case: Ansaldo Breda, USA

Shining with stainless

Quality in transport

The BMW Welt, located between Munichs Olympic


Park and the BMW headquarters, is designed to provide visitors with the ultimate automobile experience.
The buildings dominating feature is a glass-and-steel
structure that supports a cloud-like roof. Here perforated stainless steel panels act as both an aesthetic and
a functional element, providing the desired impressions as well as sun protection. Stainless steel is also
the dominating facade material on the upper sections
of the building, and it is used in indoor cladding.
The stainless steel grades chosen were Outokumpu
4404 for exterior surfaces and Outokumpu 4301 for
indoor cladding. All material was delivered in the 2B
surface finish condition. It was shotblasted prior to
fabrication into cladding elements. The final impression was ensured by strict quality requirements with
regard to surface defects and flatness.

Only the best will do for Ansaldo Breda, a worldleading supplier of passenger trains. The company
chose a comprehensive package of stainless steel grade
Outokumpu 4318 for the metro car carriages it
supplied to Los Angeles and San Francisco. Coil
with finish 2B and temper-rolled 2H were chosen
to provide strength, durability and formability,
allowing for a lightweight design and therefore lifecycle efficiency for the operators. Satinlike 4N was
chosen for outer areas because the finish hides surface
damages during service and graffiti doesnt stick easily
to the surface making it a perfect fit for metro carriages. Stainless steel is the standard material for rail
applications in the U.S. primarily due to its durability
and minimal maintenance requirement.

What are polishing, brushing and


grinding?
The terms polishing, brushing and grinding refer to
the removal of a layer of metal from the surface by a
cutting or abrading action. Grinding can be understood as polishing with significant material removal,
often by some kind of sanding paper, while brushing
generally refers to polishing without significant material removal, as with some kind of abrasive sponge. In
principle an infinite number of surface finishes can be
produced, with the finish dependant on a number of
factors for example the coarseness (grit) of the abrasive material used.
Operations such as dry grinding followed by brushing
are typical operations for us. Our service centres have
extensive capabilities to perform grinding, brushing
& polishing as well as other prefabrication activities.

The codes for stainless steel surface finishes given in


the EN and ASTM standards are different from each
other. Tables 2 and 3 describe how the EN and ASTM
standards define some of the surfaces typically offered.

Table 2.
Polished and brushed finishes given in
EN 10088-2:2005.1

Table 3.
Polished and brushed finishes given in
ASTM A 480/A 480M 09.2

Abbreviation

2G

Expanding horizons.
Special finishes for your needs.
When the surface qualities you seek are not
available on the stainless steels we produce
straight from the mills, our service centres
offer wide capabilities to put the finishing
touch on your steel. With actions such as
grinding, brushing and polishing, we provide
the full range of surface finishes from the
decorative finishes used in architectural applications through to the smooth surfaces
required in restaurant kitchen equipment.

key markets, can perform a wide range of surface


finishing activities covering the entire artists palette
from grinding and polishing through to innovative
decorative finishes. Our service centres tailor surface
finishes according to your needs.
Polished and brushed finishes
Polished and brushed finishes are some of the most
widely used decorative stainless steel surfaces. Typical
operations that we perform for your benefit are wet
grinding, dry polishing, dry brushing or a combination
of polishing and brushing. Our brushed finishes are
highly appreciated in catering and similar applications
due to the exceptionally smooth finish that is generated.
Our polished finishes are typically somewhat rougher,
but retain their easy clean capability, thereby ensuring
minimum foothold for dirt, bacteria and corrosive
substances.

Offering you the entire palette


All our operations are geared towards meeting your
stainless steel needs from one source. This means
that we offer everything from grade selection advice
through to the delivery of world-class stainless steel
and a surface finish that meets your particular requirements. Our service centres, which are located in the

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EN and ASTM standards are different

Type of process route


Notes
Ground
Grade of grit or surface roughness can be specified.
Unidirectional texture, not very reflective.

2J

Brushed or dull polished


Grade of brush or polishing belt or surface roughness
can be specified. Unidirectional texture, not very
reflective.

2K

Satin polish
Additional specific requirements to a J type finish,
in order to achieve adequate corrosion resistance
for marine and external architectural applications.
Transverse Ra < 0,5 m with clean cut surface finish.

2P

No.

Bright polished
This finish is achieved by mechanical polishing.
The process or surface roughness can be specified.
It is a non-directional finish, reflective with high
degree of image clarity.

EN 10088-2:2005, Stainless steels. Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for


sheet/plate and strip for general purposes.

ASTM A 480/A 480M 09, Standard Specification for General Requirements


for Flat-Rolled Stainless and Heat- Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip.

Description
Notes

Intermediate polished finish


This is a linearly textured finish that may be produced by
either mechanical polishing or rolling. Average surface
roughness (Ra) may generally be up to 40 micro-inches.
A skilled operator can generally blend this finish.

General purpose polished finish


This is a linearly textured finish that may be produced
by either mechanical polishing or rolling. Average surface
roughness (Ra) may generally be up to 25 micro-inches.
A skilled operator can generally blend this finish. There
may also be overlap in measurements of surface
roughness for both No. 3 and No. 4 finishes.

Dull satin finish


This finish has a soft, satin appearance and has a
reflectivity that is lower than a No. 4 finish. It is used
for architectural applications and ornamentation where
high luster is undesirable; it is also used effectively to
contrast with brighter finishes.

Smooth reflective finish


This finish is typically produced by polishing with
successively finer grit abrasives, then buffing.
Typically, very faint buff of polish lines may still be
visible on the final product. Blending after part
assembly may be done with buffing.

Taking a closer look 2B vs. DB


Surface finish is also apparent in the microstructure. Shown here are the finishes 2B
and DB (dry brushed) as indicated.
Typical Ra values for 2B are 0.10 - 1.00 m,
and for DB 0.10 0.25 m.

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Wet ground finish 4N

Dry brushed finish DB

The finish 4N has a satin-like look and a smoothness


that provides for both easy cleaning and good corrosion resistance. The surface is exceptionally well suited
for decorative interior surfaces, household appliances,
metro car carriages and many other applications. The
finish is typically available in the standard austenitic and
ferritic grades.

Dry brushed finishes are not only pleasing to the eye but
also easy to clean, which has made them increasingly
popular in a wide variety of applications from interior
decoration to furniture and household appliances.
Outokumpu dry brushed finishes are known for their
consistently high quality and are typically available in
ferritic grades and the standard austenitic grades.

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Landmarks a testament to our many


capabilities
Outokumpu has supplied a range of grades and surface
finishes for many famous landmarks around the world.
Our success in this area derives not just from our ability to deliver surface appearances and textures that
meet the visions of the artists, but also stainless steels
that meet the most exacting technical requirements, all
the way from tailored dimensions and levels of flatness
through to stainless steel grades with specialised alloy
content. The landmarks from the Trinigon in Norway to the Cloud Gate in Chicago are a testament
to our many capabilities as a world-leader in stainless
steel.

Courtesy of Espen Gangvik.

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case: Shamans Haven, Finland

case: Finbeta SpA, Italy

case: Novy, Belgium

case: Trinigon, Norway

Material worthy of a national epic

Smoothness that makes


the difference

Brushed to perfection

Reflections of freedom

Belgian cookerhood manufacturer Novy knows that


success is built around superior products. Key components in this are stainless steel grades Outokumpu
4301 and 4307 with brushed finishes provided by
Outokumpu service centres. The finishes are the result
of long-term cooperation and mutual product development, with Outokumpu not only delivering higher
quality than competitors, but also sourcing stability
in the face of sharply fluctuating markets. Especially
popular with Novy has been our unique cork polishing, which is a dry grinding process that reproduces
the Scotch Brite finish with remarkable quality
advantages.

The 18-metre high National Monument of Freedom,


located in Narvik, Norway, is a symbol for the importance of the freedom of speech and autonomy
for all people. After hard winds destroyed the monument, Outokumpu responded quickly by delivering
33 plates in different sizes.

On a Helsinki island there is a glossy stainless steel


surface that reflects the sea, functioning as the roof of
a monument that echoes the mythology of Finlands
national epic, the Kalevala. The roof is suggestive of a
cracking egg in homage to the Kalevalas story of the
Earths creation.

Finbetas chemical tankers have been tasked with the


important role of being able to handle cargoes as incompatible as inorganic acids and edible oils.
This has been achieved by the use of duplex grade
Outokumpu 2205 hot-rolled plate, prefabricated and
prepolished to an aim Ra of 2.2 m. The benefit is
not just easy cleaning, but also fast port turnarounds.
More than half of the stainless steel chemical tankers
in service today have been built using Outokumpu hot
rolled plate.

The use of stainless steel grade Outokumpu 4404


allowed for the use of a very thin material to create
the complex shape. The bright-annealed surface (BA),
which is offered by Outokumpu for thin strip products, not only blends easily with other elements, but
also reflects the surroundings in a manner worthy of
this testament to ecology, mythology and longevity.

The material chosen for the monument was 6 mm


thick Outokumpu 4404 with 2B surface, which was
polished by Outokumpu to a mirror-like finish with
high demands on reflection, cutting tolerances and
flatness. As noted by the artist, the memorial features the brightest 6 mm steel polished plates in the
world; true mirror quality.

Courtesy to Espen Gangvik.

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A leader in stainless. Globally.


Outokumpu is one of the largest producers of stainless steel and is widely recognised as
a world leader in technical support and innovation. Being located near to our customers
globally makes it possible to deliver service on a local level. Our in-depth and long-term
cooperation with companies in several industrial segments ensures we have experts
focused exclusively on the challenges of your industry.

Outokumpu service centres


Offering a wide range of surface finishing
services

Strong capabilities for grinding, brushing and


polishing

Surface finishing can be combined with other


prefabrication activities

Courtesy of Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore.

Located in key markets including UK,


Germany, Italy and Australia
CASE: Midsummer, Sweden

case : Helix, Singapore

Iconic reverberations

Powered by the sun

The Helix bridge, located in Singapores Downtown


Core, features two stainless steel helixes spiralling
around each other for the span of the 280-metrelong structure. Inspired by the structure of DNA, the
bridge symbolizes life, continuity, renewal and growth,
and offers the citys inhabitants a convenient passage
between the citys Marina Centre and Marina South in
the Bayfront area.

Midsummer of Sweden has developed a unique process for manufacturing thin-film solar cells for use in
homes, yachts and other off-grid applications. The
stainless steel used for the substrate of these cells has
been ferritic grade Outokumpu 4016 with a bright
annealed surface finish, which was chosen to meet
the high requirements of the application at a cost
acceptable to Midsummers customers. Producing such
a thin strip product with high demands on flatness and
surface quality is quite a technical challenge and close
cooperation with Outokumpu played a key role in establishing the best material for the purpose.

The inner spiral of the double helix is used to support


fritted-glass and stainless steel mesh canopies that provide shading. The stainless steel surfaces provide striking nighttime illumination, as they reflect special lights
built into the bridge and programmed to enhance the
design. The stainless steel grade chosen for the pipes
and plates was duplex Outokumpu 2205, delivered in
the 2E mill finish condition, with final bead blasting
and polishing in Singapore. It was of utmost importance that all products were supplied without critical
surface imperfections.

16

17

The elements of good design.


Outokumpu decorative finishes.
Outokumpu offers decorative finishes for
a wide variety of purposes both standard
and customised. Typical uses include
architecture and lifts as well as street
furniture. We have extensive experience in
cooperating with architects, builders and
other parties for the creation of unique
finishes.
Decorative finishes
Our range of decorative finishes covers a wide range
of applications from lifts, doors and rooftops through
to sinks and countertops, refrigerators and freezers,
as well as architectural projects. These surfaces are
known for their high resistance to wear, and, in spite
of the deco processing, it is still possible to use the
material in many forming applications. Outokumpu
deco finishes are available in the standard stainless

18

Decorative finishes can be wonderful eye-catchers. The best results are ensured by paying due consideration to
the environment and choice of stainless steel grade.

steel grades, with grades for more corrosive requirements also available upon request. Our new finishes
include DecoMatt and DecoLinen.

as coastal environments or industrial regions for


applications including roofing, cladding and wall
panels. We can provide primer-coated and painted
surfaces for insulated containers, civil engineering
uses and many other applications.

Fingerprint resistant surfaces


Stainless steel is a remarkably hygienic and easy-toclean material and in some cases the good properties
can be enhanced by further coatings, for example
when the surface is subjected to the touch of hands
for example in lifts, escalators, desks and bar tops.
Our fingerprint-resistant coatings have a thin coating
layer, thereby preventing the appearance not just of
fingerprints, but also other common stains.
Primer-coated and painted surfaces
Sometimes it is required to enhance the surface with
colour coating. The choices will depend on the environments to which the material will be exposed, such

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1489EN-GB:1. Lnnberg, Finland, September 2011.

This document is for information only and seeks to provide professionals with the best possible information to
enable them to make appropriate choices. Although every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the
information provided in this document, Outokumpu can not accept any responsibility for any loss, damage or
other consequence resulting from the use of this publication. The information provided herein may be subject to
alterations without notice.
This document does not constitute a recommendation or a contractual commitment on the part of Outokumpu.
Product selection is the responsibility of the specifiers, designers and builders, who are solely responsible for rendering the finished unit suitable for the use for which it is intended. It is the customers sole responsibility to ensure
that the product is suitable for the use for which it is intended. Outokumpu shall not provide any guarantee in
this respect.
Copyright Outokumpu Group. All rights reserved.

Activating Your Ideas


Outokumpu is a global leader in stainless steel with the vision to be the undisputed number one. Customers in
a wide range of industries use our stainless steel and services worldwide. Being fully recyclable, maintenance-free,
as well as very strong and durable material, stainless steel is one of the key building blocks for sustainable future.
What makes Outokumpu special is total customer focus all the way, from R&D to delivery. You have the idea.
We offer world-class stainless steel, technical know-how and support. We activate your ideas.

www.outokumpu.com