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3D Aquifer Modeling in Tegal by using Induced Polarization Sounding Data

Alva Kurniawan1, Fajar Sarianto2

Abstract

Induced Polarization (IP) is a useful geoelectrical method that used for estimating
aquifer condition. There are three kinds of IP data interpolation methods which 2D
method is in common use. 3D Method has some advantages but it rather complicated
than the 2D one. The better result of 3D method is 3D give information about regional
aquifer distribution. Sounding was done in Tegal by six sounding points such as
Bulakban, Badur, Kraton, Surodadi, Banjaran and Debong.
Electrode configuration of IPs sounding used Schlumberger configuration. The
steps of this works were sounding data collection, sounding data calculation, sounding
data input, sounding data interpretation, and sounding data modeling. From the model
created, there are sections in sounding point area with the shallow-fresh water table,
deep-salt water table, and area with no water table presence.
Keywords: aquifer, sounding

ground material layer estimation

1. Introduction
Induced Polarization (IP) is an

using a single sounding point. 2D is

electrical sounding method that

ground material layer estimation

useful

using two or more sounding points

to

make

reconstruction,

estimate

aquifer

within

two

dimensional

inter-

form, estimate aquifer condition,

polations. 3D is ground material

and estimate the depth of ground-

layer estimation using three or more

water. IP is commonly used for

sounding

searching the water presence for

dimensional interpolations. Typic-

human or industrial needs. There are

ally 2D method is used but 3D

commonly three kinds of method

method will give information in

for interpreting IP data such as 1D,

regional aquifer distribution.

2D,

stratigraphical

and

3D.

1D

or

points

within

three

Vertical

Electrical Sounding took place

Electrical Sounding Interpretation is

in Tegal (Sounding points are

Department of Environmental Geography, email: alva_the_a@yahoo.co.id


Department of Physical Geography

shown on
n fig.1). Therre are six souun-

equationn for calcuulating appparent

ding

resistiviity is:

po
oints

such

as

Baddur,

Bulakban, Surodadi, Kraton, Banjaran, and


d Debong. The soundding
data used
d for creatinng 3D aquiifer

a = k R
= k (V/I),

model thaat repre-sentted the aquiifer


k is a variable reepresenting geo-

condition of soundingg region.

metric factor of electrode confic


gurationn that describbed as :

2.. Methods
Electrrical soundding used IP
method

by

Schlum
mberger

ellec-

k = n (n+1) a,

trodes configuration
c
n (fig.2). The
T

Fig.2.Induceed
Polarizationand
Schlumbergerelectrode
configuratio
on

Commonly stratigraphical re-

calculating the resistivity data to

constructtion is made by inter-

apparent resistivity data. Apparent

polating two or more sounding point

resistivity data then inputted to

in two dimensionally method. The

Rockworks Software for model

values on vertical axis of 2D

creation.

method represent the depth, then the

important step was apparent re-

values of horizontal axis represent

sistivity data interpretation. Ground

the

sounding

layers are interpreted as the values

points. In 2D method minimally two

of apparent resistivity in each depth.

points are needed for creating

After

pseudo cross section. The 3D

transformed to ground layer ma-

method

three

terials, model can be created. Model

sounding points but four sounding

creation is using multiple linear

points is quite good for the better

regressions algorithm for inter-

interpolation. The value of the

polating data.

distance

between

using

minimally

Before

apparent

modeling,

resistivity

the

was

distance between sounding points


consist of two variables such as

3. Result and Discussion

width and length which represented

There are six different depth of

on two horizontal axes, then the

sounding points because the some

depth

on

data contain error and IP2Win

vertical axis. 3D methods give

software correcting the data error by

better

inter-

eliminating bad data. Topographic

pretation although the method is

data of the sounding points was

more complicated.

shown that there is no significant

value
result

is
for

represented
aquifer

Simply the steps of this works

difference of elevation in each point

were sounding data collection, data

so the elevation value was set to 0

calculation, in-putting input, data

values. Material interpretation based

interpretation, and modeling (fig.3).

on the Lokes Correlation Table of

Data from sounding points were

Resistivity. Surface apparent resis-

collected then inputted in IP2Win

tivity varies from the minimum

Software. IP2Win Software used for

value of 2.59 m to 46 m (fig.4).


3

Figg.3.Framewo
orkof3DAqu
uiferModelinggfromIPdataa

BadurRLLogData

Ban
njaranRLo
ogData
5

5
0

20

40

Depth(m)

Depth(m)

40

55

55

105

1
105

1
155

155

205

20

m)
Ressistivity(ohmm

2
205

Resistiivity(ohmm)

SuradadiRLogData

KratonRLogData

5
0

20

40

105

155

205

Resistivity(ohmm)

BulakRLogData

Resistivity(ohmm)

DebongRLogData

5
0

20

40

20

40

55
Depth(m)

55
Depth(m)

105

155

205

105

155

205

40

55
Depth(m)

Depth(m)

55

20

105

155

Resistivity(ohmm)

205

Resistivity(ohmm)

Fig.4.VESorResistivityLogDataforthesoundingpoints

Within the range of those values,

ders were arranged with Quaternary

the material can be determined as a

alluvium

dry material. Geologic condition

Freshwater aquifer was the second

need to be considered because

order then the saltwater aquifer was

certain aquifer was formed in

the third.

as

the

first

order.

certain geologic condition. Area of

The created 3D model (fig.5)

sounding points is a plain that

shows the distribution of the ground

consist

alluvium

layers in sounding region. There are

sediment. Alluvium has electrical

places with shallow and fresh water

resistivity about 10-46 m. There

table. There are also some sections

is also clay material detected within

with deep and salt water table, even

the resistivity about 1-10 m.

there is section with water table

Aquifer with freshwater was found

cant be found.

of Quaternary

in the layer within the resistivity


less than 46 but more than 10 m

4. Conclusion

below ground. Shallow phreatic

3D model has more ad-vantages

water table was found in Debong,

than 2D pseudo cross section. 3D

Kraton, and Surodadi. Aquifer with

model could show the distribution

saltwater was found in the layer

of ground layer materials within the

within the resistivity less than 0.2

sounding region. 3D model ad-

m.

vantages must be paid with more


Model was created by using

Rockworks software. The ground


layers were interpreted as 3 kind of
layers such as Quaternary alluvium
(Both of alluvium and clay were
categorized as Quaternary alluvium), freshwater aquifer, and saltwater aquifer. Model algorithm used
multiple linear regressions for surface interpolation. Stratigraphic or-

work because it needs three or more


sounding points. Four sounding
points minimally for creating 3D
model is better than just three
sounding points. From the model
created,
sounding

there
point

are
area

sections

in

with

the

shallow-fresh water table, deep-salt


water table, and area with no water
table presence.
6

Fig.5a.3D
DAquiferMod
delfromInterpretedIPDaata

Fig.5b.3
3DAquiferM
ModelfromIntterpretedIPD
Data

Faculty of
University.

References

Gadjah

Mada

American Ground Water Trust.


1999. Groundwater a Source of

Todd, D. K. 1980. Groundwater

Wonder : Drinking Water from

Hydrology 2nd Edition. New

Wells.

Austin:

American

York : John Willey & Sons.

Ground Water Trust.


Fetter, C. W. 1999. Applied Hydrogeology 2nd Edition. The United
States of America: Macmillian
Pu-blishing Company.
Freeze, A. R., and J. A. Cherry.
1979. Groundwater. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Kurniawan, Alva. 2008. Geoelectrical
Sounding
for
Groundwater Presence and
Phreatic Water Table Depth
Estimation in Tegal. Yogyakarta: Research and Development of Geoscience and
Environmental Matter.
Loke, M. H. 2000. Electrical
Imaging Survey for Environmental and Engineering
Studies: A Practical Guide to
2D and 3D Surveys. www.
geoelectrical.com.
Sarianto, Fajar. 2002. Sea Water
Intrusion in Aquifer Study at
Brebes and Tegal, Central
Java. Yogyakarta: Geography

Fig.5.Mapof
SoundingPoints
(UTM
Coordinate
System49M
Zone)

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