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Online Study Guide

Success and Failure in Endodontics: An Online Study


Guide
Abstract
The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has
developed a literature-based study guide of topical
areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the
essential endodontic literature and does not cite all
possible articles related to each topic. Although citing
all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the
idea of a study guide. This section will review success
and failure related to nonsurgical endodontic therapy,
nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, and periradicular
surgical treatment. (J Endod 2008;34:e1 e6)

Correspondence: JOE Editorial Board


JEndodontics@UTHSCSA.edu
0099-2399/$0 - see front matter
Copyright 2008 by the American Association of
Endodontists.
doi:10.1016/j.joen.2007.04.012

Introduction
The delivery of high quality clinical care requires a thorough understanding of the
endodontic literature. The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed this online study guide for endodontists and fellow clinicians interested in endodontics.
There are several potential applications for an online study guide. First, an online
study guide permits clinicians to focus in on particular areas of endodontics where they
can quickly review key papers devoted to one particular topic. For example, this particular study guide provides a summary of key papers in the area of success and failure
related to nonsurgical endodontic therapy, nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, and
periradicular surgical treatment. Second, a study guide permits speakers to efficiently
review background material in preparation for future courses, lectures, or continuing
educational events. Third, an online study guide permits students to review key papers
in preparation for future examinations or for development of residency seminars.
Fourth, an online study guide permits readers to quickly and efficiently access either the
abstract or the entire paper cited in the Tables (see Discussion for details).

Methods
One potential problem in developing an online study guide was to provide a
summary of major papers that contributed to a given topic area. The inclusion of all
possible papers on a given topic would lead to an unwieldy collection that failed to
clearly identify key papers in the area. Of course, exclusion of key papers is also
problematic. To address this issue, the JOE Editorial Board developed the overall list of
topics to be covered and then for each topic generated an initial tabulation of key
historical and contemporary papers on that topic. This list was then sent to two outside
reviewers who were both experienced educators and Diplomates of the American Board
of Endodontics. These reviewers then recommended additions and deletions of papers
to the proposed topic list.
To maintain currency, the JOE Editorial Board proposes to periodically update
each topical study guide by using the same peer-reviewed process as described above.

Results
The results of the study guide (156) for success and failure related to nonsurgical
endodontic therapy, nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, and periradicular surgical
treatment are given in Tables 13.

Discussion
The journey to clinical excellence requires not only outstanding clinical skills, but
also that special knowledge that accrues from a study of the endodontic literature. The
purpose of the JOE online study guide is to serve as one source for efficiently reviewing
key papers that are organized by topic area and presented with the advantages of online
Internet technology.
Although JOE readers are undoubtedly familiar with many aspects of the Internet,
there are special features available at JOE online that provide particular advantages in
their application for a study guide. For example, if this particular study guide is downloaded as a pdf, it provides a useful but static listing of the cited articles. On the other
hand, if the reader navigates to the Table of Contents page for the Online Study Guide and
then clicks on Full Text (Fig. 1), they will be taken to an HTML version of the Study
Guide. This online version of the study guide has special capabilities including the fact
that the references are hyperlinked. Thus, the reader can quickly obtain abstracts of
nearly all cited papers and can review the entire paper of many of the cited papers with

JOE Volume 34, Number 5S, May 2008

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Online Study Guide


only a few clicks of their mouse (Fig. 2). Thus, combining a study guide
with online capabilities provides particular benefits for efficiently reviewing key papers in the endodontic literature.
We hope that this Study Guide will prove useful to you as one

source for developing a focused and special base of endodontic knowledge. As always, we are interested in your thoughts on this initiative and
how the JOE can better serve you, our readers. Feel free to email us at:
JEndodontics@UTHSCSA.edu.

TABLE 1. Success and Failure: Nonsurgical


Ref #

Title

Historical Articles
1.
Ingle JI, Beveridge EE, Glick DH, Weichman JA.
Endodontic success & failure: the Washington Study.
In: Ingle JI, Bakland,LK, eds. Endodontics. 4th ed.
Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1994:2145.
2.
Strindberg LZ.
The dependence of the results of pulp therapy on certain factors: an analytic study based on radiographic and
clinical follow-up examinations.
Acta Odont Scand 1956;14(Suppl):1175.
3.
Seltzer S, Bender IB.
Cognitive dissonance in endodontics.
Oral Surg 1965;20:50516.
4.
Seltzer S, Bender IB, Smith J, Freedman I, Nazimov H.
Endodontic failures: an analysis based on clinical, roentgenographic, and histologic findings.
Oral Surg 1967;23:50030.
5.
Bender IB, Seltzer S, Soltanoff W.
Endodontic success: a reappraisal of criteria.
Oral Surg 1966;22:780802.
6.
Storms JL.
Factors that influence the success of endodontic treatment.
J Canad Dent Assoc 1969;35:8397.
7.
Swartz DB, Skidmore AE, Griffin JA.
Twenty years of endodontic success and failure.
J Endod 1983;9:198202.
8.
Sjogren U, Hagglund B, Sundquist G, Wing K.
Factors affecting the long-term results of endodontic treatment.
J Endod 1990;16:498504.
9.
Lin LM, Skribner J, Gaengler P.
Factors associated with endodontic treatment failures.
J Endod 1992;18:6257.
10.
Smith CS, Setchell DJ, Harty FJ.
Factors influencing the success of conventional root canal therapy: a five-year retrospective study.
Int Endo J 1993;26:32133.
11.
Ray HA, Trope M.
Periapical status of endodontically treated teeth in relation to the technical quality of the root filling and the
coronal restoration.
Int Endod J 1995;28:128.
12.
Sjogren U, Figdor D, Persson S, Sundqist G.
Influence of infection at the time of root filling on the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical
periodontitis.
Int Endod J 1997;30:297306.
Contemporary Articles
13.
Siqueira JF.
Aetiology of root canal treatment failure: why well-treated teeth can fail.
Int Endod J 2001;34:110.
14.
Lazarski MP, Walker WA III, Flores CM, Schindler WG, Hargreaves KM.
Epidemiological evaluation of the outcomes of nonsurgical root canal treatment in a large cohort of insured
dental patients.
J Endod 2001;27:7916.
15.
Molven O, Halse A, Fristad I, MacDonald-Jankowski D.
Periapical changes following root-canal treatment observed 20-27 years postoperatively.
Int Endod J 2002;35:78490.
16.
Friedman S, Abitbol S, Lawrence HP.
Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto Studyphase I: initial treatment.
J Endod 2003;29:78793.
17.
Dammaschke T, Steven D, Kaup M, Ott KHR.
Long-term survival of root treated teeth: a retrospective study over 10 years.
J Endod 2003;29:63843.
18.
Chugal NM, Clive JM, Spangberg LS.
Endodontic infection: some biologic and treatment factors associated with outcome.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;96:8190.
19.
Farzaneh M, Abitbol S, Lawrence HP, Friedman S.
Treatment outcome in endodontic: the Toronto Studyphase II: initial treatment.
J Endod 2004;30:3029.

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JOE Volume 34, Number 5S, May 2008

Online Study Guide


TABLE 1. (Continued)
Ref #

Title

20.

Salehrabi R, Rotstein I.
Endodontic treatment outcomes in a large patient population in the USA: an epidemiological study.
J Endod 2004;30:84650.
Torabinejad M, Kutsenko D, Machnick TK, Ismail A, Newton CW.
Levels of evidence for the outcome of nonsurgical endodontic treatment.
J Endod 2005;31:63746.
Marquis VL, Dao T, Farzaheb M, Abitbl S, Friedman S.
Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto Studyphase III: initial treatment.
J Endod 2006;32:299306.
Doyle SL, Hodges JS, Pesun IJ, Law AS, Bowles WR.
Retrospective cross sectional comparison of initial nonsurgical endodontic treatment and single-tooth implants.
J Endod 2006;32:8227.
Iqbal MK, Kim S.
For teeth requiring endodontic treatment, what are the differences in outcome of restored endodontically
treated teeth compared to implant-supported restorations?
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2007;22(Suppl):96116.
Doyle SL, Hodges JS, Pesun IJ, Baisden MK, Bowles WR.
Factors affecting outcomes for single-tooth implants and endodontic restorations.
J Endod 2007;33:399402.

21.
22.
23.
24.

25.

TABLE 2. Success and Failure: Nonsurgical Retreatment


Ref #

Title

Historical Articles
26.
Bergenholtz G, Lekholm U, Milthon R, Heden G, Odesjo B, Engstrom B.
Retreatment of endodontic fillings.
Scand J Dent Res 1979;87:21724.
27.
Allen RK, Newton CW, Brown CE.
A statistical analysis of surgical and nonsurgical endodontic retreatment cases.
J Endod 1989;15:2616.
28.
Sundquist G, Figdor D, Persson S, Sjogren U.
Microbiological analysis of teeth with failed endodontic treatment and the outcome of conservative re-treatment.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998;85:8693.
Contemporary Articles
29.
Kvist T, Reit C.
Results of endodontic retreatment: a randomized clinical study comparing surgical and nsurgical procedures.
J Endod 1999;25:8147.
30.
Farzaneh M, Abitbol S, Friedman S.
Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto Studyphases I and II: orthograde retreatment.
J Endod 2004;30:62733.
31.
Paik S, Sechrist C, Torabinejad M.
Levels of evidence for the outcome of endodontic retreatment.
J Endod 2004;30:74550.
32.
Fristad I, Molven O, Halse A.
Nonsurgical reteated root-filled teeth: radiographic findings after 20-27 years.
Int Endod J 2004;37:128.
33.
Gorni FGM, Gagliani MM.
The outcome of endodontic retreatme nt: a 2-yr follow-up.
J Endod 2004;30:14.

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Online Study Guide


TABLE 3. Success and Failure: Surgical Treatment
Ref #

Title

Historical Articles
34. Andreasen JO, Rud J.
Modes of healing histologically after endodontic surgery in 70 cases.
Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:14860.
35. Andreasen JO, Rud J.
Correlation between histology and radiography in the assessment of healing after endodontic surgery.
Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:16173.
36. Rud J, Andreasen JO, Moller Jensen JE.
Radiographic criteria for the assessment of healing after endodontic surgery.
Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:195214.
37. Rud J, Andreasen JO, Moller Jensen JE.
A follow-up study of 1,000 cases treated by endodontic surgery.
Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:21528.
38. Rud J, Andreasen JO, Moller Jensen JE.
A multivariant analysis of the influence of various factors upon healing after endodontic surgery.
Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:25871.
39. Rud J, Andreasen JO.
A study of failures after endodontic surgery by radiographic, histologic and stereomicroscopic methods.
Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:31128.
40. Andreasen JO.
Cementum repair after apicoectomy in humans.
Acta Odontol Scand 1973;31:21121.
41. Attonen M, Mattila K.
Follow-up study of apicoectomized molars.
Int J Oral Surg 1976;5:3340.
42. Dorn SO, Gartner AH.
Retrograde filling materials: a retrospective success-failure study of amalgam, EBA, and IRM.
J Endod 1990;16:3913.
43. Rapp EL, Brown CE. Newton CW.
An analysis of success and failure in apicoectomies.
J Endod1991;17:50812.
44. Frank AL, Glick DH, Patterson SS, Weine FS.
Long-term evaluation of surgically placed amalgam fillings.
J Endod 1992;18:3918.
45. Molven O, Halse A, Grung B.
Incomplete healing (scar tissue) after periapical surgery: radiographic findings 8 to 12 years after treatment.
J Endod 1996;22:2648.
Contemporary Articles
46. Rubinstein RA, Kim S.
Short-term observation of the results of endodontic surgery with the use of a surgical operating microscope and Super-EBA
as root end filling material.
J Endod 1999;25:438.
47. Zuolo ML, Ferreira OF, Gutmann JL.
Prognosis in periradicular surgery: a clinical prospective study.
Int Endod J 2000;33:918.
48. Peterson J, Gutmann JL.
The outcome of endodontic resurgery: a systematic review.
Int Endo J 2001;34:16975.
49. Rud J, Rud V, Musksgaard EC.
Periapical healing of mandibular molars after root-end sealing with dentine-bonded composite.
Int Endod J 2001;34:28592.
50. Rubinstein RA, Kim S.
Long-term follow-up of cases considered healed within one year after apical microsurgery.
J Endod 2002;28:37883.
51. Maddalone M, Gagliani M.
Periapical endodontic surgery: a 3-year follow-up study.
Int Endo J 2003;36:1938.
52. Chong BS, Pitt Ford TR, Hudson MB.
A prospective clinical study of mineral trioxide aggregate and IRM when used as root-end materials in endodontic surgery.
Int Endo J 2003;36:5206.
53. Wang N, Knight K, Dao T, Friedman S.
Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto Studyphases I and II: apical surgery.
J Endod 2004;30:75161.
54. Gagliani MM, Gorni FGM, Strohmenger L.
Periapical resurgery versus periapical surgery: a 5-year longitudinal comparison.
Int Endo J 2005;38:3207.
55. Mead C, Javidan-Nejad S, Mego ME, Nash B, Torabinejad M.
Levels of evidence for the outcome of endodontic surgery.
J Endod 2005;31:1924.
56. Friedman S.
The prognosis and expected outcome of apical surgery.
Endo Topics 2005;11:21962.

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JOE Volume 34, Number 5S, May 2008

Online Study Guide

Figure 1. Navigation to HTML version.

Figure 2. Hyperlink to References.

JOE Volume 34, Number 5S, May 2008

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Online Study Guide


References
1. Ingle JI, Beveridge EE, Glick DH, Weichman JA. Endodontic success & failure: the
Washington Study. In: Ingle JI, Bakland LK, eds. Endodontics. 4th ed. Baltimore:
Williams & Wilkins, 1994:21 45.
2. Strindberg LZ. The dependence of the results of pulp therapy on certain factors: an
analytic study based on radiographic and clinical follow-up examinations. Acta
Odont Scand 1956;14(Suppl):1175.
3. Seltzer S, Bender IB. Cognitive dissonance in endodontics. Oral Surg
1965;20:50516.
4. Seltzer S, Bender IB, Smith J, Freedman I, Nazimov H. Endodontic failures: an analysis
based on clinical, roentgenographic, and histologic findings. Oral Surg
1967;23:500 30.
5. Bender IB, Seltzer S, Soltanoff W. Endodontic success: a reappraisal of criteria. Oral
Surg 1966;22:780 802.
6. Storms JL. Factors that influence the success of endodontic treatment. J Canad Dent
Assoc 1969;35:8397.
7. Swartz DB, Skidmore AE, Griffin JA. Twenty years of endodontic success and failure.
J Endod 1983;9:198 202.
8. Sjogren U, Hagglund B, Sundquist G, Wing K. Factors affecting the long-term results
of endodontic treatment. J Endod 1990;16:498 504.
9. Lin LM, Skribner J, Gaengler P. Factors associated with endodontic treatment failures. J Endod 1992;18:6257.
10. Smith CS, Setchell DJ, Harty FJ. Factors influencing the success of conventional
root canal therapy: a five-year retrospective study. Int Endo J 1993;
26:32133.
11. Ray HA, Trope M. Periapical status of endodontically treated teeth in relation to the
technical quality of the root filling and the coronal restoration. Int Endod J
1995;28:12 8.
12. Sjogren U, Figdor D, Persson S, Sundqist G. Influence of infection at the time of root
filling on the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Int
Endod J 1997;30:297306.
13. Siqueira JF. Aetiology of root canal treatment failure: why well-treated teeth can fail.
Int Endod J 2001;34:110.
14. Lazarski MP, Walker WA III, Flores CM, Schindler WG, Hargreaves KM. Epidemiological evaluation of the outcomes of nonsurgical root canal treatment in a large
cohort of insured dental patients. J Endod 2001;27:791 6.
15. Molven O, Halse A, Fristad I, MacDonald-Jankowski D. Periapical changes following
root-canal treatment observed 20-27 years postoperatively. Int Endod J
2002;35:784 90.
16. Friedman S, Abitbol S, Lawrence HP. Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto
Studyphase I: initial treatment. J Endod 2003;29:78793.
17. Dammaschke T, Steven D, Kaup M, Ott KHR. Long-term survival of root
treated teeth: a retrospective study over 10 years. J Endod 2003;29:
638 43.
18. Chugal NM, Clive JM, Spangberg LS. Endodontic infection: some biologic and treatment factors associated with outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
Endod 2003;96:8190.
19. Farzaneh M, Abitbol S, Lawrence HP, Friedman S. Treatment outcome in endodontic:
the Toronto Studyphase II: initial treatment. J Endod 2004;30:3029.
20. Salehrabi R, Rotstein I. Endodontic treatment outcomes in a large patient population
in the USA: an epidemiological study. J Endod 2004;30:846 50.
21. Torabinejad M, Kutsenko D, Machnick TK, Ismail A, Newton CW. Levels of evidence
for the outcome of nonsurgical endodontic treatment. J Endod 2005;31:637 46.
22. Marquis VL, Dao T, Farzaheb M, Abitbl S, Friedman S. Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto Studyphase III: initial treatment. J Endod 2006;
32:299 306.
23. Doyle SL, Hodges JS, Pesun IJ, Law AS, Bowles WR. Retrospective cross sectional
comparison of initial nonsurgical endodontic treatment and single-tooth implants. J
Endod 2006;32:8227.
24. Iqbal MK, Kim S. For teeth requiring endodontic treatment, what are the differences
in outcome of restored endodontically treated teeth compared to implant-supported
restorations? Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2007;22(Suppl):96 116.
25. Doyle SL, Hodges JS, Pesun IJ, Baisden MK, Bowles WR. Factors affecting outcomes
for single-tooth implants and endodontic restorations. J Endod 2007;33:399 402.

e6

26. Bergenholtz G, Lekholm U, Milthon R, Heden G, Odesjo B, Engstrom B. Retreatment


of endodontic fillings. Scand J Dent Res 1979;87:21724.
27. Allen RK, Newton CW, Brown CE. A statistical analysis of surgical and nonsurgical
endodontic retreatment cases. J Endod 1989;15:261 6.
28. Sundquist G, Figdor D, Persson S, Sjogren U. Microbiological analysis of teeth with
failed endodontic treatment and the outcome of conservative re-treatment. Oral Surg
Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998;85:86 93.
29. Kvist T, Reit C. Results of endodontic retreatment: a randomized clinical study comparing surgical and nsurgical procedures. J Endod 1999;25:814 7.
30. Farzaneh M, Abitbol S, Friedman S. Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto
Studyphases I and II: orthograde retreatment. J Endod 2004;30:62733.
31. Paik S, Sechrist C, Torabinejad M. Levels of evidence for the outcome of endodontic
retreatment. J Endod 2004;30:74550.
32. Fristad I, Molven O, Halse A. Nonsurgical reteated root-filled teeth: radiographic
findings after 20-27 years. Int Endod J 2004;37:12 8.
33. Gorni FGM, Gagliani MM. The outcome of endodontic retreatment: a 2-yr follow-up.
J Endod 2004;30:1 4.
34. Andreasen JO, Rud J. Modes of healing histologically after endodontic surgery in 70
cases. Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:148 60.
35. Andreasen JO, Rud J. Correlation between histology and radiography in the assessment of healing after endodontic surgery. Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:16173.
36. Rud J, Andreasen JO, Moller Jensen JE. Radiographic criteria for the assessment of
healing after endodontic surgery. Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:195214.
37. Rud J, Andreasen JO, Moller Jensen JE. A follow-up study of 1,000 cases treated by
endodontic surgery. Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:21528.
38. Rud J, Andreasen JO, Moller Jensen JE. A multivariant analysis of the influence of
various factors upon healing after endodontic surgery. Int J Oral Surg
1972;1:258 71.
39. Rud J, Andreasen JO. A study of failures after endodontic surgery by radiographic,
histologic and stereomicroscopic methods. Int J Oral Surg 1972;1:31128.
40. Andreasen JO. Cementum repair after apicoectomy in humans. Acta Odontol Scand
1973;31:21121.
41. Attonen M, Mattila K. Follow-up study of apicoectomized molars. Int J Oral Surg
1976;5:33 40.
42. Dorn SO, Gartner AH. Retrograde filling materials: a retrospective success-failure
study of amalgam, EBA, and IRM. J Endod 1990;16:3913.
43. Rapp EL, Brown CE. Newton CW. An analysis of success and failure in apicoectomies.
J Endod 1991;17:508 12.
44. Frank AL, Glick DH, Patterson SS, Weine FS. Long-term evaluation of surgically placed
amalgam fillings. J Endod 1992;18:391 8.
45. Molven O, Halse A, Grung B. Incomplete healing (scar tissue) after periapical surgery: radiographic findings 8 to 12 years after treatment. J Endod 1996;22:264 8.
46. Rubinstein RA, Kim S. Short-term observation of the results of endodontic surgery
with the use of a surgical operating microscope and Super-EBA as root end filling
material. J Endod 1999;25:43 8.
47. Zuolo ML, Ferreira OF, Gutmann JL. Prognosis in periradicular surgery: a clinical
prospective study. Int Endod J 2000;33:91 8.
48. Peterson J, Gutmann JL. The outcome of endodontic resurgery: a systematic review.
Int Endo J 2001;34:169 75.
49. Rud J, Rud V, Musksgaard EC. Periapical healing of mandibular molars after root-end
sealing with dentine-bonded composite. Int Endod J 2001;34:28592.
50. Rubinstein RA, Kim S. Long-term follow-up of cases considered healed within one
year after apical microsurgery. J Endod 2002;28:378 83.
51. Maddalone M, Gagliani M. Periapical endodontic surgery: a 3-year follow-up study.
Int Endo J 2003;36:193 8.
52. Chong BS, Pitt Ford TR, Hudson MB. A prospective clinical study of Mineral Trioxide
Aggregate and IRM when used as root-end materials in endodontic surgery. Int Endo
J 2003;36:520 6.
53. Wang N, Knight K, Dao T, Friedman S. Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto Studyphases I and II: apical surgery. J Endod 2004;30:751 61.
54. Gagliani MM, Gorni FGM, Strohmenger L. Periapical resurgery versus periapical
surgery: a 5-year longitudinal comparison. Int Endo J 2005;38:320 7.
55. Mead C, Javidan-Nejad S, Mego ME, Nash B, Torabinejad M. Levels of evidence for the
outcome of endodontic surgery. J Endod 2005;31:19 24.
56. Friedman S. The prognosis and expected outcome of apical surgery. Endo Topics
2005;11:219 62.

JOE Volume 34, Number 5S, May 2008