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Sep 08, 2015

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of the circuit and its application. These circuits should also be simulated on P spice.

1. Log and antilog amplifiers.

2. Voltage comparator and zero crossing detectors.

3. Second order filters using operational amplifier for:

a. Low pass filter of cutoff frequency 1 KHz.

b. High pass filter of frequency 12 KHz.

4. Band pass filter with unit gain of pass band from 1 KHz to 12 KHz.

5. Wien bridge oscillator using operational amplifier.

6. Determine capture range; lock in range and free running frequency of PLL.

7. A/D and D/A convertor.

8. Voltage to current and current to voltage convertors.

9. Function generator using operational amplifier (sine, triangular & square wave)

10. Astable and monostable multivibrator using IC 555.

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS:

1- OP-AMP as Schmitt Trigger.

2- OP- AMP as Integrator and Differentiator.

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.1

OBJECT: Design and implement op-amp as Log and Anti Log amplifier.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Op amp 741, power supply diode or transistor resistors connecting wires.

THEORY:

A logarithmic amplifier has an Output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of the

input,

PROCEDURE

Apply input voltage at the inverting terminal of op amp and measure the output

voltage and change input signal value measure output voltage at different values of

input voltage and verify results as per formula.

For log amplifier

Circuit Diagram:

Log Amp

Result:

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.2

OBJECT: Design and implement op-amp as voltage comparator and zero crossing

detector.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Op amp 741, power supply function generator CRO connecting wires.

THEORY

A comparator is a circuit that compares two input voltages. One voltage is called the

reference voltage (Vref) and the other is called the input voltage (Vin).

When Vin rises above or falls below Vref the output changes polarity (+ becomes -).

Similarly a zero crossing detector one voltage is called reference voltage (Vref) equal to

zero.And other is called input voltage (Vin).

PROCEDURE

A input signal is applied to the non inverting termilal of op amp. For voltage

comparator this signal is compared with reference signal. While in case of Zero

crossing detector it compare with Zero level signal.

Circuit Diagram:

Precautions:

1-All connections check properly.

Result:

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.3A

OBJECT: To study the second order Low pass filter of a cut off frequency of 1 KHz

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Bread board, IC 741, CRO, Power Supply, Connecting Wires, and Function generator

Resistors, Capacitors.

THEORY A frequency selective electric circuit that passes electric signals of specified

band of frequencies and attenuates the signals of frequencies outside the brand is called

an electric filter. The first order low pass filter consists of a single RC network connected

to the non-inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier. Resisters R1 and RF

determine the gain of the filter in the pass band. The low pass filter as maximum gain at f

= 0 Hz. The frequency range from 0 to FH is called the pass band the frequency range f >

fh is called the stop band.low pass filter pass the frequency less than the cutoff . While a

high pass filter pass the frequency greater than cut off frequency.

PROCEDURE:

Connect the circuit component as per given in circuit diagram .change the frequency of

input signal and find the gain at different frequencies

1 Construct the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.

2. Apply an input sine wave and measure the amplitude of output waveform for

different values of input frequencies

3 Calculate the gain in dB.

4. Plot the frequency response

FORMULA USED

FLOW=

OBSERVATIONS:

CALCULATIONS:

GRAPH:

_____ 1__________

2 R2R3C2C3

PRECAUTIONS:

1-Power supply connection should be proper

Result:

1. The cut-off frequency of the low pass filter = kHz

2. 2. The pass band gain of low pass filter =

CONCLUSION:

i. The working of active low pass filter is observed and the output is plotted.

ii. The frequency response of the low pass filter is plotted on a semi-log graph paper.

iii. It is observed that the gain rolls of at the rate of 20dB per decade at the cut of frequency.

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.3B

OBJECT: To study the second order high pass filter of a cut off frequency of 12 KHz.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Bread board, IC 741, CRO, Power Supply, Connecting Wires, and Function Generator,

Resisters, Capacitors.

THEORY: A frequency selective electric circuit that passes electric signals of specified

band of frequencies and attenuates the signals of frequencies outside the brand is called

an electric filter. The first order high pass filter consists of a single RC network connected

to the non-inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier. Resisters

R1 and RF determine the gain of the filter in the pass band. The high pass filter has

maximum gain at f = fl Hz. The frequency range from 0 to Fl is called the stop band

the frequency range f > fl is called the pass bandThe design of band pass filters can

become very involved even when using operational amplifiers. However it is possible to

simplify the design equations while still being able to retain an acceptable level of

performance of the operational amplifier filter for many applications

PROCEDURE:

Connect the circuit component as per given in circuit diagram .change the frequency of

input signal and find the gain at different frequencies.

i. Construct the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.

ii.Apply an input sine wave and measure the amplitude of output waveform for different

values of input frequencies.

iii.Calculate the gain in dB.

iv.Plot the frequency response.

FORMULA USED

Second order low pass active filter

F High pass =

OBSERVATIONS:

CALCULATIONS:

_____ 1__________

2 R2R3C2C3

GRAPH:

Precautions:

1. Power supply connection should be proper.

Result:

1.The lower cutoff frequency of the high-pass filter = ------- KHz.

2.The pass band gain = ------CONCLUSION:

i. The working of active high pass filter is observed and the output is plotted.

ii. The frequency response of the high pass filter is plotted on a semi-log graph paper.

iii. It is observed that the gain increases at the rate of 20dB per decade at the cut of

frequency

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.4

OBJECT: To study the second order Band pass filter frequency of 1 KHz to 12 KHz

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Bread board, IC 741, CRO, Power Supply, Connecting Wires, and Function Generator,

Resisters, Capacitors.

THEORY:

As only one operational amplifier is used in the filter circuit, the gain should be limited to

five or less, and the Q to less than ten. In order to improve the shape factor of the

operational amplifier filter one or more stages can be cascaded. A final point to note is

that high stability and tolerance components should be used for both the resistors and the

capacitors. In this way the performance of the operational amplifier filter will be

obtained.

PROCEDURE:

Connect the circuit component as per given in circuit diagram .change the frequency of

input signal and find the gain at different frequencies.

i. Construct the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.

ii.Apply an input sine wave and measure the amplitude of output waveform for different

values of input frequencies.

iii.Calculate the gain in dB.

iv.Plot the frequency response.

Circuit Diagram:

Active Band pass

filter

C1

OP1

R3

++

Practical value band of frequency =

R4

R1

PRECAUTIONS: 1.

Power supply

connection should be

proper.

R2

C2

The upper cutoff frequency of the Band-pass filter = ------- KHz

2.The pass band gain = ------CONCLUSION:

i. The working of active Band pass filter is observed and the output is plotted.

ii. The frequency response of the Band pass filter is plotted on a semi-log graph paper.

iii. It is observed that the gain increases at the rate of 20dB per decade at the cut of

frequency

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.5

OBJECT: Design and implement Wien Bridge Oscillator using Op-amp 741

APPARATUS REQUIRED

C.R.O, OP-Amp741, Resistance (10k, 3.3k ) Port 1M, Capacitor (.013F, 0.1F),

Bread Board.

Theory:

In this oscillator the Wein Bridge Circuit is connected between the amplifier input terminals and

the output terminal. The bridge has a series RC network in one arm and parallel RC network

in the adjoining arm. In the remaining two arms of the bridge resistors R1 and RF are

connected. The total phase-shift around the circuit is 0 o when the bridge is balancedIn Wien

Bridge oscillator a Wien Bridge circuit is connected between the amplifier input terminals

and the output terminals. The bridge has a series R network in one arm and a parallel RC

network in adjoining arm. In remaining two arms resistors R and RF are connected.

PROCEDURE:

i. Construct the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.

ii. Adjust the potentiometer Rf such that an output wave form is obtained.

iii. Calculate the output wave form frequency and peak to peak voltage.

iv. Compare the theoretical and practical values of the output waveform frequency.

The frequency is depended on R&C component

Fp =1/T

Observation Table

R

Circuit Diagram:

Fp

Ft

P1

OP1

R1

+

+

C1

C2

R3

R2

GRAPH

.

Precautions: All connections check properly.

Result:

% Error = ft-fp/ft100

Theoretical frequency of oscillation =

Practical value of frequency of oscillation =

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.6

OBJECT: Determine capture range, lock in range & free running frequency of PLL.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

PLL (NE 565), Resistors 12k, Capacitors (.01f, 10f) Dual power supply, Bread

board, Function generator, CRO and Connecting Wires

THEORY

THE PLL circuit is basically use for tracking a particular system. It consist of phase

detector low pass filter and VCO.A Phase detector compares Frequency and phase of two

systems. And VCO is a voltage to frequency convertor.

PROCEDURE

1- connect the circuit as shown in fig.

2- free running fresquency of the VCO adjusted externally with RT and CT

3- An externally connected short link between the pin (4) & (5) will connect the

VCO output to the phase detector input.

Circuit Diagram:

Result:

Fo =.Hz

Fl =.Hz

Fc = .Hz

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.7

OBJECT

To design and set up a 3 bit ADC.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

IC ic 741 IC 7408 ,IC 7432 ,IC 7404 ,Resistor 1k , Pot 5k

THEORY

A 3 input ADC is shown in fig:If the analog signal exceeds the reference signal,

comparator turns on.If all comparators are off, analog input will be between 0 and V/4.If

C1 is high and C2 is low input will be between V/4 andV/2.If C1 andC2 are high and C3

is low input will be between 3V/4 and V

PROCEDURE

Set up the circuit and vary the input from 0 to 5V .Observe the output bits.

U5A

1

OPA1013/B B

74AC04

V-

OUT

2

V+

R2

10K

U9A

2

74AC08

OPA1013/B B

R3

10K

V-

OUT

2

V+

U10A

1

2

74AC08

OPA1013/B B

V-

OUT

2

V+

R4

RESISTOR

74AC04

1

1

OUT

74AC32

74AC08

R5

10K

V-

V+

OBSEVATION TABLE

COMPARATOR OUTPUT

Input

voltage

0-1

1-2

2-3

3-4

4-5

BINARY OUTPUT

Q4

Q3

Q2

Q1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

00

11

1

X

0

1

x

X

00 0

01 X

2222222

X

11

10 X

01

10

00

01

11

10

00 0

x

01 x

0

x

x

1

1

1

x

x

x

11

10

B=Q4 Q2

C= Q4 Q2+Q2Q1

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

0

X

X

0

X

x

0

0

1

X

X

x

10

A=Q4

A

DIGITAL OUTPUT

B

RESULT:

OBJECT

To design and set up a binary weighted code resistor DAC and R -2R ladder type DAC.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

IC 741,Resistors,Potentiometer.

THEORY

In weighted resistor type DAC, op-amp is used to produce a weighted sum of digital

inputs where weights are produced to weights of bit positions of inputs. Each input is

amplified by a factor equal to ratio of feed back resistance to input resistance to which it

is connected.

PROCEDURE

Test 741 C IC using digital IC tester .Switch on the supply. Apply the binary inputs

0000 through 1111 and observe the analog the output using CRO.

Formula used

VOUT = -RF/ /R (D3 +1/2 D2+ D1+1/8D0)

7

1

10K

3

2

O P -0 7

2 .2 K

10K

1 .2 K

4

8

4 .7 K

OBSERVATION TABLE

Input

Output(Binary weighted)

Output(R-2R ladder)

RESULT:

Designed and set up binary weighted DAC and R and 2R ladder type DAC.

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.8

OBJECT: Voltage to current and current to voltage convertors.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Resistors ,IC 741, Digital Multi meter, bread board, power

supply, connecting wires

THEORY:

Verify that VO= Iin R2 for this circuit. That is, do the following for several voltage settings

on the variable power supply: Measure the supply voltage and from this calculate Iin .Use

the formula to calculate a theoretical Vout and compare this to a measured Vout. Include

these measured values and calculations in your report along with a brief discussion of the

agreement between theory and measurement.

PROCEDURE

1- for V to I converter apply input voltage at non-inverting terminal of op amp and

measure corresponding current across resistor R1.change the valus og input

voltage and observe the current across R1.

2- For I to V Converter input current source apply at inverting terminal of op amp

and measure corresponding voltage at the output terminal..

Circuit Diagram:

Fig 1 V to I converter

Fig 2 I to V converter

Result:

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAB (EEC-551)

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO. 9

OBJECT: Function generator using operational amplifier (sine, triangular& square

wave).

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Function generator, IC 741, C. R .O, Bread board, Connecting wires and Resistors. And

power supply

THEORY Function generator a device which produce sine, triangular& square wave

simultaneously. For which we uses defferent circuit diagram and connect together as per

application.

PROCEDURE

the OP AMP in this first stage as a level detector with the trigger voltage set to about 0.2

times the driving voltage . because R3 and R2 form a voltage divider. The output of this

first OP AMP is a square wave because, as the capacitor is charged in one direction, at

some point .The second stage accepts a square wave as its input and outputs a triangle

wave. The third stage is also an integrator, but its input is a triangle wave. Well the

integral of a triangle wave is not really quite a sine wave. But note how much smaller C3

is compared to C2.

Circuit Diagram:

Result:

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO. 10

OBJECT: To study astable and monostable multivibrator using IC 555.

APPARATUS USED:

Breadboard, IC 555, CRO, Power Supply, Connecting Wires, and Resistors.

state its output is at low level or zero. While in Astable multivibrator there is no stable

state.

PROCEDURE:

1. Make the connection as shown in figure.

2. See the output wave form on CRO.

FORMULA USED:,

For monostableMultivibrato

T= 1.1R2 C

Circuit Diagram:

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

FORMULA USED:,

For Astable Multivibrator

T=.69(R1+2R2) C

Precautions: All connections check properly.

Result

EC/EI V SEM

EXPERIMENT NO.

OBJECT: OP-AMP 741 AS DIFFRENTIATOR AND INTEGRATOR.

APPARATUS USED:

2. CRO - 1 No.

3. Bread Board - 1 No.

4. Function Generator - 1 No.

COMPONENTS:

1. 15 k Resistor 2 No.

2. 820 Resistor 1 No.

3. 1.5 k Resistor 1 No.

4 0.01 F Capacitor 2 No

5 0.5 nF Capacitor 1 No

5 IC741 - 1 No.

THEORY: The operational amplifier can e used in many applications. It can be used as

operation of differentiation that is the output waveform is the derivative of the input wave

form for good differentiation, one must ensure that he time period of the input signal is

larger than or equal to RfC1.the practical differentiator eliminates the problem of

instability and high equal to RfC1.the practical differentiator eliminates the problem of

instability and high frequency noise.

PROCEDURE:

1- connect the differentiator circuit as shown in fig 1.adjust the signal generator to

produce a 5 volt peak sine wave at 100 Hz.

2- observe input Vi and Vo simultaneously on the oscilloscope measure and record the

peak value of Vo and the phase angle of Vo with respect to Vi.

3-Repeat step 2 while increasing the frequency of the input signal. Find the maximum

frequency at which circuit offers differentiation. Compare it with the calculated value of

fa Observe & sketch the input and output for square wave.

4- Connect the integrator circuit shown in Fig2. Set the function generator to produce a

square wave of 1V peak-to-peak amplitude at 500 Hz. View simultaneously output Vo

and Vi.

5- Slowly adjust the input frequency until the output is good triangular waveform.

Measure the amplitude and frequency of the input and output waveforms.

6- Verify the following relationship between R1Cf and input frequency for good

integration f>fa & T< R1C1

Where R1Cf is the time constant

7- Now set the function generator to a sine wave of 1 V peak-to-peak and frequency 500

Hz. Adjust the frequency of the input until the output is a negative going cosine wave.

Measure the frequency and amplitude of the input and output waveforms.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

circuit

2. The time period and amplitude of the integrator waveform

CALCULATIONS:

frequency from 10 Hz to 1 kHz.

GRAPH:

1- Differentiator

2-Integrator

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