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MacPhail School of Energy

Bachelor of Applied Technology - Petroleum Engineering

NORBERT ENDSINS
CLASS SURVIVAL GUIDE

Prepared by: N. ENDSIN, P.ENG.


8/22/2012

N. ENDSIN, P.ENG. ( 284 8288 )

Printout Date: 20 Aug-03


MacPhail School of Energy
Bachelor
AppliedPROGRAM
Technology - Petroleum Engineering
SAIT -ofBAPET

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


LAB AND CLASSROOM GUIDELINES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The intent of the following guidelines are to protect the health of students and instructors by providing for a safe
working environment during labs and classes and also to establish a responsible professional working relationship between students and instructors.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1) No smoking in classrooms and/or labs.


2) No food or drinks in classrooms and/or labs.
3) Safety Glasses and Lab Coats will be provided and must be worn by students and instructors during any
labs involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals and/or equipment.
4) Eating and/or Drinking in the vicinity of labs may be restricted if potentially hazardous chemicals are being
used.
(i.e.: propane, toluene, acetone or any other flammable or poisonous chemical).
5) Assignments and Labs:
5.1) Students who have not submitted labs or assignments by the due date shall automatically lose one half (1/2)
their lab or assignment mark.
5.2) Students who do not submit labs or assignments within two class days after the due date shall automatically
get '0' in that assignment or lab.
5.3) Students failing to meet lab and/or assignment due dates may at the discretion of the instructor be given
recourse privileges.
5.4) Students must pass both the lab and the theory portions in order to obtain a passing grade in a subject.

6) Quizzes and Examinations:


6.1) Quizzes and/or Exams shall be given periodically during class time (or a mutually agreed upon time outside of
the regular classroom schedule), to determine student progress and understanding of material covered and to
establish a grade for the student.
6.2) Students caught cheating and/or copying any assignment, lab, quiz or exam shall automatically be given a '0'
for that particular assignment, lab, quiz or exam . (NOTE: Cheating or copying can result in expulsion from the program.)
6.3) Students failing to attend classes or labs in which quizzes, exams, assignmnents and/or lab experiments were
given shall automatically get a '0' for that particular quiz, exam or lab.
6.4) Students coming in late for exams, labs and/or quizzes may at the discretion of the instructor be allowed to
participate, however, they will not be given extra time over the other students in attendance.
6.5) Students are expected to come prepared for exams, quizzes and labs and will not be given special consideration
by the instructor due to their own lack of preparation.
(i.e.: bring all necessary items; pens, pencils, fully charged calculators, rulers, etc.)
6.6) Students obtaining a failing grade in the course must register as a repeat student and complete the course

successfully.
6.7) Students failing to meet any of the above guidelines may at the discretion of the instructor be given recourse
privileges in the event of unavoidable adverse circumstances.

Prepared by: N. ENDSIN, P.ENG.

8/22/2012

N. ENDSIN, P.ENG. ( 284 8288 )

Printout Date: 20 Aug-03


MacPhail School of Energy
Bachelor
AppliedPROGRAM
Technology - Petroleum Engineering
SAIT -ofBAPET

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The intent of the following guidelines are to ensure CLARITY, CONSISTENCY and PROFESSIONALISM
using industry accepted software and practices in all course work submitted for evaluation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1) Computer software (i.e.: MSWORD, MSEXCEL, MSPOWERPOINT, etc.) is to be used to prepare all
assignments NO EXCEPTIONS !
NOTE: The first time 50% of the assignment mark will deducted if software not used.
Any following occurrences will result in a mark of zero being assigned.
2) All Tables and Graphs are expected to have the following:
2.1 Proper Titles (or headings).
2.2 Table, Graph or Figure number.
2.3 Graph axis properly labeled with units clearly shown
2.4 Table Column headings with units clearly shown.
2.5 Proper alignment of columns and column headings.
2.6 All important lines, points and/or regions clearly labeled.
Etc.
3) All Maps, Figures, Diagrams, Drawings, etc. are expected to have the following:
3.1 Proper Titles (or headings)
3.2 Figure number.
3.3 Map Scale with units clearly shown
3.6 All important lines, points and/or regions clearly labeled.
Etc.
4) All Equations and Variables are expected to be presented with appropriate symbols, characters, etc.
Use Math Type or Equation Editor in MSWORD, MSEXCEL or MSPOWERPOINT.
Also Character Map may be used as part of the Microsoft Windows operating system to insert
appropriate characters and/or symbols.
5) Spelling and Grammar count! Marks will be deducted for all spelling and grammar errors.
6) Presentation and Formatting count! Your assignments are to be presented as Professional Reports
and should look professional and have material organized in a neat and organized manner on the page.
7) Use proper References with footnotes all clearly stated when presenting material not created by
yourself. Plagiarism is unacceptable and a mark of zero will result.
8) Make sure to follow all instructions given by your instructor both verbal and written or marks will be
deducted.
9) Remember: YOU are responsible for coming to class and making sure you make appropriate notes of all
the materials given in class (both written and orally presented) . If you miss a class it is your
responsibility to catch-up and get the appropriate information, handouts, etc. that you missed.
10) Your assignments are expected to be Professional Reports presented in a timely manner (on
time). Late assignments (1 or 2 days late) are evaluated out of 50% of the original mark. Assignments
more than 2 days late are worth zero (0) marks. Exceptions for extreme circumstances only (i.e.: health,
bereavement, etc.).
Prepared by: N. ENDSIN, P.ENG.

8/22/2012

N. ENDSIN, P.ENG. ( 284 8288 )

Printout Date: 20 Aug-03


MacPhail School of Energy
Bachelor
AppliedPROGRAM
Technology - Petroleum Engineering
SAIT -ofBAPET

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


EXAMINATION GUIDELINES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The intent of the following guidelines are to ensure academic fairness and integrity on all exams and/or quizzes
for all students in our programs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1) Cellular phones, computers, etc., must be turned off before the start of the examination unless
specifically allowed as stated by the instructor/invigilator prior to the examination commencement. Students
disrupting examinations by the use of this type of technology will be evicted from the examination room.
2) Any student who is scheduled to write three examinations during a 24-hour period or two examinations
at the same time, is considered to have an examination conflict, and may apply to reschedule an
examination, through the department.
3) Students who miss final examinations will not be allowed to write a makeup exam. Exceptions may be
made in extraordinary situations such as documented illness or bereavement. In such cases, the students
may be allowed to write a deferred final examination on approval of the program chair. Students should
notify the Department office of their pending absence from an examination, for any reason, prior to the
examination date, if possible.
4) Students who arrive more than thirty minues later than the scheduled examination time, will not be
allowed to enter the examination room without the consent of the invigilator/instructor, and will be
assigned a zero (0) grade for the examination. No student will be allowed to leave the examination room
until thirty minutes or more have elapsed.
5) A student who becomes ill during an examination should deliver his/her incomplete examination to the
invigilator, and proceed, immediately to SAIT Health Services for a signed medical certificate verifying ill
health. The student may be allowed to write a deferred examination pending a decision from the program
chair.
6) Only required exam material will be allowed at the students examination desk. Books, bags, knapsacks
and all other personal belongings must be left at the entrance to the examination room or in an assigned
area for these items.
7) Use of dictionaries and/or translators, will not be allowed during examinations, unless specified on the
course outline.
8) Students may be required to produce picture ID (SAIT ID or Drivers Licence, etc.) and may be required to
sign a class list as proof of attendance.
9) Students may not leave the room during the course of the examination except under extreme
circumstances (ill health, etc.) and should obtain consent of the invigilator prior to leaving.
10) Examination invigilators may or may not answer any exam related questions depending upon the information
relayed by the invigilator/instructor to the students prior to the exam.

Prepared by: N. ENDSIN, P.ENG.

8/22/2012

MacPhail School of Energy


Bachelor of Applied Technology - Petroleum Engineering

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


PRESENTATION OF ANSWERS & FORMATTING OF UNITS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The intent of the following guidelines are to provide the student with the required format for presentation
of graphs and answers when submitting assignments, lab work, quizzes, exams and any other work required
in the determination of a mark or grade for the student. If the following guidelines are not followed, the student
may (at the sole discretion of the instructor) lose marks for the work submitted.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1) When presenting calculation type problems for grading, always show the following:
a) The EQUATION (or equations), in variable form, used in solving the problem.
b) The complete SUBSTITUTION into the equations required to solve the problem.
c) The FINAL ANSWER in both S.I. UNITS and IMPERIAL UNITS where applicable.

2) In the formatting of units when expressing final answers use the following:
a) Liquid Volumes of OIL, WATER, LPG's, etc.
Conditions

Imperial Units

S.I. Units

Reservoir Press. & Temp.

Reservoir Barrels
(abbrev. = RB)

Reservoir Cubic Meters


(abbrev. = Rm3)

Standard or STP Conditions

Stock Tank or Standard


Barrels
(abbrev. = STB)

Stock Tank or Standard


Cubic Meters
(abbrev. = Sm3)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTES:

Standard or STP Conditions are as follows:


14.7 psia & 60 F ................... (Imperial Units)
101.325 kpa.a & 15 C ...... (S.I. Units)

also:

Ablsolute Pressures are as follows:


PSIA = guage pressure (psig) + 14.5 psia
(Imperial Units)
kPa.a = guage pressure (kPa.g) + 101.325 kPa.a (S.I. Units)
Ablsolute Temperatures are as follows:
R = Degrees Rankine = F + 460
K = Kelvin
= C + 273

(Imperial Units)
(S.I. Units)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Prepared by: N. ENDSIN, P.ENG.

BAPT PROGRAM

Page 1

SAIT BAPET FORMATTING GUIDELINES ( Continued. )

b) Gas Volumes of Natural Gas, Steam , etc.


Conditions

Imperial Units

S.I. Units

Reservoir Press. & Temp.

Reservoir Cubic Feet


(abbrev. = RCF)

Reservoir Cubic Meters


(abbrev. = Rm3)

Standard or STP Conditions

Standard Cubic Feet


(abbrev. = SCF)

Standard Cubic Meters


(abbrev. = Sm3)

3) When expressing very large or very small magnitude numbers use the following:
-

use 'Significant Figures' whenever possible or practical.


use 'Engineering Notation' (i.e.: 10-6, 10-3, 103, 106, 109 )
whenever possible or practical.

a) Examples of Liquid Volumes:


Conditions

Imperial Units

S.I. Units

Reservoir Press. & Temp.

2.523 x 103 RB

6.5 23 x 106 Rm3

Standard or STP Conditions

3.451 x 103 STB

5.241 x 103 Sm3

Imperial Units

S.I. Units

Reservoir Press. & Temp.

2.523 x 109 RCF

6.5 23 x 106 Rm3

Standard or STP Conditions

3.451 x 109 SCF

5.241 x 103 Sm3

b) Examples of Gas Volumes:


Conditions

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTE: Sometimes in the Imperial System of Units ONLY, the following prefixes
used to express large volumes;
MSCF
MMSCF
BSCF
TSCF

or
or
or
or

MSTB
MMSTB
BSTB
TSTB

............
............
............
............

designating
designating
designating
designating

103
106
109
1012

or Thousands
or Millions
or Billions
or Trillions

- under no circumstances are the above prefixes to be used with S.I. Units.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5) When constructing GRAPHS and/or TABLES use the following:
a) All graphs and tables should be prepared as stand alone items in any report.
complete with labelled axis, detailed headings and Figure or Table numbers)

b) All graphs should be constructed on proper graph paper (not engineering


paper, squared paper or lined paper) and should have the axis clearly labelled
units shown.

Prepared by: N. ENDSIN, P.ENG.

BAPT PROGRAM

Page 2

N. ENDSIN, P. ENG. (403) 284-8288

22-Aug-12

METRICATION DATA SUMMARY TABLE


I.

LENGTH or DISTANCE:
1cm = 0.394 in
1 in = 2.54 cm
1 yd = 0.915 m
1 m = 1.092 yd

1 ft = 0.305 m
1 mile = 1.6 km

1 m = 3.281 ft
1 km = 0.625 miles

1 yd = 3 ft
1 mile = 5,280 ft

II.

WEIGHT or MASS:
1 gm = 0.036 oz
1 oz = 28.0 gm
1 lb = 453.6 gm 1 lb = 0.454 kg
1 kg = 2.205 lb
1 gm = 2.2 x 10-3 lbs
1 metric tonne = 1.1 short tons
1 short ton = 0.91 metric tonnes
1 metric tonne=1000 kg
1 short ton=907 kg
1 (US)short ton=2000 lbs
1 long ton=2240 lb
FORCE:
1 Newton =105 dynes = 0.102 kg = 0.2248 lbs
1 lb force = 0.4536 kg = 4.448 Newtons

III.

TEMPERATURE:

IV. HEAT CONTENT Related Conversions:

F = 1.8 (C ) + 32

R = 460 + F

R = K x 1.8

C = 5/9 (F - 32)

K = 273 + C

K = R 1.8

1 BTU = 1054.35 Joules = 1.05435 x 10-6 GJ


1 MMBTU 1 MSCF 1.05435 GJ
1 GJ 0.9482 MSCF

0 K = 0 R

V.

AREA:
1 cm2 = 0.152 in2
1 acre =1.562 x 10-3 mi2
1 mi2 = 2 589 988 m2

VI.

VOLUME:
1 STB = 0.159 Sm3 = 5.615 ft3
1 m3 = 0.03532 MCF
1 MCF = 28.174 m3
1 ac-ft = 0.123 ha-m
1 ac-ft = 3.26 x 105 US Gal.
1 liter= 0.88 Imp.Qt =1.056 US Qt
1 liter=0.264 US Gal=0.22 Imp.Gal
1 liter=1 x 10-3 m3=1000 cm3
1 Imp.Gal.=4 Imp.Qts
1 STB = 35 Imp.Gal.= 42 US Gal.
1 lb-mole = 379 ft3 @ STP

VII.

PRESSURE:
1 psi = 6.895 kPa
1 psi = 6 895 N/m2

VIII.

IX.

XI.

VISCOSITY:

XII.

1 kg/m3 = 0.00835 lb/US Gal.

1 md = 10-3 darcies

1 SCF/STB = 0.1773 Sm3/Sm3

Volume (V)
cm3
liters
ft3
ft3
m3
cm3

1 md (Imp) = 0.987 md (S.I.)


1 Sm3/Sm3 = 5.640 SCF/STB

1 cp = 1/100 poise
100 cp = 1 poise
1cp = 0.001 Pa.s = 1 mPa.s

where: w = 1 gm/cc
where: MWair = 28.964

AEUB Heavy Oil = 25.72 API

Avg. Gas S.G. = 0.6 0.8

XIV. STANDARD CONDITIONS (STP):


Imp.Units = 14.65 psia & 60 F
S.I. Units = 101.325 kPa.a & 15 C

GAS LAW UNITS TABLE:

kPa

XVI.

1 md = 10-3 m2

API GRAVITY:
API @ STP = ( 141.5/SG ) - 131.5

Pressure (P)
atm
atm
atm
psia
kPa

1 gm/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3

AEUB Heavy Oil 900 kg/m3 0.9 g/cc

1 poise = 1 dyne-sec/cm2 = 1 gm/sec-cm


1 Pa.s = 1000 cp
SPECIFIC GRAVITY:

Avg. Oil API = 30 40

XV.

1 atm = 76 cm Hg = 1033 cm H 2 0
1 atm = 29.92 in Hg = 406.8 in H 2 O
1 atm = 14.7 psia = 101.325 kPa.a

ss = 2.65 g/cc

for liquids: SG = (density of liquid)/(density of water)


for gases: SG = (molecular wt. of gas)/(mol. wt. of air)

XIII.

$37.80137/1000 m3

1 m3 = 35.33 ft3 = 6.289 STB


1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3
1 m3 = 1 x 106 cm3
1 cm3 = 3.531 x 10-5 ft3
1 ml = 1 cm3
1 ft3 = 28 317.016 cm3
1 ac-ft = 7758 STB
1 ha-m = 8.111 ac-ft
1 ac-ft = 43,560 ft3
1 ha-m = 10 000 m3
1 Imp.Gal.= 4.546 liters
1 US Gal. = 3.785 liters
1 Imp.Gal. = 1.2 US Gal.
1 US Gal. = 0.833 Imp.Gal.
1 Imp.Gal.= 0.161 ft3
1 US Gal.= 0.134 ft3
1 Imp.Gal.= 0.00455 m3
1 US Gal.= 0.00379 m3
1 Imp.Qt.=1.136 liters
1 US Qt.= 0.947 liters
1 gm-mole = 22.414 liters @ 0 C & 101.325 kPa.a

1 kPa = 0.145 psi


1 kPa = 1000 N/m2

PERMEABILITY:
1 darcy = 1000 md
GAS/OIL RATIOS:

$1/GJ

1 BTU/SCF = 37.256 x 10 -6 GJ/Sm3

1 in2 = 6.452 cm2


1 acre = (208.71 ft)2 = 43,560 ft2
1 acre = 4047 m2 = 0.4047 ha
1 section = 640 acres = 259 ha
1 ha = 10 000 m2
1 ft2 = 0.093 m2
1 m2 = 10.752 ft2

DENSITY:
1 lb/US Gal.=119.789 kg/m3
1 lb/cu ft = 16.0185 kg/m3

X.

$1/MSCF $35.305/1000 m3

XVI. USEFUL EQUATIONS:

Temperature (T)
K
K
R
R
K
K

moles (n)
gm-moles
gm-moles
lb-moles
lb-moles
gm-moles
gm-moles

Gas Constant (R)


82.057
0.082057
0.7302
10.732
0.008316
8316

Bg = ZT Psc
P Tsc

Bgi = Zi P
Bg
Pi Z

Bt = Bo + Bg ( Rsi Rs )
Rp Rs + Kg uo Bo

EQUIVALENCY CONVERSIONS:
1 BOE (40 API OIL) = 5.76 E+06 BTU = 5.76 MSCF Gas = 6.06 GJ (Canadas National Energy Board NEB)

MacPhail School of Energy


Bachelor of Applied Technology - Petroleum Engineering

REVIEW OF LOGARITHMS AND NATURAL LOGARITHMS


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A) Common Logarithms: (Logs to the base "10" )
X = 10Y
Log10(X) = Y
Log(X) = Y

if:
or

100 = 102
Log10(100) = 2
Log(100) = 2

i.e. :

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B) Natural Logarithms:

(Logs to the base "e" ; where e = 2.718281828459045. . . .)

X = eY
Loge(X) = Y
Ln(X) = Y

if:
or

20.1 = e3
Loge(20.1) = 3
Ln(20.1) = 3

i.e. :

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C) Relationship Between "Ln(X)" and "Log(X)" :


Ln(X) = 2.303 x Log(X)
Log(X) = 0.4342 x Ln(X)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D) Solving Equations Using Logarithms:
84 = (7.6)X
Log(84) = Log(7.6)X
= X Log(7.6)

if:
or
therefore:

if:
or

X = Log(84) = 1.9243
Log(7.6)
0.8808

X = Ln(84) = 4.4308
Ln(7.6)
2.0281

X = 2.1847

84 = (7.6)X
Ln(84) = Ln(7.6)X
= X Ln(7.6)

X = 2.1847

(NOTE: Same rules apply for both common & natural logs when solving equations.)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E) Rules For Working With Logarithms:


i) Ln(X) - Ln(Y) = Ln(X/Y)
ii) Ln(X) + Ln(Y) = Ln(X Y)
iii) Ln(X)Y
= Y Ln(X)

Prepared by: N. ENDSIN, P.ENG.

and
and
and

Log(X) - Log(Y) = Log(X/Y)


Log(X) + Log(Y) = Log(X Y)
Log(X)Y
= Y Log(X)

8/22/2012