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Aspen Process

Economic Analyzer
V7.0

User Guide

Version Number: V7.0


July 2008
Copyright (c) 2008 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, the aspen leaf logo and Plantelligence and Enterprise Optimization are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Aspen Technology, Inc., Burlington, MA.
All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
This document is intended as a guide to using AspenTech's software. This documentation contains AspenTech
proprietary and confidential information and may not be disclosed, used, or copied without the prior consent of
AspenTech or as set forth in the applicable license agreement. Users are solely responsible for the proper use of
the software and the application of the results obtained.
Although AspenTech has tested the software and reviewed the documentation, the sole warranty for the software
may be found in the applicable license agreement between AspenTech and the user. ASPENTECH MAKES NO
WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENTATION,
ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Aspen Technology, Inc.
200 Wheeler Road
Burlington, MA 01803-5501
USA
Phone: 781 221-6400
Toll Free: 888-996-7100
URL: http://www.aspentech.com

Contents
1 Introduction .......................................................................................................11
Main Features...............................................................................................11
Links to Process Simulator Software Programs.........................................11
Mapping of Simulator Models to Process Equipment Types.........................11
Sizing of Equipment.............................................................................12
Capital Investment and Schedules: Engineer-Procure-Construct.................12
Development of Operating Costs ...........................................................12
Investment Analysis and Aspen Process Economic Analyzers Link to Your
Spreadsheets......................................................................................12
Alternative Capacities and Locations ......................................................12
Detailed, Interactive Process Economics .................................................13
Links to Project Evaluation Programs......................................................13
Understanding Aspen Process Economic Analyzers Project Workflow ....................13
The Guide ....................................................................................................14
Organization.......................................................................................14
Related Documentation ..................................................................................15
Installation Guide ................................................................................15
Known Issues and Workarounds ............................................................16
New Features in Aspen Engineering V7.0 ................................................16
Icarus Reference .................................................................................16
Piping and Instrumentation Drawings .....................................................16
Technical Support .........................................................................................16
Online Technical Support Center............................................................16
2 Getting Started...................................................................................................17
Starting Aspen Process Economic Analyzer........................................................17
Starting a Project Scenario .............................................................................18
Creating a New Project Scenario............................................................18
Importing an Aspen Process Economic Analyzer 5.0/5.1 Project Scenario ....22
Opening an Existing Project Scenario ...............................................................24
Understanding the Icarus Interface..................................................................26
Project Explorer ..................................................................................26
Main Window ......................................................................................28
List View ............................................................................................30
Palette...............................................................................................32
Properties Window...............................................................................34
Customizing the Icarus Interface ...........................................................35
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer's Toolbar ............................................36
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer Menu Bar............................................38
Working with Project Scenarios .......................................................................42
Saving Project Scenarios ......................................................................42
Deleting Project Scenarios ....................................................................43

1 Introduction

Salvaging Project Scenarios ..................................................................44


Unlocking Project Scenarios ..................................................................45
Copying Project Directories ...................................................................46
Preferences ..................................................................................................46
General..............................................................................................47
Forms................................................................................................48
Backup ..............................................................................................49
Process ..............................................................................................49
Locations ...........................................................................................50
Logging .............................................................................................53
3 Defining the Project Basis ..................................................................................55
Project Properties..........................................................................................56
General Project Data .....................................................................................57
Importing old Standard basis files ...................................................................58
Basis for Capital Costs ...................................................................................58
Input Units of Measure Customization ....................................................59
Output (Reports) Units of Measure Customization ....................................61
General Specs ....................................................................................62
Construction Workforce ........................................................................70
Indexing ............................................................................................74
Process Design .............................................................................................77
Simulator Type and Simulator File Name ................................................77
Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs .............................................77
Project Component Map Specifications....................................................80
Default Simulator Mapping Specs...........................................................82
Design Criteria ....................................................................................86
Utility Specifications ............................................................................98
Investment Analysis .................................................................................... 101
Investment Parameters ...................................................................... 101
Operating Unit Costs.......................................................................... 107
Raw Material Specifications................................................................. 108
Product Specifications ........................................................................ 111
Developing Streams .................................................................................... 114
Viewing or Modifying an Existing Stream............................................... 115
Mixture Specs Dialog Box ................................................................... 118
Estimation of Utility Usage and Resulting Costs in Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer .......................................................................................... 119
Stream Connectivity .......................................................................... 120
Creating A New Stream ...................................................................... 121
Deleting a Stream ............................................................................. 124
Specification Libraries .................................................................................. 125
Customizing Specification Libraries ...................................................... 126
Selecting to Use a Different Specification File ........................................ 129
Changing File Directory Location.......................................................... 129
4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data .............................................................131
Overview ................................................................................................... 131
Preparing Simulation Reports ........................................................................ 131
AspenPlus Report Generation .............................................................. 132
AspenPlus Aspen Process Economic Analyzer Simulator link .................. 135
ChemCAD Report Generation .............................................................. 136

1 Introduction

HYSIM Report Generation ................................................................... 137


HYSYS Report Generation ................................................................... 139
SimScis PRO/II with PROVISION Report Generation............................... 141
Loading Simulation Data .............................................................................. 143
Viewing Data Derived from Simulator ................................................... 145
Working with Block Flow Diagrams ................................................................ 146
Displaying the Block Flow Diagram....................................................... 146
The Drag & Find Feature .................................................................... 147
Accessing Commands in the Block Flow Diagram.................................... 148
Zooming .......................................................................................... 148
BlockFlow Diagram View Menu ............................................................ 150
Mapping Simulator Items to Icarus Project Components ................................... 151
Component Status............................................................................. 157
Deleting Mappings ............................................................................. 158
Tower Configurations................................................................................... 158
Sizing Selection .......................................................................................... 169
Project Sizing Selection ................................................................................ 169
Specifying Additional Components ................................................................. 171
Working with Process Flow Diagrams ............................................................. 171
Editing the Layout ............................................................................. 172
Process Flow Diagram View Menu ........................................................ 172
Setting Grid Properties ....................................................................... 175
Editing Connectivity ........................................................................... 175
Adding a Stream ............................................................................... 177
Drawing a Disconnected Stream .......................................................... 179
Working with Streams........................................................................180
5 Defining Project Components ...........................................................................181
Adding an Area ........................................................................................... 182
Adding a Project Component......................................................................... 182
Method 1: Dragging a Component from the Palette ................................ 183
Method 2: Using the Pop-Up Menu ....................................................... 184
Entering Component Specifications ................................................................ 186
Defining Installation Bulks ............................................................................188
Matl/Man-hours Adjustments.............................................................. 189
Matl/Man-hours Additions .................................................................. 191
Pipe General Specs ......................................................................... 191
Pipe Item Details ............................................................................ 191
Duct ................................................................................................ 193
Civil ................................................................................................ 194
Steel ............................................................................................... 194
Instrumentation ................................................................................194
Electrical ..........................................................................................197
Insulation......................................................................................... 197
Paint ...............................................................................................198
Defining Area Specifications..........................................................................198
Method 1: Defining area specifications using Project View ....................... 198
Method 2: Defining area specifications using Spreadsheet View................ 200
Importing Areas and Components.................................................................. 200
Importing an Entire Scenario ........................................................................201
Copying Components ................................................................................... 202
Cut and Paste ................................................................................... 203

1 Introduction

Drag and Drop .................................................................................. 203


Modifying Components................................................................................. 203
Copying Areas ............................................................................................204
Deleting Components ..................................................................................204
Re-numbering Components ................................................................ 204
Deleting Areas ............................................................................................205
Re-Numbering Areas.......................................................................... 205
Using the Custom Model Tool ........................................................................ 206
Creating a Template ..........................................................................210
Running the Custom Model Tool at Project-Level for Batch Update............ 211
6 Sizing Project Components...............................................................................213
Overview ................................................................................................... 213
Sizing for Project Components Mapped from Simulator Items .................. 213
Interactive Sizing Expert .................................................................... 214
Sizing for Project Components Not Mapped from Simulator Items............. 215
Resizing Project Components .............................................................. 215
Creating Streams to Connect to Equipment Items ............................................ 216
Using the Interactive Sizing Form .................................................................. 219
Utility Resources ............................................................................... 222
Global Sizing Selection................................................................................. 226
Sizing Areas ............................................................................................... 229
Sizing Requirements, Calculations, and Defaults .............................................. 230
Air Coolers ....................................................................................... 230
Agitated Tanks.................................................................................. 232
Compressors .................................................................................... 233
Crushers ..........................................................................................234
Crystallizers ..................................................................................... 235
Dryers .............................................................................................236
Dust Collectors .................................................................................236
Filters ..............................................................................................237
Heat Exchangers ............................................................................... 238
Pumps ............................................................................................. 240
Screens ........................................................................................... 242
Towers ............................................................................................243
Vessels ............................................................................................255
7 Piping and Instrumentation Models .................................................................263
Interconnecting Volumetric P&ID Lines ........................................................... 263
Open an Aspen Capital Cost Estimator project ....................................... 263
Run Interconnect Piping Lines ............................................................. 264
Connecting Piping Lines...................................................................... 265
Disconnecting Piping Lines .................................................................. 266
Renaming a Line Tag ......................................................................... 267
Saving All Connections and (optionally) Updating the Project ................... 268
Getting the Connected Line List Report ................................................. 268
Mapping Streams to Piping Lines ................................................................... 269
Mapping Streams to Piping Lines ......................................................... 271
Un-mapping Streams to Piping Lines .................................................... 271
Using the Auto-Map Option ................................................................. 272

1 Introduction

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries ................................................................276


Equipment Model Library (EML)..................................................................... 276
Unit Cost Library (UCL) ................................................................................276
Developing and Using an Equipment Model Library (EML).................................. 277
Creating an EML................................................................................ 277
Adding an Item to an EML .................................................................. 278
Adding an EML Item to a Project Scenario............................................. 280
Developing and Using a Unit Cost Library (UCL)............................................... 281
Creating a Unit Cost Library ................................................................ 282
Adding an Item to a UCL .................................................................... 283
Adding a UCL Item to a Project ........................................................... 285
Creating an Assembly of UCL Items ..................................................... 287
Working with Cost Libraries .......................................................................... 291
Copying a Library Item....................................................................... 291
Deleting a Library Item ...................................................................... 291
Escalating Library Costs ..................................................................... 291
Importing a Cost Library .................................................................... 292
Duplicating a Cost Library................................................................... 293
Deleting a Cost Library....................................................................... 294
9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location..............................................................295
Changing Plant Capacity............................................................................... 295
Analyzer Scale-Up Module (ASM)................................................................... 297
How ASM Works................................................................................ 297
Scale-Up Rule Set ............................................................................. 297
Scale-Up for Configuration Analysis...................................................... 298
Analyzer Relocation Module (ARM)................................................................. 298
Relocation Terminology ...................................................................... 299
Workflow ......................................................................................... 299
Relocating the Project ........................................................................ 302
ARM Knowledge Base......................................................................... 303
10 Analyzer Utility Modules.................................................................................311
Introduction ............................................................................................... 311
Analyzer Utility Modules (AUM) Design and Scope Generators for Utility
Systems ..........................................................................................311
AUM_CW: Cooling Water Utility Selection, Sizing, and Design Module ....... 312
AUM_Air: Instrument and Plant Air Utility Selection, Sizing, and Design
Module ............................................................................................ 312
Analyzer Utility Module (AUM) Cooling Water (AUM_Water) ............................... 313
Introduction to Analyzer Utility Module (AUM) Cooling Water ................... 313
1. Overview.....................................................................................314
2. Working with the Cooling Water Model............................................. 316
3. Working with the Cooling Water Model Worksheets............................ 322
4. Basis for the Cooling Water Design Model......................................... 330
Notes to Analyzer Utility Model (AUM) Users: ........................................ 340
AUM_Air ....................................................................................................341
Utility Design and Scope Generator for Instrument and Plant Air .............. 341
Overview ................................................................................................... 341
Project areas and their project components........................................... 341
Benefits: .......................................................................................... 342

1 Introduction

How AUM_Air Works .......................................................................... 342


General AUM_Air Workflow ........................................................................... 342
Using AUM_Air............................................................................................ 343
Accessing AUM_Air ............................................................................ 343
The Initial Design .............................................................................. 345
Modifying Air Instrument, Plant Data ................................................. 346
Guide for the Air Utility Model (AUM).............................................................. 349
SPECS Organization Chart .................................................................. 350
About this SPECS Book ...................................................................... 350
About an Air Plant Unit....................................................................... 351
About Distribution Piping for an APU .................................................... 352
Schematic ........................................................................................ 353
Configuration of Air Utility Project Components................................................ 353
Project Components .......................................................................... 354
An Air Plant Unit - APU .................................................................... 354
Schematic of an Air Plant Unit ............................................................. 355
General Layout ................................................................................. 355
Multiple Air Plant Units for Multiple Areas .............................................. 356
Compressor Redundancy: Multiple, Stand-by, Start-up ........................... 356
Design Considerations ................................................................................. 357
Units of Measure ............................................................................... 357
Air Utility Area .................................................................................. 357
Air Utility Project Components............................................................. 357
Instrument Air (IA) Requirements: Air Flow Rate ................................... 358
Plant Air (PA) Requirements: Air Flow Rate ........................................... 358
Compressor Model Selection Method .................................................... 359
Interactive Specs ........................................................................................ 362
User Preferences ............................................................................... 363
Equipment Redundancy......................................................................363
Equipment Configurations................................................................... 363
Basis for Design: Preferences - 1 ........................................................ 364
Configuration Layout Method and Distribution........................................ 366
Example layout group of areas served by APU A ............................... 367
Circuit Preferences: Configuration of APUs ........................................... 367
Sample Layouts: One APU .................................................................368
Sample Layouts: Multiple APUs........................................................... 368
Design Methods .......................................................................................... 368
Basis for Sizing Air Distribution Piping .................................................. 368
Sample AUM_Air Worksheets ........................................................................ 370
List of AUM_Air Worksheets ................................................................ 370
Welcome Worksheet .......................................................................... 371
Control Center Worksheet................................................................... 371
Guide Worksheet............................................................................... 372
Status Worksheet.............................................................................. 377
Preferences Worksheet....................................................................... 379
Configuration Part 1: Assignment of Plant Air to Areas Not Requiring
Instrument Air ..................................................................................381
Configuration Part 2: Assignment of Areas to an APU.............................. 381
Report Equipment Component Stats .................................................. 382
Report Pipe Stats............................................................................384

1 Introduction

11 Evaluating the Project ....................................................................................385


Running a Project Evaluation ........................................................................ 385
Reviewing and Revising Process Economics in the Analyzer Economics Module ..... 387
Loading the Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) ...................................... 387
Overview of Workbooks...................................................................... 388
Revising Premises ............................................................................. 397
Saving AEM Workbook ....................................................................... 399
Discussion of Economic Premises ......................................................... 399
Reviewing Results in Aspen Icarus Reporter .................................................... 405
Accessing Aspen Reporter................................................................... 405
Which Report Mode? .......................................................................... 407
Standard Reports .............................................................................. 407
List of Standard Reports ..................................................................... 412
HTML Reports ................................................................................... 415
Management Reports ......................................................................... 417
Excel Reports ...................................................................................420
Data Trending...................................................................................425
Importing Data into Aspen Icarus Reporter ........................................... 428
Creating a User Database ................................................................... 429
Reviewing Results in Icarus Editor ................................................................. 430
Accessing Icarus Editor ...................................................................... 430
Printing a Single Section..................................................................... 431
Icarus Editor Toolbar ......................................................................... 431
Report Sections.................................................................................432
Reviewing Investment Analysis ..................................................................... 439
Viewing Investment Analysis............................................................... 440
Equipment Summary ......................................................................... 440
Project Summary .............................................................................. 441
Cashflow .......................................................................................... 448
Executive Summary........................................................................... 453
Using the Reporting Assistant.............................................................. 455
Steps to customize the Run Summary worksheet:.................................. 459
Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls>>Template worksheet:...... 460
Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls>>User defined functions:... 460
Item Evaluation ..........................................................................................462
Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping .......465
Index ..................................................................................................................499

1 Introduction

1 Introduction

10

1 Introduction

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, formerly known as Icarus Process


Evaluator (IPE), is designed to automate the preparation of detailed designs,
estimates, investment analysis and schedules from minimum scope definition,
whether from process simulation results or sized equipment lists. It lets you
evaluate the financial viability of process design concepts in minutes, so that
you can get early, detailed answers to the important questions of "How
much?", "How long?" and, most importantly, "Why?".

Main Features
Links to Process Simulator Software
Programs
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, formerly known as Aspen Icarus Process
Evaluator, uses expert system links to effect the automatic transfer of your
process simulator output results. Links are available to process simulator
programs from AspenTech, Chemstations, Hyprotech, SimSci and others.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer can link to virtually any commercial and
proprietary process simulator program.

Mapping of Simulator Models to Process


Equipment Types
Mapping relates each process simulator model to one or more of Aspen
Process Economic Analyzers list of several hundred types of process
equipment. A simulator heat exchanger model might be mapped to a fin-tube
type; a distillation model might be mapped into several items, such as trayed
tower, kettle-type reboiler, overhead condenser, and horizontal drum. Aspen
Process Economic Analyzers expert equipment selection makes the mapping
easy, allowing you to map one item at a time or all at once.

1 Introduction

11

Sizing of Equipment
Size of equipment is a prerequisite to costing and the results of size
calculations performed during process simulation are loaded automatically by
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. With Aspen Process Economic Analyzer,
you can revise sizes, enter your values for unsized equipment or develop
sizes using Aspen Process Economic Analyzers built-in expert sizing
programs.

Capital Investment and Schedules:


Engineer-Procure-Construct
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer checks and prepares all of the necessary
specifications for detailed design, estimation, scheduling, and economic data.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer contains built-in, up-to-date knowledge
bases of:
Design, cost and scheduling data, methods and models.
Engineering, procurement and construction methods and procedures.
Critical path programming for development of design, procure and construct
schedules.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer comes with time-proven, field-tested,
industry-standard design and cost modeling and scheduling methods used by
project evaluators for projects worldwide. Aspen Process Economic Analyzers
detailed results are not based on factors. Aspen Process Economic Analyzers
estimates and schedules are consistent, being derived from your project
scope definition.

Development of Operating Costs


Aspen Process Economic Analyzer develops operating costs in tune to your
process design. You can override Aspen Process Economic Analyzers values
and with each revision, you can see the impact of your choice on investment
analysis measures of profitability.

Investment Analysis and Aspen Process


Economic Analyzers Link to Your
Spreadsheets
In addition to Aspen Process Economic Analyzers basic measures such as
return on investment, payout time and discounted cash flow rate of return,
your spreadsheet programs can be linked to Aspen Process Economic
Analyzers investment analysis data.

Alternative Capacities and Locations


Analyzer allows you to evaluate alternate plant capacities and locations. You
can make a percentage adjustment to the capacity, and Analyzer will

1 Introduction

12

automatically re-size all project components and stream flows. You can
change the plant location (choosing from twenty-two different countries), and
Analyzers plant relocation technology will automatically revise the design and
cost basis parameters, including parity exchange rate, workforce rates,
productivities, and construction practices.

Detailed, Interactive Process Economics


Analyzers detailed economics module lets you perform interactive economic
scenarios. It develops key economic measures, including payout time, interest
rate of return, net present value, and income and expenses on changing any
economic premise. It performs economic analyses over the time line of a
project, from the strategic planning phase through engineering, procurement
and construction of the process facility, into start-up and throughout the
production life of the process facility. You can study the impact of cyclic
changes in market conditions and identify economic threats and opportunities
upon changing costs of feedstocks, products and/or utilities for each period in
the life of a project.

Links to Project Evaluation Programs


After your evaluation and selection of the best design, Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer can prepare a project specs file in SPECS format. Then,
project evaluators using these systems can easily develop detailed funding or
bidding estimates and schedules.

Understanding Aspen Process


Economic Analyzers Project
Workflow
Before using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, it may be helpful to review
the recommended project workflow.

1 Introduction

13

Notes:

This workflow is recommended if you are bringing process simulator data


into Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. However, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer lets you perform the same evaluation on a process comprised of
areas and components that you add in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer,
rather than mapped from simulator models.

During the project workflow, you can go back to previous steps to refine
the project.

The Guide
Organization
This guide contains the following:

1 Introduction

14

Chapter 1 Introduction an overview of Aspen Process Economic Analyzer


and the user's guide, as well as a list of related documentation and
information on technical support.
Chapter 2 Getting Started instructions on how to start Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer, open a project, enter project specifications, and work with
the Icarus Interface.
Chapter 3 Defining the Project Basis instructions on defining
specifications: units of measure, standard basis, component map, design
criteria, investment analysis, raw material, product, operating unit costs, and
utility.
Chapter 4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data instructions on
preparing different kinds of simulator reports for use in Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer, loading simulator data, mapping simulator models to
Icarus project components, adding additional components to simulator
models, and viewing and defining simulator models in Block Flow Diagram
(BFD) and Process Flow Diagram (PFD) view.
Chapter 5 Defining Project Components instructions on defining project
components, which are the pieces of the process plant that, when linked
together, complete a process.
Chapter 6 Sizing Project Components instructions on sizing project
components.
Chapter 7 Piping and Instrumentation Models instructions on connection
pipelines between components and creating piping line list reports for
connected lines.
Chapter 8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries instructions on developing
cost libraries and adding library items as project components.
Chapter 9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location instructions on
modifying plant capacity and locations, as well as details on the parameters
affected by these modifications.
Chapter 10 - Analyzer Utility Modules instructions on using Analyzer Utility
Modules for cooling water and air.
Chapter 11 - Evaluating the Project instructions on running a project and
item evaluations and reviewing capital costs, operating costs, and investment
analysis reports.

Related Documentation
In addition to this document, a number of other documents are provided to
help users learn and use Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. The
documentation set consists of the following:

Installation Guide
Aspen Engineering V7.0 Installation Guide

1 Introduction

15

Known Issues and Workarounds


Aspen Engineering V7.0 Known Issues

New Features in Aspen Engineering V7.0


Aspen Engineering Suite V7.0 What's New

Icarus Reference
Aspen Icarus Reference Guide, for Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE)

Piping and Instrumentation Drawings


IcarusPIDV7.0_Ref.PDF, for Icarus Piping and Instrumentation Drawings

Technical Support
Online Technical Support Center
AspenTech customers with a valid license and software maintenance
agreement can register to access the Online Technical Support Center at:
http://support.aspentech.com
H0TU

UTH

You use the Online Technical Support Center to:

Access current product documentation.

Search for technical tips, solutions, and frequently asked questions


(FAQs).

Search for and download application examples.

Search for and download service packs and product updates.

Submit and track technical issues.

Search for and review known limitations.

Send suggestions.

Registered users can also subscribe to our Technical Support


e-Bulletins. These e-Bulletins proactively alert you to important technical
support information such as:

1 Introduction

Technical advisories

Product updates

Service Pack announcements

Product release announcements

16

2 Getting Started

Starting Aspen Process


Economic Analyzer
After completing the installation, you can start Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer.

To start Aspen Process Economic Analyzer:


1

Click the Windows Start button, point to Programs, and then point to
AspenTech.

On the AspenTech menu, point to Economic Evaluation 7.0; then point


to Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer starts. The Main window, empty because
no project is open, appears on the left. The Palette appears in the upper-right
and the Properties window appears in the lower-right.

2 Getting Started

17

You can change the position of these windows, as explained later in


Customizing the Icarus Interface (page 35).
X3H

Starting a Project Scenario


Note: Viewing the sample project scenario provided with Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer before creating a new one will allow you to familiarize
yourself with Aspen Process Economic Analyzer without having to fill out
specifications. To open the sample project, follow the instructions under
Opening an Existing Project Scenario on page 24.
X34H

Creating a New Project Scenario


To create a new project scenario:
1

Do one of the following:

On the File menu, click New.

-or

Click

on the toolbar.

The Create New Project dialog box appears.

2 Getting Started

18

Note: You can create scenarios in project directories other than the default
one provided by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. See Preferences
Locations on page 50 for instructions on adding project directories.
X35H

Either click an existing project in which to start a new scenario, or enter a


new Project Name. Long filenames are accepted, including spaces.
However, punctuation marks, such as question marks (?), exclamation
points (!), tildes (~), and asterisks (*), are not allowed.

Enter the Scenario Name.

This is the name of the scenario within the project. As with the Project Name,
long filenames are accepted, including spaces, while punctuation marks, such
as question marks (?), exclamation points (!), tildes (~), and asterisks (*) are
not allowed.
If you do not enter a Scenario Name, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer uses
BaseCase as the default.
4

Click OK.

The Project Properties dialog box appears.

Enter a Project Description. The description can be up to 500 characters in


length and can be comprised of letters, numbers, and punctuation. . The

2 Getting Started

19

description can be edited later by accessing Project Properties from the


Project Basis view (see page 56).
X36H

In the Units of Measure section, you can keep the default basis of
Inch-Pound (IP) or select Metric. The Units of Measure selection cannot be
changed after creating the project scenario.

If desired, enter more details about the project scenario in the Remarks
field. Remarks can be up to 6,000 characters in length and can be
comprised of letters, numbers, and punctuation. Remarks can be edited
later by accessing Project Properties from the Project Basis view (see page
56).
X37H

Click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Input Units of Measure


Specifications dialog box, which allows you to customize the units of
measure that appear on specification forms.

For example, if you want to use CM/H (centimeters per hour) instead of M/H
(meters per hour) to specify conveyor belt speed in your metric-basis project,
do the following:
9

Select Velocity and Flow Rate; then click Modify.

10 On the Velocity and Flow Rate Units form, enter CM/H as the new unit
name for M/H. Then enter the conversion factor between the two units in
the Conversion field. In this example, the conversion factor between the
two units is 100 because:
100 CM/H = 1 M/H.

2 Getting Started

20

11 Click OK to accept the modifications and return to the previous dialog box.
When finished modifying input units of measure, click Close.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the General Project Data form,
where you can select a country base and currency.

The default country base is US and the default currency is Dollars (USD).
Changing the country base automatically changes the currency to that of the
country base. You can, however, enter a currency different than that of the
country base. Just be sure to also enter a currency conversion rate (the
number of currency units per one country base currency unit).
Country base affects various system default values. Chapter 36 of Icarus
Reference provides a table listing the default values used for each country
base.

2 Getting Started

21

This is the only time you can enter country base and currency. Other
specifications on this form can be entered later by selecting General Project
Data in the Project Basis view (see page 57).
X38H

12 Click OK when finished entering General Project Data.


The Main Window now displays Project Explorer and the List view. See
Understanding the Icarus Interface on page 26 for instructions on working
with these and other features now available on the interface.
X39H

Importing an Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer 5.0/5.1 Project Scenario
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer provides an Import feature so that you can
import your Aspen Process Economic Analyzer 5.0 or 5.1 project scenarios
into Aspen Process Economic Analyzer V7.0. You can also select an Analyzer
2.0B project scenario to import.
The Import feature allows you to use Additional Project Component files in
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer V7.0. In order to do so, you must first
import the Additional Project Component file into an Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer 5.0/5.1 project scenario and then import the Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer 5.0/5.1 project scenario into Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer V7.0.

To import an Aspen Process Economic Analyzer 5.0/5.1 or


Analyzer 2.0B project scenario:
1

Do one of the following:

On the File menu, click New.

-or

Click

on the toolbar.

The Create New Project dialog box appears.

2 Getting Started

22

Note: You can create scenarios in project directories other than the default
one provided by Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator. See Preferences Locations
on page 50 for instructions.
X340H

Either select an existing project in which to start a new scenario, or enter


a new Project Name. Long filenames are accepted, including spaces.
However, punctuation marks, such as question marks (?), exclamation
points (!), tildes (~), and asterisks (*), are not allowed.

Type the Scenario Name.

This is the name of the scenario within the project. The selected Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer 5.0 or Analyzer 2.0B project files project and
component specifications will be imported into this scenario.
Again, long filenames are accepted, including spaces, while punctuation
marks, such as question marks (?), exclamation points (!), tildes (~), and
asterisks (*) are not allowed.
After making an entry in the Scenario Name field, the Import button
becomes active.
4

Click Import.

The Select Import Type dialog box appears.

Select either Aspen Process Economic Analyzer 5.0 and 5.1 or Analyzer
2.0B and click OK.

The Browse for Folder dialog box appears.

2 Getting Started

23

Click the project scenario folder; then click OK.

The project scenarios settings will be imported into the new project scenario.

Opening an Existing Project


Scenario
To open an existing project scenario:
1

Do one of the following:

On the File menu, click Open.

-or

Click

on the toolbar.

The Open Existing Project dialog box appears.

Note: In the pictured dialog box, the project named Expansion has been
expanded on the tree structure to show the scenario named BaseCase.

2 Getting Started

24

The tree structure on the left side of the dialog box displays the projects in
the default project folder:
...\AspenTech\Economic Evaluation V7.0\Data\Archives_Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer
Clicking + next to a project expands the view to display the scenarios under
that project. Selecting a scenario displays the following scenario information
in the pane on the right:

Version of Aspen Process Economic Analyzer in which the


scenario was created

Name of the user who created the scenario

Name of the computer on which the scenario was created

Units of measure used in the scenario

Click a scenario; then click OK.

The project scenario opens. The Main Window now displays Project Explorer
and the List view. See Understanding the Icarus Interface on page 26 for
instructions on working with these and other features now available on the
interface.
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Palette Shortcut
You can also open a project from the Palette, which appears to the right of
the Main Window in the default interface arrangement (it can also be floated
in the Main Window or dragged onto the Main Window and re-sized, as shown
below).

To open a project from the Palette :

In the Projects view tab, right-click a scenario; then, on the menu that
appears, click Open.

This opens the selected scenario.

2 Getting Started

25

Understanding the Icarus


Interface
The Icarus interface lets you see multiple windows and documents. You can
customize the interface arrangement.
The following is the default interface arrangement, with a specifications form
open in the Main Window.

The Icarus interface includes the following features:


Title Bar - Displays the project file name and current Main Window view.
Menu Bar - Displays menu options.
Toolbar - Allows access to Aspen Process Economic Analyzer functions. See
page 36.
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Main Window - Provides workspace for all Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
documents, List view, specification forms, and other views. See page 28.
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Project Explorer - Organizes project items in tree format. See page 26.
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Palette - Allows access to libraries, projects, and components. See page 32.
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Status Bar - Displays Aspen Process Economic Analyzer system status.


Properties Window Describes the field selected on specifications form.
See page 32.
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Project Explorer
Project Explorer is a graphical representation of the project. It has three
views:

Project Basis view

Process view

Project view

2 Getting Started

26

Each view organizes items in a tree format.

To switch views:

Click the appropriate tab at the bottom of Project Explorer. (Stretching the
width of the Project Explorer will display the full names on the tabs.)

The different views are described on page 27.


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To expand a tree level:

Click the

PLUS SIGN

next to the condensed level.

To condense a tree level:

Click the

MINUS SIGN

next to the expanded level.

Project Explorer Views


Project Basis View displays project basis specifications. Double-click on a
specification to view and/or modify it. A red arrow on an icon in this view
indicates that you can right-click on the icon for options.
Level

Icon

Description

Specifications folder

Specification

Process View displays simulator data information. In this view, simulator


items can be mapped to Icarus project components. Mapped items can then
be sized, modified, and/or deleted.
Level

Icon

Description

Main Project, containing a group of simulator areas

Process simulator area

Unmapped simulator block (yellow)


Mapped simulator block (green)

As in a process simulator, like AspenPlus or HYSYS, blocks represent different


operations within the process. A block is sometimes referred to as a unit
operation.
Project View displays project data information. In this view, mapped items
can be sized, modified, and/or deleted. In addition, new areas and Icarus
project components can be defined.
Level

Icon

Description

Main Project, containing the default Main Area and any


user-added areas

Area

Project component

2 Getting Started

27

Main Window
The Main Window is located to the right of Project Explorer by default. The
Main Window is a workspace for all Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
documents, the List view, and other views. The relative size of each window
can be adjusted by clicking on the division bar and dragging it to the desired
location.

Here, the Main Window in Workbook Mode displays several tabs because a
component specifications form and a project specifications form have been
opened.

Workbook Mode
By default, the Main Window is in Workbook Mode. In this mode, tabs are
placed at the bottom of the window. These tabs represent all windows open in
the Main Window. Clicking on a tab brings the associated window to the
foreground.
Clicking Tile or Cascade on the Window menu displays all windows open in
the Main Window. Regardless of the window arrangement, the tabs are still
at the bottom of the Main Window when in Workbook Mode. Clicking the
maximize button ( ) on a window returns all windows to full tab view.
Clicking the condense button ( ) on the menu bar displays all windows open
in the Main Window as they were when last condensed.

2 Getting Started

28

This is how the Main Window appears when in Workbook Mode with
Cascade selected as the condensed window arrangement.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer lets float Project Explorer, the Palette, and
the Properties Window in the Main window. When in this state, these windows
behave identically to other windows that are part of the Main Window. See
Customizing the Icarus Interface on page 35 for details.
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You can turn off Workbook Mode by unmarking Workbook Mode on the
View menu.

When Workbook Mode is off, no tabs are displayed. In this Mode, to bring a
window to the front, you must click on the desired window or select the
desired window from the Window menu.

2 Getting Started

29

List View
The List view in the Main Window displays details on items selected in
Project Explorer. For example, when you click on an area in Project Explorers
Project view, the List view displays a list of all components in the area. This
is referred to as the area-level list (shown below), in which the components
are displayed in rows with component details in columns. When you click on a
component in Project Explorers Project view, the List provides information
only on the selected component, with component details listed in rows. This is
referred to as the component-level.

Note: In the interface arrangement pictured here, the Palette and the
Properties Window have been hidden to make room for the Main Window.
to

press

hide or display the Palette

ALT+1

hide or display the Properties Window

ALT+2

hide or display Project Explorer

ALT+0

Filtering Mechanism
You can limit area-level lists to a single category of component. To do so,
click the drop-down arrow on the toolbar and click on a category.

2 Getting Started

30

For example, if you click ? Incomplete Items, the list will only include
components that still have specifications that need to be entered in order for
the component to be included in an evaluation.

Column Settings
You can select which columns appear on the area-level list and in which
order.

To change column settings on the area-level list:


1

Right-click on any of the column headings.

A pop-up menu lists all of the columns. Columns currently displayed are
checked.

To simply hide/unhide a column, click it on the menu.

To change the order, click Settings on the menu.

The Settings dialog box appears.

To move a column to the right on the List View, click Move Down.

To move a column to the left, click Move Up.

2 Getting Started

31

To return the columns to the default setting (shown above), click Reset.

Click OK to save the settings.

When you restart Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, all columns will be
displayed in the default order unless Save Window States is selected in
Preferences (by default, Save Window States is selected). See Saving
Window States on page 36 for more information.
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Palette
The Palette contains elements that you can apply to the project scenario. If
you think of Project Explorer as a picture of the project scenario, you might
think of the Palettes contents as the pigments and dyes used to first sketch
out and then color in that picture.
For example, if you wish to import areas or components from another
scenario into your current scenario, you can double-click on the scenario in
the Palette to get a listing of its areas and components and then drag the
area/component to the Project Explorers Project View. (See Importing Areas
and Components on 198.)
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Likewise, the Palettes Libraries view contains libraries of Project Basis


specification files that, in Project Explorers Project Basis view, you can select
to use. From the Palette, you can develop the libraries by creating new files,
modifying existing files, and importing files. (See Specification Libraries on
page 125.)
X352H

2 Getting Started

32

Finally, when you add a component to the project scenario, you can choose
from the components listed in the Palettes Components view. Then, after you
add the component, it appears in Project Explorers Project view. (See
Adding a Project Component on page 182).
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In the default interface arrangement, the Palette appears on the right side of
the screen. Like Project Explorer, it can be displayed in a variety of ways. See
Customizing the Icarus Interface (page 35) for display options. To
hide/display the Palette, press ALT+1 or used the checked command on the
View menu.
X354H

As indicated previously, the Palette has three views: Projects, Libraries, and
Components. The Components view, shown below, has a scrollable split
window that displays details on equipment items. The division bar can be
adjusted to hide or expand the details section.
Note: The Palette pictured in this section has been dragged onto the Main
Window and re-sized.

In addition to allowing you to import the contents of other scenarios, the


Projects view provides options for opening scenarios, viewing scenario
properties, and deleting scenarios. Right-click on a project scenario to access
the pop-up menu of options. The Projects view displays all projects in the

2 Getting Started

33

default project folder and any other active project folders. (See Preferences,
particularly the Locations subsection on page 50, for instructions.)
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Properties Window
When you select a field on a specifications form, the Properties Window
provides a description of the field. The description often includes minimum,
maximum, and default values.

Here, the Properties Window (docked on the right side of the screen) displays
information on the Heat Transfer Area field, which is selected on the
specifications form.
Clicking on the Properties Window freezes and unfreezes the content. When
the content is frozen, you can move to another field while retaining the
description of the original field in the Properties Window.

2 Getting Started

34

Like the Palette and Project Explorer, the Properties Window can be displayed
in a variety of ways. See Customizing the Icarus Interface on page 35 for
display options.
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To hide/display the Properties Window, press ALT+2 or use the checked


command on the View menu.

Customizing the Icarus Interface


In the default interface arrangement, Project Explorer docks to the left edge
and the Palette and the Properties Window share the right. When docked,
windows remain attached to an edge and all other windows are sized to fit in
the remaining space available.
Clicking on a border of any of these three windows accesses a pop-up menu
from which you can select Allow Docking. When Allow Docking is marked, the
window can be docked to any edge.

Note: When the Float In Main window is selected on the pop-up menu, the
Allow Docking option is inactive.

To dock to a different edge:


1

Click the border that contains the Close button ( ) and hold down the
mouse button. A bounding outline will appear as you drag the window.

Drag the outline to the desired edge and release the mouse button.

2 Getting Started

35

When multiple windows are docked to the same edge, you can use the
division bar to adjust the relative sizes. You can also use the Contract/Expand
( / ) buttons to either switch from one window to the other or split the
side.

Undocking by Dragging onto Main Window


One way to undock the window is by dragging it onto the Main Window. Its
size can then be adjusted.
Float In Main Window Option
You can at any time select Float In Main Window on the pop-up menu. In this
state, the window behaves like the List view or a specifications form, with a
tab at the bottom of the Main Window.

Saving Window States


If you are using the default Preferences, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
will save the interface arrangement. This way, when you open Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer the arrangement is the same as you left it.
You can also set the Preferences so that Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
opens displaying the default arrangement. See Preferences, particularly the
subsection on the General tab view (page 47), for more information.
X357H

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer's Toolbar


By default, the toolbar is docked under the menu bar. However, you can float
the toolbar by clicking on a blank area of the toolbar and dragging it. You can
also dock the toolbar to the bottom of the screen or vertically to the edge of
the Project Explorer, Main Window, or the Palette. To do so, drag the toolbar
over any one of these areas until an outline of the toolbar appears. Release
the mouse button when the outline appears in the desired area.

2 Getting Started

36

The following toolbar buttons are available in Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer:
Click
this

to
Create a new project scenario. See Creating a New Project Scenario on
page 18.
X358H

Open an existing project scenario. See Opening an Existing Project


Scenario on page 24.
X359H

Save the current project. See Saving a Project Scenario on page 42.
X360H

Print.
Load simulator data. See Loading Simulator Data on page 143.
X361H

Map simulator items to corresponding Icarus project components and size


the component. See Mapping Simulator Items on page 151.
X362H

Run project evaluation. See page 385 for instructions.


X36H

Load Capital Costs and other reports. See page 405 for instructions.
X364H

Load investment analysis results. See page 439 for instructions.


X365H

Edit connectivity in Process Flow Diagram (PFD) view. See on Editing


Connectivity on page 175.
X36H

Add stream in PFD view. See Adding a Stream on page 177.


X367H

X368H

Draw disconnected stream in PFD view. See Drawing a Disconnected


Stream on page 179.
X369H

X370H

Zoom in. Active in PFD and Block Flow Diagram (BFD) view.
Zoom out. Active in PFD and BFD view.
Hide/Display ports in PFD view.
Go back. Navigate back through previously viewed links.
Go forward. Navigate forward through previously viewed links.

Other buttons that appear on the toolbar are always inactive in Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer. They are for use in other Icarus programs.

2 Getting Started

37

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer Menu Bar


File Menu

Click
this

to

New

Start a new project scenario. Details on page 18.

Open

Open an existing project scenario. Details on page 24.

Close

Close the current project scenario.

Save

Save the current project scenario. Details on page 42.

Save As

Save the current project scenario as a different file. Details on page 42.

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X372H

X37H

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Import

Access instructions for importing areas and components. Details on page


200.
X375H

Export
to
Icarus
2000

Save the current project scenario as an Icarus 2000 (*.ic2) project file.

Print

Print the form or report currently active in the Main Window.

Print
Preview

Preview how form or report will appear printed.

Print
Setup

View and modify printer name and properties, paper size and source, and
orientation.

Page
Setup

Define page specifications.

Exit

Close Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.

2 Getting Started

38

Run Menu

Click this

to

Load Data

Load simulator data. See page 143 for details.

Map Items

Map simulator items to Icarus project components and size


components. See page 151 for details.

X376H

X37H

Evaluate
Project

Run a project evaluation. See page 385 for details.

Develop
Schedule

This sub-menu contains commands for use in Aspen In-Plant Cost


Estimator only.

Scan for
Errors

Scan for potential errors in the project evaluation.

Add Entry for


Reporting
Assistant

Generate report based on template in Reporting Assistant. See pages


455 through 455 for instructions.

Regenerate
Block
Diagram

Regenerate the Block Flow Diagram. If you have indicated that some
of the simulator streams are utility streams, the placement of blocks
will reflect this.

Regenerate
Process Flow
Diagram

Regenerate the Process Flow Diagram. See Working with Process


Flow Diagrams, page 171, for details.

Reroute All
Streams

Reroute all streams on the Process Flow Diagram.

Re-number

Re-number project components or project areas so that the


numbering contains no gaps. Details on page 204.

X378H

X379H

X380H

X381H

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2 Getting Started

39

View Menu

Click this

to

Toolbar

View or hide the toolbar. See page 36 for description of the toolbar.

Status Bar

View or hide the status bar. See page 26 for description of the status
bar.

Project
Explorer

View or hide Project Explorer. See page 26 for description of Project


Explorer.

Palette

View or hide the Palette. See page 32 for description of the Palette.

Properties
Window

View or hide the Properties Window. See page 32 for a description of


the Properties Window.

Workbook
Mode

Turn Workbook Mode on and off. See page 28 for an explanation of


Workbook Mode.

Capital Costs
View

Launch Aspen Icarus Reporter for interactive reports (on-screen,


HTML, or Excel) or Icarus Editor for evaluation reports (.ccp). The
Project Evaluation needs to have already been run. See page 405 and
page 430 for details.

X38H

X384H

X385H

X386H

X387H

X38H

X389H

X390H

Investment
Analysis View

Display Investment Analysis spreadsheets. See Reviewing


Investment Analysis on page 439 for details.

Block Flow
Diagram

Display Block Flow Diagram of the loaded simulator data. See page
146 for details.

Process Flow
Diagram

Display Process Flow Diagram. This command is not active until you
have mapped the simulator items. See page 171 for details.

Streams List

Display a read-only list of all simulator-derived stream properties in a


spreadsheet. You can customize some of the features of the
spreadsheet (which stream properties to display, whether to display
names of the properties, and the display style of the property values)
by editing the stream list template file:

X391H

X392H

X39H

...\ Economic Evaluation V7.0\Data\ICS\strlist.fil


Error
Messages

2 Getting Started

Display error messages found in the last Capital Costs evaluation.

40

Tools Menu

Click this

to

Icarus Editor

Launch Icarus Editor. See Reviewing Results in Icarus Editor on


page 430 for instructions.
X394H

External
Simulation
Import Tool

Access the simulator link for importing simulation data. See page 139
for instructions on using this tool with HYSYS.

Options

Access Options sub-menu. See below.

X395H

Options Sub-Menu of Tools Menu

Click this

to

Automatic
Item
Evaluation

Automatic Item Evaluation

View
Spreadsheets
in Excel

Have the results normally reported in Icarus spreadsheets exported to


Excel. The following Excel workbook, containing some Excel macros,
is provided as a sample:
...\ Economic Evaluation V7.0\Data\ICS\IpeWb.xls
A copy of this workbook also resides in each project directory. When
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer needs to report the results (that is,
when you click the Investment Analysis button), the results will be
exported to ASCII delimited files and loaded into IpeWb.xls. The
macro contained in the workbook will also be run.

Reporting
Assistant

Access the Reporting Assistant Options dialog box, where you can
create your own customized report spreadsheets, combining
information from all other Icarus generated spreadsheets. See pages
455 through 455 for details.
X396H

X397H

Custom Tasks

This command is reserved for future releases.

Preferences

Access Preferences. See page 47 for details.

2 Getting Started

X398H

41

Window Menu

Click this

to

Cascade

View the Main Window contents in Cascade mode. See page 28.

Tile

View the Main Window contents in Tile mode. See page 28.

Arrange Icons

Return all minimized windows to the bottom of the Main Window.

# XXX

View opened window in the Main Window.

X39H

X40H

Help Menu

Click this

to

Contents

Access Aspen Icarus Online Help.

Documentation

Display list of available documentation.

Training

Display training information.

Product
Support on the
Web

Display product support information.

About

Display program information and copyright.

Working with Project Scenarios


This section explains how to save, delete, salvage, and unlock project
scenarios.

Saving Project Scenarios


To save a project scenario:

2 Getting Started

Click

on the toolbar or click Save on the File menu.

42

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer saves any changes.


If you are using the default Preferences settings, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer will ask if you wish to save any changes when you close the project
scenario.

You can select in Preferences not to have this prompt appear (see page 47).
X401H

To save the scenario with a new name:


1

Click Save As on the File menu.

Save As is useful when studying alternatives.


Note: You can save scenarios to project directories other than the default
one provided by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. See Preferences,
particularly the Locations subsection on page 50, for instructions.
X402H

Specify a Project Name and Scenario Name and click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer saves the scenario as specified.

Deleting Project Scenarios


Delete project scenarios when they are no longer needed. Deleting old
scenarios opens free disk space and makes working with scenarios easier.

To delete a project scenario:


1

2 Getting Started

In the project directory, right-click the scenario within and, on the menu
that appears, click Delete.

43

A dialog box asks you to confirm deletion.

Note: You can select in Preferences not to have this prompt appear (see
page 47).
X403H

Click Yes to delete the project scenario.


-orClick No to retain the project scenario.

Salvaging Project Scenarios


If you exit Aspen Process Economic Analyzer abnormally without being able to
save the current project scenario, you can salvage the project scenario from
cached project information.

To salvage a project scenario


1

Restart Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.

A window appears asking if you wish to save the cached information found in
storage.

2 Getting Started

44

Click Yes.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Salvage Project As dialog


box.

Specify a project and scenario name.

You cannot overwrite the scenario being salvaged. Y you must specify a
project and scenario name different from that of the original scenario.
4

Click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer creates the new scenario. Except in name,
this project scenario is identical to the scenario that was open when Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer was abnormally exited. After creating the new
scenario, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer asks if you want to open it.

Unlocking Project Scenarios


If Aspen Process Economic Analyzer crashes while you have a project scenario
open, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer remembers that you have the project
scenario checked out. When you re-open Aspen Process Economic Analyzer,
you will have to unlock the project scenario before opening it.
Anyone trying to open a locked project is denied access and provided with a
message that states the time the project scenario was checked out, the user
name of the person who checked it out, and the computer on which it was
checked out.

A project can only be unlocked by the user who checked it out or by an


administrator.

2 Getting Started

45

To unlock a project scenario

Right-click on the project scenario in the Palette and click Unlock on the
pop-up menu.

You can now open the project scenario as you normally would.

Copying Project Directories


Within a project directory, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer creates an
independent folder for each project and also creates, within a project folder,
an independent folder for each project scenario. This makes it easy to move
project scenario files from one computer to another on the same network.
Simply copy and paste the folder in Windows Explorer.
You can also copy an entire project directory with multiple project and project
scenario folders. Doing so creates an identical set of folders and files in the
new location.
Note: You can copy project directories only in Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer V7.0. To use an Aspen Process Economic Analyzer 5.0/5.1 project
scenario, you must import it first (see page 22 for instructions).
X40H

See Preferences, particularly the Locations subsection on page 50, for


information on adding project directories and setting a new default project
directory.
X405H

Preferences
The settings in Preferences allow you to specify how Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer will act each time it is used.

To access Preferences:
U

On the Tools menu, click Options.

On the menu that appears, click Preferences.

2 Getting Started

46

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Preferences dialog box.

Click

To do this

OK

Save changes and close the Preferences.

Apply

Save changes without closing Preferences.

Cancel

Close Preferences without saving changes. (Clicking Apply and then


immediately clicking Cancel would have the same effect as clicking OK.)

General
In the General tab view, you can select the following:
Prompts
Select which prompts appear.
Close Project prompt to save any changes when closing project.
Overwrite Project prompt to confirm overwriting project that has the same
name as the one being created.
Delete Project prompt to confirm deletion of project.
Delete Area prompt to confirm deletion of area.
Delete Component prompt to confirm deletion of component.
Cancel Component Edit prompt to save changes when you click Cancel after
editing a Component Specifications form.
Delete Library prompt to confirm deletion of library.

2 Getting Started

47

Delete Report Group prompt to confirm deletion of Report Group in Aspen


Capital Cost Estimator. Does not apply to Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.
Evaluation
Display results after evaluation - mark to have Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer open a detailed results report after you run an evaluation.
Scan for Errors before evaluation mark to have Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer scan for errors before evaluation.
Item Report
Select which type of report you wish to display when generating an Item
Report.
HTML Item Report mark to display the HTML Item Report, like the one
shown on page 462, in the Main Window
X406H

Capital Cost Report mark to display the Capital Cost Report in Icarus Editor.
Reporter Report mark to display the Single Component Summary, exported
from Aspen Icarus Reporter, in the Main Window.
Display
Save Window States mark to have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer save
the position of Project Explorer, the Main Window, the Palette, and the
Properties Window, as well as selected columns on the List view. Unmark to
have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer open with the default interface
arrangement (shown on page 26).
X407H

Display Aspen Capital Cost Estimator & Analyzer Choice Dialog on Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer mark to have Aspen Capital Cost Estimator ask
you at startup whether to use Aspen Process Economic Analyzer and/or
Analyzer in the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer environment. This option is
included here because Preference selections (except for file locations) made in
one product affects all other Aspen Icarus products in the AES suite.
Show Report Group in Aspen Capital Cost Estimator mark to have Aspen
Capital Cost Estimator display Report Groups.

Forms
The Forms tab view provides options related to Component Specification and
Installation Bulk forms.
Display P&I Installation Bulks in Grid mark to have Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer display all items on the Installation Bulk specification
forms for Pipe and Instrumentation. If you unmark the checkbox, Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer allows you to select, when opening the form, the
items to include.
Use OK Button in Installation Bulks Form to Go to Main Component
Form mark to have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer return you to the
main Component Specifications form when you click OK at an Installation
Bulks form. Otherwise, clicking OK simply closes the Component
specifications.

2 Getting Started

48

Save Component When Switching to Different Installation Bulk or


Main Component Form mark to have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
save the Component specifications when you switch to a different form on the
Components Options menu.

Backup
The Backup tab view lets you select when backups are to be performed. You
can select both options.
Automatic Task Backup mark to have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
perform a backup before executing major tasks, such as a project evaluation.
Timed Backup (Interval, in minutes) mark to have Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer perform a backup at a specified interval. Specify the
interval in the box provided.
You can also select to either have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer overwrite
the project backups or create unique backups.
Overwrite Project Backups mark to have Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer overwrite the previous backup every time the program performs a
backup.
Unique Project Backups mark to have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
retain previous backups by creating a unique backup each time. Depending
on the frequency of backups (see task and timed backup options above),
selecting Unique Project Backups could result in large amounts of disk space
being consumed by backups.

Process
The Process tab view provides options for importing from an external project.
Import Connected Streams mark to include connected streams when
importing an external project.
Import Installation Bulks mark to include installation bulks when
importing an external project.
The Process tab view also provides options for unsupported simulator models
and custom model tool activation.
Map Unsupported Models To Quoted Cost Item mark to have Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer map, by default, unsupported simulator models to
quoted cost items.
Unsupported Models refer to models not listed in the Project Component
Map Specifications dialog box shown on page 80. Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer does not recognize them and, therefore, cannot map them to Icarus
project components. If this option is left unmarked, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer will not map unsupported models. As a result, a unit operation could
appear disconnected in the Process Flow Diagram (PFD).
X408H

Quoted cost items are not project components, but act as place markers to
ensure that unit operations remain connected in the PFD.

2 Getting Started

49

Note that marking this option will not affect the mapping of supported
simulator models. If a simulator model is listed in the Project Component Map
Specification dialog box, then the specified mapping will be used. Further, if a
simulator model is listed and has no default mapping (that is, Current Map
List section is blank), then it is assumed that the user does not want to map
such simulator models to any Icarus project components.
For example, if this option is marked, a USER unit operation in Aspen Plus can
be mapped to a quoted cost item if this option is marked. This ensures that
the unit operation remains connected in the PFD.
Activate Custom Model mark to activate the Custom Model tool explained
on pages 206 through 212.
X409H

X410H

Use Automatic Mapping Selection when Available (Beta feature)


Mark to use the Mapping Selection feature explained in the section on 'Default
and Simulator Data' Mapping.
H1TU

UTH

Locations
In the Locations tab view, you can select:
Project Directories
Add/remove alternate project directories and set the default project
directory. See Adding Project Directories on page 51 for instructions.
X41H

Other Locations Specifications

To specify the location of various specification files and


data:
1

Click an item in the list to display its description and location.

Click the Browse button to select a new location.

Note: In some cases the description warns against changing the location.
Note: Make sure to create the IP and MET subfolder structure when
changing the source locations for library files that are units dependent (for
example, Basis for Capital Cost, EML, UML, Custom Piping Specs, and so
on).

2 Getting Started

50

Adding Project Directories


Aspen Process Economic Analyzer comes set up with two project directories:
...\AspenTech\Economic Evaluation V7.0\data\My Econ_Process
Projects
...\AspenTech\Economic Evaluation
V7.0\data\Archives_Econ_Process
These directories, by default,are the sole choices of project directory when
opening or saving a new project, as well as the only directories displayed on
the Palettes Projects view.

To add a project directory and set a new default


1

2 Getting Started

On the Locations tab view of the Preferences dialog, click Add.

51

The Browse for Folder dialog box appears.

Select the folder you wish to add as an alternate directory and click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer adds the directory to the Alternate


Project Directories list.

To set an alternate project directory as the default, select it and click Set
Default.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays a prompt asking you to confirm the
change.
4

2 Getting Started

Click Yes to set the new default.

52

If the old default location is not on the list of alternate project directories,
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays another prompt asking if you wish
to add it to the list.

Click Yes or No.

Note: Adding the old default directory to the alternate project directory list
lets you easily revert to it.
6

Click OK to save the changes to Preferences.

Before the added project directory appears on the Create New Project dialog
box and elsewhere, you will need to either restart Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer or else right-click on the current project in the Palette and click
refresh on the pop-up menu.

Logging
The Logging tab view is reserved for future releases, in which it will be used
to help clients with Technical Support issues. It is not currently activated.

2 Getting Started

53

2 Getting Started

54

3 Defining the Project Basis

The Project Basis defines specifications that pertain to the overall project
scenario. These specifications influence the design and cost estimate by
defining system defaults and environmental variables.
Project Basis Specifications are accessed from the Project Basis view in
Project Explorer.

A red arrow on an icon indicates that you can right-click on the item to access
a pop-up menu.

3 Defining the Project Basis

55

This chapter describes the different Project Basis specifications, as well as


how to customize specification libraries.

Project Properties
Project Properties are initially specified when creating a new project.

To access Project Properties:

Right-click on Project Properties in the main Project Basis folder, and


then click Edit.

The Project Properties dialog box appears.

You cannot edit:

Project Name

Scenario Name

Units of Measure

You can specify these only when creating a new project.


You can edit the following:

Project Description: The description entered here appears as the Project


Description on the Project Summary spreadsheet and as the Brief
Description on the Executive Summary spreadsheet. The project
description is shared by all scenarios that are under the project. The
description can be up to 500 characters in length and can be comprised of
letters, numbers, and punctuation.

Remarks: Any remarks entered will appear immediately after the Title
Page of evaluation reports in Icarus Editor. Remarks can be up to 6,000
characters in length and can be comprised of letters, numbers, and

3 Defining the Project Basis

56

punctuation. Remarks might include, for example, the intended purpose of


the estimate, executive summary of results, or an explanation of
assumptions.

General Project Data


General Project Data is initially specified when creating a project.

To access General Project Data:


1

Right-click on General Project Data in the main Project Basis folder.

In the menu that appears, click Edit.

The Standard Basis Input File Specifications form appears.

You cannot edit:

Units of Measure

Country Base

Currency Symbol

These can only be specified when creating a new project.


You can edit the following:

3 Defining the Project Basis

57

Currency Conversion Rate: The number of currency units per one


country base currency unit. This is for when you are using a currency
other than that of the country base.

Project Title: Appears as the project title on reports in Aspen Icarus


Reporter and Icarus Editor and appears as the Scenario Description on the
Project Summary spreadsheet.

Estimate Class: Appears on the Title Page in Icarus Editor. Intended to


indicate the purpose of specifications (for example, budget).

Job Number: Appears on the Title Page in Icarus Editor.

Prepared By: Appears at the top of reports generated by Aspen Icarus


Reporter and on the Title Page in Icarus Editor.

Estimate Date: Appears immediately under the project title at the top of
the Title Page in Icarus Editor. Reports generated by Aspen Icarus
Reporter also include an Estimate Date; however, the Estimate Date
shown in Aspen Icarus Reporter is the date on which the project
evaluation was run.

Importing old Standard basis


files
1

Open your Aspen Icarus Project Evaluator Software.

Go to the Libraries tab.

Click Basis for Capital Costs.

Right-click either Inch-Pound or Metric.

Click IMPORT.

The dialog that appears defaults to looking for the .D01 files for your Aspen Process

Economic Analyzer project.

Browse to the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project you want to import.

Click the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project file to import.

Your Aspen Process Economic Analyzer template (standard basis file) is now
in the new Aspen Icarus Project Evaluator system.

Basis for Capital Costs

The Basis for Capital Costs folder includes:

Units of measure customization.

General specs affecting capital and operating costs, including contingency


(based on specified process description, process complexity, and project
type) , process control, location, engineering start date, soil conditions,
vessel design code, and level of instrumentation.

Workforce wage rates (for both the overall project and by craft),
productivities, and workweek definition.

Indexing of material costs and man-hours by COA.

3 Defining the Project Basis

58

Input Units of Measure Customization


Input Units of Measure Customization allows you to customize the units of
measure that appear on specification forms.
Input Units of Measure Customization can only be accessed from outside of
the project in the Palettes Libraries view. It does not appear in the Project
Explorers Project Basis view.

To customize input units of measure:


1

With no project open, expand the Basis for Capital Costs folder in the
Palettes Libraries view. Expand the appropriate units of measure basis
folder Inch-Pound or Metric. Right-click on one of the specification files
and click Modify.

Note: If you are modifying a file you will need to later select the file in the
project. To do so, right-click on Basis for Capital Costs in the Project
Explorers Project Basis view, click Select, and select the file.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Basis for Capital Costs
library in Project Explorer.

In the Units of Measure Customization folder, right-click on Input and click


Edit on the pop-up menu.

The Input Units of Measure Specifications dialog box appears.

3 Defining the Project Basis

59

If, for example, you want to use CM/H (centimeters per hour) instead of
M/H (meters per hour) to specify conveyor belt speed in your metric-basis
project, click Velocity and Flow Rate and then click Modify.

On the Velocity and Flow Rate Units form, enter CM/H as the new unit
name for M/H. Then enter the conversion factor between the two units in
the Conversion field. In this example, the conversion factor between the
two units is 100 because:

100 CM/H = 1 M/H.

Click OK to accept the modifications and return to the previous dialog box.

When finished modifying input units of measure, click Close.

3 Defining the Project Basis

60

Output (Reports) Units of Measure


Customization
Output (Reports) Units of Measure Customization allows you to customize the
units of measure that appear on Capital Costs and other reports.

To customize output units of measure


1

Right-click on Output (Reports) Units of Measure Customization in the


Basis for Capital Costs folder in Project Explorers Project Basis view, and
then click Edit on the pop-up menu.

The Output Units of Measure Specifications dialog box appears.

You can change the basis for all output units of measure by selecting a
different basis in the Unit of Measure Basis section; however, note that this
voids all previous customizations.
2

To customize only individual units, such as velocity and flow rate units,
select the unit type and click Modify. Then, for each unit you wish to
change, enter the new unit name and the conversion factor (between the
old and new units).

3 Defining the Project Basis

61

In this example, centimeters per hour (CM/H) replaces meters per hour
(M/H). A conversion factor of 100 has been entered because 100 CM/H = 1
M/H.
3

For example, if you want to use CM/H (centimeters per hour) instead of
M/H (meters per hour) to specify conveyor belt speed in your metric-basis
project, enter CM/H as the new unit name for M/H. Then, enter the
conversion factor between the two units in the Conversion field. In this
example, the conversion factor between the two units is 100 because 100
CM/H = 1 M/H.

Click OK to accept the modifications and return to the previous dialog box.

When finished modifying output units of measure, click Close.

General Specs
General Specs greatly affect the total capital and operating cost of the
project.

To access General Specs:


1

Right-click General Specs in the Project Basis views Basis for Capital
Costs folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit. menu.

The section of the Standard Basis file containing General Specs appears in a
specification form.

3 Defining the Project Basis

62

Process Description, Process Complexity and Project Type combine to


generate contingency (as a percent of total project cost). They are
interdependent, and the final value is a nonlinear combination of the
individual contribution. As an example of the various rule-based deductions
used, consider the selections made in the Standard Basis file pictured above:

Process Description: New and unproven process

Process Complexity: Highly complex

Project Type: Grass roots/Clear field

Since the process is new and unproven, contingency value is made high
compared to the base condition. Also, since the process complexity is high,
the contingency is raised again. The Grass roots/Clear field project type
lowers the contingency because of reduced site constraints.
Note: You must clear the Contingency Percent field for the system to
calculate the contingency based on your changes.
Field

Description

Process
Description

Also drives the design allowances for all


equipment whose material cost is systemgenerated. User-entered costs are not
affected. A new and unproven process has
a higher design allowance compared with a
proven process. This is applied against all
non-quoted equipment

Process
Complexity

Used to adjust contingency. Highly


complex implies high
temperature/pressure and more

3 Defining the Project Basis

63

Field

Description
instrumentation and controllers (for
example, batch), whereas simplicity
implies offsites.

Process Control

You can provide either digital, analog or


distributed control system for the project
and the process control strategy is fixed
with this choice.

Project Information
Project Location

Adjusts the various location dependent


cost fields based on the actual
geographical location of the project site.
The system calculates values such as
freight (domestic and ocean), taxes/duties,
wage rates and workforce productivities.

Project Type

Used to determine the configuration of the


projects electrical power distribution and
process control systems.

Contingency
Percent

This field will have the value of the


contingency percentage calculated by the
standard basis expert based on user
specification of project information. This
allows you to modify the value estimated
by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. This
value represents:
Construction Contingency
Material Contingency
Engineering Contingency

Estimated Start
Year/Month/Day
of Basic
Engineering

These three fields show the year, month,


and day that the basic engineering will
begin. Refer to Icarus Reference, Chapter
31: Engineering, for a definition of
engineering functions.

Soil Conditions
Around Site

Specifies the nature of the soil most


prevalent around the construction site.
This impacts the development of all
foundations, the amount of pilings
developed, any excavation and trenching
work items, and construction rental
requirements. Icarus Reference, Chapter
19: Civil, provides soil type definitions.

3 Defining the Project Basis

64

Field

Description

Equipment Specification
Pressure Vessel
Design Code

Specifies the design code used for pressure


vessels design. The following design codes
can be chosen:
ASME = ASME code, Section VIII, Div 1
BS5500 = British code, BS5500
JIS = Japanese code, B8243
DIN = German Code, AD Merkblatt

Vessel Diameter
Specification

Specifies the vessel dimension in the


component specification form as inside
diameter (ID) or outside diameter (OD).

P and I Design
Level

Specifies the level of instrumentation


provided for the equipment. The P and I
may be standard instrumentation (STD) or
highly instrumented (FULL). Refer to the
Piping and Instrumentation Drawings for
instrumentation on specific equipment.

Data Affected by General Specs


The following is a detailed description of the data affected by the General
Specs and the magnitude of their effect depending on the different selections.

Domestic Freight (% of material)

Specifies cost of domestic freight as a percentage of material costs. The value


for this field depends on the project location selected in the standard basis.
Domestic freight percentages for the different locations are:

North America = 4

South America = 5

Central America = 5

Europe = 1

Asia = 1

Africa = 4

Australia =

Ocean Freight (% of material)

Specifies cost of ocean freight as a percentage of material costs. The value for
this field depends on the project location selected in the standard basis.
Ocean freight for the different locations is adjusted based on the percentage
of plant material that can be purchased locally. The percent adjustments for
the different locations are:

3 Defining the Project Basis

North America = 0

South America = 8

Central America = 5

65

Europe = 0

Asia = 0

Africa = 8

Australia = 12

The final value of the field is calculated by the following formula:


O.F (%) = % Adjust * (100 - % material locally purchased) / 100

Taxes/Duty (% of material)

Specifies taxes as a percentage of total material costs. The value used in the
capital cost evaluation depends on the project location chosen in the file. They
are:

North America = 6.25

South America = 4.00

Central America = 4.00

Europe = 0.00

Asia = 6.00

Africa = 4.00

Australia = 7.00

Contingency (%)

Specifies allowance for contingencies as a percentage of the bare plant cost.


This field depends on the selection made for the following fields in the
standard basis file:
o

Process Description

Process Complexity

Project Type

You must clear the Contingency Percent field for the system to calculate the
contingency based on your changes.
The following data defines the general design conditions to be applied to the
entire project being estimated; this information is used to reflect the desired
project design methodology.

Equipment Design Allowance (%)

Specifies percent allowance for design changes for system developed


equipment costs. The value depends on the selection made in the Process
Description field. The following values are selected for the different project
conditions:

New and unproven process = 15

New process = 10

Redesigned process = 7

Licensed process = 5

Proven process = 3

Equipment Rotating Spares (%)

Specifies a percentage of the purchase cost of all rotating equipment in the


estimate to allow for spare rotors, seals and parts. The allowance for spares is
developed based upon-0 purchased equipment cost values for pumps,

3 Defining the Project Basis

66

compressors, drivers and generators. The following value is chosen for the
above field based on the project location:

North America = 7

South America = 10

Central America = 10

Europe = 7

Asia = 10

Africa = 15

Australia = 7

Soil Condition at Site

Specifies the soil type used to develop data for civil work throughout the
project. Based on the soil type chosen, soil loading and soil density are
selected. Icarus Reference, Chapter 19, provides a complete definition for all
the soil types. Once the soil type is selected, the system automatically selects
the type of piles used in the project. The following pile types will be selected:
Soil Type

Pile Type

Soft clay

Creosoted wood - 18-30 tons

Firm clay

Creosoted wood - 18-30 tons

Wet sand

Creosoted wood - 18-30 tons

Sand+clay

Precast concrete - 24-50 tons

Dry sand

Precast concrete - 24-50 tons

Sand

Precast concrete - 24-50 tons

Gravel

Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons

Soft rock

Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons

Hardpan

Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons

Med-rock

Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons

Hard rock

Steel h-pile - 60-170 tons

Pile foundations are designated according to the country base default


capacities and spacing. Pile foundations are provided for equipment and
structures whose weight (including concrete) exceeds one-half the pile
compression capacity.

Power Distribution

The type of project is used to configure the electrical power distribution


system inside Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. The power distribution
specification generated by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer provides the
means of designating MAIN and UNIT substations and the cabling between
them
Note that no transmission LINE is provided for any of the different choices of
Project Type.
Components Included
Project Type

3 Defining the Project Basis

MAIN Substation

UNIT

67

Grass roots/Clear
field

Transformers,
Switchgears

MCC, SW
Transformer

Plant addition adjacent to existing


plant

Switchgear

MCC

Plant addition inside existing


plant

Switchgear

MCC

Plant addition suppressed


infrastructure

None Added

None Added

Plant Modifications
/ Revamps

Switchgear

MCC

In addition, for plant modifications/revamps, the capital cost excludes cable


costs related to connecting the main substation with the unit; in contrast, for
the remaining project types, a default distance of 1,000 FEET [300 M]
(excluding hook-up allowance) is used to cost the power distribution
components.

Process Control

Specifies the desired type of control scheme: Analog, DDCTL (Distributed


Digital), or PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers)
Project
Schedule

Components Included
Project Type

Operator Center

Control Center

The system
Grass roots/Clear field YES
YES
develops a
Plant
addition
NO
NO
project schedule
suppressed
based upon the
infrastructure
estimate scope
All others
NO
YES
of work
including dates and durations for design engineering, procurement, delivery
of materials and equipment, site development and construction. The
construction schedule is integrated with the cost estimate to provide the basis
for estimation of schedule-dependent costs such as equipment rental
requirements, field supervision and construction management.
The schedule commences at the start of basic engineering, as indicated by
the date for basic engineering in the standard basis file.
In addition, the General Specs provide defaults for various general design
conditions that control project design methodology. This in turn affects costs
for equipment, material and manpower, and the overall project schedules.
These defaults are not editable in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. The
following defaults (based on their major categories) are used by Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer to convey specifications for the project design
data:

3 Defining the Project Basis

68

Item

Defaults

Equipment

Remote shop fabrication maximum


dimensions:
Maximum diameter: 14.5 FEET [4.5 M]
Maximum length: 100 FEET [30 M]
Maximum weight: 250 TONS [225 TON]

Piping

Pipe Fabrication: Remote shop fabricated


piping

Specifies the general method of pipe


fabrication for the project.
Civil

Concrete Mix type: READY - Ready mix


(purchased)

Steel

Steel finish type: PT painted steel

Project Schedule

Start engineering phase: BASIC Basic


engineering phase
Delivery Schedule Adjust (%): 100

Specifies an adjustment, as a
percentage, to the schedule durations
developed by the system for delivery of
equipment items, bulk materials, control
system. This adjustment applies to
receipt of vendor data and
fabricate/ship lead times.
Construction Schedule Adjust (%):100

Specifies an adjustment, as a
percentage, to the schedule durations
developed by the system for all
construction manpower.
Bar Symbol: *

Specifies the symbol to be used to print


summary activity bars.
Gap Symbol: -

Specifies the symbol to print the gaps


within activity bars.
Critical path symbol: c

Specifies the symbol to be used to print


the critical path.
User bar symbol: x

3 Defining the Project Basis

69

Symbol for printing user-defined bars on


bar charts.
Engineering
Adjustment for
Basic Engineering
Phase

% man-hour: 100

Engineering
Adjustment for
Detailed
engineering Phase

% man-hour: 100

Contracts
(scope/definition)

Contract number: 1

Adjustment of the duration of the basic


engineering phase. A value less than
100% will shorten the duration. A value
greater than 100% will increase the
duration.
Adjustment of the duration of detail
engineering. A value less than 100% will
shorten the duration. A value greater
than 100% will increase the duration.

Specifies the number used to reference


this contract, its description, scope of
effort and profile of indirects,
overheads, fee, contingency, etc.
Company title: PRIME CONTRACTOR

Specifies the description of the contract.


This description is used as the title in
appropriate reports.

Construction Workforce
Construction Workforce specifications are divided into General Rates and Craft
Rates.

General Rates
The General Wage Rates information globally sets wage rates and
productivities for all crafts.
To access:
1

Right-click on General Wage Rates in the Project Basis views Basis for
Construction Workforce folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit.

3 Defining the Project Basis

70

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Wage General Info


specifications form in the Main Window.

Descriptions of the General Wage Rate specifications follow.


Field

Description

Number of
shifts

Number of shifts used during construction. If


any premium pay is involved with second
and third shift work (beyond overtime pay),
such premium should be indicated by a
properly averaged craft rate per shift.

Productivity
adjustment

Specifies whether to use multi-shift


/workweek adjustments or not.

Indirects

If wage rates are to be treated as


all-inclusive, the indirects may be deleted for
this workforce by specifying -. Selecting an
all-in rate suppresses all construction
indirects: fringes, burdens, small tools,
construction rental equipment, etc.

All Crafts Percent of Base


Workforce
reference
base

3 Defining the Project Basis

Enter B for system base. (Reference to a


previously defined workforce number applies
to Icarus 2000 only.)

71

Field

Description

Wage Rate
percent of
base

Wage rates for all crafts as a percentage of


reference base wage rates.

Productivity
percent of
base

Productivities for all crafts as a percentage of


reference base wage rates.

All Crafts Fixed Rates


This input may be used to globally set the wage rates and
productivities of all crafts in this workforce to fixed values.
Wage rate all
crafts

Specifies the fixed wage rate (in the project


currency) for all crafts in the workforce. See
discussion in Icarus Reference.

Productivity all Specifies the fixed productivity value for all


crafts
crafts in this workforce. See discussion in
Icarus Reference. If no value is specified,
the system defaults to 100%.
Work week per Refer to the description of workforces in
shift
Icarus Reference for the effect of changing
the work week and number of shifts upon
productivity and job duration. The standard
workweek plus overtime must not exceed 84
hours per week per shift.
Standard work Specifies number of standard hours per
week
week per man per shift.
Overtime

Specifies number of overtime hours per


week per man per shift.

Overtime rate
percent
standard

Specifies overtime pay expressed as a


percentage of standard pay (for example,
time and one half = 150%).

General Craft Wages


The general craft wages are for crafts that could appear in
most crews and whose productivities and/or wage rates are
dependent on the type of crew.
Helper wage
rate

UK Base only. Specifies wage rate for craft


help as a fixed rate to be used in all crews.

Helper wage
percent craft
rate

UK Base only. Specifies the wage rate for


craft help as a percent of the principal craft
in the crew. This value must be less than
100%.

3 Defining the Project Basis

72

Field

Description

Foreman wage Specifies the wage rate for foremen as a


rate
fixed rate to be used in all crews. Default:
110% of rate of highest paid craft in crew.
Foreman wage Specifies the wage rate for foreman as a
percent craft
percent of the highest paid craft in crew.
rate
This value must be greater than or equal to
100%. Default: 110% of rate of highest
paid craft in crew.

Craft Rates
Craft Rates set the wage rate and productivity individually for each craft.

To access:
1

Right-click on Craft Rates in the Project Basis views Basis for Capital
Costs\Construction Workforce folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Wage Rate Info specifications
form in the Main Window.

To add multiple definitions to Craft Wage Rates, click the Add button on
the button bar:

Use these fields to set the wage rate and productivity individually for each
craft.

Field

Description

Craft
wages/prod.

Wage rates and productivities may be


assigned to individual crafts. Those

3 Defining the Project Basis

73

Field

Description
crafts not referenced are assigned wage
rates and productivities specified in
General Wage Rate or the system
default values.

Craft code

Identifies the craft to which the


following wage rate and productivity
apply.
The craft code must be an existing
system craft code.

Wage rate/mh

Specifies the wage rate (in the project


currency) for this craft for standard
hours.

Productivity

Specifies the productivity of this craft


as a percentage of the systems base.
(See discussion in Icarus Reference.)

Indexing
The Material and Man-hour specification forms in the Indexing folder allow
you to manipulate the material and/or man-hour costs for process equipment
and installation bulks. You can also adjust these indexes by location by using
the Location specification form.
For example, you could specify to increase the material costs associated with
a type of process equipment.
Indexing is used to tailor Aspen Process Economic Analyzer to mimic your
work methods and costs. If your equipment costs for a category are
consistently offset from Aspen Process Economic Analyzers values, use
Indexing to correct that.

To adjust the Material or Man-hour index


1

Right-click on Material or Man-hour and click Edit.

3 Defining the Project Basis

74

To adjust the index for all equipment or for all of one of the installation
bulks, enter the index value in the box provided. For example, entering
200 in the Equipment box will double the material costs for all items
under the equipment account group.

To adjust the index for a sub-category, click the arrow-button in the box. This
accesses a similar form listing sub-categories corresponding to the Code of
Accounts (see Icarus Reference, Chapter 34, for a complete list). Adjustments
to a sub-category override adjustments to the account-group.
3

Click OK to close the form and apply changes.

To adjust by location
1

Right-click on Location and click Edit.

Type the location description.

Type the Code of Account (COA) to indicate the start of the COA range, or
click the red arrow and then click Select by the subcategory on the COA
Subcategory Selection window.

3 Defining the Project Basis

75

The Equipment COA Selection window appears.

Click Select again by the COA.

The COA is entered on the form.


5

Do the same to indicate the end of the COA range.

3 Defining the Project Basis

76

Enter the amount to escalate material costs and/or the amount to escalate
man-hour costs.

To escalate another range, click Add.

Click OK to close the form and apply changes.

Process Design
The Process Design specifications are used in Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer projects that contain a simulator input. These specs allow Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer to map simulator models into Icarus project
components. For example, a distillation column model in a simulator may be
mapped to a combination of equipment such as a double diameter tower, an
air-cooler (for a condenser), a horizontal tank (for a reflux drum), a general
service pump (for a reflux pump) and a thermosiphon reboiler.
The Process Design Specifications indicate the default settings that the
system uses for mapping all models of the same class. These specs can be
customized in files and used in many projects.

Simulator Type and Simulator File Name


Simulator Type and Simulator File Name are described under Loading
Simulator Data on page 143.
X412H

Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs


The Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs are used in mapping simulator
units to Aspen Process Economic Analyzer units, serving as the
cross-reference.

To access:
1

Right-click on Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs in the Project


Basis views Process Design folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit.

3 Defining the Project Basis

77

The Units of Measure Specification dialog box appears.

Note: Each simulator cross-reference UOM file contains a basis (which may
be METRIC or I-P). The basis indicates the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
base units set to which simulator units will be converted.
The left side of the screen displays the simulation output units. The right side
of the screen displays the corresponding Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
units. The conversion factors between the two units are entered in the lowercenter section of the screen.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer provides a set of common simulator units
and their conversions to Aspen Process Economic Analyzer units. You can
modify and/or add units to these files.
Specifying the Mapping for a Simulator Unit

To specify the mapping for a simulator unit:


1

Select the simulation unit from the Units Used list in the Simulation
Output section. In the example below, the simulation unit is CM/HR
(Centimeters/Hour).

Select the appropriate units category from Units Category list in the Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer section. In the example below, the units
category is Velocity.

Select the appropriate Aspen Process Economic Analyzer unit from Units
list in the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer section. In the example
below, the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer unit is M/H (Meters/Hour).

3 Defining the Project Basis

78

Note: If an equivalent Aspen Process Economic Analyzer unit is not found,


select Miscellaneous as the Units Category and map the simulator unit to
Other in the Units window.

Enter the conversion factor between the two units (the simulation unit and
the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer unit) in the Conversion Factor box.
In the example below, the conversion factor between 100 CM/HR = 1 M/H

Click Save to save the mapping.

When a unit has been mapped and saved, a green box appears next to the
simulation unit. A yellow box indicates the unit is not mapped.

Deleting a Mapping
To delete a mapping

Select the simulator unit; then click Delete.

Removing a Unit
To remove a particular unit from the simulation units list

Select the unit; then click Remove.

3 Defining the Project Basis

79

Adding a Unit
To add a new unit to the list, enter the new unit symbol in the New Units to
Add box in the Simulation Output section and click Add. Changes will not
affect existing project components.

Changing Existing Components


To change existing components:
1

Unsize the item or unmap the items and then re-map and re-size.

Once all of the units have been specified, click OK to store and save the
specifications.

It is critical that all simulator units of measure be mapped into Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer units. When the simulator output is loaded, Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer identifies all units of measure in the file. Any units not
mapped in the projects current simulator cross-reference UOM specification
are automatically added to the list and you are alerted to the need to define
the mapping and re-load the file.
You must correct this in order to continue without problems. Complete the
steps above to specify the mapping for a simulator unit. Scroll through the
Units Used list for any yellow-tagged units. Map all these, save the file, and
re-load the simulator data.

Project Component Map Specifications


The Project Component Map Specifications dialog box contains a list of models
for the selected simulator and a list of the corresponding Icarus project
components to which the simulator models will map.

To access:
1

Right-click Project Component Map Specifications in the Project Basis


views Process Design folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit.

3 Defining the Project Basis

80

Models that are mapped in the current file are marked with an asterisk (*). If
no asterisk is present, then that model will not generate any project
components when loaded, mapped, and sized.
3

Exclude simulator models from the mapping process by selecting the


simulator item and then clicking Delete All Mappings.

You can select a simulator item and review the mapping(s) for that item.

To change one of the mappings:


1

Click an item in the Current Map List.

Click Delete One Mapping

Create a new mapping.

To create a new mapping:

Click New Mapping; then select an appropriate Icarus project


component.

For simulator column models, an additional specification can be made. Since a


column may be mapped to multiple pieces of equipment, Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer requires an identification for each of these mappings.
Refer to Mapping Simulator Models in Chapter 4 for tower/column
configuration mapping identifications.
Note: You can select in Preferences to have Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer map unsupported simulator models (i.e., models not included in the
list of simulator models on the Project Component Map Specifications dialog
box) to quoted cost items. See page 49 for instructions.
X413H

3 Defining the Project Basis

81

Default Simulator Mapping Specs


The following tables list models that are mapped to Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer project components. Models that are not supported can be mapped
to a quoted item if you mark Map Unsupported Models To Quoted Cost Item
in Preferences, Process tab (see page 49).
X41H

AspenTechs Aspen Plus Map Specs


Model
Name

Model Description

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer Default

CCD

Countercurrent
decanter

Rotary drum filter

CFUGE

Centrifuge filter

Centrifuge SOLID-BOWL

COMPR

Compressor/turbine

Centrifugal gas compressor / Gas turbine with


combustion chamber

CRUSHER

Solids crusher

Jaw crusher

CYCLONE

Solid-gas cyclone

Cyclone Dust collector

DECANTER

Liquid-liquid decanter

Vertical vessel process

DISTL

Shortcut distillation
rating

Single-diameter trayed tower

DSTWU

Shortcut distillation
design

Single-diameter trayed tower

ESP

Electrostatic
precipitator

Low voltage electrical precipitator

FABFL

Baghouse filter

Cloth bay baghouse

FILTER

Continuous rotary
vacuum

Rotary drum filter

FLASH2

Two-outlet flash

Vertical vessel process

FLASH3

Three-outlet flash

Vertical vessel process

FSPLIT

Stream splitter

HEATER

Heater/cooler

Floating head heat exchanger

HEATX

Two-stream heat
exchanger

Floating head heat exchanger

HYCYC

Solid-liquid
hydrocyclone

Water only cyclones - mineral

PUMP

Pump/hydraulic
turbine

Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump

RADFRAC

Rigorous
fractionation

Single-diameter trayed tower (column)


Floating head heat exchanger (condenser)
U-tube reboiler (reboiler)
Horizontal drum (accumulator)
Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump (reflux
pump)

PETROFAC

3 Defining the Project Basis

Consists of 42
configurations. It has
been confirmed that
the following can be
mapped to Aspen

Single-diameter trayed tower (column)


Floating head heat exchanger (condenser)
U-tube reboiler (reboiler)
Horizontal drum (accumulator)

82

Process Economic
Analyzer:

Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump (reflux


pump)

PREFLIF- preflash
block with furnace,
zero pumparounds
and zero
sidestrippers.

Furnace block

CDUIOF crude
block with furnace,
three pumparounds
and three
sidestrippers.
CDU 3 vacuum
block with two
pumparounds and
two sidestrippers.
RBATCH

Batch reactor

Agitated Tank enclosed, jacketed

RCSTR

Continuous stirred
tank

Agitated Tank enclosed, reactor jacketed

REQUIL

Equilibrium reactor

Agitated Tank enclosed, jacketed

RGIBBS

Equilibrium reactorgibbs

Agitated Tank enclosed, energy jacketed


minimization

RPLUG

Plug-flow reactor

Single diameter packed tower

RSTOIC

Stoichiometer reactor

Agitated Tank enclosed, jacketed

RYIELD

Yield reactor

Agitated Tank enclosed, jacketed

SCFRAC

Short-cut distillation

Single-diameter trayed tower

SCREEN

Wet or dry screen


separator

Vibrating system

SWASH

Single-stage solids
washer

Rotary drum filter

VSCRUB

Venturi scrubber

Washer dust collector

ChemCAD V Map Specs


Model

Model Description

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer


Default

BAGH

Baghouse filter

Cloth bay baghouse dust collector

COMP

Adiabatic (isentropic) or polytopic


Compression

Centrifugal Axial Gas Compressor

CFUG

Basket centrifugal filter

Atmospheric suspended basket


centrifuge

CRYS

Crystallizer or melting by
cooling/heating

Batch vacuum crystallizer

CSED

Solid-wall basket centrifuge


separating solids from liq slurry

Solid bowl centrifuge

CYCL

Gas-solid cyclone separator

Cyclone dust collector

DRYE

Dryer

Direct rotary dryer

EREA

Equilibrium reactor

Agitated tank reactor

ESPT

Electrostatic precipitator

Low voltage electrical precipitator

3 Defining the Project Basis

83

FIRE

Fired heater

Floating head heat exchanger

FLAS

Multipurpose flash

Vertical cylindrical vessel

FLTR

Vacuum or constant-pressure filter

Rotary disk filter

GIBS

Gibbs reactor

Agitated tank reactor

HCYC

Hydrocyclone

Water cyclone (separation


equipment)

HTXR

Heat exchanger

Floating head heat exchanger

KREA

Kinetic reactor (plug flow or


continuous stirred tank reactors)

Agitated tank reactor

LLVF

Vapor/liquid/liquid flash

Vertical cylindrical vessel

MIXE

Stream mixer (flash calculation at


output pressure)

Vertical cylindrical vessel

PUMP

Liquid pump (to increase pressure of


liquid stream)

Centrifugal pump

REAC

Stoichiometric reactor

Agitated tank reactor

SCDS

Simultaneous correction rigorous


fractionation (single column)

Single diameter trayed tower


Floating head heat exchanger
(condenser)
U-tube reboiler (reboiler)
Horizontal drum (accumulator)
Centrifugal single or multi-stage
pump (reflux pump)

SCRE

Screen

Single deck rectangular vibrating


screen

TOWR

Inside/out rigorous fractionation


(single column)

Single diameter trayed tower


Floating head heat exchanger
(condenser)
U-tube reboiler (reboiler)
Horizontal drum (accumulator)
Centrifugal single or multi-stage
pump (reflux pump)

WASH

Washer

Washer dust collector

Hysim Map Specs


Model Name

Model Description

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer


Default

BAG FILTER

Baghouse filter

Dust collector cloth bay

COLUMN

Distillation column

Single-diameter trayed tower


Floating head heat exchanger

(condenser)

U-tube reboiler (reboiler)


Horizontal drum (accumulator)
Centrifugal single or multistage pump (reflux pump)

COMPRESSOR

Compressor

Centrifugal gas compressor

CSTR

Continuous stirred-tank

Agitated Tank - enclosed,

3 Defining the Project Basis

84

jacketed
CYCLONE

Gas-solid separator

Cyclone dust collector

EXPANDER

Expander

Gas turbine

FILTER

Rotary drum filter

Rotary drum filter

HEATER

Heater/cooler

Floating head heat exchanger

HEATEX

Simple heat exchanger

Floating head heat exchanger

HYDROCYCLONE

Solid-liquid hydrocyclone

Water only cyclones - mineral


separation

PIPING

Pipeline

PLUG

Plug-flow reactor

Single-diameter packed tower


and others

PUMP

Pump

Centrifugal single or multi-stage


pump

RATEHEATEX

Rigorous heat exchanger

Floating head heat exchanger

REQUI

Equilibrium reactor

Agitated Tank - enclosed,


jacketed

RGIBBS

Gibbs-energy reactor

Agitated Tank - enclosed,


jacketed

RSTOIC

Stoichiometric reactor

Agitated Tank - enclosed,


jacketed

SOLIDSEP

Solids separator

Cyclone dust collector

HYSYS Map Specs


Model Name

Model Description

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer


Default

AIR COOLER

Air cooler

Free standing or rack mounted air


cooler

BAG FILTER

Baghouse filter

Dust collector cloth bay

COLUMN

Distillation column

Single-diameter trayed tower

COMPRESSOR

Compressor

Centrifugal gas compressor

CSTR

Continuous stirredtank

Agitated Tank enclosed, jacketed

CYCLONE

Gas-solid separator

Cyclone dust collector

EXPANDER

Expander

Turbo expander

FILTER

Rotary drum filter

Rotary drum filter

HEATER

Heater/Cooler

Floating head heat exchanger

HEATX

Simple heat exchanger

Floating head heat exchanger

HYDROCYCLONE

Solid-liquid
hydrocyclone

Water only cyclones mineral


separation

PLUG

Plug-flow reactor

Single-diameter packed tower and


others

PUMP

Pump

Centrifugal single or multi-stage


pump

REQUI

Equilibrium reactor

Agitated Tank enclosed, jacketed

RGIBBS

Gibbs-energy reactor

Agitated Tank enclosed, jacketed

RSTOIC

Stoichiometric reactor

Agitated Tank enclosed, jacketed

3 Defining the Project Basis

85

SEP

Separator

HT Drum horizontal drum

TANK

Tank

VT Storage flat-bottom storage


tank, optional roof

SimSci's Pro/II with PROVISION SimScis Pro/II Map Specs


Model Name

Model Description

Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer Default

CENTRIFUGE

Centrifuge

Solid bowl centrifuge

COLUMN UNITS

Distillation column

Single-diameter trayed tower


Floating head heat exchanger

(condenser)

U-tube reboiler (reboiler)


Horizontal drum (accumulator)
Centrifugal single or multi-stage

pump (reflux pump)


COMPRESSOR

Compressor

Centrifugal gas compressor

CRYSTAL

Crystalizer

Oslo growth type crystalizer

CSTR

Continuous stirred tank

Agitated Tank - enclosed, jacketed

DECANTER

Countercurrent decanter

Rotary drum filter

DEPRESSURE

Non-steady-state depressure

Vertical vessel - process

DRYER

Solids dryer

Atmospheric tray dryer

EXPANDER

Expander

Gas turbine

FLASH

FLASH

Vertical vessel - process

HEATEX

Simple heat exchanger

Floating head heat exchanger

PLUG

Plug-flow reactor

Single diameter packed tower

PUMP

Pump

Centrifugal single or multi-stage


pump

REACTOR

Reactor

Agitated Tank - enclosed, jacketed

RIGHTEX

Rigorous heat exchanger

Floating head heat exchanger

ROTDRUM

Rotary drum filter

Rotary drum filter

SHORTCUT

Distillation column

Single-diameter trayed tower

Design Criteria
After the simulator model is loaded into Aspen Process Economic Analyzer,
mapping and sizing of the items can be performed. If an item is already sized
inside the simulator, the sizing parameters are automatically brought into
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer and used.
Items not sized by the simulator can be sized following the instructions in
Chapter 6. In addition to process information obtained from the simulator,
certain design specifications may be required before sizing can be
accomplished.

3 Defining the Project Basis

86

Aspen Process Economic Analyzers Sizing Expert uses design values based on
the user-defined field values on specification forms in the Design Criteria
sub-folder. The values on these forms provide the basis for developing design
specifications from operating conditions for all equipment to be sized.

You can enter design conditions (design pressure and temperature) for all
equipment (using the Common form) and also enter design conditions for
types of equipment. (Conditions entered on the equipment type forms
override those on the Common form).

Common
Design pressure and temperature entered on the Common specifications form
applies to all equipment except equipment for which you have separately
specified these design conditions.

Design Pressure
Click on the Design Pressure field to open the Design Pressure
Specifications form. The specifications form lets you specify rules for
calculating the design pressure based on the range in which the operating
pressure falls. The design pressure is calculated from the operating
pressure using the formula shown on the form. You can modify the
pressure limit (upper and lower limit) as well as parameters A and B.

3 Defining the Project Basis

87

Note: In earlier versions of Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, the Design


Pressure Multiplier field was used. This field has now been replaced by
the Design Pressure Specifications form. If projects created using these
earlier versions are opened, then the parameters A and B are
automatically adjusted based on the multiplier value specified. This
ensures that old projects can be carried over using the same design
criteria.

Design Temperature
Click on the Design Temperature field to open the Design Temperature
Specifications form. The specifications form lets you specify rules for
calculating the design temperature based on the range in which the
operating temperature falls. The design pressure is calculated from the
operating temperature using the formula shown on the form. You can
modify the temperature ranges (upper and lower limit) as well as
parameters A and B.

Note: In earlier versions of Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, the Design


Temperature - Increase field was used. This field has now been replaced
by the Design Temperature Specifications form. If projects created using
these earlier versions are opened, then the parameters A and B are
automatically adjusted based on the multiplier value specified.

Pumps
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for
pumps:
X415H

Pump Overdesign Factor


The pump overdesign factor is used by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
to increase the volumetric throughput of the pump and the power
requirement of the pump. The total volumetric flow rate calculated from
the simulator information is multiplied by the value provided in this field
to estimate the design flow rate for the equipment.

For example:

3 Defining the Project Basis

Operation flow rate: 250 GPM

Pump overdesign factor: 1.1

88

Calculated design capacity: 250 X 1.1 = 275 GPM

Compressors
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for
compressors:
X416H

Driver Type
Specifies the driver type used for compressors. The default value is
None. The selections are NONE, GAS ENGINE, MOTOR, TURBINE.

Heat Exchangers
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for heat
exchangers:
X417H

Launch MUSE
MUSE performs detailed simulation of multi-stream plate-fin heat
exchangers made from brazed aluminum, stainless steel or titanium.
A valid MUSE version 3.3 license is required to use this feature.
Select Yes to launch MUSE during interactive sizing of plate fin heat
exchangers. Select No to run MUSE in the silent mode.

Furnace Fractional Efficiency


The furnace duty obtained from the simulator is the absorbed duty. Total
fired duty is obtained by dividing the absorbed duty by fractional
efficiency. This value should be <1.0.

Fuel Heating Value


The Lower Heating Value (LHV) used to estimate the fuel consumption by
fired furnaces.

Air Cooler Inlet Temperature


This field represents the default value that shall be used as the inlet air
temperature in the case of Air Coolers.

Air Cooler Exit Temperature


Air Cooler Exit Temperature is used when estimating the surface area of
air cooled heat exchangers. The value given in this field is used as the exit
temperature for the air cooler.
If the field is empty or has value of 0.0, then the Sizing Expert assigns the
exit air temperature value to be 10.0 DEG F greater than the inlet air
temperature.
For example, if the Air Cooler Inlet Temperature is 77.0 DEG F and you do
not enter the Air Cooler Exit Temperature, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer uses 87.0 DEG F as the default value.

Apply 2/3 Rule for Design Pressure


In the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, design engineers
sometimes apply the 2/3rd rule in calculating the design pressure. As per
P

3 Defining the Project Basis

89

ASME heat exchanger code, if the design pressure of the lower-pressure


side (either tube or shell) is at least 2/3rd the design pressure on the
high-pressure side, then overpressure in the high-pressure side will not
result in rupture in the lower-pressure side (provided relief devices have
been properly sized).
When specified, the 2/3 rule will increase the design pressure of the low
pressure side to at least 67% of the design pressure of the high pressure
side, even when the operating pressure on the low pressure side could
result in a lower design pressure as per the Design Pressure field.

Heat Exchanger Area Minimum Overdesign Factor


The calculated heat transfer area is multiplied by the value given in the
field.
The mechanical design is performed for the final heat transfer area.
For example:
o

Calculated surface area = 1000 SF

Heat Exchanger Area Minimum Overdesign Factor = 1.1

Surface area used for mechanical design: 1000 X 1.1 = 1100


SF

Note: The final surface area in general is greater than the calculated
value because of mechanical considerations.

Towers
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria on the
Towers form (applies to all towers):
X418H

Bottom Sump Height (For Trayed and Packed Towers)


For both trayed and packed towers, extra height in addition to that
required for separation is provided at the bottom for liquid level and
reboiler return.

The value in this field is added to the calculated height of the tower.

R/R-Minimum (For SHORTCUT model in Pro/II)


The SimSci simulator shortcut distillation model calculates the number of
theoretical stages required for different ratios of operating reflux ratio (R)
to minimum reflux ratio (R-Minimum).
The number of stages should be available in the simulator report for the
ratio chosen.

Vapor Disengagement Height (For Trayed and Packed Towers)


For both trayed and packed towers, extra height in addition to that
required for separation is provided at the top for vapor disengagement
before passing to the condenser.

The value in this field is added to the calculated height of the tower.

3 Defining the Project Basis

90

Packed Towers
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for
packed towers:
X419H

Packing Type
Two types of packings, random and structured, are used in packed towers.
The type of packing affects the flood point pressure drop estimation and
the packing efficiency (HETP) value.
The value in this field is used by the Sizing Expert in the calculation of the
tower diameter and height.

Packing Factor for Packings


Packing factor is used in the Kister and Gill correlation to estimate
pressure drop at the flood point. Once the pressure drop is known, the
flood velocity is calculated using the latest versions of the generalized
pressure drop correlation (GPDC) charts for both the random and
structured packings.

Packed Tower Derating Factor


With certain systems, traditional flooding equations consistently predict
higher flood points than those actually experienced. To allow for such
discrepancies, an empirical derating factor (< 1.0) is applied. The derating
factor is multiplied by the predicted flood vapor load or liquid load
obtained from the traditional equation to obtain the actual or derated flood
load for the given system.
The derating factors are often vaguely related to the foaming tendency of
the system. The higher the foaming tendency, the lower the derating
factor.

If you do not enter a value, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer uses 1.0 as the
derating factor.

Packed Tower Flooding Factor


Packed towers are usually designed for 70 to 80 percent of the flood point
velocity. This allows a sufficient margin for uncertainties associated with
the flood point concept and prediction and to keep the design point away
from the region at which efficiency rapidly diminishes (just below the flood
point).
The Sizing Expert uses the default value specified if the user-provided
value is not available.

HETP
The concept of HETP (height equivalent of a theoretical plate) enables
comparison of efficiency between packed and plate columns. Because
there are only a few variables that significantly affect HETP and due to the
unreliability of even the best mass transfer models, rules of thumb for
HETP successfully compete with the mass transfer models.
For the packing types available in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
(given in the Icarus Reference), Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
estimates the HETP value based on the packing shape, dimensions and
type of material. If a user-provided value is available, then the Sizing

3 Defining the Project Basis

91

Expert uses the value in the above field for calculating the height of the
packed tower.

Packed Section Height


The value represents the height of each packed section and is used in the
design of packed towers to estimate the number of packed sections.

Surface Area Per Unit Volume


Higher specific surface areas (surface area per unit volume) increases
vapor-liquid contact area and therefore, efficiency. For structured
packings, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer determines this value
empirically and uses it in estimating HETP if you have not already
specified an HETP value.
A default value of 75 SF/CF is used in the absence of a user-entered
value.

Trayed Towers
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for
trayed towers:
X420H

Trayed Tower Flooding Factor


Flooding is the condition where pressure drop across a tray is sufficient to
cause the dynamic liquid head to be equivalent to the tray spacing plus
the weir height. At this point, the liquid backup in the downcomer is just
at the point of overflowing the weir on the plate above. When this
happens, the column fills with a foamy liquid and becomes inoperable.
The flood factor is the fractional velocity approach to flooding, i.e., (Actual
Vapor Velocity)/(Vapor velocity at the point of flooding).
The Sizing Expert uses the default value specified if the user-provided
value is not available.

Foaming Tendency
Vapor disengagement is easy in non-foaming, low-pressure systems.
However, vapor disengagement from downcomer liquid in foaming
systems is difficult as the liquid hangs on to the entrained vapor.
Sufficient residence time must be provided in the downcomer to allow
adequate disengagement of vapor from the descending liquid. Industrial
practice has created a guideline for the mum downcomer velocity of clear
liquids based on their foaming tendency.
The following values for the downcomer liquid velocity are used based on
the choice for the above field.
Downcomer Liquid Velocity, (FPS)
Tray Spacing, INCHES
Foaming
Tendency

18

24

30

Low

0.4 0.5

0.5 0.6

0.6 0.7

Moderate

0.3 0.4

0.4 0.5

0.5 - 0.6

3 Defining the Project Basis

92

High

0.2 0.25

0.2 0.25

0.2 - 0.3

With certain systems, traditional flooding equations consistently predict


higher flood points than those actually experienced. To allow for such
discrepancies, an empirical derating factor (< 1.0) is applied. The derating
factor is multiplied by the predicted flood vapor load or liquid load
obtained from the traditional equation to obtain the actual or derated flood
load for the given system.
The trayed derating factors are often related to the foaming tendency of
the system. The higher the foaming tendency, the lower the derating
factor. If the user-specified value is not available, a derating factor is
selected based on the value of foaming tendency.
The default value for foaming tendency is Moderate.

Trayed Tower Derating Factor


With certain systems, traditional flooding equations consistently predict
higher flood points than those actually experienced. To allow for such a
discrepancy, an empirical derating factor (< 1.0) is applied. The derating
factor is multiplied by the predicted flood vapor load or liquid load
obtained from the traditional equation to obtain the actual or derated flood
load for the given system.
The derating factors are often vaguely related to the foaming tendency of
the system. The higher the foaming tendency, the lower the derating
factor.
If the user-provided value is not available, or the value 0.0 is entered in
the field, then the derating factor is selected based on the foaming
tendency of the liquids in the column.

Relative Volatility of Key Components


The number of theoretical stages for a trayed tower is obtained from the
simulator report. The actual number of trays is calculated by using the
tray efficiency value provided by the user in the design criteria file.
However, if the field is empty or has a 0.0 value, the tray efficiency for
the separation is estimated by using the correlation of relative volatility of
key components with tray efficiency. The OConnell correlation is used to
estimate the overall tray efficiency.

Tray Efficiency
Overall column efficiency is defined by:
E_oc = N_t/ N_a
where:
N_t =
Number of theoretical stages required for the separation minus
the sum of theoretical stages provided by the reboiler, condenser, and
intermediate heat exchangers.
N_a =

Number of actual trays in the column.

Several empirical correlations are available in the literature. Also, rigorous


theoretical predictions based on gas and liquid film resistances are
available to assist in predicting the tray efficiency.

3 Defining the Project Basis

93

If the user specification is not available for the field, then the value is
estimated using empirical correlations from the literature.

Configurations Towers
Use this form to specify design criteria for tower configurations.

Vessels
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria on the
Vessels form (applies to all process vessels):
X421H

Residence Time

The amount of liquid holdup in the vessel is estimated by the liquid


volumetric flow through a vessel in a specified amount of time. The vessel
volume divided by volumetric flow rate is defined as the residence time for
the vessel.
For example:

Liquid flow through the vessel: 100 CFM

Residence time: 5 MIN

Calculated liquid volume in the vessel: 100 CFM X 5 = 500 CF.

Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio (For Vertical and


Horizontal Vessel Design)
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer defaults for this field are used if the
field is empty or has the value of 0.0. The Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer defaults depend on the operating conditions for the vessel. Based
on the operating pressure of the vessel obtained from the simulator
report, the following values are used:
Pressure (PSIA)
0 250
250 500
> 500

Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio


3
4
5

For example:
Vessel operation pressure: <250 PSIA
Diameter: 6 FEET
Calculated vessel height: 6 X 3 = 18 FEET
Residence time overrides Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio.

Minimum Vessel Diameter


The Minimum Vessel Diameter field is used if the vessel diameter
calculated by the sizing routines is less than this value.

Vapor/Liquid Separator Sizing Method


When sizing vertical and horizontal vapor liquid separators, Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer computes the maximum allowable vapor velocity using
the method selected in this field.
o

3 Defining the Project Basis

Liquid Entrainment Method:

94

This is an empirical correlation developed by Watkins and is a


function of vapor and liquid densities, and the parameter Kv,
which itself is a polynomial function of vapor and liquid flows
and densities.
o

Particle size separation method:


This method estimates the disengagement velocity of the liquid
droplet in the continuous vapor phase. The design velocity is
determined as a percentage of the disengagement velocity.

Average Liquid Particle Diameter (For particle size separation


method)
This field specifies the default average liquid droplet diameter. This value
is used in the design of horizontal and vertical vessels by the particle size
separation method (which can be selected in the Vapor/Liquid
Separator Sizing Method field right above this field).

Design Factor Multiplier for Disengagement Velocity (For particle


size separation method)
This field is used in the calculation of the maximum allowable design
velocity, which is a percentage of the disengagement velocity.
For example:

Disengagement velocity : 10 FEET/SECOND

Design factor multiplier for disengagement velocity: 0.5

Maximum allowable design velocity: 10 X 0.5 = 5


FEET/SECOND

Separation Factor (For liquid entrainment method)


In the liquid entrainment method, the separation factor is used to
determine the maximum allowable vapor velocity. The separation factor is
either entered by the user in this field or computed by Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer using the relation described in the vessel sizing design
procedure.

Agitated Vessels
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for
agitated vessels:
X42H

Agitator Type
The various types of agitators that can be chosen for design are described
in the Icarus Reference. The type of agitator selected determines the
default driver power and impeller speed. This is used to estimate the
agitation requirements in tanks.

Storage Vessels
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for
storage vessels:
X423H

Number of Holding Days

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Storage vessel sizing is determined by estimating the volume of liquid


required for a certain period of operation. Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer uses this field to determine the liquid volume stored in the
vessel.
For example:

Inlet flow rate: 500 CF per day.

Number of holding days: 30 (specified by user).

Liquid volume inside the storage vessel: 500 X 30 = 1,500 CF.

Holding Hours in a Day


Storage vessel sizing is determined by estimating the volume of liquid
required for a certain period of operation. Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer uses this field to determine the liquid volume required per day.
For example:

Inlet flow rate: 500 CFH.

Holding Hours in a Day: 24 (specified by user).

Final volume per day : 500 X 24 = 12,000 CF/day.

Storage Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio

Once the volume of the storage vessel is determined based on the process
fluid flow rate and design conditions, the actual dimensions (height and
diameter) of the equipment must be estimated. You can specify the
dimensional requirements of the equipment using this field.
A default is used if the field is empty or has value 0.0. The default depends on
the operating conditions for the vessel.

Vapor Free Space (% of Total Storage Vessel Volume)

A percent volume of the sized vessel in excess of the required liquid


volume.
Horizontal Vessels
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for
horizontal vessels:
X42H

Vapor Area /Cross-Sectional Area


Once Aspen Process Economic Analyzer calculates the maximum vapor
velocity, the velocity and flow rate are used to determine the vapor space
required. The vapor space is then divided by the vapor area /crosssectional area to get the total required cross-sectional area.

The process vessel height to diameter ratio overrides this field.

Separation Factor Multiplier


For horizontal vessels, the separation factor is normally higher under
similar operating conditions than for vertical vessels. Therefore, the
calculated separation factor is multiplied by the separation factor
multiplier.

Minimum Boot Length

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When horizontal vessels are used for three phase separations, the heavy
second liquid phase is removed in the drip leg situated at the bottom of
the vessel.

Minimum Boot Diameter


This field represents diameter of the boot leg which is designed to remove
the heavy second liquid.

Boot Leg Liquid Velocity


The bootleg cross-sectional area is estimated using the liquid velocity field
specified in this field and the process vessel height to diameter ratio.

Vertical Vessels
In addition to entering design pressure and temperature (see instructions
under Common, page 87), you can enter the following design criteria for
vertical vessels:
X425H

Minimum Disengagement Height


This is the height from the liquid level to the mist eliminator.

Minimum Height Above the Mist Eliminator


Used in the calculation of the total vessel height.

Height of Mist Eliminator


Height of mist eliminator section.

Minimum Ht. Btw Low and High Liquid Level Taps


The liquid level based on residence time should meet this minimum
specification. (Field is at bottom of form, not in Vertical Vessels section.)

Ht. Btw Inlet Nozzle and High Liquid Level Tap


Represents the height between the inlet nozzle (center line) and the high
liquid level tap. (Field is at bottom of form, not in Vertical Vessels
section.)

Ht. Btw Low Liquid Level Tap and Tangent Line


Represents the height between the low liquid level tap and the tangent
line. (Field is at bottom of form, not in Vertical Vessels section.)

Miscellaneous

Vibrating Screen Feed Material


This field specifies the solid material type used by solids handling
equipment. The material type affects the screen unit capacity which is
defined as the amount of solids (TPH) flowing through one square foot of
screen cloth based on material, having 6 to 8% moisture, screen cloth
having 50% or more open area; 85% screen efficiency.
Based on the choice made for this field and the screen opening size, the
screen unit capacity is estimated.
The following choices are available for this field:

3 Defining the Project Basis

Sand and Gravel

Limestone/Crushed Stones

97

Coal

Cinders

Coke

Wood

Cyclone Inlet Linear Velocity


In case of cyclones, the sizing program assumes a default linear velocity
of 150 FPS. You can enter a different velocity here.

Configurations Flash
Use this form to specify design criteria for flash configurations.

Utility Specifications
Most chemical processes require heating or cooling process utility fluids to
operate. In many cases, the choice of which utilities are used plays an
important role in determining the total project cost by defining heat transfer
equipment sizing. In addition, utility costs form an important part of the
operating costs of the plant.
In the design of heat exchangers and reboilers, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer permits you to select appropriate process utility fluids for the
application. You can select utility fluids from the list already present in Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer or can create your own based on utility fluid
classes allowed by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Once the utility
resource for the equipment is selected either by you or by the Sizing Expert,
then an actual utility process stream is created for the equipment. The utility
stream contains the amount of utility used by the equipment. During the
operating cost evaluation, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer processes all the
utility streams connected to the equipment to determine the utility cost for
every utility resource used in the project.
You can override these selections by a combination of disabling/enabling
appropriate utilities and re-mapping and re-sizing the equipment items.
Alternately, you can specify the desired utility in the interactive Sizing Expert.
This method is available even if the utility has been disabled.
To modify or create a utility stream:
1

Right-click on Utility Specifications in the Project Basis views Process


Design folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit.

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The Develop Utility Specifications dialog box appears.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer provides 11 default utility streams


resources:
Cooling Water
High Temp Heating Oil *
Low Temp Heating Oil **
Refrigerant Ethane
Refrigerant - Ethylene
Refrigerant - Freon 12
Refrigerant - Propane
Refrigerant - Propylene
Steam @165 PSI
Steam @100 PSI
Steam @400 PSI
*

High temperature heating oil has the properties of DOWTHERM A.

**

Low temperature heating oil has the properties of DOWTHERM E.

To modify an existing utility stream:

Highlight it on the Modify Existing Stream list and click Modify.

To create a new utility stream:


1

Click Create in the Option section.

In the Create New Utility Stream section, type the name and select one
of the following fluid classes:

3 Defining the Project Basis

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High Temp Heating Oil *


Low Temp Heating Oil **
Refrigerant Ethane
Refrigerant Ethylene
Refrigerant Freon 12
Refrigerant Propane
Refrigerant Propylene
Refrigerant 50 Utility
Steam
Water
*

High temperature heating oil has the properties of DOWTHERM A.

**

Low temperature heating oil has the properties of DOWTHERM E.

Click Create.

Enter or modify the specifications on the Utility Specifications form.

The form contains the following fields:


Description:
Describes the utility fluid resource in the sizing report generated by Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer. Also, the field value is used to represent the
utility fluid usage and its related cost on the Project Summary investment
analysis spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS).
Fluid:
Determines the type of utility fluid described by the current specification. The
fluid class is used to determine the heat transfer coefficient, fouling tendency
and related thermal and transport properties used by Sizing Expert.
Design Temperature
Specifies the temperature, which will be considered in the estimation of the
design temperature for the process equipment carrying the utility fluid.
Design Pressure:

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Specifies the pressure, which will be considered in the estimation of the


design pressure for the process equipment carrying the utility fluid.
Inlet temperature:
Provides the inlet temperature for the utility fluid.
Exit temperature:
Provides the exit temperature condition for the utility fluid.
Pressure:
Provides the operating pressure for the utility fluid.
Energy transfer per unit mass:
Specifies the amount of energy provided or removed by the utility fluid over
the specified temperature range. The value in this field is used to estimate
the amount of utility required for the given process conditions.
Unit Cost:
Provides the cost value used to estimate the utility cost for the project.
Unit Cost Units:
Provides the units for the value provided in the unit cost field.
When you specify a new utility fluid resource, all the information on the
specification form must be provided; otherwise, the Sizing Expert will not be
able to use the utility fluid resource properly.
Using the utility specification form, you can specify a maximum of 20 utility
fluids.
If different utility fluid resource was used by simulation, then it is added to
the utility resource in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.
Utility type:
Describes the usage of the utility fluid. Select either Heat source or Heat sink.
Click OK when done entering the utility specifications.

Investment Analysis
Investment Parameters
To specify parameters required for investment analysis:
1

Right-click Investment Parameters in the Project Basis views


Investment Analysis folder.

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On the menu that appears, click Edit.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Investment Parameters in the


Main Window.

A description of the parameters follows.

General Investment Parameters


Period Description
This field allows you to enter text indicating the name/description of a period.
The period is defined in Number of Weeks per Period. The period description
is used in the display of some of the results in the spreadsheets.

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Number of Weeks per Period


The period used for investment analysis is defined in terms of number of
weeks.

Number of Periods for Analysis


The number of periods to include in the cashflow and other project totals and
calculations.

Tax Rate
The tax rate for investment analysis, in terms of percent per period, is used
to calculate the percentage of earnings before taxes that must be paid to the
government.

Desired Rate of Return


The desired rate of return, in percent per period, for the investment.

Economic Life of Project


This field indicates the length of time in terms of periods over which capital
costs will be depreciated.

Salvage Value (Percent of Initial Capital Cost)


This number indicates the approximate worth of capital costs at the end of
the Economic Life of Project. The number is expressed as a percent of initial
capital cost.

Depreciation Method
There are four depreciation methods allowed in Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer. The description of each follows:
Straight Line The straight line method is used most commonly. In this
method, the Salvage Value is subtracted from the Total Project Cost. This
result is then divided by the Economic Life of Project, so that the project is
depreciated evenly over its economic life.
Sum of the Digits When this method is used, the Depreciation Expense
decreases during each period of the Economic Life of Project. Therefore, the
highest value for the depreciation occurs in the first period and decreases
every period thereafter. The sum of the digits multiplier is n/((N(N+1))/2),
where N is the Economic amount is the Total Project Cost less its Salvage
Value. For the duration of the projects economic life, this factor is multiplied
by the depreciable amount.
Double Declining (Balance) When this method is used, the project is
depreciated in geometric increments. The multiplier for the first period is 2/N,
where N is the Economic Life of Project. For the second period the
depreciation rate, D2, is (1-D1)D1 where D1 is 2/N. For the third period, the
depreciation rate, D3, is (1-D1)D2. For the fourth period, the depreciation
rate is (1-D1)D3. These factors are multiplied by the Total Project Cost. This

3 Defining the Project Basis

103

process (multiplying the factor by the capital cost) continues until the Straight
Line Method produces a higher value for the depreciation. When the Straight
Line Method produces a higher value, this higher value is used for the
remaining depreciation calculations.
Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) The ACRS approach assumes
that operations begin during the second half of the first period and stop
during the first half of the last period. Therefore, as a result of the two halfperiods (one at the beginning and one at the end of the operating cycle), it
takes 6 periods to depreciate a project which has an Economic Life of 5
periods. The ACRS adapts the Double Declining Balance Method to the halflife system. The depreciation rate for the first period, D1, is 2/N, where N is
the Economic Life of Project. However, the half-life convention reduces this
factor to 1/N. For the second period the depreciation rate, D2, is D1(1-1/ N).
For the third period the depreciation rate, D3, is D1(1-1/N-D2). This process
(multiplying the factor by the Total Project Cost continues until the Straight
Line Method produces a higher value for the depreciation. When the Straight
Line Method produces a higher value, this higher value is used for the
remaining depreciation calculations.

Escalation Parameters
Project Capital Escalation
This number indicates the rate at which project capital expenses may increase
expressed in percent per period. If the addition of Engineer-Procure-Construct
(EPC) period and start-up period is greater than one whole period, Project
Capital Escalation is used to escalate the capital expenses for periods beyond
the first period.

Products Escalation
This is the rate at which the sales revenue from products of the facility is to
be escalated (increased) in terms of percent per period.

Raw Material Escalation


This is the rate at which the raw material costs of the facility are to be
escalated (increased) in terms of percent per period.

Operating and Maintenance Labor Escalation


This is the rate at which the operating and maintenance costs of the facility
are to be escalated (increased) in terms of percent per period. The operating
labor costs include operators per shift and supervisory costs.

Utilities Escalation
User-entered percentages reflecting the anticipated utility price increase each
period.

3 Defining the Project Basis

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Project Capital Parameter


Working Capital Percentage
The working capital expressed as a percentage of total capital expense per
period indicates the amount required to operate the facility until the revenue
from product sales is sufficient to cover costs. It includes current assets such
as cash, accounts receivable and inventories. When the facility starts
producing revenue, this cost item can be covered by the product sales.

Operating Costs Parameters


Operating Supplies
This field indicates the cost of miscellaneous items that are required in order
to run the plant in terms of cost per period.

Laboratory Charges
This is a cost per period indicating the cost of having product analyzed each
period.

Operating Charges
This includes operating supplies and laboratory charges. It is specified as a
percentage of the operating labor costs. (If you specify a value for either
Operating Supplies or Laboratory Charges, the system will add the two
entered values and calculate the percentage of Operating Labor Costs. (This is
done for compatibility with earlier releases of the system.)

Plant Overhead
This field consists of charges during production for services, facilities, payroll
overhead, etc. This number is specified as a percent of operating labor and
maintenance costs. This number should not be used for the construction of
the facility, only for operation after start-up.

G and A Expenses
This represents general and administrative costs incurred during production
such as administrative salaries/expenses, R&D, product distribution and sales
costs. Specify this number as a percentage of subtotal operating costs.

Facility Operation Parameters


Facility Type
This field defines the facility type. The following types are currently available:
Chemical Processing Facility
Food Processing Facility
Oil Refining Facility

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Petrochemical Processing Facility


Pharmaceutical Facility
Pulp and/or Paper Processing Facility
Specialty Chemical Processing Facility (A specialty chemical is defined as a
chemical which is produced in low quantity and has a usually high price per
unit.)
The type of facility affects the number of operators/shift and maintenance
costs of facility equipment.

Operating Mode
This refers to the operating mode of the facility. The available options are:
Continuous Processing - 24 Hours/Day
Continuous Processing - Less than 24 Hours/Day
Batch Processing - 24 Hours/Day
Batch Processing - 1 Batch per Shift
Batch Processing - More than 1 Batch per Shift
Intermittent Processing - 24 Hours/Day
Intermittent Processing - Less than 24 Hours/Day
The operating mode of the facility affects the number of operators/shift and
maintenance costs of facility equipment.

Length of Start-up Period


After the facility has been constructed (i.e., gone through engineering,
procurement and construction), the plant must go through the owners startup period until it starts producing the product to be sold. This period is
referred to as Length of Start-up Period in weeks and is added into the EPC
duration.

Operating Hours per Period


This field refers to the number of hours per period that the plant will be
operating.

Process Fluids
Process Fluids indicate the types of fluids involved in the process. The
selection affects operating and maintenance costs. The selections are:
Liquids
Liquids and Gases
Liquids and Solids
Liquids, Gases, and Solids
Gases

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Gases and Solids


Solids

Operating Unit Costs


To specify operating unit costs:
1

Right-click on Operating Unit Costs in the Project Basis views


Investment Analysis folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Operating Unit Costs in the
Main Window.

The Operating Unit Cost form specifies Labor Unit Costs and non-heat transfer
Utility Unit Costs.
Labor Unit Costs are given for Operators and Supervisors. The total cost of
operating labor is calculated by:
Determining the total number of operators and supervisors necessary to run
the facility for a certain number of hours.
Adjusting that number for the number of hours the facility operates per
period.
Multiplying that number by the respective Labor Unit Costs and adding them
together.

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Labor Unit Costs


Operator
The loaded wage rate paid for operating the facility in terms of the cost per
operator per hour. Operator labor includes labor that is associated with
operating the facility.

Supervisor
The loaded wage rate paid for supervision in terms of the cost per supervisor
per hour. Supervision includes all labor associated with overseeing personnel
who operate the facility.

Utility Unit Costs


The non-heat transfer utility unit costs are also specified in this file as over
the fence costs. Utilities used for process heating and cooling are given in
the Utility Specifications File.

Electricity
The unit cost per KWH of electricity used for the facility.

Potable Water
The potable water unit cost per MMGAL or MB used for the plant.

Fuel
The fuel unit cost per MMBTH or MEGAWH used for the plant.

Instrument Air
The instrument air unit cost per KCF or MB.

Raw Material Specifications


An investment analysis conducted on any process needs to provide an
accurate figure for total project expenditure. Since operating costs are usually
a large part of this cost, it is important to accurately account for all raw
materials consumed in the process.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer lets you identify simulator streams as raw
materials for the process.
The raw material costs will be directly placed in the PROJSUM.ICS
spreadsheet for use in cash flow analyses.

To develop raw material specifications:


1

Right-click Raw Material Specifications in the Project Basis views


Investment Analysis folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit.

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The Develop Raw Material Specifications dialog box appears.

In the Option section, click the Create option button.

In the Create New Stream section, type a name for the stream.

Select the Basis and the Phase for the stream.

Click Create.

The Raw Material Specifications dialog box appears.

The following input information is required in order to estimate the raw


material costs during the evaluation of the operating costs for the project:
Process Stream (or none if user-defined); Rate (do not specify a rate if a
process stream is selected); and Cost Per Unit.

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In addition to the above minimum information, you have to specify certain


field values for the raw material fluid program to estimate the raw material
rate necessary for the cost estimate.
If you specify none in the Process Stream field, then the value for the Rate
field must be specified in the appropriate units. If you specify a process
stream, then the program determines the raw material rate in the desired
Specification Basis and units.
You can specify a maximum of 150 raw material streams.
The Raw Material Specifications form contains the following fields:
Description
The value you provide in this field will be used to describe the raw material in
the Project Summary investment analyses spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS)
Specification Basis
This field describes the raw material properties from the following list:
Mass, Gas
Mass, Liquid
Mass, Solid
Volume, Gas
Volume, Liquid
Volume, Solid
Energy

Process Stream
This field provides a list of fluid streams present in the current project. You
can select any stream to represent the raw material. Also, there is a provision
in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer for you to provide actual value for the
raw material rate if none of the process streams represent the raw materials
for the project. In this case, you must specify the field value as none.
Rate
This field gives the total rate of raw materials consumed for the process in the
desired rate units.
When a new raw material fluid is specified, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
checks whether enough information has been specified to estimate the raw
material cost.
Rate Units
This field describes the flow rate units for the current raw material. The
choices available for the field vary with the selection made for Specification
Basis and your choice of Base UOM:
Specification Basis

I-P

METRIC

Mass, Gas

LB/H

KG/H

KLB/H

MEGAG/H

MLB/H

TON/H

TPH

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Mass, Liquid

LB/H

KG/H

KLB/H

MEGAG/H

MLB/H

TON/H

TPH
Mass, Solid

LB/H

KG/H

KLB/H

MEGAG/H

MLB/H

TON/H

TPH
Volume, Gas

GPH

M3/H

MMGAL/H

L/S

CFH
KCFH
Volume, Liquid

GPH

M3/H

MMGAL/H

L/S

CFH
KCFH
Volume, Solid

GPH

M3/H

MMGAL/H

L/S

CFH
KCFH
Energy

BTU/H

MMBTU/H

KW

MEGAW
CAL/H

Unit Cost
This field provides the cost value per unit mass, volume or energy used to
estimate the raw material cost for the project.
7

When you are done entering raw material specifications, click OK.

The new stream appears in the Existing Stream list on the Develop Raw
Materials Specifications dialog box. You can enter a maximum of 150 raw
material streams using this dialog box. When done, click Close.

Product Specifications
An investment analysis conducted on any process needs to include an
accurate figure for the projects total revenue. In order to do so, it is very
important to accurately account for all the products obtained from the
process.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer allows you to identify simulation streams as
product materials for the process. Once the simulation stream is defined,
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer determines the necessary amount of
product materials generated based on the information provided in the product
material specification file.
The product material costs are directly placed in the PROJSUM.ICS
spreadsheet, where they are used for further cashflow analyses.

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To develop product specifications:


1

Right-click Product Specifications in the Project Basis views Investment


Analysis folder.

On the menu that appears, click Edit.

The Develop Product Specifications dialog box appears.

Select the Create check box in the Options section.

Enter a new stream name, select a basis and phase.

Click Create.

The Product Specifications form appears.

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The following input information is needed for Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer to estimate the product material costs during the evaluation of the
operating costs for the project:
Description
The value specified in this field is used to describe the product material fluid
in the investment analyses spreadsheet (PROJSUM.ICS).
Specification Basis
This field describes the product material properties from the following list:
Mass, Gas
Mass, Liquid
Mass, Solid
Volume, Gas
Volume, Liquid
Volume, Solid
Energy

Process Stream
This field provides a list of streams present in the current project. You can
select any of the streams to represent the product material. Also, there is a
provision in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer for providing an actual value
for the product material rate if none of the process streams represent the
product materials for the project. In this case, you must specify the field
value as none.
Rate
This field defines the total rate of product materials obtained for the process
in the desired rate units. Do not enter a value if you have specified a process
stream.
When a new product material is specified, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
checks whether the minimum information necessary to estimate the product
material cost has been specified.
The following minimum information must be present before Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer can proceed with the estimate.
Rate Units
This field describes the flow rate units for the current product material. The
choices available for the field vary with the selection made for Specification
Basis and your choice of Base UOM:
Specification Basis

I-P

METRIC

Mass, Gas

LB/H

KG/H

KLB/H

MEGAG/H

MLB/H

TON/H

TPH

3 Defining the Project Basis

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Specification Basis

I-P

METRIC

Mass, Liquid

LB/H

KG/H

KLB/H

MEGAG/H

MLB/H

TON/H

TPH
Mass, Solid

LB/H

KG/H

KLB/H

MEGAG/H

MLB/H

TON/H

TPH
Volume, Gas

GPH

M3/H

MMGAL/H

L/S

CFH
KCFH
Volume, Liquid

GPH

M3/H

MMGAL/H

L/S

CFH
KCFH
Volume, Solid

GPH

M3/H

MMGAL/H

L/S

CFH
KCFH
Energy

BTU/H

MMBTU/H

KW

MEGAW
CAL/H

Unit Cost
The field provides the cost value used to estimate the product material cost
for the project.
6

When you are done entering product specifications, click OK.

The new stream appears in the Existing Stream list on the Develop Product
Specifications dialog box. You can enter a maximum of 150 product material
streams using this dialog box. When done, click Close.

Developing Streams
After opening a project, new streams can be developed. You have the option
to develop completely new streams or use an existing stream as a base.
When an existing stream is used as a base, the new stream can be either
copied from the existing stream (Absolute Basis mode) or copied from and
linked dynamically to the existing stream (Relative Basis mode).

To develop streams:
1

Right-click Streams in the Project Basis views main folder (at the
bottom).

3 Defining the Project Basis

114

On the menu that appears, click Edit..

The Develop Streams dialog box appears.

Viewing or Modifying an Existing Stream


3

To view or modify an existing stream, select the stream on the Modify


tab view. You may need to use the scrollbar(s) to locate a stream if a
large number of streams exist in the project. With the desired stream
highlighted, click Modify to have the stream information displayed in a
specifications form.

3 Defining the Project Basis

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The functions of the six buttons on the Develop Stream specifications form
are explained below:
Click

To do this:

OK

Perform a check on the information currently present in the Develop


Stream specifications form to ensure that all information needed to
specify the stream is completed. Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
generates error messages indicating missing data.
Generate estimates for any specifications not entered.
Save the information in the Develop Stream specifications form. The
Develop Stream specifications form closes and the Develop Streams
dialog box re-appears.

Apply

Same as clicking OK, but does not exit the Develop Stream specifications
form. This allows you to review the estimates and revise the data.

Update

Same as clicking Apply, except that if the Primary Fluid Component, the
Temperature, and/or the Pressure were changed, then all the physical
properties of the stream will be estimated using these new values.

Cancel

Exit the Develop Stream specifications form without making checks and
does not save or change any information in the database.

Reset

Reset the information in the Develop Stream specifications form to the


values previously saved into the database. Any changes have been made
since opening the form will be lost.

Mixture

Define a stream as a mixture. Opens the Mixture Information dialog box


discussed below.

Most Develop Stream specifications need no further explanation. Those that


do are described below.
Primary Fluid Component
One of the most important specifications in this form is Primary Fluid
Component, which is classifies the chemical components of a stream. The

3 Defining the Project Basis

116

fluid selected here is used as the basis for any properties that are unavailable
and need to be estimated to complete the specifications for the stream. The
available general fluid classifications are:
y Alcohol

y Medium Hydrocarbon Liquid

y Aromatic Liquid

y Miscellaneous Inorganic Liquid

y Halogenated Gas

y Miscellaneous Organic Gas

y Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquid y Organic Acid


y Hydrocarbon Gas

y Very Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquid

y Inorganic Gas

y Solid

y Light Hydrocarbon Liquid


The following pure components are also available for selection as the Primary
Fluid Component of a stream:
y Acetic Acid

y Glycerol

y Phosphoric Acid

y Ammonia

y Hydrogen

y Propane

y Argon

y Isopropyl Alcohol

y Propanol

y Carbon Monoxide

y Methane

y Propylene

y Carbon Dioxide

y Methanol

y Steam

y Ethane

y N-Butanol

y Sulfuric Acid

y Ethanol

y Nitric Acid

y Toluene

y Ethyl Benzene

y Nitrogen

y Water

y Ethylene

y Oxygen

If the Primary Fluid Component is specified, the other needed information will
be filled in with default values. This feature is only apparent when no
temperature or pressure is entered into the Develop Stream specifications
form and the Primary Fluid Component is changed. After changing the
Primary Fluid Component, either press Enter or click on another field and the
default values will be loaded. If either the pressure or temperature value is
changed from the default value, clicking OK, Apply, or Update will estimate
the properties at the new condition(s).
Base Stream
The Base Stream field contains the name of the stream on which the
displayed stream was based. This cannot be changed.
If the name begins with the character $, the stream was created using
Absolute Basis and the stream name following this character is that of the
parent stream. A stream created using Absolute Basis uses the data from the
parent stream; however, if the parent steams data changes afterward, the
Absolute Basis stream is not updated.
If the value begins with the character @, the stream was created using the
Relative Basis and the stream name following this character is that of the
parent stream. A stream created using Relative Basis is updated when its
parent streams data changes.

3 Defining the Project Basis

117

Description
Select information from the menu to describe the particular stream. For
example, you can indicate the source component of the stream (for example,
From Pump P-103) or tag it with one of the available utility stream names.
Mass Flow
The Mass Flow fields are used to determine the phase of the stream. For
instance, if the stream has only Liquid Mass Flow specified, the stream is
totally liquid; therefore, it will have no vapor properties estimated for it. The
reverse is true for a case with only a Vapor Mass Flow specified. For cases
with both types of flow, all properties will be estimated and the Primary Fluid
Component will belong to the phase of the largest mass flow.
Note: Aspen Process Economic Analyzer automatically calculates Total Mass
Flow from the individual mass flow values.
Density
The Density fields are required information. Thus, if a particular phase has a
mass flow rate specified, then the corresponding density must also be
specified. Clicking Update will estimate any required density fields based on
the flow rate, except in the case of Solid Mass Density. It is recommended
that you enter a Liquid Mass Density if one is available.

Mixture Specs Dialog Box


Clicking Mixture on the Develop Stream specifications form accesses the
Mixture Specs dialog box.

After you click Apply, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer normalizes the
Fraction values to total a sum of one.
The values shown above would change into the values shown on the next
page.

3 Defining the Project Basis

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The mixture information specified in this dialog box is used to estimate


properties as a mixture of the specified composition. If no mixture information
is present, the stream is assumed to be pure Primary Fluid Component. The
fraction information can be entered on either a Mass or Mole Fraction Basis,
as specified in the Fraction Basis section.
The Cancel and Reset buttons behave in a similar manner as their respective
buttons on the Develop Stream specifications form.
The OK and Apply buttons also behave in a similar manner as their
respective buttons on the Develop Stream specifications form, except the
checking is different. Here, a check is made to ensure that the fractions have
a total sum of one. If not, the values are normalized to give a total sum of
one, as indicated below.

The check also combines duplicate entries into one entry by combining the
two fraction specifications.
After the check is done, the components are sorted in order of decreasing
fractional amount, as shown above. When you click OK, Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer loads into the specifications form the name of the fluid
with the highest fraction and the properties of the mixture generated from the
contributions of the individual components.

Estimation of Utility Usage and Resulting


Costs in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
Utility usage estimation is based on the stream information. All the streams
that are present in the project are taken into consideration for the estimation
of the utility usage for the project. This includes all utility streams, userdefined streams, simulator streams, and pre-map Streams. The Description
field on the Develop Stream spreadsheet can be used to designate streams as
utilities. If the Description field for a stream exactly matches (exact text
characters and spaces) the Description field for any utility resource as given
on the Utility Specifications spreadsheet, then that stream is included in the
utility usage calculation. If you change the description field of any of the

3 Defining the Project Basis

119

simulator or pre-map streams, then the new description you provided is used
for this calculation.
Also, stream connectivity information is used to identify the nature of the
stream. If the stream is being generated then it is considered to be revenue
for the project, and if it is being consumed it is considered an expense. (Note:
Streams that are connected at both ends to process equipments are ignored
in estimating the utility usage costs. Also, utility streams that have a zero unit
cost do not show up in the final report.)
User-defined streams that are not connected to any equipment (do not show
up in the PFD) are considered as input streams, i.e., consumption.
System-generated utility streams are included in the utility usage calculation
as long as they are connected to equipment. A case where they would be
disconnected would be if you manually disconnect these streams or if the
equipment to which these streams are connected is deleted.
Notes to Analyzer Utility Model (AUM) Users:
Cooling Water utility resources that need to be accounted in the Analyzer
Utility Model (AUM) should be named as either Cooling Water or Cooling
Water xx where xx can be two digits ranging from 01 to 99, for example,
Cooling Water 01.
User-created utility resources that do not adhere to this format (for example,
CW, Sea Water, Cooling Water o3) will not be identified as cooling water
streams and will be excluded from AUM's cooling water analysis.
Cooling water streams that are not associated with any equipment, will be
assigned to the Area with the maximum cooling water flow rate. For areas
assigned to two or more circuits, the collected unassigned cooling water flow
rate will be assigned to the first area in the circuit handling the largest circuit
flow rate.
Cooling water can either be bought or be made. If it is to be made, the dew
point of ambient air added to the lower model limit for the approach gradient
will determine the lowest possible deliverable temperature. To ensure that
your specified cooling water utility resource streams can be made, review the
limits for the two cooling water models (CTWCOOLING and
CTWPACKAGED).

Stream Connectivity
Process streams are connected to project components in a real way. You
can see this in the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) that you can display after
loading and mapping simulator blocks. Each stream has a Source end and a
Sink end. The Source end connects to an Outlet port on a component and the
Sink end to an Inlet as depicted below:

3 Defining the Project Basis

120

In the PFD view, when you Edit Connectivity (see page 175) for the Sink
end of a stream and move the mouse over a component, only Inlet port(s)
turn green, thereby indicating their availability for making a connection to a
Sink end.
X426H

The same concept also carries into the Interactive Sizing form (see page
219). Only streams whose Sink ends are not connected are listed in the
pulldown for any Inlet. This explains why the Inlet and Outlet pulldowns will
include different streams.
X427H

Since the connectivity in the PFD and the Interactive Sizing form are two
ways of looking at the same information, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
tracks your changes and synchronizes them in both views. Thus, if you
change the connectivity in one view, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
automatically changes it in the other view.
When you first map and size components, the streams in the simulator will be
connected to the project components and the underlying process conditions of
those streams are available for further use. For example, you may create new
streams based on the properties of any stream, connected or not, then use
these new streams as Sources/Sinks for connecting new components (you
might do this to set up spares). You may also add a New Mapping to an item
already mapped and the newly mapped and sized item utilizes the underlying
stream properties.

Creating A New Stream


Streams can be created from scratch or by using a base stream.

To create a stream from scratch:


1

Go to the Create tab view on the Develop Streams dialog box. Without
selecting a stream from the Base Streams list, click Create. (The Basis
selection will not matter.)

The Create Stream dialog box appears.

3 Defining the Project Basis

121

Enter a name for the new stream in the Create Stream dialog box. This
name must not be the same as any existing streams in the project.

Click OK.

The Develop Stream specifications form appears.

Note: See page 116 and 116 for descriptions of the buttons and fields on this
form.
X428H

X429H

Enter values for the new stream. See page 116 for descriptions of the
different fields.
X430H

When done, click OK.

To create a stream based on an existing stream:


1

On the Create tab view on the Develop Streams dialog box, click the
stream to be used as the base.

3 Defining the Project Basis

122

Select the Basis mode. If the Basis mode is Relative, the data from the two
streams will be linked so that when the base stream is changed the new
stream will inherit these changes. If the Basis mode is Absolute, the data
from the base stream is copied to the new stream at the time the new stream
is created. Changes in a base stream will not affect a new stream created via
Absolute basis.
2

Click Create.

The Create Stream dialog box appears.

Enter a name for the new stream in the Create Stream window. This name
must not be the same as any existing streams in the project. Click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the specifications form for the
newly created stream. The data is that of the Base Stream. Data appears
gray (dimmed) to indicate that it is relative to a referenced Base Stream.

3 Defining the Project Basis

123

Note: See pages 116 and 116 for descriptions of the buttons and fields on
this form.
X431H

X432H

Even in a Relative Stream, you may override any value with a manual entry.
If you do so, the text turns black, indicating that that value is absolute and
therefore no longer references a Base Stream.
4

Make modifications to the data and click OK.

Deleting a Stream
Note: Only user-added streams and streams added by the Sizing Expert as
utilities can be deleted.

To delete a stream:
1

At the Delete tab view, select the stream to be deleted. You may need to
use the scrollbars to locate a stream if a large number of streams exist in
the currently opened project.

3 Defining the Project Basis

124

Click Delete.

A dialog box will appear asking for confirmation of the delete action.
3

Click OK to delete the stream.


or
Click Cancel to retain the stream.

Specification Libraries
The default specifications are derived from files that you can access, when
outside of a project, from the Palettes Libraries view.

It includes specification files for the following:

Basis for Capital Costs

3 Defining the Project Basis

125

Cost Libraries (see Chapter 7, Developing and Using Cost Libraries)

Design Criteria

Investment Parameters

Operating Unit Costs

Product Specifications

Project Component Map Specifications

Raw Material Specifications

Simulator Units of Measure Mapping Specs

Utility Specifications

When you create a project scenario, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer selects
the specification file to use based upon the selected units of measure basis.
However, you can right-click on any of the above Project Basis specification
categories in Project Explorer, click Select on the pop-up menu, and select a
different file from which to derive the default specifications.

Customizing Specification Libraries


When no project is open, you can create your own specification files or edit
existing files. Then, when in a project, you can select your specification files.
For example, if you frequently created project scenarios that used the same
design basis, you could create a Basis for Capital Costs specification file with
those design basis specifications. Then you could just select this file, instead
of entering the specifications every time.
If, after making modifications to your libraries, you wish to revert to the
original libraries, you can copy or import the copy of the installed libraries
provided in the following folder:
\AspenTech\Economic Evaluation V7.0\Program\Sys\Libraries

Creating a File
To create a specification file:
1

With no project open, go to the Libraries tab view in the Palette and
expand the desired specification category.

Except for Investment Parameters and Project Component Map


Specifications, right-click on the units of measure basis folder
Inch-Pound or Metric. For Investment Parameters, right-click on the
Investment Parameters folder. For Project Component Map Specifications,
right-click on the simulator type folder.

On the pop-up menu, click New.

The New [Specification Category] dialog box appears.

3 Defining the Project Basis

126

Enter a file name and, if desired, a file description.

Click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer creates the file and displays the
specifications in a separate window.
6

Edit the specifications just as in a project.

When you are done, close the specifications window. If a library file is
open, you cannot access another library file or open a project.

See page 129 for instructions on selecting the newly created specification file
to use in a project.
X43H

Modifying a File
To modify an existing specification file:
1

Right-click on it in the Palette (Libraries view).

On the menu that appears, click Modify.

Importing a File
You can import specification files from elsewhere on your computer or
network.

To import a file:
1

In the Palette (Libraries view), expand the library to which you wish to
import a file.

Except for Investment Parameters and Project Component Map


Specifications, right-click on the units of measure basis folder
Inch-Pound or Metric. For Investment Parameters, right-click on the
Investment Parameters folder. For Project Component Map Specifications,
right-click on the simulator type folder.

On the pop-up menu, click Import.

In the Select a File for Import dialog box, locate the file and then click
Open.

3 Defining the Project Basis

127

The file is copied to the appropriate sub-folder.

Duplicating a File
To duplicate a file:
1

In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the file you wish to duplicate,
and then click Duplicate on the pop-up menu.

Enter a file name and description (optional) for the new file.

Click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer creates the file and displays the
specifications in a separate window.
4

Edit the specifications just as in a project.

When you are done, close the specifications window. If a library file is
open, you cannot access another library file or open a project.

Deleting a File
To delete a specification file:

In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the file to be deleted, and


then click Delete on the pop-up menu.

3 Defining the Project Basis

128

Note: You cannot delete files named Default, only modify them.

Selecting to Use a Different Specification


File
After creating a new specification file, you still need to select it in Project
Explorer for Analyzer to use its specifications.

To select a specification file:


1

In Project Explorer (Project Basis view), right-click on the specification


category for which you wish to select a new file. On the pop-up menu,
click Select.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays a dialog box listing the files
available for the selected category.

Select a new file from which to derive default specifications and click OK.

Changing File Directory Location


If you decide to store specification library files in a directory other than the
default, move the default files to the new location and recreate the same subfolder arrangement. Otherwise, Icarus will generate an error when you point
to the new location.

3 Defining the Project Basis

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3 Defining the Project Basis

130

4 Loading and Mapping


Simulation Data

Overview
If the process you wish to evaluate in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer is
based on a simulator file report from a process simulator software program,
the first step, after creating a project scenario and defining the Design Basis,
is to load and map simulation data.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer supports reports from the following
simulators:

AspenTechs AspenPlus Version 12.1 or higher

Chemstations ChemCAD for Windows Version 5.3.2

HYSIM Version STD/C.271

HYSYS Version 2.4.1

SimScis PRO/II with PROVISION Version 5.61

Pacific Simulations WINGEMS 2.0

WinSims DESIGN II for Windows Version 8.17

Preparing Simulation Reports


For Aspen Process Economic Analyzer to load the simulation data, an
appropriate ASCII output report needs to be generated from the simulator.
Most simulators describe the various steps needed to generate ASCII reports.
This section provides additional procedures to generate reports in an
Analyzer-compatible format.
The procedures provided here start with the default report generation options.
If changes have been made from the default report generation options, then
it may be necessary to change them back to the default settings for creating
an output report for Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

131

AspenPlus Report Generation


AspenPlus provides a template containing the property sets that a project
needs in order to generate an output report for Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer.
Note: If you use the template, the following component specification, if
entered in AspenPlus, must be re-entered in Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer:
Block - CCD
STAGE EFFICIENCY

To use the template:


1

Open the project in AspenPlus.

On the File menu, click Import.

Navigate to:

x:\Program Files\AspenTech\Economic Evaluation V7.0\Data\Load\


Note: This is the default path; it may differ depending on where you installed
Aspen Icarus.
4

Depending on the simulation units of measure, select the appropriate


simulator directory (for example, AspenPlus) and then the corresponding
template (.apt) file.

To create the required property steps in Aspen Plus


without using a template:
1

On the Data menu, click Properties. This will open the data browser to
the property specifications.

In the data browser tree structure, open the folder Prop-Sets located in
the Properties folder.

Click New to create a new property set.

Type a name for the property set or use the default name.

Click OK.

In the Substream field, select All.

Scroll down the list of available properties, clicking those you wish to
select. To start the scroll window, click in a physical properties cell:
o

MASSVFRA

MASSSFRA

MASSFLMX

VOLFLMX

MASSFLOW

TEMP

PRES

MWMX

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

132

The specifications for this property set are complete as indicated by the check
mark displayed on the tree view of the data browser.
8

Click the Prop-Sets folder. You will see the property set you just created
in the object manager and the status should be Input Complete.

Create the second property set by once again clicking New.

10 Type a name for the property set or use the default name.
11 Click OK.
12 Click the Qualifiers tab.
13 In the Phase cell, click Total.
14 Click the Properties tab.
15 In the Substream field, click ALL.
16 Now click the Units cell corresponding to the CPMX property and pick
either of the following units:
o

KJ/KG-K

-oro

BTU/LB-R

The specifications for this property set are complete.


17 Click the Prop-Sets folder. The newly created property set will appear in
the object manager with an input complete status.
18 Create the final property set needed by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
by clicking New.
19 Type a name for the property set, or use the default name.
20 Click OK.
21 Click the Qualifiers tab.
22 In the Phase cell, click Vapor.
23 Click the Properties tab.
24 Select the following properties for this property set:
o

VOLFLMX

MASSFLMX

KMX

MUMX

CPMX

MWMX

25 Now click the Units cell corresponding to the CPMX property and pick
either of the following units:
o

KJ/KG-K

-oro

BTU/LB-R

The creation of property sets is complete.


Now these property sets must be specified for use in the generation of a
report.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

133

To specify these property sets for use in report


generation:
1

If the Setup folder is not already expanded, expand it by clicking on the


plus sign next to the folder symbol.

Click Report Options.

Click the Stream tab.

Click the Property Sets button.

Move the three property sets you just created to the Selected property
sets box.

Click the > button to move them to the Selected property sets box.

Click Close.

The specifications required for loading an AspenPlus report file are now
complete. You can close the data browser window.
After running the simulation, you must create an output report.

To create an output report:


1

On the File menu, click Export.

In the Save As dialog box, use the drop-down menu to select Report
Files (*.rep) or XML files (*.xml).

Type a file name or accept the default value.

Click Save. This will create the ASCII report file needed to load into Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer with the name given above.

Note: The order on any of the tower models must be set to TOP-DOWN in
order for the tray information to get loaded into Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer correctly. This is the default setting.

Aspen Plus Utilities


If a unit operation block has a utility specified, the utility resource
specifications and usage data will be transferred into Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer. After loading the simulator data, a preference screen will appear.
Specify any missing data for the Aspen Plus utilities in order for the Aspen
Plus utility to be properly handled. The Aspen Plus utilities will appear as new
utility resources. The appropriate project components will use the specified
utility resource, based on the Aspen Plus utility used in the simulation.
A message box will appear if utility resources are modified or deleted from the
Aspen Plus simulation prior to a reload of data into Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer. You can choose to delete the old imported Aspen Plus utility
resources in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, or just add/update existing
imported utilities in Aspen Plus.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

134

AspenPlus Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer Simulator link
A link from AspenPlus to Aspen Process Economic Analyzer allows you to load
changes into Aspen Process Economic Analyzer when simulation settings are
changed in AspenPlus.

To load process simulator data through the Aspen Icarus


link into a new Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project
scenario:
1

Run the simulation in AspenPlus.

On the File menu, click Send To and click Aspen Icarus.

When the prompt appears, the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project
name will be designated to be the name of the simulation file from AspenPlus.
AspenPlus will designate the scenario name. If the scenario name is changed,
any future attempts to run the link for the same project will result in a new
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project being created. It is recommended
that the scenario name designated by AspenPlus be left as it is for maximum
usability.
3

Click OK.

The Project Properties dialog box appears.


4

Specify the Project Description, Remarks, and the Units of Measure.

Click OK.

The Input Units of Measure Specifications dialog box appears.


6

Verify the Input Units of Measure Specifications; then click OK.

The General Project Data dialog box appears.


7

Verify the General Project Data; then click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays a prompt to load the Simulator


Data.
8

Click OK.

If the simulation has specified units that are undefined, a prompt will appear
to do so. Define all AspenPlus units with those available in Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer.

To load process simulator data through the Aspen Icarus


link into an existing project scenario:
1

Run the simulation in AspenPlus

On the File menu, click Send To and click Aspen Icarus.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays a prompt to load simulator data.


3

Click OK.

Because all other project basis settings have been specified, mapping and
sizing can be performed at this time.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

135

ChemCAD Report Generation


These instructions apply to both ChemCAD for Windows, Version 5.3.2, and
for previous versions of ChemCAD. The specifications are the same for all
versions.
1

On the main menu, on the Output menu, click Report.

Note: In ChemCAD for Windows, just click the Output menu from the menu
bar.
2

Specify the following for report options:

Select Streams

Print All Streams: Y


Note: Check box in ChemCAD for Windows

Select Unit Operations

Print All Unit Operations: Y


Note: Check box in ChemCAD for Windows.

Stream Properties

Select or deselect the following stream properties as indicated below:

Property

Select

De-Select

OVERALL PROPERTIES
Mass flow rate

Mole flow rate


Temperature

X
X

Pressure

Mole Vap frac

Enthalpy

Molecular wt.

Total act.dens

VAPOR PROPERTIES
Mass flow rate

Mole flow rate

Molecular wt.

Vap. Act. Dens

Vap. Viscosity

Vap. Cp

Vap. Thrm. Cond

Liq. Surf. Tens.

LIQUID PROPERTIES
Mole flow rate

Molecular wt.

Liq. act. Dens

Liq. Viscosity

Liq. Cp

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

136

Property

Select

Liq. Thrm. Cond.

De-Select

SOLID PROPERTIES*
Mass flow rate

Molecular wt.

Density

PSD

DISTILLATION OPTIONS
Tray profile

Tray properties

Tray sizing

Packed column sizing

TRAY COMPOSITIONS
Mass flow rate

* Solid properties are located on Page 2 of Stream Properties in ChemCAD for


Windows.
The component mass flow rates for individual streams must be included in the
output report.
4

Navigate to the Stream Flowrate/Composition menu under the


Reports/Output menu.

Pick Mass Flowrate.

If you want Aspen Process Economic Analyzer to use tray sizing information
from the simulator, then you must include the appropriate sizing information.
6

To do this, go to Distillation Summaries under the Reports/Output


menu; then select the appropriate sizing section (packed or trayed).

After the completion of all these specifications, generate the output report
by selecting Calculate and Give Results. This should generate an output
report. You can rename it if you wish. This is the file to be used as input
for Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.

HYSIM Report Generation


1

Copy the following .spc files from the \Program\Load\Hysim directory


to your HYSIM working directory before generating output inside the
simulator.

MIXER.SPC

TEE.SPC

HTXRATE.SPC

BALANCE.SPC

CALC.SPC

MASSBAL.SPC

MOLEBAL.SPC

For all other operations, use the default .spc files provided by Hyprotech.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

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For HYSIM version 386|C2.12 or earlier, copy the stream format file
STRSUM.FMT located in the /Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer/Docs directory of your HYSIM working directory. If you have
HYSIM version STD:C2.63 and above, copy the stream format file
STRSUM2.FMT located in the /Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer/Docs directory to your HYSIM working directory and rename it
STRSUM.FMT. You must either delete or rename the existing
STRSUM.FMT file to perform this.

The output report generated from HYSIM should contain operation output
(defined as spec_sheet in HYSIM) and the complete stream summary. Both
of these outputs must be saved under the same file name. The information is
appended to the file and does not get overwritten.

To generate the operation output and stream summary


(Required):
1

Load the desired project inside HYSIM (*.sim).


o

operation output

stream summary

On the main menu, click Print.

On the print option, click File; then press Enter.

Select the same file (file_name) as above; then press Enter.

Click the Print option; then press Enter.

Select the Stream option; then press Enter.

Inside the Stream option, select Summary; then press Enter.

The list of streams present in the current project is displayed. Click the <> option for all the streams to be written in file_name.

The procedure creates the required report (file_name), which can be loaded
into Aspen Process Economic Analyzer and used for project evaluation.
If sizing operations are performed inside the simulator and you want the
information to be carried over to Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, the
following steps must be performed in addition to the above procedure:
1

Load the desired project inside HYSIM (*.sim).


sizing summary

On the main menu, click Size.

Inside the size option, choose the unit operation desired; then press
Enter.

Select the particular equipment (for example, col-101) ; then press Enter.

Select auto_section or user_section; then press Enter.

After the sizing calculations are performed, select Print.

Select File; then press Enter.

Select the same file name (file_name) ; then press Enter.

Click Summary; then press Enter.

Important:

The operation names and stream names can not contain the following
characters:

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

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+, -, *, or spaces

The ASCII report has to be created in the default units specified by HYSIM
for the ENGLISH and the SI modes of operation. You can run a simulation
in any simulator-provided units. However, prior to creating the report file,
you must convert the units to the default specifications provided by
HYSIM.

During the sizing procedure for the column operation, if user_section is


chosen, care should be taken to check that the stage numbers are not
repeated in the different sections of the same column operation. The
following two examples demonstrate the correct and incorrect
specifications.
Correct
user_section_1 :

Incorrect
(start stage) 1

user_section_1 :

(end stage) 10
user_section_2:

(start stage) 11

(end stage) 10
user_section_2 :

(end stage) 15

(start stage) 1
(start stage) 3
(end stage) 15

The user_section name should not contain the following characters:


+, -, *

The report format should be such that the width of the report should be
less than or equal to 4 streams wide. This can be accomplished from the
format option provided in HYSIM.

Stream summary should follow the operation output in the report, that
is, the order should be maintained.

HYSYS Report Generation


Aspen Process Economic Analyzers External Simulation Import Tool imports
HYSYS simulator data into Icarus database files, which you can then load into
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.

To import HYSYS simulation data for loading into Aspen


Process Economic Analyzer:
1

On the Tools menu, click External Simulation Import Tool.

The Simulator Link dialog box appears.

Click the Browse button for the Simulator File field.

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139

Select the process simulator project you created; then click Open.

Click the Browse button for the Export File field. The Export File will
contain the exported simulation results data from the selected HYSYS
project. Do not include any file extensions for this file. The import tool will
automatically assign a d01 extension to this file.

Select the location and enter the file name you want to be used to contain
the exported data. You can also select an existing file.

Click Save.

On the Tools menu, click Connect. HYSYS will automatically start with
the selected project.

The following figure shows the file Cheplant.hsc in the HYSYS interface.

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140

Click Export on the Simulator Link dialog box to start the process of
exporting the simulation data from the selected HYSYS project into the
Export File.

Once finished, you will see five files with the name you gave to the Export
File. These files contain the exported data.
Note: These files should always go together, in case you want to copy them
to another location.
D:\test\cheplantn.d01 Icarus database file
D:\test\cheplantn.d02
D:\test\cheplantn.d03
D:\test\cheplantn.d04
9

On the Simulator Link dialog box, click Disconnect. The tool will close
HYSYS. If you want to keep HYSYS running and make changes to your
simulation, you can use the Export Again button to export the data again
into the Export File.

10 Exit the import tool.


11 Start Aspen Process Economic Analyzer and create a new project.
12 Select Hyprotechs HYSYS as the Simulator Type.
13 When selecting the simulator report file, select the Export File (the file
with the extension .d01) created using the import tool
14 To load, map, and size this project, continue as described in this guide.

SimScis PRO/II with PROVISION Report


Generation
Two methods can be used for generating reports from PRO/II with
PROVISION.

You can change the input keyword file (*.inp) to include the required
print options using keywords for those using PRO/II directly

-or

You can change the print options from within the PROVISION user
interface.

For either method, the operation names and stream names should not contain
the following characters:

Note: When specifying sidestrippers, each sidestripper must be identified by


a unique four-character name. Currently, sidestrippers are not always
identified by their full user-given names in PRO/II with PROVISION report
files. Sometimes, they are identified by only the first four characters of the
user-given names. Therefore, to properly load sidestripper information into
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, sidestripper Unit identifiers (UIDs) must
be used, which are only four characters long.

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141

To prepare the SimSci report in PROVISION:


1

On the Input menu, select Problem Description. Make sure that the
Problem Identifier field is not blank; something must be entered.

On the Output menu, select Report Format.

On the Report Format menu, select Miscellaneous Data.

Set the Report Width field to 80 Columns (the PROVISION default


value).

On the Report Format menu, select Stream Properties.

Select Molar Flowrate and Weight Fraction.

On the Report Format menu select Unit Operations.

For each column unit operation:


A On the Unit Operations list, select Column.
B Click the Print Options button while unit is highlighted.
C Select Molar Basis from the Column Summary list.
D From their respective column print options window, select:
o

Molecular Weights

Actual Densities

Actual Volumetric Flowrates

Transport Properties

Flowing Enthalpies

Standard Liquid Densities

E Click OK.
F Repeat for each remaining COLUMN unit operation in list.
Note: See the note in the KEYWORD section regarding COLUMN sidestrippers
UIDs.
9

Click Close to finish.

10 Use the default options for remaining unit operations.

Using Keywords
For General Print Options, use the following keywords:
Print

INPUT = ALL
STREAM

= ALL

RATE = M
WIDTH = 80
For COLUMN operations, use the following keyword:
Print PROPTABLES = PART or ALL

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

142

Loading Simulation Data


The following loading procedure translates the specified process simulator
report file into Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.

To load process simulator data:


1

In Project Explorer, Project Basis view, right-click Simulator Type in


the Process Design folder; then click Edit.

The Select Simulator Type dialog box appears.

Click one type from the list; then click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays a message saying what the new
simulator type is.

Click OK.

In the Process Design folder, right-click Simulator File Name; then


click Edit.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

143

The Open dialog box appears, showing all simulator files in the Report
folder. You can browse other drives and folders as well.

Select a file; then click Open.

Note: The List view now displays the pathname of the selected simulator file
when you select Simulator File Name in Project Explorer.
6

Do one of the following:

On the toolbar, click

-or

On the Run menu, click Load Data.

A confirmation window appears.

Click Yes.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer loads the simulator data.


When the loading of the data is finished, the Process view of Project Explorer
is populated with simulator areas and simulator blocks.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

144

Viewing Data Derived from Simulator


To access simulator-derived data (read-only):
1

Right-click a block, and on the menu that appears, click Modify.

Click Cancel to close.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

145

Working with Block Flow


Diagrams
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer automatically generates a Block Flow
Diagram (BFD) from a loaded simulator report. Providing a graphical
representation of the process, the BFD displays computational blocks and
their connections.
The blocks in the diagram correspond to tree items displayed in the Project
Explorers Process view. Color-coding of the blocks in both the Process view
and the BFD agree; mapped items are displayed green and unmapped items
are displayed yellow.

Displaying the Block Flow Diagram


To display the Block Flow Diagram:

On the View menu, click Block Flow Diagram.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

146

The BFD appears in the Main Window.

Note: You can move a block by clicking on the center of the block and
dragging it to the desired location. This will also move the streams connected
to the block. If the simulator data is reloaded, the block and stream locations
will be regenerated by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.
In addition to the blocks displayed in the Process view, the BFD displays
streams, direction of stream flows, inlets, and outlets.
The commands on the View menu change when the BFD is active.

The Drag & Find Feature


There is a quick and easy way to find a block on the BFD.
Drag the block from the Project Explorers Process view and drop it anywhere
in the BFD. The part of the BFD displayed changes so that the block you want
to find appears in the upper-left corner of the Main Window.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

147

Drag a block from Project Explorer (Process view) to the BFD

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer finds the block on the diagram

Accessing Commands in the Block Flow


Diagram
Right-clicking on blocks in the BFD accesses the same commands available
when you right-click a block in Project Explorers Process view.

Block commands

Clicking View accesses simulator-derived data (read-only), as shown on page


145.
X43H

The Map command and Delete Mappings command are explained in the
next section, Mapping Simulator Items to Icarus Project Components, starting
on page 147. Alteration of mapping will alter the blocks' color based on its
status.

Stream commands
You can double-click a stream to access the Develop Stream specifications
form. This form is explained on page 116.
X435H

Zooming
You can use the Zoom In and Zoom Out buttons to increase or decrease the
magnification by degrees:

You can also select an exact magnification by using the Zoom dialog box.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

148

To use the Zoom dialog box:


1

On the View menu, click Zoom.

The Zoom dialog box appears.

Click the desired magnification, or click Custom and type a percentage


between 10 and 1,000.

Click OK to change magnification and close the dialog box.


-orClick Cancel to close the dialog box without changing magnification.

The Zoom dialog box also has two options that affect printing:
Fit into one page
Mark this box to have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer re-size the BFD to fit
onto one page when printed. This automatically selects the next option,
What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get, since the screen image will reflect the size
required to fit on one printed page.
What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get (WYSIWYG)
When WYSIWYG is cleared, zooming in or out will only affect the
magnification factor on the screen, while the printer always prints at 100%.
However, if WYSIWYG is selected, the magnification factor on the printer will
be changed so that the printed image will have the same size as the image
appearing on the screen.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

149

BlockFlow Diagram View Menu

The View menu contains some options that are only displayed when the Block Flow
Diagram is active
Use this

to

Toolbar

View or hide the toolbar. See page 36 for


descriptions of toolbar buttons.

Status Bar

View or hide the status bar. See page 26


for description of the status bar.

Project Explorer

View or hide Project Explorer. See page


26 for description of Project Explorer.

X436H

X437H

X438H

Palette

View or hide the Palette. See page 32 for


description of the Palette

Properties Window

View or hide the Properties Window. See


page 32 for a description of the Properties
Window.

X439H

X40H

Workbook Mode

Turn Workbook Mode on and off. See


page 28 for an explanation of Workbook
Mode.
X41H

Capital Costs View

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

Launch Aspen Icarus Reporter for


interactive reports (on-screen, HTML, or
Excel) or Icarus Editor for evaluation

150

reports (.ccp). The Project Evaluation


needs to have already been run. See page
405 and page 430 for details.
X42H

Investment Analysis View

X43H

Display Investment Analysis


spreadsheets. See Reviewing Investment
Analysis on page 439 for instructions.
X4H

Block Flow Diagram

Display Block Flow Diagram of the loaded


simulator data.

Process Flow Diagram

Display Process Flow Diagram. This


command is not active until you have
mapped the simulator items.

Streams List

Display a read-only list of all simulatorderived stream properties in a


spreadsheet. You can customize some of
the features of the spreadsheet (which
stream properties to display, whether to
display names of the properties, and the
display style of the property values) by
editing the stream list template file:
...\Economic Evaluation
V7.0\Data\ICS\strlist.fil

Grid Visible

View or hide grid lines.

Snap to Grid

Move blocks in increments corresponding


to the grid lines when dragging to new
location.

Show Page Bounds

View or hide page separation lines. When


displayed, you can see where page breaks
will be when printing.

Ports Visible

View or hide ports in the Process Flow


Diagram. Does not apply to Block Flow
Diagram.

Zoom

Access Zoom dialog box. See page 148.


X45H

Mapping Simulator Items to


Icarus Project Components
Mapping is the process of converting each simulator block (that is, model or
unit operation) into one or more Icarus project components.

To map simulator items:


1

If you want to map all items, access the Map dialog box by doing one of
the following:

Click

on the toolbar.

-or

On the Run menu, click Map Items.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

151

If you want to map a single block or all blocks in an area, do one of the
following:

In Process view, right-click a block or area; then click Map on the


menu that appears.

-or

In the Block Flow Diagram, right-click a block then click Map on the
menu that appears.

The Map dialog box appears.

Note: If you clicked the Map button on the toolbar or clicked Map Items on
the Run menu, only the Map All Items check box is available in the Source
section.
If you clicked Map on a pop-up menu, both Map Selected Item(s) the
default choice and Map All Items are available.
Select the desired mapping options.
Option

Description

Source

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

152

Option

Description

Map Selected Item(s)

Map the selected simulator block or the simulator blocks in


the selected simulator area. This option is available only if
you selected Map from a pop-up menu.

Map All Items

Map all simulator items in the project.

Basis
Last Mapping

Map a block according to the last time it was mapped. This


option retains only the type of Icarus project component(s)
to which the block was last mapped.

Default

Use the Component Map Specs file for the basis.

Default and Simulator


Data

Use the Component Map Specs file for the basis, but
override the mapping using specific data in the simulator.
For example, if you select this option and a reboiler type is
specified in the simulator report, an equivalent reboiler
type will be used in the mapping.
Further, if the Preferences | Process | Use Automatic
Mapping Selection when Available was selected, then
additional engineering rules of thumb will be used for a
selected category of equipments (for example, pumps,
compressors, and heat exchangers) to come up the
mapping recommendations. (Note: Currently this mode is
active only when blocks are mapped one at a time.)
Users are encouraged to review these recommendations
and either accept them or select a different equipment type
based on their knowledge of their processes and practices.

Options
Size Icarus Project
Component(s)

Size the mapped Icarus project component(s).


If you are mapping a single item to a single component
that can be sized using the interactive Sizing Expert, the
Interactive Sizing form will appear after mapping.
Otherwise, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer uses its
automatic sizing.
Although the Sizing Expert is unavailable when sizing
multiple components, you can still use it later (assuming
the component is one of those that can be sized
interactively). Just right-click on the mapped component
and click Re-Size on the pop-up menu.

Note: See Chapter 6 for instructions on using the


Sizing Expert.
3

Click OK.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

153

The Project Component Map Preview dialog box appears.

Note: All simulator items are displayed because Map all Items was selected
at the previous dialog box. Those components being mapped have asterisks
next to them.
If you selected Map Selected Item(s) on the Map dialog box, the
Simulator Items list displays just the selected simulator block(s). If you
selected Map all Items, the Simulator Items list displays all simulator
blocks.
The Current Map List displays any components that are already mapped to
the simulator block highlighted on the Simulation List.
The Configuration option box is active only for blocks representing column
models. (In the sample project, Block B7 represents a column model.)

You must use the arrow scroll buttons to see all ten possible configurations.
Selecting a configuration type automatically fills in the Current Map List with
the components required for that configuration type. See Tower
Configurations for more information.
4

Click New Mapping to map a block highlighted on the Simulator Items


list to an Icarus project component.

If the simulator block represents a column model that does not yet have all
its required mappings, the Select a Suffix dialog box appears, listing the
types of components (indicated by suffixes that appear at the end of Item
Descriptions on the List view) that still need to be mapped to the block.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

154

Note: See Tower Configurations for more information.

Suffix

To indicate

bottoms split

bottoms splitter

bot exchanger

bottoms exchanger

bottoms pump

bottoms pump

Cond

condenser for the tower

cond acc

condenser accumulator

ovhd exchanger

Overhead exchanger

Overhead split

Overhead splitter

ovhd pump

Overhead pump

precooler

first heat exchanger in split configuration

Reb

reboiler for the tower

reflux pump

reflux pump

Tower

main tower

Trim

second heat exchanger in split configuration

Other

user-selectable.

spray cond

Spray condenser

spray cond exit pump

Pump for recirculating the spray condenser exit

sc tot recycle splitter

Splitter in Spray Condenser Configuration that generates


the total recycle stream

sc cooler

Heat exchanger in the Spray Condenser Configuration that


cools the entire total recycle stream

sc tot recycle trim splitter Trim splitter in Spray Condenser Configuration 2


sc trim

Heat exchanger in the Spray Condenser Configuration that


cools the entire total recycle stream

Select a suffix; then click OK.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

155

The Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box appears.

Select a component.

The Project Component Map Preview dialog box now displays the
component category's item symbol (for example, AG) and the component
type (for example, DIRECT) in the Current Map List. More component
details are displayed in the Icarus Project Component Description
section.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

156

By default, the Component Name field contains the block name. You may
want to modify it to be more descriptive and to distinguish the component
from others to which the block has also been mapped. This can be as simple
as adding a descriptor at the end.

Each component mapped from the block must have a unique name; if another
component already has the default component name, Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer prompts you to enter a unique name after you select
another component.
7

Click OK to complete the mapping.

If you selected to size the mapped component(s), Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer also performs automatic sizing or, in cases in which a single item is
being mapped to a single component for which interactive sizing is available,
the Interactive Sizing form appears. See Chapter 6, Sizing Project
Components, page 213, for information on this feature.
46H

With the block now mapped, the List view displays the components mapped
from the simulator block.

Component Status
You may notice a "?" in the Status column of a project component mapped
from the simulator block. This indicates that there are still specifications that
need to be entered for the component.

To enter the specifications:


1

Right-click the component.

On the menu that appears, click Modify Item.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

157

Entering specifications in the required fields will change the status to OK.
Required fields are indicated by color-coding explained on page 186, under
Entering Component Specifications.
X47H

If you do not enter the specifications and the "?" remains in the Status
column, the item will not be included in the project evaluation and will have
"0" cost associated with it. It will not cause SCAN messages.

Deleting Mappings
To delete mappings:

Right-click in the simulator area or simulator block in Process view; then,


on the menu that appears, click Delete.

Tower Configurations
Because a column can be mapped to multiple pieces of equipment, Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer requires that you select a tower configuration on
the Project Component Map Preview dialog box.

You can select from among ten possible configurations:

Standard Single

Standard Total

Standard Total w/Circ.

Standard Split

Standard Split Total

Standard Split Total w/Circ.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

158

Full Single

Full Single w.Circ.

Full Split

Full Split w/Circ.

This term

means

Single

Tower has one condenser.

Split

Tower has multiple condensers.

Total

the reflux pump handles the total outlet liquid flow from
the accumulator. In such configurations, the splitting into
a reflux and overhead liquid product occurs after the
reflux pump.

Circ.

there is a pump between the bottoms splitter and the


reboiler giving a forced circulation configuration around
the reboiler.

Note: Full configurations include the following equipment not found in


Standard configurations:

overhead pump

overhead product heat exchanger

bottoms product pump

bottoms product heat exchanger

Based on the tower configuration selected, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer


automatically creates a model for each tower block and then maps the model
to an Icarus project component. In addition, you can specify how the
condenser requirements should be split between the Precooler and the Trim
cooler on the Design Criteria specifications form.
If subcooling is present, the precooler will completely condense the overhead
vapor and the trim cooler will perform the subcooling; the split specification
on the Design Criteria specifications form will be ignored when subcooling
is present.
The following figures display the ten possible configurations. The default item
description suffixes (see page 155) are used to identify the configuration
parts, each of which is mapped to an Icarus project component.
X48H

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

159

Figure 1: Standard Single

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

160

Figure 2 : Standard Total

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

161

Figure 3: Standard Total w/Circ

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162

Figure 4: Standard Split

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

163

Figure 5: Standard Split Total

Figure 6: Standard Split Total w/Circ.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

164

Figure 7: Full Single

Figure 8: Full Single w/Circ.

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165

Figure 9: Full Split

Figure 10: Full Split w/Circ.

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166

Figure 11: Spray Condenser Configuration 1 w/Circ.

Note: Flow rate of the Spray Cond Total Recycle (SCTR) stream is calculated
using Ratio of Recycle to (Ovhdliqprod + Reflux) Flowrates = mSCTR / (mOVH
LIQ PROD+ mREFLUX). Ratio of Recycle to (Ovhdliqprod + Reflux) Flowrates
is an input specified in the Design Criteria.
mSCTR = mass flow rate of the SCTR stream.
mOVH LIQ PROD = mass flow rate of the Overhead Liquid Product stream.
mREFLUX = mass flow rate of the Reflux stream.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

167

Figure 12: Spray Condenser Configuration 2 w/Circ.

The duty for the SC COOLER and SC TRIM exchangers are calculated using
Ratio of SC Trim Duty to Overall Duty = QSCTRIM / QCONDENSER
B

QCONDENSER = QSCTRIM + QSCCOOLER


B

where:
Ratio of SC Trim Duty to Overall Duty is an input specified in the Design
Criteria
QSCTRIM
B

QSCCOOLER
B

QCONDENSER
B

Spray Condenser Cooler Duty

Spray Condenser Trim Duty

Total Overhead Condenser Duty, obtained from


Simulator Data

Then the temperatures of the streams exiting the Spray Condenser Cooler
and Spray Condenser Trim exchangers are calculated using:
a Q = mCpDeltaT calculation.
Flow rate of the streams exiting the SC Tot Recycle Trim Splitter are
determined using:
SC Trim Splitter Flow Split Ratio = mSCRTSEx1 / mSCCEx
B

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

168

mSCCEx = (mSCRTSEx1 + mSCRTSEx2)


B

SC Trim Splitter Flow Split Ratio is an input specified in the Design Criteria
mSCCE
B

mSCRTSEx1
B

mass flow rate of the SC Cooler Exit Stream

mass flow rate of the SC Rcy Trim Splitter Ex1


Stream

(this is the one that subsequently goes through the SC TRIM exchanger)
mSCRTSEx2
B

mass flow rate of the SC Rcy Trim Splitter Ex2


Stream

Sizing Selection
This section outlines the workflow of the sizing selection feature available in
Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator. Sizing selection is a mechanism that lets you
pre-define and/or define sizing rules for project components. Specifically, you
can set rules on equipment models or specific project components to be sized
with one or more custom models.

Project Sizing Selection


Typically, you load data from a simulation and then choose to map the
simulator unit operations. In the mapping screen that appears, there is a
check box to Review Sizing Selection. If selected (the default is based on
the Tools | Options | Preferences | Process | Sizing selection on the
item-size menu), the sizing selection appears.
You select any custom model for sizing the project components listed.

If an item is selected, the sizing preview screen appears during a size or


re-size performed on one or more project component(s).

If an item is not selected, the mapping preview screen does not appear for
editing during these steps, but the sizing selection specifications is applied
to the selected project component(s).

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169

Figure 13: Mapping with option to review sizing selection

If selected, you will see the Sizing Selection preview after the mapping
preview screen for a chance to edit how the project components are sized
(see Figure 14).

Figure 14: Sizing Selection preview for specified project components

You can specify the sizing routines (System Sizing and custom models) for
each project component (created by mapping from a simulator or manual
creation) that will be applied during the size-all step.
If a custom model is specified in the current sizing list for a project
component, the project component will be sized in the order shown in the
Current Sizing List (see Figure 14). Any custom models listed will be sized
using the custom model tool automatically without any user-interaction

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

170

required. After sizing is complete, the system returns to a ready-state for


you to perform additional project tasks.
For Global Sizing Selection information, see page 219.
X49H

Specifying Additional
Components
Icarus project components can be added to areas mapped from a simulator
report. However, these project components must initially be added in a useradded area. You can later rearrange the components in Project Explorers
Project view, drag components from a user-added area to an area mapped
from the simulator report.
Follow the instructions for adding a project component on page 182.
X450H

If the component you add is process equipment, Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer adds an icon representing the new equipment item in the upper lefthand corner of the Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The next section, Working
with Process Flow Diagrams, includes instructions (see Editing Connectivity on
page 175) for connecting an added component to a stream in PFD view.
X451H72

Working with Process Flow


Diagrams
Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) provide graphical representations of Icarus
process equipment mapped from simulator blocks and the interconnecting
streams. You can edit the layout and connectivity of the mapped items from
PFD view. You can also add streams. Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
provides intelligent port selection, so that when drawing a stream you see the
candidate ports highlighted in green as the mouse is moved over them.

To access PFD view:


1

On the View menu, click Process Flow Diagram.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

171

Use the Drag-and-Find feature to locate any equipment item on the PFD.

Drag an equipment item from Project Explorer (Project view) and drop it
on the PFD.

The icon in the PFD that corresponds to the selected equipment will be
positioned in the upper left-hand corner (regardless of magnification).

Editing the Layout


To change the position of an item:

Use your mouse to drag the item to its new position.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer reroutes any streams connected to the


item.

To change the route of a stream:

Click the stream; then drag the stream to straighten it or to create an


elbow-bend.

Note: If you eventually select Reroute All Streams on the Run menu,
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer chooses the most logical routes for all
streams.

Process Flow Diagram View Menu


Note: The View menu contains some options that are displayed only when
the Block Flow Diagram is active.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

172

Use this

to

Toolbar

View or hide the toolbar. See


page 36 for descriptions of toolbar
buttons.
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Status Bar

View or hide the status bar. See


page 26 for a description of the
status bar.
X45H

Project Explorer

View or hide Project Explorer. See


page 26 for a description of
Project Explorer.
X45H

Palette

View or hide the Palette. See


page 32 for a description of the
Palette.
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Properties Window

View or hide the Properties


window. See page 32 for a
description of the Properties
window.
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Workbook Mode

Turn Workbook Mode on and


off. See page 28 for an
explanation of Workbook Mode.
X458H

Capital Costs View

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

Launch Aspen Icarus Reporter for

173

interactive reports (on-screen,


HTML, or Excel) or Icarus Editor
for evaluation reports (.ccp). The
Project Evaluation needs to have
already been run. See page 405
and page 430 for details.
X459H

X460H

Investment Analysis View

Display Investment Analysis


spreadsheets. See Reviewing
Investment Analysis on page
439 for instructions.
X461H

Block Flow Diagram

Display Block Flow Diagram of


the loaded simulator data.

Process Flow Diagram

Display Process Flow Diagram.


This command is not active until
you have mapped the simulator
items.

Streams List

Display a read-only list of all


simulator-derived stream
properties in a spreadsheet. You
can customize some of the
features of the spreadsheet
(which stream properties to
display, whether to display names
of the properties, and the display
style of the property values) by
editing the stream list template
file:
...\Economic Evaluation
V7.0\Data\ICS\strlist.fil

Grid Settings

Access Grid Properties dialog


box, where you can set the grid
increments and select to view or
hide grid lines.

Snap to Grid

Move blocks in increments


corresponding to the grid lines
when dragging to new location.

Show Page Bounds

View or hide page separation


lines. When displayed, you can
see where page breaks will be
when printing.

Ports Visible

View or hide ports.

Zoom

Access Zoom tool. This is the


same as in the Block Flow
Diagram (see page 148).
X462H

Add Stream

Access the Develop Streams


dialog box. See Adding A
Stream, page 177, for details.
X463H

Draw Disconnected Stream

Access the Disconnected Streams


dialog box. See Drawing a
Disconnected Stream, page 179,
for details.
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Edit Connectivity

Activate the Edit Connectivity


feature. See Editing
Connectivity, page 175, for
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4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

174

details.

Setting Grid Properties


You can select to display grids of any increments. In addition, you can select
the color of the grids and whether to be in Snap to Grid mode.

To set grid properties:


1

On the View menu, click Grid Settings.

The Grid Properties dialog box appears.

Set the Across and Down grid increments in the Increments section.
Specify in the Units section whether the specified increments are in
inches or centimeters.

Select the Snap to Grid check box to turn on Snap to Grid mode. When
you drag a block in this mode, the blocks bounding outline moves in
increments corresponding to the grid.

Click Color to select a grid color.

Finally, in the Visibility section, click whether to show or hide the grid.

Click OK to apply the settings.

Editing Connectivity
The Edit Connectivity feature lets you make changes to the layout of items in
the PFD. Because this involves connecting and disconnecting streams to
ports, the Ports Visible option should be on, as it is by default.
If the ports are not visible, click the Ports Visible button

Connecting a Stream to Different Inlet Port


To connect a stream to a different inlet port:
1

Do one of the following:

On the toolbar, click the Edit Connectivity button

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

175

-or
2

On the View menu, click Edit Connectivity.

Place the cursor over the end of the stream you want to connect to a
different inlet port.

The cursor becomes an arrow.

Click the end of the stream.

The cursor now appears as a crosshairs.


4

Move the cursor to another inlet port.

When the cursor is in close proximity to a component, the component's


available inlet ports display green.

Click the new inlet port.

Connecting an Added Project Component to a Stream


Project components that you add to the project appear in the upper left-hand
corner of the PFD and are not connected to any streams.

To connect an added project component to a stream:


1

Do one of the following:

On the toolbar, click the Edit Connectivity button

-or
2

On the View menu, click Edit Connectivity.

Place the cursor over the added project component that you wish to insert
into an existing stream.

The cursor becomes a hand.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

176

Click the component.

A bounding outline, representing the component, appears around the cursor.

Move the cursor over a stream. Click when you have placed the cursor
over the desired stream.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer disconnects the Sink end of the stream
from the inlet port on the current component, then automatically re-connects
it to the inlet port on the inserted component.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer also creates a new stream, which appears
white and has properties relative to the initial stream. Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer connects the Source end of this new stream to the outlet
port of the inserted item and the Sink and to the inlet port of the original.

The added item can now be sized manually or using the Size Item option,
which either automatically sizes the item or, if interactive sizing is available,
accesses the Sizing Expert. The Sizing Expert, explained in Chapter 6, will
utilize the newly connected streams.

Adding a Stream
From PFD view, you can create a new stream and specify its connectivity. The
process of developing streams is explained in detail under Developing
Streams, page 114.
X46H

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

177

To add a stream:
1

Do one of the following:

On the toolbar, click the Add Stream button

-or

On the View menu, click Add Stream.

The Develop Streams dialog box appears.

Do one of the following:

To create a stream from scratch, click Create and proceed to Step 3.


-or-

To create a stream based on an existing stream, in the Base Stream


section, click the existing stream; and then click a Basis:
o

Absolute If the Basis Mode is Absolute, the data from the base
stream is copied to the new stream at the time the new stream is
created. If the data of the base stream is altered at any time after
this point, the data of the new stream remains unchanged.

Relative If the Basis Mode is Relative, the new streams data is


dynamically linked to that of the stream on which its based. This
means that alterations to the data of the base stream immediately
affect the new stream.

Click Create.

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

178

The Create Stream dialog box appears.

Type a name in the Stream Name field; then click OK.

The Develop Streams specifications dialog box appears.


5

Make any desired modifications; then click OK.

Move the cursor, which appears as a square, to an outlet port.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer provides intelligent port selection,


highlighting the candidate ports in green.

Click when you have placed the cursor over the desired outlet port.

Move the cursor, which now appears as crosshairs, to an inlet port.

Click when you have placed the cursor over the desired inlet port.

Drawing a Disconnected Stream


To draw a disconnected stream:
1

Do one of the following:

4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

179

On the toolbar, click the Draw Disconnected Stream button

-or

On the View menu, click Draw Disconnected Stream.

The Disconnected Streams dialog box appears.

Click a stream; then click OK.

Draw the stream as described in the previous instructions for Adding a


Stream.

Working with Streams


Right-clicking on a stream accesses a pop-up menu with the following
commands.

Use this

to

Modify

Access the Develop Stream dialog box listing the streams


specifications, which you can modify.

Disconnect

Erase the stream from the screen and store it, so that you
can select it when using the Draw Disconnected Stream
feature (see page 179).

Reconnect Source

Reconnect the stream to a new outlet port.

Reconnect Sink

Reconnect the stream to a new inlet port.

Delete

Delete the stream.

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4 Loading and Mapping Simulation Data

180

5 Defining Project
Components

When developing an Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project, you can add
project components in Project view to user-defined areas (areas not mapped
from the simulation report). Once added, you can drag them to different
areas. Components are categorized as follows:
Note: See ICARUS Reference Guide for information on individual components.
Category

To define

Process Equipment

Equipment for gas, liquids and solids


handling and off-site/packaged
systems.

Plant Bulks

Material commodities that service a


section of the plant or the whole plant.
Plant bulks are divided into categories:
Piping, Civil, Steel, Instrumentation,
Electrical, Insulation and Paint.

Site Development

Modifications that must be done to the


site. Site development items are
divided into categories: Demolition,
Drainage, Earthwork, Fencing,
Landscaping, Roads-Slabs-Paving,
Piling and Railroads.

Buildings

Civil structures directly involved in the


process or for off-site use.

Quoted Equipment

A way to enter special equipment not


found in Process Equipment above.

Unit Cost Library

Items from a Unit Cost Library. See


Chapter 7.

Equipment Model
Library

Items from an Equipment Model


Library. See Chapter 7.

5 Defining Project Components

181

Adding an Area
To add an area:
1

In Project Explorers Project view, right-click on the Main Project folder.

Click Add Area on the pop-up menu.

The Area Information dialog box appears.

Define the area, including name, type, and dimensions.

The Area Type determines how equipment will be installed in the area. See
Chapter 36 of Icarus Reference for information.
4

Click OK.

Project Explorer now displays the new area.

Adding a Project Component


Aspen Process Economic Analyzer provides two methods for adding a project
component:

5 Defining Project Components

182

Drag-and-drop
Drag a component from the Palette to an area on Project Explorers Project
view and enter an item description. This adds the component to the area
without displaying the Component Specifications form; the specifications are
left to be entered at your convenience.
Pop-up menu
Right-click on an area and click Add Project Component from the pop-up
menu, then select a component from the Project Component Selection dialog
box and enter an item description. This adds the component and also displays
the Component Specifications form, where you can complete the component
definition right away.

Method 1: Dragging a Component from the


Palette
To add a component using the drag-and-drop method:
1

With the Palette (Components view) and Project Explorer (Project view)
displayed, drag a component from the components list to an area on the
Project Explorer.

Note: The Recent Items folder in the Components view stores the last 10
project component selections.
2

To drag, click the component and hold down the mouse button.

Move the cursor until over the area where you want to place the
component.

Release the mouse button.

5 Defining Project Components

183

The New Component Information dialog box appears.

Enter an item description (required) and User Tag Number (optional), then
click OK.

The component is added. Project Explorer displays a block for the component
under the selected area. The List view displays general information. You may
notice a question mark (?) in the Status column on the List view. This
indicates that there are still specifications that need to be entered for the
component. To enter the specifications, follow the instructions under Entering
Component Specifications on page 186.
X468H

Method 2: Using the Pop-Up Menu


To add a component using the pop-up menu:
1

In Project Explorer, Project view, right-click on a non-simulator area and


click Add Project Component on the pop-up menu.

5 Defining Project Components

184

The Project Component Selection dialog box appears.

Enter the Project Component Name.

Highlight the category to which the desired equipment belongs (process


equipment, plant bulks, site development, buildings, quoted equipment)
and click OK.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays a list of sub-categories.


4

Continue to narrow down the selection to a specific component. Clck OK.

The component is added to the area.

The Component Specifications form is automatically displayed. You can


either complete the definition of the equipment item now or later.

5 Defining Project Components

185

Entering Component
Specifications
After adding a component, you still need to enter at least some component
specifications to complete the components definition. Many component
specifications have default values used when no value is entered, but most
component specifications require further input. If a component added still has
any specifications requiring input, a question mark (?) appears in the status
column of the List view for that component.
You do not have to enter specifications immediately upon adding a
component; you may wish to wait until more information about a project
becomes available.
As more information about a project becomes available, you may also wish to
modify previously entered component specifications. The following
instructions apply as well to modifying previously entered specifications.

To enter or modify component specifications:


If the Component Specifications form is not already displayed in the Main
Window, display the form by right-clicking on the component and clicking
Modify Item on the pop-up menu. You can right-click on the component in
either Project Explorer (Project view) or List view (Area level)
Double-clicking on the component will also display the Specifications form.

Color coding

Red Border: An entry must be made in the field. All specifications forms
have at least one required entry field.

Green Borders and Thick Gray Borders: An entry must be made in either
the field with the thick gray border or in the two fields with the green
borders. The field with the thick gray borders and the fields with the green

5 Defining Project Components

186

borders are mutually exclusive. In the form pictured to the right, either
the pump size must be selected or the fluid head and liquid flow rate must
be entered. The Properties Window notes this in the Description.
Enter the specifications.
Note: While on either the component or installation bulks specifications form,
you can quickly determine the net effect of all your changes by clicking the
Evaluate
button and reviewing the resulting report. See page 462 for
more information
X469H701

Fields with red borders are required. If theres a combination of two fields
with green borders and one with a thick gray border, an entry must be made
either in the two fields with the green borders or in the field with the thick
gray border.
To define installation bulks for the component:
1

Click the Options drop-down and select the type of bulks to define.

See Defining Installation Bulks on page 188 for a complete description of


installation bulks.
X472H

After defining the component and installation bulks, save the specifications
form by clicking OK.

5 Defining Project Components

187

Defining Installation Bulks


Installation bulks are items directly associated with the component being
defined and are used to complete the installation of the item, for example, a
foundation for a vessel. The difference between an installation bulk and a
plant bulk is that an installation bulk is associated with a component, whereas
a plant bulk services the whole plant or mill.
Installation bulks may be defined when entering or modifying equipment or
plant bulk specifications. Most components are automatically outfitted with
installation bulks, so this feature is typically used to adjust, modify, or delete
selected bulks. However, because quoted equipment is not automatically
outfitted with installation bulks, this feature also serves as the method for
defining all installation bulks required for quoted equipment.
To access installation bulk specifications:
1

Display the Component Specifications form.

Click the down-arrow on the Options button

Click the type of installation bulks you want to view or define.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the specifications form for the
selected installation bulk items. See the subsections that follow for
descriptions of the different types of installation bulks.
4

When you are done defining the installation bulk, save your changes in
either of two ways, depending on what you intend to do next:
o

5 Defining Project Components

If you want to continue modifying this components installation


bulks or component specifications, click Apply to save the
changes. You can now select either Project Component or
another type of installation bulks from the Options menu.

188

If you are done making changes to the installation bulks and to


the component specifications, click OK to save the changes and
close the specifications.

Note: You can select in Preferences to have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
return you to the main Component Specifications form after you click OK (see
page 48).
X473H

Matl/Man-hours Adjustments
Using Matl/Man-hours Adjustments, you can specify percent adjustments of
system-calculated values as follows:
Category

Percent adjustment for

Equipment

Material cost (COA 100-299)

Setting

Man-hours (COA 100-299)

Piping

Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 300-399)

Civil

Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 400-499)

Steel

Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 500-599)

Instrumentation

Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 600-699)

Electrical

Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 700-799)

Insulation

Material costs and/or man-hours (COA 800-899)

Paint

Material costs and/or man-hours. (COA 900-999)

These adjustments compound material and man-hour indexing applied to the


same COAs. User-entered material costs and man-hours (entered using
either Quoted Equipment or Matl/Man-hours % Additions) are not affected by
these adjustments.
A special options section at the bottom of this form allows you to specify
non-default installations for the item, including demolition (i.e.,
dismantlement) of the component and its installation bulks.

For example, to demolish a component item:


1

Click Matl/Man-hours Adjustments on the Options menu of the


Component Specifications form.

Scroll down to the Special Options section and, on the Installation


Options list, click DEML.

5 Defining Project Components

189

Note: Clicking the demolition (DEML) option causes the following changes
to the component:

Material costs are set to zero.

Man-hours and labor costs are charged to demolition COAs (for example,
109, 309, 409, and so on)

Piping and civil man-hours are down-adjusted:

Shop fab man-hours are removed from piping man-hours.

Civil formwork/bracing man-hours are removed.

Go back through the Matl/Man-hour Adjustments form and make the


proper adjustments to account for the relative difficulty of demolition
versus new build.

For example, if you know unsetting the component is 15% easier than initially
setting it, then enter 85% in the Setting labor adjustment field.
4

Save your changes in either of two ways, depending on what you intend
to do next:
o

If you want to continue modifying this components installation


bulk or component specifications, click Apply to save the
changes to the Matl Man-hour Adjustments. You can now select
either Project Component or another installation bulk from the
Options menu.

If you are done making changes to the installation bulks and to


the component specifications, click OK to save the changes and
close the specifications window.

5 Defining Project Components

190

Note: You can select in Preferences to have Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer return you to the main Component Specifications form after you
click OK (see page 48).
X47H

Matl/Man-hours Additions
Using Matl/Man-hours Additions, you can add lump sum material costs and/or
man-hours to a specified COA. All additions are reported as is. Additions are
neither indexed nor adjusted by Matl/Man-hours Adjustments. Up to 20
additions can be defined per component.

Pipe General Specs


Use Pipe General Specs to define the rules for developing all installation
piping on the selected component. You can use many fields to define general
piping specifications, such as: Material

Pressure

Temperature

Installation - above or below grade

Fluid or electric tracing

Flange class and type

Stress relief

Insulation type

Insulation jacket type

Paint treatment

Pipe Item Details


Use Pipe Item Details to specify individual runs of piping and associated
fittings, tracing, paint and insulation. The line is developed using the rules
defined in Pipe General Specs unless they are re-defined with Pipe Item
Details. Up to 40 lines may be defined/adjusted for each component.
Note: To reduce the time required to retrieve data when multiple items have
been added, select in Preferences to not display all items. If Display P&I
Installation Items is unmarked on the Preferences General tab view, selecting
Pipe Item Details will display a dialog box from which you can select the
item you wish to edit or select to add a new item. See page 47 for
instructions on entering Preferences.
X475H

The component starts with piping depicted in the Piping and Instrumentation
Drawings manual. You can also display the components piping and
instrumentation drawing by clicking the P&ID button on the Component
Specifications form.

It displays the piping you are adjusting on the Pipe Details Installation
Bulk form.

5 Defining Project Components

191

You can revise the pipe volumetric model for a component line-by-line.
Specifications on the Pipe Item Details Installation Bulk form override the
project-, area- and component-level specifications that otherwise determine
the design of all lines of pipe. For example, area dimensions determine all
lengths of lines generated by volumetric models except those lines for which
you enter a specific length.

The Piping Volumetric Model field offers the following options:

blank - Specified pipe only, no volum. model


This option should rarely be used. It is a rapid way to discard the complete
piping model for this item; however, in addition to discarding all of the
automatically generated lines of pipe, this also discards all the associated
drains/vents and pipe-associated instrumentation. The system now generates
only piping, drains/vents and on-/in-line instrumentation for those lines that
you subsequently define. Once you have used this option, the other options
below cannot be used because the model is already discarded. If you
subsequently re-create a line that the volumetric model would have
automatically created, the associated on-/in-line instrumentation is
automatically re-created.

A - Add line to pipe volumetric model


This option is used to add a new line of pipe to a component. The number of
the new line must be higher than any other automatically created or userdefined line. For example, if a component generates lines 1 to 6, then an
added line may have the number 7 to 40. The area dimensions will have no
effect on the length of these lines. It is not necessary to add line numbers in

5 Defining Project Components

192

numeric order; however, they will be generated and reported in numeric


order. To associate instrumentation with a new line, specify that a sensor or
control element location is this line number. Line 40 is reserved for
drains/vents.

C - Change lines on pipe volumetric model


This is a commonly used option. It is used to modify automatically generated
lines of pipe; user-specified lines are not changed. The line is generated
exactly at it would have been in the absence of your specifications, except for
the items which you change. You may use this to change only the metallurgy,
diameter or length of a run, or only the valves and fittings (including setting
the quantity to 0) or any combination of these.

D - Delete line on pipe volumetric model


This option deletes a single line of automatically generated pipe and its
associated drains/vents and instrumentation.

R - Replace line on pipe volumetric model


This option replaces the automatically generated line completely with the
exact line that you specify. If you do not define something for this line, you
do not get it. For example, if you specify a line of fixed length containing no
valves or fittings, then you only get the straight-run of pipe.
To make more than one specification for Pipe Item Details:

Click Add.

This adds an item specs column to this form.


To delete any unwanted or unused column(s):
Click any cell in that column (or drag for a range of columns). Click Delete.

Note: Incompletely specified columns must be either completed or deleted


before saving.

Duct
Duct installation bulk items specify individual runs of process ductwork and
associated fittings and insulation. Up to 5 duct lines may be specified for each
component. Use the same methods described for multiple lines of pipe.

5 Defining Project Components

193

Civil
Civil installation bulk items specify bulk excavation and up to three different
foundation types/sizes. The available foundation types are listed in the Icarus
Reference.
From the specified foundation types and volumes, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer calculates:

Excavation and backfill

Form work (plywood/backup lumber with reuse)

Rebar

Sand mat (or ring wall foundation types only)

Grout

Anchor bolts/embedments

Steel
The Steel installation bulk specifies the following:

Ladders

Stairs

Platforms

In addition, up to three different steel items may be specified.

Instrumentation
Instrument installation bulk items specify individual instrumentation loops or
parts of loops with associated sensors, transmitters and signal cabling. Up to
50 loops may be defined for each component.
Note: To reduce the time required to retrieve data when multiple instrument
items have been added, select in Preferences to not display all items. If
Display P&I Installation Items is unmarked on the Preferences General tab
view, selecting Instrumentation will display a dialog box from which you can
select the item you wish to edit or select to add a new item. See page 47 for
instructions on accessing and entering Preferences.
X476H

The component starts with instrumentation depicted in the Piping and


Instrumentation Drawings manual. You can also display the components
on
piping and instrumentation drawing by clicking the P&ID button
the Component Specifications form. It displays the instrumentation you are
adjusting on the Instrumentation Installation Bulk form.
You can revise the instrument volumetric model for a component loop-byloop. Specifications entered on the Instrumentation Installation Bulk form
override the project-, area- and component-level specifications that otherwise
determine the design of all instrument loops.

5 Defining Project Components

194

The Instrument Volumetric Model field offers the following options:

blank - Specified loop only, no volum. model

This option should rarely be used, It is a rapid way to discard the complete
instrument model for this item. The system now generates instrumentation
for those loops that you subsequently define. To define new loops, you
continue to use this blank option for each successive loop. Once you have
used this option, the other options below cannot be used because the model
is already discarded.

A - Add loop to instr. volum. model

This option is used to add a new loop to a component. The number of the new
loop must be higher than any other automatically created or user-defined
loop. It is not necessary to add loop numbers in numeric order; however,
they will be generated and reported in numeric order. For example, if a
component generates loops 1 to 6, then an added loop may have the number
7 to 50.

D - Delete loop on instr. volum. model

This option deletes a single loop, including sensor, transmitter, cable, control
center connections and final control element.

R - Replace loop on instr. volum. model

This option replaces the automatically-generated loop completely with the


exact loop that you specify. If you do not define something for this loop, or
you selectively delete a part, you do not get it. For example, if you specify a
sensor and transmitter only, then you only get the signal generated and sent
to the control center.

+ - Append to previous loop w/same no.

This option is used to append extra sensors or control valves to the


immediately preceding, user-defined loop (you must also correctly specify the
loop number of the preceding loop). It may not be used to append items to
automatically generated loops; to do this, you should first use the replace

5 Defining Project Components

195

option to redefine the loop, then use the + option. Whether you are
appending a sensor or control element, you should make entries for both the
sensor and control valve locations.
To define more than one adjustment, use the same methods described earlier
for Pipe Item Details (page 193).
X47H

Instrument Loop Adjustment


On the Instrumentation Installation Bulk form, there are eight Loop
Modification fields, which allow you to remove different elements of the
instrument loop from the project. Select - from the drop-down menu to
remove an element.
Two of the elements, sensor and control valve, can also be specified as
quoted (Q) or vendor-provided (V) equipment. When either Q or V is
selected, the system includes installation manhours for the element but not
material costs.

Deleting the process connection removes all of the instrument piping.


The indicating signal and control signal runs are reported together, so
removing one would decrease the amount of cable and supports by half.
The following diagram shows how the eight adjustable loop elements fit into
the loop design:

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Notes:
(A)
Junction boxes can be found under PLANT BULKS, INSTRUMENTATION,
JUNC-BOX.
(B)
Multi-core runs can be found under PLANT BULKS,
INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTRONIC SIGNAL WIRE. You can specify it with or
without the junction box.
(C)
Control centers can be found under PLANT BULKS,
INSTRUMENTATION, MULTIFUNCTION CONTROLLERS (electronic) or PLANT
BULKS, INSTRUMENTATION, INSTRUMENT PANEL ANALOG (pneumatic).

Electrical
The Electrical installation bulk specifies local equipment lighting, control
wiring and power/cable and motor starters for up to three different types of
electrical loads.

Insulation
The Insulation installation bulk specifies insulation and fireproofing for
component and installation bulk steel. For components, the insulation type,
jacket type, thickness and area may be specified. For component and steel
fireproofing, type, rating and area may be specified.

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Paint
The Paint installation bulk specifies surface preparation and painting of
component and installation bulk steel. Paint for pipe is specified under piping.
Entry field specifications include:

Size of area to be painted

Number of prime and final coats

Percent of painted area to be sandblasted

Galvanizing (for steel)

Defining Area Specifications


You can define mechanical design and cost basis specifications for the newly
added area. You can define or modify area specifications in two ways:

using the Project view

using the Spreadsheet view

Method 1: Defining area specifications


using Project View
To define area specifications using Project view:
1

Right-click on the area in Project Explorers Project view and then click
Modify on the pop-up menu.

Aspen Capital Cost Estimator displays the Area Specifications dialog box.

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Select the specification category you want to define:

Select

To do this

Area Title Info

Change the area title.

Area Equipment, Piping,


Civil, Steel,
Instrumentation,
Electrical, Insulation and
Paint

Define standards and procedures applying to this area only.


Overrides specifications entered at the project level for this
area only.

Area Specs

Define areas type, dimensions, and average high/low


ambient temperatures.

Area Modules

Define module type (default is SKID: flat base structural


module); beam, column, and bracing options; structure
costs; shipping costs; and impact loads.

Material Index Info

Adjust areas system-generated material costs by a


percentage. Overrides specifications entered at the project
level for this area only.

Man Hour Index Info

Adjust areas system-generated man-hours by a


percentage. Overrides specifications entered at the project
level for this area only.

Click Modify to access the selected area specifications.

The Area Equipment Specs dialog box appears.

Enter area specifications and click OK.

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Method 2: Defining area specifications


using Spreadsheet View
To define or modify area specifications using Spreadsheet
view:
1

On the main menu bar, click View | Spreadsheet View | Areas.

The Areas spreadsheet view appears.


2

On the Areas spreadsheet view, click Options.

On the menu that appears, select the specification category you want to
define/modify.

Select

To do this

Area Title Info

Change the area title.

Area Equipment, Piping,


Civil, Steel,
Instrumentation,
Electrical, Insulation and
Paint

Define standards and procedures applying to this area only.


Overrides specifications entered at the project level for this
area only.

Area Specs

Define areas type, dimensions, and average high/low


ambient temperatures.

Area Modules

Define module type (default is SKID: flat base structural


module); beam, column, and bracing options; structure
costs; shipping costs; and impact loads.

Material Index Info

Adjust areas system-generated material costs by a


percentage. Overrides specifications entered at the project
level for this area only.

Man Hour Index Info

Adjust areas system-generated man-hours by a


percentage. Overrides specifications entered at the project
level for this area only.

On the spreadsheet, make your modifications.

When you are satisfied with your modifications, click Apply.

Click OK.

Your modifications are made in the project.


Note: You cannot use this feature if a component specs form is open that
would let you edit data that would also be editable in the spreadsheet view.

Importing Areas and


Components
Using a drag-and-drop operation, you can import entire areas or individual
components from other project scenarios. Select in Preferences whether to
also include installation bulks and/or connected streams (see page 49). By
default, installation bulks are included and connected streams are not.
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To import an area or component:

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Have Project Explorers Project view open, since you will drag the
component or area there.

In the Palettes Projects view, double-click on the project scenario from


which you wish to import. This displays the project areas in the scenario.

Expand an area folder to display the components in it.

Note: You can only display the areas and components of a scenario that has
the same units of measure as the current scenario. If units of measure are
different, a message will appear in the Status bar notifying you of this when
you double-click on the scenario.

To import a component:

Drag the component to the desired area in Project Explorer, Project view.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer adds the component to the area.

To import an area and its components:

Drag the area to Main Project in Project Explorer.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer adds the area and its components.

To import all the components in an area to an existing


area in the current project scenario:

Drag the area from the Palette to the desired area in Project Explorer.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer adds the components to the area without
creating a new area.

Importing an Entire Scenario


As well as allowing you to import individual areas or components, Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer lets you import an entire scenario using a dragand-drop operation. This imports all the areas and components in the selected
scenario. You can select in Preferences whether to also include installation

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bulks and/or connected streams (see page 49). By default, installation bulks
are included and connected streams are not.
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To import an entire scenario:


1

Have Project Explorers Project view open, since you will drag the scenario
there.

Click the scenario in the Palettes Projects view.

Drag the scenario from the Palette to Project Explorers Project view.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays a confirmation window.

Click Yes.

The areas and components of the selected scenario are imported.


Note: You can only import scenarios that have the same units of measure as
the current scenario. If the units of measure are not the same, a dialog box
will inform you of this when you try to import.

Copying Components
The Copy command copies a selected component and all of its associated
installation bulks. This is useful if you want to add a component which is
similar to an existing item. The item can be copied and modified with less
effort than creating a new item.
Remember to change the Item Description when copying components to
distinguish the copy from the original.

To copy and paste a component:


1

Right-click on the component in either Project Explorer or the List view (at
area level, so that components are listed), and then click Copy on the
pop-up menu.

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You can also copy multiple components at once: select the desired
components on the List view, right-click on one of the components, and
click Copy on the pop-up menu.

Right-click on the area to which you want to add the component(s) and
click Paste on the pop-up menu.

The component is added to the area.


Note: If the area contains a component with the same name as the one being
pasted, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer changes the new components
name so that #1# appears at the beginning.

Cut and Paste


If you want to delete (cut) a component from one area and add (paste) it in
another area, use the same procedure as above, except click Cut instead of
Copy on the pop-up menu.

Drag and Drop


You can also move a component from one area to another by dragging it.

Modifying Components
You can modify the following components using Spreadsheet View:

Vessels

Towers

Heat Exchangers

Pumps

To modify a component using Spreadsheet View:


1

On the main menu bar, click View | Spreadsheet View | <the type of
component to modify>.

The <the type of component to modify> spreadsheet view appears.


2

On the <the type of component to modify>spreadsheet view, click


Options.

On the menu that appears, click the option you want to modify.

On the spreadsheet, make your modifications.

When you are satisfied with your modifications, click Apply.

Click OK.

Your modifications are made in the project.


Note: You cannot use this feature if a component specs form is open that
would let you edit data that would also be editable in the spreadsheet view.

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Copying Areas
Use Area Copy and Paste to create or modify an area specification that is
identical to an existing area.

To copy and paste an area:


1

Right-click on an existing area.

On the menu that appears, click Copy.

Right-click on the project node where you want to copy the area.

On the menu that appears, click Paste.

In the dialog box that appears, type a name for the new area (for
example, area1).

The new area is added identical (except in name) to the area you copied.

Deleting Components
The Delete command removes a component and all associated installation
bulks from the project.

To delete a component:
1

Right-click the component in either Project Explorer or the List view; then
click Delete on the pop-up menu.

A confirmation dialog box appears.

Note: You can select in Preferences not to have this prompt appear (see page
47).
X480H

Click Yes to delete the component or click No to retain the component.

You can also delete multiple components at one time: select the
components on the List view, right-click one of the components; then
click Delete on the pop-up menu.

Re-numbering Components
After deleting components, you may wish to re-number the remaining
components so that the numbering contains no gaps and reflects the order in
which components were added.
For example, if you add components A, B, C, D, and E in that order, the
automatically generated Order Numbers would be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, respectively

5 Defining Project Components

204

(the Order Number appears on the List view). If you then delete components
B and C and re-number, components A, D, and E would have Order Numbers
1, 2, 3, respectively. The order in which they were created would still
determine the Order Numbers.

To re-number components:

On the Run menu, click Re-number and then click Project Components on
the sub-menu.

Deleting Areas
The Delete Area command removes the selected area and all of its
components.

To delete an area:
1

Right-click on the area in Project Explorer.

On the menu that appears, click Delete Area.

A confirmation dialog box appears.

Note: You can select in Preferences not to have this prompt appear (see
page 47).
X481H

Click Yes to delete the area.


-orClick No to retain the area.

Re-Numbering Areas
Areas have reference numbers that are internally stored and then used by the
Evaluation Engine. They are not visible in the current version of Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer. Just as with components, re-numbering is
intended to close gaps in the numbering after deletion.

To re-number areas:
1

On the Run menu, click Re-number.

On the menu that appears, click Project Areas.

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Using the Custom Model Tool


Aspen Process Economic Analyzers Custom Model tool lets you base
component specifications on formulas or fixed data stored in Excel. Use the
tool to send a components specification values, connection stream values,
and specified bulk information (pipe-item details, material and man-hour
adjustments) to an Aspen-designed Excel workbook, where you can enter
new specification values based on your own data or formulas. Then, use the
tool to send the new data back to Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.
For instance, you could use the Custom Model tool to calculate a pump driver
power based on a flow rate and pump head or to calculate project component
costs using your own custom method in Excel.
The specifications rules remain stored in Excel, so that you can change the
specifications in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer and then revert back to the
Excel specifications by re-running the tool (if the values are fixed). Once the
tool has been used with a project component, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer associates the customized project component with the last Excel
spreadsheet used. Running the tool at the project level updates all
components for which the tool has already been run.
The tool provides template files for mixers and pumps, as well as a general
template to use as the starting point for creating files for other components.
However, for components other than pumps and mixers, you must first copy
the general template file (or use Save As) and enter the slot names for the
component specifications you wish to input, as explained on page 210.
482H

To use the Custom Model tool on a project component:


Note: Before using this tool, you must select the Activate Custom Model
option on the Process tab in Preferences. See page 47 for information on
accessing Preferences.
483H

In Project Explorer, Project view, right-click the pump or mixer


component that you wish to customize.

5 Defining Project Components

206

On the menu that appears, click Custom Model.

The User Custom Model dialog box appears. It displays the name of the
project, scenario, and project component selected for the operation. It also
displays available Microsoft Excel (.xls) template files.

Click the Excel template file that you have created for the selected project
component.

Click Run.

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207

Excel displays the workbook, with tabs for:

Input

Custom Rules

Output

The Input worksheet displays the original Icarus system values from Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer.

Item information is provided at the top of the worksheet. The item


information is from the Component Specifications form.

Stream information, if available, is shown toward the bottom.

Below the stream information is information on the installation bulks for


Material and Man-hour Adjustments and Pipe Item Detail.

The Custom Rules worksheet is provided for storing any data that you may
wish to use in the output formulas.

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208

Input specs have been placed on the Custom Rules along with sample
alterations for the following:

Mixer with three inlet streams and one exit stream

Pump with connection streams, material and man-hour adjustments

Pipe item details

The Output worksheet displays the same component specification slots as on


the Input worksheet. However, you can customize the values on the Output
worksheet.

The values are in the same column-row position as on the Input worksheet,
so that you can easily reference the Input data when entering formulas.
You send the entries on the Output worksheet to Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer by clicking Apply or OK on the Custom Model tool.

5 Defining Project Components

209

The following include customized values based on the sample alterations on


the Custom Rules worksheet:

Mixer with three inlet streams and one exit stream

Pump with connection streams, material and man-hour adjustments

Pipe item details

These customizations have been entered solely for example purposes.


5

Enter new specifications on the Output worksheet. For example, if you


want to double the Input flow rate value provided on Row 10, Column C,
enter the following formula:
=Input!C10*2

Go to the Custom Model tool; then click OK to send the output to Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer and close the tool.

When you display the specifications form of the component, you will see the
values from the Output worksheet.

Creating a Template
To create a template for a component:
1

Open GeneralModelTemplate.xls; then save it as another file. The


folder in which you store Custom Model files is specified on the Locations
tab in Preferences (APICustomModelDir). The default is:

AspenTech\Economic Evaluation V7.0\Program\API Custom Models


2

Starting on Row 6, Column B for item information, enter the slot names
for the specifications that you want to have sent from Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer when the file is run for a component.

Slot names for every equipment and plant bulk item are provided in Icarus
Technology Object Definitions (API.pdf). For example, to have the tool send

5 Defining Project Components

210

Shell Design Temperature to Excel when the file is run for Fixed Tube
Heat Exchangers, you would need to enter CPDesignTemperatureShell.
3

For connection stream information, enter slot names starting on Row 43,
Column B.

For material and man-hour adjustments, enter slot names starting on row
70, column B.

For the pipe-item details, enter slot names starting on row 101, column B.

Running the Custom Model Tool at


Project-Level for Batch Update
The batch update process for the Custom Model can be done one of two ways.

The first method is for a batch update of custom model operations


performed on project components that are already linked to a custom
model template.

The second method is for a batch update of all selected components.

After using the Custom Model tool for any number of components, you can
continue to experiment with different specifications and easily revert back to
the custom specifications by running the tool at the project level. Simply
right-click Main Project or Project Area in Project Explorers Project view;
then click Custom Model.
If more than one project component has been selected for the custom model
(for example, multi-selection, area selection, project selection), a message
box will appear asking you to specify the mode of operation.

If you click Yes, you will be able to specify a custom model template and all
of the selected project components will be processed with the one chosen
template.
If you click No, only project components with a link to a custom model
template will be processed with their associated template.

5 Defining Project Components

211

Note: the output will be based on the values in the Output workbook in
Excel. If the Output workbook contains formulas based on input, changes in
input since originally running the Custom Model will affect the output when
the Custom Model is re-run.
This re-runs all custom models stored in the Custom Model tool.

5 Defining Project Components

212

6 Sizing Project Components

Overview
Note: To see the list of the Equipment and Slots of those Equipment which
will be affected by mapping when you do Map Based On Last Session, see
Appendix A. The slots listed on the table in Appendix A WILL CHANGE.

Sizing for Project Components Mapped


from Simulator Items
Operating conditions for the project components mapped from simulator
models are obtained from the information loaded into Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer from the simulator report. Any Design Data in the
simulator report is also loaded and used during sizing. The information
consists of a unit operation model and the streams connected to it.
You can size a mapped project component in either of two ways:

Right-click the component in Project Explorer and click Size Item on the
pop-up menu.

Click the Size button on the Component Specifications form:

6 Sizing Project Components

213

Interactive Sizing Expert


For the following components, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer provides the
Interactive Sizing form that allows you to adjust sizing specifications. The
Interactive Sizing form appears when you size the component.
Heat Exchangers

DHE FIXED-T-S
DHE FLOAT-HEAD
DHE U-TUBE
DRB KETTLE
DRB THERMOSIPH
DRB U-TUBE

Compressors

DCP CENTRIF
DCP GEN-SERV
DGC CENTRIF
DGC CENTRIF-IG
DGC RECIP-MOTR
EGC RECIP-GAS
DCP ANSI
DCP ANSI-PLAST
DCP API 610
DCP API 610-IL
DCP CANNED
DCP TURBINE
DCP PULP STOCK
DCP NAG DRIVE

Pumps

DCP ANSI
DCP ANSI-PLAST
DCP API 610
DCP API 610-IL
DCP CANNED
DCP TURBINE
DCP PULP STOCK
DCP NAG DRIVE

Vessels

DHT HORIZ-DRUM
DVT CYLINDER
DVT SPHERE
DVT SPHEROID
DVT STORAGE

If interactive sizing is not available, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer sizes


the item automatically using the simulator data.

6 Sizing Project Components

214

Sizing for Project Components Not Mapped


from Simulator Items
Project components not mapped from simulator items can be sized if they are
connected to streams. See Creating Streams to Connect to Components on
page 216 for instructions on creating inlet and outlet streams. If the
component is one of those for which interactive sizing is available (see list on
page 214), the Interactive Sizing form is displayed during sizing. See Using
the Interactive Sizing Form for instructions on connecting a component to
streams during sizing.
X48H2165

486H

If sizing is not available for a component, the Size option as unavailable.

Resizing Project Components


If the process conditions associated with a component change, then use the
Re-Size command on the project component pop-up menu to update all
equipment sizing information.

The Re-Size command will clear all the previous sizing results and then size
the equipment based on the current process conditions (those that you have
entered and those available from the currently loaded simulator file).
Therefore, if the component being re-sized is one of those for which
interactive sizing is available, the Interactive Sizing form that appears is
blank.
If you would like to keep some of your component specifications (i.e., not
have them replaced by those calculated by the Sizing Expert), do not use the
Re-size command. Instead, use the Size command or the Size button to
access the Interactive Sizing form with current specifications retained, rather
than cleared. Then, clear all fields except those you want to retain and click
OK to execute sizing. Aspen Process Economic Analyzer will re-calculate only
the blank fields.

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215

Creating Streams to Connect to


Equipment Items
For most components, the interactive Sizing Expert requires selection of an
inlet stream (that is, a stream carrying fluid to the equipment item) and an
outlet stream (that is, a stream carrying fluid from the equipment item).
The set of instructions below show how to create streams to connect to an
item. In the example, inlet and outlet streams are created to carry 49 DEF F
water to a heat exchanger and an outlet stream is created to carry 200 DEG F
water from the heat exchanger. In the example used in the set of instructions
following these, a heat exchanger is sized to heat water from 40 DEG F to 200
DEG F, using the streams created in the first examples.

To create an inlet stream and an outlet stream:


1

In Project Explorers Project Basis view, right-click Streams; then click


Edit.

The Develop Streams dialog box appears.

On the Develop Streams dialog box, click the Create tab.

6 Sizing Project Components

216

In the Streams tree structure, click User. Leave the Basis as Absolute,
since you are creating a completely new process stream.

Click Create.

The Create Stream dialog box appears.


T

On the Create Stream dialog box, enter a stream name, such as


Process-IN.

Click OK.

On the Develop Stream specifications form, specify:


o

a primary fluid component

temperature

pressure

liquid mass flow

Example:

and click Water.

In the Primary Fluid Component field, click

In the Temperature (DEG F) field, enter 40.

In the Pressure (PSIA) field, enter 90.

In the Liquid Mass Flow (LB/H) field, enter 50,000.

Click Apply.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer fills in the rest of the fields in the Liquid
Information section.

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217

Click OK to return to the Develop Streams dialog box, where you now
need to create an outlet stream.

10 In the tree structure, click User. Notice that the inlet stream that you just
created is now displayed under User.

11 Click that stream and, in the Basis group, click Relative. The new outlet
stream will be based upon the inlet stream.
12 On the Create Stream dialog box, enter a stream name, such as
Process-OUT.

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218

13 Click OK.
The Develop Stream specifications form appears. Specifications that appear
gray are the same as those of the base stream. Any modifications made will
appear black.

14 Enter an outlet stream temperature that corresponds to temperature to


which the heat exchanger will be heating the fluid. In the example above,
the temperature has been entered as 200 DEG F and the pressure has
been entered as 80 PSIA. The other specifications are the same as the
base streams.
15 Click OK to apply the changes and return to the Develop Streams dialog
box, which you can now close.

Using the Interactive Sizing


Form
With the necessary streams created, you are ready to perform sizing.

6 Sizing Project Components

219

To size an equipment item:


1

Add an equipment item for which interactive sizing is available and display
the Component Specifications form. If you are following the example, add
a floating head shell and tube exchanger. (See page 182 for instructions
on adding components.)
X487H

It is not necessary to enter any values on the specifications form before


starting the Sizing Expert. However, all applicable sizing parameters that are
entered in the component specifications form will be carried over
automatically to the sizing expert and used in calculations.
2

Click the Size button.

The Interactive Sizing form appears.


Note: In order for the Sizing Expert to run, you must select process fluid
streams (one at Inlet and one at Outlet conditions) for at least one side (hot
or cold side).

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220

Any other data you provide (for example,, Duty, Overall heat transfer
coefficient, LMTD, and so on) helps the Expert do its job better, but is not
necessary.

Click on the Hot Inlet Stream field and then click


to access a
drop-down list that includes all utility resources and user-created streams.

Note: fluid refers to liquid or gas.


4

If you are heating a fluid, as in the example, select a utility resource to


use as the heating source. The tables on the following page provide
definitions of the utility resources.
To heat a fluid from 40 DEG F to 200 DEG F, as in the example, the utility
Steam @100PSI-Aspen Process Economic Analyzer UTILITY is appropriate.

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221

-orIf you are cooling a fluid, select the stream carrying the fluid to be
cooled.

Utility Resources
If you specify a utility resource as a stream, the Sizing Expert will estimate
the actual utility rate required for the heat transfer and use this rate to create
utility streams as though they were user-specified. The utility stream names
are prefixed by ICU and are present under the Utility category in the
Develop Streams dialog box. These utility streams differ from utility resources
in that they have an actual flow rate whereas a resource is a reservoir that
can provide utility streams at any required flow rate.
Default Utility Resources Available for I-P Projects
Inlet
temperature

Exit
temperature

Operating
Pressure

(DEG F)

(DEG F)

(PSIA)

Steam @100PSI

327

327

100

Heat
source

Steam @165PSI

363

363

165

Heat
source

Steam @400PSI

444

444

400

Heat
source

Low Temp Heating Oil

600

550

25

Heat
source

High Temp Heating Oil 725

675

25

Heat
source

Refrigerant Freon 12 -21

-21

15.5

Heat sink

Refrigerant Ethylene -150

-150

15.5

Heat sink

Refrigerant Ethane

-130

-130

15.5

Heat sink

Refrigerant
Propylene

-50

-50

15.5

Heat sink

Refrigerant Propane

-40

-40

15.5

Heat sink

Cooling Water

95

75

50

Heat sink

Utility
type

Default Utility Resources Available for METRIC Projects


Inlet
temperature

Exit
temperature

Operating
Pressure

(DEG C)

(DEG C)

(KPA)

Steam @2760KPA

229.2

229.2

2760

Heat
source

Steam @1135KPA

184

184

1135

Heat
source

6 Sizing Project Components

Utility
type

222

Default Utility Resources Available for METRIC Projects


Inlet
temperature

Exit
temperature

Operating
Pressure

(DEG C)

(DEG C)

(KPA)

Steam @690KPA

164

164

690

Heat
source

Low Temp Heating Oil

315

287

2523

Heat
source

High Temp Heating Oil 385

357

2523

Heat
source

Refrigerant Freon 12 -29.8

-29.8

105

Heat sink

Refrigerant Ethylene -101

-101

105

Heat sink

Refrigerant Ethane

-90

-90

105

Heat sink

Refrigerant
Propylene

-45

-45

105

Heat sink

Refrigerant Propane

-40

-40

105

Heat sink

Cooling Water

35

24

105

Heat sink

6 Sizing Project Components

Utility
type

223

Click on the Hot Outlet Stream field and then click


to access the
drop-down list of utility resources and user-created streams.

If you are heating a fluid, select again the utility to use as the heating
source.
-orIf you are cooling a fluid, select the stream carrying the cooled fluid from
the exchanger.

to access the
Click on the Cold Inlet Stream field and then click
drop-down list of utility resources and user-created streams.

If you are heating a fluid, select the stream carrying the fluid to be
heated.

A If you are following the example, select the Process-IN stream that you
created in the previous set of instructions (see Creating Streams, pages
216 through 219).
X48H

X489H

B If you are cooling a fluid, select a heat sink utility to use as a cooling
medium.
to access the
Click on the Cold Outlet Stream field and then click
drop-down list of utility resources and user-created streams.
If you are heating a fluid, select the stream carrying the heated fluid from the
exchanger.

If you are following the example, select the Process-OUT stream that
you created in the previous set of instructions (see Creating Streams, pages
216 through 219).
X490H

X491H

If you are cooling a fluid, select again the heat sink utility to use as the
cooling medium.
Click Apply. Aspen Process Economic Analyzer fills in the other fields on the
Interactive Sizing form.

6 Sizing Project Components

224

Note: results are not transferred to the Component Specifications form until
you click OK and the sizing is successfully completed (i.e., without generating
error messages).
10 Click OK.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer provides a message informing you of the
overdesign factor.

11 Click OK to accept this message.


The values obtained from Interactive Sizing now appear on the Component
Specifications form.

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225

12 Click OK to save.
You can now run an item evaluation and see the values generated by the
Sizing Expert in the item report.

Global Sizing Selection


A user can define and/or select a sizing selection library to pre-define the
sizing selection for a project scenario. For each type of component, the user
can specify custom models that will be applied in the sizing phase. These
rules can also be modified on a component by component basis when working
on a specific project scenario. For example, if a user wants to have all DCP
CENTRIF based equipment models within a project scenario sizing with a
specific custom model, he/she can edit or create a Sizing Selection library
(see figure 1) to be used. These libraries must be edited/created outside of a
project.

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226

Figure 1: Library tab in palette

To edit the library:


1

Double-click the library name (for example, my sizing).

The Sizing Selection dialog box appears.


2

To view or edit the sizing selection, click on the equipment model. All
equipment models default to System Sizing (see figure 2).

Figure 2: Sizing Selection dialog box

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227

To add or remove a custom model to the sizing selection list, click New
Sizing; then click your choice on the list of available custom models (see
Figure 3).

Figure 3: Add new sizing with custom model

The current sizing list for the equipment model is order dependent (see figure
4).

Figure 4: Current Sizing List with System sizing and two custom models

Once this library has been specified, it must be selected in the project (see
figure 5).

Figure 5: Selecting the Sizing Selection library for a project scenario

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Sizing Areas
The Area sizing feature in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer develops length
and width of an area from the equipment in the area. When actual area
dimensions are not available, you can get a better estimate of area length
and width from the system when these parameters are not specified in the
area specs form.
The system calculated area length and width is used in the design of all area
bulks. You can use the system calculated area parameters as the area specs.

To have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer calculate the


area:
1

Open the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project.

Modify an area spec by right-clicking the area; then, on the menu that
appears, clicking Modify.

Click Specification | Area Specs; then, on the menu that appears, click
Modify.

Clear the values for Area length and Area width.

Click OK; then click Close.

Evaluate the project.

In the report, the system-calculated length and width for each area appear in:

AREA BULK REPORT

AREA DATA SHEET

To specify the area yourself:


1

Open the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project.

Modify an area spec by right-clicking the area; then, on the menu that
appears, clicking Modify.

Click Specification | Area Specs; then, on the menu that appears, click
Modify.

Enter values for Area length and Area width.

Click Area Piping; then enter data for the piping envelope.

Click Area Electrical; then enter data for Distance equipment to


panel/DB.

Click OK; then click Close.

Evaluate the project.

In the report, the system-calculated length and width for each area appear in:

AREA BULK REPORT

AREA DATA SHEET

To Develop Area Utility Piping and Pipe Racks system


calculated area length and width:
1

Open the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project.

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229

Modify an area spec by right-clicking the area; then, on the menu that
appears, clicking Modify.

Click Specification | Area Piping; then, on the menu that appears, click
Modify.

Clear the data in the Utility length parameter (0) and Utility stations
(-) fields.

Click OK.

Click Area Steel; then, on the menu that appears, click Modify.

Clear the data in the Pipe rack length (0) field; then click OK.

Close the Area Specification menu.

Evaluate the project.

Some areas generate utility headers, utility stations. and pipe rack bulks. This
information appears in:

AREA BULK REPORT

Sizing Requirements,
Calculations, and Defaults
Certain types of components have minimum input requirements for sizing.
Those requirements are provided in the following sections, along with
explanations of how the sizing is calculated for different component types.

Air Coolers
Minimum Input Requirements

Inlet Stream

Exit Stream

Sizing Procedure
The air cooler thermal and detailed mechanical design equations are given
below:

For thermal design:


Q

U*A*MTD

MTD

f*LMTD

For mechanical design:


A

pi*D_tube*N_tubeRows*N_tubesPerRow* Tube_length

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230

where:
Q

Heat Duty

Heat transfer coefficient

Bare tube surface area

MTD

Mean Temperature difference

LMTD

Log mean temperature difference, based on


purely countercurrent flow

Temperature correction factor

N_bays

Number of bays

N_tube_rows

Number of tube rows

N_tubesPerRow

Number of tubes per row (takes into account the


presence of a fan shaft)

Tube_length

Length of tubes

The process fluid properties (temperature, pressure, and specific heat


capacity) are assumed to be constant throughout the air cooler and are
estimated as the mean of the inlet and outlet stream properties. The required
heat duty is calculated from the inlet and outlet process stream conditions if it
is not specified.
The process fluid stream temperatures, inlet and exit, are used along with the
temperatures specified for the air stream (Design Criteria specifications) to
calculate the LMTD. The temperature correction factor is then used to
calculate the MTD.
If the process fluid temperatures and air temperatures are appropriate,
meaning that there is no temperature crossover and the temperature
approach at the ends is reasonable, then the surface area required for the
given heat duty is estimated using the thermal design equation. The air flow
rate needed to realize this heat duty is then calculated using the specified
ambient and outlet air conditions.
An iterative algorithm has been developed to size the air cooler. The sizing
routine calculates the heat duty that can be realized using the specified tube
bundle geometry (bay width, number of tube rows, and tube length). It
assumes defaults for parameters that you have not specified. If the computed
heat duty is larger than the heat duty actually required, the iterative
procedure terminates. The tube bundle arrangement used represents the
specification of the air cooler selected. If the calculated heat duty does not
meet the required heat duty then a bigger air cooler is chosen (i.e. parameter
values are increased) and the above procedure is repeated. The iterative
procedure terminates either when a tube bundle geometry that can meet the
heat duty requirements is found, or when even the largest available air cooler
does not meet the process requirements.
Air-side heat transfer coefficients are calculated using the relations that take
into account the tube bundle geometry.
The work of Young, Briggs, and Robinson, as summarized in [6] is being used
to evaluate the heat transfer and pressure drop of air across the tube bundle.
The pressure drop thus calculated is used in estimating the fan power
required. The number of fans required is calculated based on the aspect ratio

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231

(tube length/bay width). For any aspect ratio of up to 1.5, only one fan is
selected.

Defaults
Tube pitch

2.5 INCHES

Tube thickness

0.125 INCHES

Bay width

4 ft to 20 ft

Tube rows

3 to 6

Maximum Tube
length

3*Bay width

Inlet air temperature (from Design Criteria specifications)


Outlet air temperature (from Design Criteria specifications)

Agitated Tanks
Minimum Input Requirements

Inlet stream

Exit stream

Sizing Procedure
The capacity of the agitated tank is determined by the following equation:
C

Q * (T_r / 60.0)

where:
C

Capacity , CF

Liquid volumetric flowrate, CFH

T_r

Liquid residence time, MINUTES

The diameter of the agitated tank is determined using L/D and geometry:
C

(/4) * D^2 * L

where:
D

Diameter of vessel, FEET

Fluid height, FEET

Vessel height is obtained by the following:


H

L + h_d

where:

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232

Vessel height, FEET

h_d

Vapor disengagement height, FEET

Design parameters are based on the current Design Criteria specifications if


available:
Length/Diameter Ratio:
Default

Vapor disengagement height:


Default

1 FEET

Agitator type: Default

=
=
=

ANCHOR

Driver type: Default


Impeller type: Default

STD
T6FB

Operating pressure is obtained from the simulator report. If the report does
not have a value, then the pressure of the inlet stream having the maximum
value is chosen as the operating pressure.
The operating pressure is used to obtain the L/D ratio (if user specification is
absent).

If P <= 250 PSIA, then L/D = 3


If 250 < P <=
500
PSIA, then L/D =
If P > 500 PSIA, then L/D = 5

where:
P

Pressure, PSI

Fluid height, FEET

Diameter of vessel, FEET

The project component must have at least one process stream connected to
the inlet and exit. Also, since the sizing procedure is based on the liquid
holding period, at least one of the streams should have liquid phase.
The design pressure and temperature are based on the operating pressure
and temperature as modified by your entries on the Design Criteria
specifications form.

Compressors
Minimum Input Requirements

Inlet and Exit stream information

Driver Power (for Reciprocating Compressors)

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233

Sizing Procedure
The capacity requirement for the compressor is calculated from the inlet
stream information. The inlet stream flow rate and density are used to
estimate the total volumetric flow rate through the compressor.
The compression ratio (exit to inlet pressure) is obtained from the operating
pressures of the inlet and exit stream.
The compressibility factor (inlet and exit) is based on user-specified
information, if available, or estimated by the sizing expert based on the
Primary Fluid Component.
The Icarus Evaluation Engine estimates the driver power if it is neither userspecified nor provided in the simulator report. The engine currently uses a
mechanical efficiency of 100% to arrive at the brake horsepower. The brake
horsepower, thus calculated, is compared against a table of available
standard motor sizes. If the calculated brake horsepower is not found in the
table, then the motor with the next higher horsepower is selected.
If the driver horsepower is either user-specified or provided in the simulator
report, the engine uses this value. However for pricing the compressor, the
table of available standard motor sizes is referred. If the specified horsepower
is not found in the table, then the price of the motor with the next higher
horsepower is used.
In the case of simulator inputs, different simulators provide information that
may be slightly different. For instance, in the case of AspenPlus, the
compressor calculations take into account any mechanical efficiency specified
during the simulation run. So the brake horsepower reported in the case of
AspenPlus already takes into account the mechanical efficiency. However,
other simulators, such as SimSci (Actual Work); HYSIM and HYSYS (Energy
Required), and ChemCAD ( Actual Power); do not account for mechanical
efficiency. Keep this in mind and be aware of what has been accounted for in
the simulation side when using simulator information as inputs.

Defaults
Minimum inlet pressure for air compressors is 14.696 PSIA

Crushers
Minimum Input Requirement

Inlet and Exit stream information

Final product size.

Sizing Procedure
The sizing expert estimates the solid flow rate from the inlet stream
information. The crushing ratio (feed to product size) is set at 4.
Work index is the total energy in KWH/TONS, needed to reduce the feed to a
size so that 80% of the product will pass through a 100 micron screen. The

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234

sizing expert in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer assumes a default value of


13.81 for the material work index.
The total driver power required for the crusher is calculated using material
work index and the value of the product size.
The following equation is used to estimate the driver power:
P

1.46 (T_m) (W_i) ( 1/(d_p ^ 0.5) - 1/(d_r ^0.5))

where:
P

Driver power, HP

T_m

Crusher capacity, TPM

W_i

Material work index

d_p

Product size, FEET

d_r

Feed size, FEET

Defaults

Material Work Index: 13.8 KWh/ton

Size Reduction Ratio: 4

Crystallizers
Minimum Information Required
Inlet and Exit Stream information

Additional Information
Final Product size

Sizing Procedure
The sizing program calculates the crystallizer capacity based on the inlet and
exit stream information.
Default value of 0.83 MM is used as final product size if the user-specified
value is not available from the simulator report.
In addition, the following defaults values are used for the design parameters:
Growth
rate

0.36 MM/H

The residence time in hours for a batch crystallizer is determined by the


following relation:
Residence time

= d_p / (3 * R_g

where:

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235

d_p

Product size, MM

R_g

Growth rate, MM/H

Based on the minimum and maximum values for the required fields in the
component specification form, the number of additional crystallizers are
estimated.

Dryers
Minimum Input Requirement
Inlet and Exit stream information

Sizing Procedure
The sizing program calculates the dryer capacity based on the total
evaporation rate for the drying process. For tray and drum dryers, an average
depth of 2.25 FEET is used to determine the total dryer requirements. For
vacuum and jacketed rotary vacuum dryers, the dryer capacity is determined
by obtaining value of the drying time and the average percentage utilization
of the dryer capacity.
The system defaults are as follows:
Drying
time

0.75 HOUR

Average
percentage
utilization

25

The number of additional items required for the given drying operation is
determined from the knowledge-based engine in Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer, which analyzes minimum and maximum values for the required
fields in the specification form.

Dust Collectors
Minimum Input Requirement
Inlet and Exit stream information

Sizing Procedure
The sizing program estimates the vapor volume flowing through the dust
collector using the exit stream information available from the simulator
report.
In case of cyclones, the sizing program assumes a default linear velocity of
150 FPS. The height to width ratio is fixed at 2.5.

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236

Using the above defaults, the volumetric rate through the separator is
obtained using Zenz correlation represented by the following equation:
Q

2.5 (D ^ 2) V / 16

where:
Q

Vapor volumetric rate, CFS

Cyclone separator diameter, FEET

Linear velocity, FPS

In case of baghouse dust collectors, the sizing program uses Nylon as the
default filter cloth material to determine the air to media ratio which then
determines the diameter of the separator.
Air to media ratio is the flow rate of air (at 70 DEG F) in CFM. The default
ratio results in a pressure drop of 0.5 INCHES of water when passed through
1 SF of clean fabric.
The sizing program uses a default air to media ratio of 10 CFM.
The minimum and maximum values of the required field(s) shown in the
component specification form are used to determine the number of identical
equipment items.

Filters
Minimum Input Requirement

Inlet stream

Exit stream

Sizing Procedure
The sizing program calculates the total amount of filtration product rate based
on the exit stream information. Based on the type of filter selected, the
average dimension of the filter equipment is selected and the filter size is
then optimized for the given operation such that the dimensions selected for
the equipment are within the minimum and maximum values as specified by
the knowledge-based engine.
In case of batch filtration, a default batch time of 0.25 HOUR is used. In case
of plate and frame filters, default value of cake thickness of 0.3 FEET is used.
In the case of continuous operation, the cycle time default is 0.08 HOUR.
Based on the actual capacity requirement and the maximum and minimum
sizes provided by the knowledge-based engine, the number of identical items
is determined.

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237

Heat Exchangers
The heat exchanger sizing program estimates the heat transfer area required
for the given operating conditions. The model also performs detail estimation
of the number of tubes, tube length, and other internal components of the
heat exchanger based on either user-defined specifications (from the process
simulator report or the Design Criteria specifications form) or system defaults.

Minimum Input Requirements


Inlet and Exit Process Stream Information

Sizing Procedure
The process stream(s) are classified into various categories. The Primary Fluid
Component class that you specify for the process fluid(s) flowing through the
heat exchanger is used to estimate the following design parameters:

Latent heats (vaporization and condensation)

Fouling resistance

Specific heat capacity of the fluid

Liquid film resistance

Overall heat transfer coefficient

Duty requirement for the heat exchanger is either directly obtained from the
simulator report or estimated based on the inlet and exit process stream
information for the process model. In case the fluid undergoes phase change,
a boiling point temperature, Tb, is estimated that would lie between the inlet
and exit stream temperature. The estimated Tb is then used in the calculation
of the sensible and latent heats based on the Primary Fluid Component. The
sensible heat of any solids present in the stream is also accounted for in the
duty calculation.
In estimating the design pressure on shell and tube heat exchangers, the
2/3rd Rule is applied if it has been selected on the Design Criteria
specifications form (see page 86).
P

X492H

If only the process fluid conditions are specified by the simulator model, the
heat exchanger sizing program determines the appropriate utility from the list
of utilities that you specify using the Utility Specifications accessed from
Project Basis view (see page 98). If multiple utilities are available for heat
transfer, then the sizing expert uses the utility fluid with a temperature
approach closest to the process fluid. This minimizes the heat transfer losses.
However, a minimum of 1 degree Fahrenheit difference in the final
temperature of the process fluid and the utility fluid must exist for the utility
fluid to be selected for the process. If an appropriate utility fluid is not
available for the heat transfer process, the heat exchanger sizing program will
terminate without estimating the heat exchanger size requirements.
X493H

The mean temperature difference (MTD) is estimated based on the fluid


temperature for both the shell and the tube side. It also depends on the flow
configuration for shell and tube heat exchangers, which is specified by the
number of shell and tube passes. For reasons of compactness of equipment,
the paths of both fluids may require several reversals in direction. Mean

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238

temperature differences in such cases can be obtained by applying a factor


(called the F-factor) to the terminal temperature difference. The logarithmic
mean temperature difference (based on purely counter current flow) is
multiplied by the F-factor to obtain the mean temperature difference.
If the temperatures are not properly entered then appropriate warning
messages are displayed. In such cases it recommended that you check the
inlet and outlet temperatures of the shell and tube side streams and verify
that they are realistic.
The overall heat transfer coefficient is either directly obtained from the
simulator report or evaluated based on the shell and tube fluid properties
(film resistance, fouling tendency present for the various processes in the
system database).
The heat exchanger sizing program determines the position of the fluids in
the shell and tube heat exchanger. The position depends on both the process
and utility fluid class.
If duty is provided by the simulator report, then you can override the value
only through interactive sizing.
The final heat transfer area is obtained by multiplying the heat transfer area,
calculated based on the duty required, with the Heat Exchanger Minimum
Overdesign Factor. If you do not specify an overdesign factor then the default
value is used from the Design Criteria specifications.
If the duty generates a surface area less than minimum required for practical
design, the item report will give the appropriate warning message.
FLOAT HEAD or U-TUBE heat exchangers have an even number of tube
passes. If you enter an odd number for the number of tube passes for any of
these heat exchanger types, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer generates
warning messages.
The shell and tube design pressure and temperature are based on the
maximum operating conditions of the fluid flowing through the shell and tube
respectively. The Design Criteria specifications form allows you to change
them according to individual project requirements.

Heat Exchanger Internals


The final heat transfer area is determined by the actual number of tubes
chosen for the equipment. The least surface area of the combination of
numbered tubes and shells is changed for final design.
A default tube length of 20 FEET is used for calculating the number of tubes.
System default values for tube diameter, tube thickness, tube pitch and baffle
distances are used if user specifications are not available.

General Information
The utility requirement is estimated only when the system determines the
utility fluid. If both shell and tube side fluid stream information is specified in
the simulator report, then the system assumes that both of the fluid streams
are process streams and that no utility fluid is expended.

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Presently, the model defaults are used for determining the material of
construction.
For shell and tube heat exchangers, if the heat transfer surface area
calculated by the sizing program is greater than the largest heat exchanger
designed by the design and cost engine, then the heat exchanger is divided
into multiple shells with identical configurations. The capital cost estimation is
then calculated based on the complete heat exchanger.
Note: When mapping a rigorous heat exchanger model (HXRIG) from
SimSci, the number of shells in parallel is used to determine the number of
shells in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. For Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer, the maximum number of shells in series is 1.

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger


The sizing program in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer estimates the total
surface area required for the given duty. During the capital cost estimation,
detailed design for the heat exchanger is developed based on the values for
tube length and number of tubes per shell obtained from the simulator report
or from the user.

Fin Tube Heat Exchanger


The sizing program estimates the total surface area required for the given
duty. During the capital cost estimation, detailed design for the heat
exchanger is developed based on the tube length and number of fins per tube
obtained either from the simulator report or from the user.

Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger


The sizing program estimates the total surface area required for the given
duty. During the capital cost estimation, detailed design for the heat
exchanger is developed based on the tube length and number of fins per tube
obtained either from the simulator report or from the user.

Pumps
Minimum Input Requirements
Inlet and Exit stream information

Sizing Procedure
The sizing program calculates the total capacity requirements for the selected
pump based on the total flow rate of the inlet fluid stream(s) obtained from
the simulator.

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240

Flow Rate/Capacity
Pump flow rate is obtained from the simulator information. If the information
does not exist, then pump flow rate is calculated based on the stream flow
rates. The stream is assumed to be completely liquid phase and no check is
made for presence of vapor phase.
The pump flow rate obtained from the simulator information is multiplied by
the pump overdesign factor, also referred as the capacity over-design factor,
present in the Design Criteria specifications file.

Pump % Efficiency
Pump efficiency is directly obtained from the simulator. If the value is not
present in the simulator report, then the default value of 70% is used.

Pump Overdesign
You can modify the pump overdesign factor either on the Design Criteria
specifications form or the Interactive Sizing form. Modifying the overdesign
factor using the Design Criteria specifications form (page 86) will applies the
new factor to all the pumps in the project. Modifying the overdesign factor for
a pump using the Interactive Sizing form (page 219) applies the factor only to
that particular pump. This allows you to either specify the factor for all pumps
or specify the factor individually for each pump.
X49H

X495H

Driver Power
If you specify a driver power in the component specification form then this
value is used. If the user does not provide the value then it is calculated by
the cost engine. The Icarus Evaluation Engine calculates the hydraulic
horsepower based on the capacity, viscosity and head, and then uses the
pump efficiency to estimate the brake horsepower. The brake horsepower is
compared against a set of standard available motor sizes to estimate the
pump driver power.
If multiple inlet streams are present, the minimum value of pressure is used
for determining the operating pressure of the equipment.

Defaults (if they are not obtained from the


simulators):

Operating pressure: 14.696 PSIA

Operating temperature: 77 DEG F

Calculating Pump Head


The total head developed by the pump is composed of the difference between
the static, pressure, and velocity heads. Additionally, friction at the suction
and discharge sides would also contribute to some head loss. The pump head
is calculated using the following relation:
Head,

h_d h_s

6 Sizing Project Components

241

FEET

where:
H

total pump head, FEET

h_d

=
=

discharge head, FEET

h_s

suction head, FEET

Assumptions:

No friction losses at the entrance and exit.

No static head on suction and discharge sides.

Velocity heads are not included in estimating the suction and discharge
heads.

Head in feet is estimated by the following relations:


Head,
FEET

(Pressure, PSIA) * (2.31)/(Fluid specific gravity)

The specific gravity of the fluid is based on inlet streams conditions. The
discharge pressure for the pump is based on the maximum value for the exit
stream(s). The suction pressure is based on the minimum value for the inlet
streams(s).

Screens
Minimum Input Requirement

Inlet stream information

Screen opening size (or average product size)

Sizing Procedure
The sizing program determines the capacity of the screen based on the inlet
flow rate estimated from the stream information.
The screen opening size is used to determine the final product size.
The feed material for the vibrating screen is obtained from the Design Criteria
specifications. The following choices are available:

Sand and Gravel

Limestone/Crushed Stones

Coal

Cinders

Coke

Wood

The material type affects the screen unit capacity which is defined as the
amount of solid (in tons per hour) flowing through one square foot of screen

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cloth based on material, having 6 to 8% moisture, screen cloth having 50%


or more open area; 85% screen efficiency.
Based on the material selected and the screen opening size, the screen unit
capacity is chosen. Further, the sizing program assumes that five layers of
particles are present on the screen. The surface area required for the
vibrating screen is obtained.
Based on the maximum and minimum values specified by the knowledge base
for the screen capacity, additional items required by the operations are
determined.

Towers
Minimum Input Requirements

Stage temperature, pressure, flowrates

Number of stages

Inlet stream

Exit stream

Sizing Procedure
The distillation column sizing module can be used to size the following Icarus
process equipment:

DDT TRAYED

DDT PACKED

TW TRAYED

TW PACKED

DC HE TW

The following simulator models can be used to generate the necessary


process information required for successfully executing the application:
Simulator

Models used

AspenPlus

ABSBR, DISTWU, DISTL, RADFRAC

HYSIM/HYSYS

COLUMN

Pro/II

COLUMN, IO, SURE, CHEMDIST, SHORTCUT

Loading Column Model from Simulator


In Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, the rigorous column unit operations
loaded from the simulator report (i.e., COLUMN UNITS model in PRO/II) are
developed in great detail, including all pieces attached to the main column
unit.
Typically, the simulator model develops stage information for the main tower
and duties for an associated condenser and reboiler. These duties are used
along with the specified fluid conditions available from the stage information
tables to generate all of the input specifications required for the equipment.

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Sidestrippers and pumparounds are separated from the main tower if


necessary during the loading process after all the relevant information is
collected for the models. Once the report is loaded, these units are treated as
separate simulator models which can be mapped and sized independently of
the main tower design.

Sidestrippers
Sidestrippers attached to tower models are separated from the main tower
model during the loading process. Sidestrippers load information from the
same tables in the report from which the main tower information is discerned.
For example, the typical information loaded for sidestrippers in Pro/II are:
SIDESTRIPPER ABC
COLUMN SUMMARY
TRAY

TEMP PRESSURE
DEG C KPA

1/ 10 200.3 600.50
2/ 11 202.2 601.53

NET FLOW RATES


HEATER
LIQUID
VAPOR
FEED PRODUCT
DUTIES
KG-MOL/HR
M*KJ/HR

22.
7.8

20.0L
5.0V

8.5V
20.1L

SIDESTRIPPER ABC
TYPE

STREAM

PHASE

FROM
TRAY


FEED ABCDRW
LIQUID
FEED ABCSTM
VAPOR
PROD ABCSRVP VAPOR
10
PROD ABCPRD
LIQUID
11

TO
TRAY

10
11

LIQUID
FRAC

1.0000
.0000

FLOW RATES
KG-MOL/HR

23.00
5.55
8.46
20.09

HEAT RATES
M*KJ/HR

1.3216
.2785
.5325
1.0678

Information is obtained for the sidestrippers in the same manner as for the
main tower unit (Refer to information for obtaining process data for main
tower unit).

Pumparounds
The inlet and outlet fluid conditions for pumparounds are obtained from the
stage information to which the unit is connected. Additionally, the duty
associated with each pumparound is loaded into the unit. This unit is then
separated during the loading process and is treated as an independent
simulator model which can be mapped and sized on its own.
For example, the information required by pumparound units in PRO/II are
obtained from the following part of the column report:
COLUMN SUMMARY
NET FLOW
TRAY TEMP
DEG F

.
.
.
40R
355.9

RATES
PRESSURE
LIQUID
PSIG

33.00

5618.9

HEATER
VAPOR
FEED PRODUCT
LB-MOL/HR

4301.4L

DUTIES
MM BTU/HR

94.6551

PUMPAROUNDS
TRAY
TEMP,
FROM TO FROM


40
40 355.9

6 Sizing Project Components

DEG F LIQUID FRACTION RATES


TO
FROM
TO
LB-MOL/HR M LB/HR STD BBL/HR


416.1
1.0000
.4108 7273.09 995.238 3569.48

244

Mapping the Tower Model


Typically, column models in simulators do not include the ancillary equipment
attached to the main tower. For example, a tower unit may really consist of
the following equipment:

Main tower

Overhead condenser

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

Overhead pump

Overhead product sub-cooler

Reboiler

Bottoms split

Bottoms product pump

Bottoms product heat exchanger

Both overhead and bottoms split are process stream splitters and therefore
do not represent any project component. In Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer, during mapping and sizing process, they are typically mapped as a
quoted cost item with zero cost.
In addition, the equipment design could involve splitting the units into more
than one actual piece for reasons of economy. For example, in many
applications, condensers are split into a precooler (which is typically an air
cooler but also can be any other type of heat exchanger) and a trim cooler
(typically a shell and tube heat exchanger).
Tower models (such as RADFRAC model in AspenPlus, COLUMN UNIT in
PRO/II and COLUMN in HYSIM/HYSYS) can be mapped into any of the
following ten Aspen Process Economic Analyzer configurations:

Standard - Single or Standard - Total


o

Tower

Condenser

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

Bottoms split

Reboiler.

Full - Single
o

Tower

Condenser

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

Overhead pump

6 Sizing Project Components

245

Overhead product heat exchanger

Bottoms split

Reboiler

Bottoms product pump

Bottoms product heat exchanger

Standard - Split or Standard Split Total


o

Tower

Precooler

Trimcooler

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

Bottoms split

Reboiler

Full - Split
o

Tower

Precooler

Trimcoooler

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

Overhead pump

Overhead product heat exchanger

Bottoms split

Reboiler

Bottoms product pump

Bottoms product heat exchanger

Standard - Total w/Circ.


o

Tower

Condenser

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

Bottoms split

Reboiler

Circulation pump

Full - Single w/Circ.


o

Tower

Condenser

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

6 Sizing Project Components

246

Overhead pump

Overhead product heat exchanger

Bottoms split

Reboiler

Bottoms product pump

Bottoms product heat exchanger

Circulation pump

Standard Split Total w/Circ.


o

Tower

Precooler

Trimcooler

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

Bottoms split

Reboiler

Circulation pump

Full - Split w/Circ.


o

Tower

Precooler

Trimcoooler

Condenser accumulator

Overhead split

Reflux pump

Overhead pump

Overhead product heat exchanger

Bottoms split

Reboiler

Bottoms product pump

Bottoms product heat exchanger

Circulation pump

Refer to Tower Configurations in Chapter 4 for detailed flow diagrams.


These configurations should be regarded as the maximum model with all
potentialities satisfied The components actually developed depend upon the
process conditions. For example, if the main tower model does not have a
condenser and a reboiler, then only the tower model is mapped.
If the overhead product is cooler than the temperature of the fluid from the
condenser outlet, then an overhead exchanger is mapped.
A bottoms product exchanger is mapped only when the bottoms product
stream has a different temperature from the temperature of the bottom stage
of the tower.
In the case of split models, where the condenser duty is split into precooler
and trimcooler duties, the ratio of the duty split is obtained from the Design

6 Sizing Project Components

247

Criteria specifications form. The overhead vapor stream flowing to the


precooler is assumed to be at dew point if the condensation temperature is
not provided.

Loading Tower Input Information


From the tower results in the report, the tables consisting of stage
temperatures, stage pressures, stage molar vapor flow rates and stage molar
liquid flow rates are loaded in the mapping process.
For example, in the case of AspenPlus, the following tables in the RADFRAC
block are loaded by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer in the mapping
process:
Table 1: Stage temperature and Stage Pressures are loaded (Column 1 and
2)
ENTHALPY
STAGE

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

TEMP.
F

PRESSURE
PSI

149.27
223.45
227.79
230.39
232.06
233.25
234.18
234.98
235.72
236.74

20.000
22.000
22.100
22.200
22.300
22.400
22.500
22.600
22.700
22.800

BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR

-0.12156E+06
-0.11895E+06
-0.11909E+06
-0.11918E+06
-0.11925E+06
-0.11931E+06
-0.11935E+06
-0.11939E+06
-0.11942E+06
-0.11941E+06

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR

-42602.
-.23509+08
-87138.
-92519.
-95701.
-97662.
-98970.
-99924.
-0.10068E+06
-0.10135E+06
-0.10196E+06 45802+08

Table 2:
Stage molar liquid flowrates and Stage molar vapor flowrates
are loaded. (Column 1 and 2)
STAGE

FLOW RATE
FEED RATE
PRODUCT RATE
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR LIQUID VAPOR MIXED
LIQUID VAPOR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1239.
0.2571E+05
0.2586E+05
0.2595E+05
0.2602E+05
0.2606E+05
0.2610E+05
0.2614E+05
0.2617E+05
0.2357E+05

430.0
.57657-01
1669. .24001+05
2140.
2286.
2380.
2444.
2493.
2532.
2568.
2604.

430.0000

.23571+05

Inlet and exit streams (and their stage numbers) are loaded in the mapping
step.
For example, in the case of a RADFRAC model for AspenPlus, the following
portion of the report is loaded in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer:
INLETS7
OUTLETS - 8
9

STAGE
2
STAGE
1
STAGE
10

When sizing information is present in the report, the mapping program loads
all the relevant information present in the sizing sections.

6 Sizing Project Components

248

For example, in the case of a RADFRAC model for AspenPlus, the following
portion of the sizing report is loaded in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer for
every section:
Case : Tray tower sizing section
STARTING STAGE NUMBER
ENDING STAGE NUMBER
TRAY SPECIFICATIONS

TRAY TYPE
TRAY SPACING

2
29

METER

SIEVE
0.60960

***** SIZING RESULTS @ STAGE WITH MAXIMUM DIAMETER *****


COLUMN DIAMETER

METER

4.00228

Case : Packed tower sizing section


STARTING STAGE NUMBER
ENDING STAGE NUMBER
PACKING

PACKING
HETP
PACKING

2
9

SPECIFICATIONS

TYPE
HEIGHT

FT
FT

BERL-SADDLE
2.00000
16.0000

Determining Tower Process Conditions

Operating Temperature
The maximum temperature value for all the stages (given by column 1) is
used as the operating temperature for the tower.

Operating Pressure
The maximum pressure value for all the stages (given by column 2) is
used as the operating pressure for the tower.

Minimum Operating Pressure


The minimum pressure value for all the stages (given by column 2) is
used as the minimum operating pressure for the tower.

Design Pressure
The maximum value from the stage pressure profile is used for calculating
the design pressure of the tower (that is, after applying the user-defineddesign value from the design criteria file). When stage pressures are not
available, the maximum value of pressure from all the inlet streams is
used.

Design Temperature
The maximum value from the stage temperature profile is used for
calculating the design temperature of the tower (that is, after applying the
user-defined design value from the design criteria file). When stage
temperatures are not available, the maximum value of temperature from
all the inlet streams is used.

Number of Stages

6 Sizing Project Components

249

The number of theoretical stages is provided by the number of rows in


Table 1. The final number is determined by taking into account condenser
and reboiler (if they are provided). Also, the number of stages is affected
by the reboiler type depending on whether the reboiler simulated in the
report is kettle or thermosiphon.

For example, in the case of RADFRAC model for AspenPlus, consider the
following table:
STAGE

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

TEMP.
F

PRESSURE
PSI

BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR

149.27
20.000
-0.12156E+06
-42602.
-.23509+08
223.45
22.000
-0.11895E+06
-87138.
227.79
22.100
-0.11909E+06
-92519.
230.39
22.200
-0.11918E+06
-95701.
232.06
22.300
-0.11925E+06
-97662.
233.25
22.400
-0.11931E+06
-98970.
234.18
22.500
-0.11935E+06
-99924.
234.98
22.600
-0.11939E+06
-0.10068E+06
235.72
22.700
-0.11942E+06
-0.10135E+06
236.74
22.800
-0.11941E+06
-0.10196E+06 .45802+08

If the reboiler is kettle, then the number of theoretical stages is eight.


If the reboiler is thermosiphon (reboiler type is obtained from simulator),
then the number of theoretical stages is nine.

Liquid Density

Density of liquid flowing inside the column is estimated from the density of
the inlet streams and the exit streams. If liquid density cannot be obtained
from the streams, the density of water is used as default.

Vapor Density
Density of vapor flowing inside the column is estimated from the density
of the inlet streams and the exit streams. If vapor density cannot be
obtained from the streams, the vapor density is estimated based on gas
law. The vapor density is estimated at the minimum operating pressure
and operating temperature.

Average Molecular Weight of Vapor Inside Tower


Average vapor molecular weight is estimated from the inlet and exit
streams. The lowest molecular weight of the streams is assigned as the
vapor molecular weight.

Average Molecular Weight of Liquid Inside Tower


Average liquid molecular weight is the maximum molecular weight for the
inlet and exit streams.

Sizing Procedure
The sizing procedure varies depending on the type of internals desired and
the simulator model used for the operation. The procedure described below
gives a description of the actual steps used by the sizing module to estimate
the sizes for the different types of trayed and packed towers.

6 Sizing Project Components

250

Trayed Tower Sizing


General Procedure (Followed for all tray internals):
1

The type (class) of the fluid in the column is used to estimate some of the
properties in designing the tray internals, such as surface tension,
foaming tendency, deration factor if they are not specified in the
simulation output report or on the Design Criteria specifications form.

You can specify the overall column tray efficiency in the Tray Efficiency box
on the Design Criteria specifications form. If the value is not provided,
then it is estimated using Locketts modification of the OConnell
Correlation. This correlation is based on tests on actual plant columns and
has been the standard of the industry.
The tray efficiency is used to calculate the actual number of stages required
for the separation.
EOC

0.492 ( L )

-0.245

where:
EOC

efficiency, OConnell Correlation

viscosity of liquid, CPOISE

relative volatility of key component

A default value of 1.5 is used for the relative volatility of key components that
you can modify on the Design Criteria specifications form. The liquid viscosity
is either directly obtained from the report or estimated from the fluid
classification.

Once the internal height of the column is estimated (based on the actual
number of trays), additional height for vapor disengagement and liquid
return is based on your Design Criteria specifications.

In general, the number of stages provided by the simulator report


represent the theoretical number of stages. However, if detailed design of
the tower has been done by the simulator using tray efficiency, then the
number of trays are actual trays. If Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
finds that the number of trays are actual, then it uses the value to
estimate the height and does not add any additional tray efficiency.

Using Tower Sizing Information


When a simulator report provides sizing information, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer tries to use as much of the information as possible in the final
design. When multiple sections are present in the report, the information
used by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer depends on the equipment to
which the model is mapped.

Single Diameter Trayed Tower (TW TRAYED)


If multiple sections are present with different diameters and tray spacings,
then the largest values of the diameters and tray spacings are used for the
actual design of the tower.

6 Sizing Project Components

251

Double Diameter Trayed Tower (DTT TRAYED)


For double diameter trayed tower, the two largest diameters in the sectional
report are used in the design. Once the tower is divided into two sections
(based on diameter), the value of the tray spacing for each section is based
on the stage numbers present in each section. The largest values of tray
spacing for each section are used to estimate the tower height.
For example, for AspenPlus, assume the following sizing information is
obtained from the report after completing the loading process.

Section 1:
Diameter

5 FEET

Tray Spacing

24 INCHES

Stages

2 to 4

Diameter

6 FEET

Tray Spacing

30 INCHES

Stages

5 to 7

8 FEET

Section 2:

Section 3:
Diameter
Tray Spacing

18 INCHES

Stages

8 to 10

The sizing program will design a double diameter tower with the following
dimensions:
Top Section
Diameter

6 FEET

Top Section Tray


Spacing

30 INCHES

Top Section Stages

=
=

2 to 7

Bottom Section
Tray Spacing

18 INCHES

Bottom Section
Stages

8 to 10

Bottom Section
Diameter

8 FEET

The program estimates the cross sectional area for each stage. Then, the
maximum value is used to design the single diameter tower. In case of double
diameter tower, the program estimates the diameter for the bottom section
and the top section based on the cross sectional area estimated for each
stage.

6 Sizing Project Components

252

Sieve Tray Design


The capacity factor, CSB, is evaluated based on the correlation developed for
entrainment flooding by Kister and Haas. Jeronimo et. al correlation is used to
estimate the clear liquid height in the spray regime. Strictly, the Jeronimo and
Swistowski correlation predicts the clear liquid height at the transition from
the froth to the spray regime. However, empirical evidence has shown that
clear liquid height in the spray regime is much the same as clear liquid height
at that transition.
The CSB estimated at the flooding point is used to evaluate the flooding vapor
velocity.
The bubbling area is calculated based on flood velocity, the derating factor
and the safety factor. (Column default design is 90% of flood.)
Downcomer liquid velocity is based on the foaming tendency of the fluid and
tray spacing. Foaming tendency can be specified on the Design Criteria
specifications form.
The downcomer cross-sectional area is based on the downcomer velocity and
the maximum liquid flow inside the tower.
The total tower cross-sectional area is calculated by adding the bubbling area
and the downcomer area.
The diameter of the tower is obtained from the cross-sectional area by
rounding the area up to the next half foot. The minimum diameter for the
tower is 1.5 FEET.

Valve Tray Design


Valve tray sizing is based on the V-type Ballast trays produced by Glitsch. The
system factors are estimated based on the fluid classification performed on
the fluid flowing through the column. The tray diameter is evaluated for either
single pass trays or two pass trays. It is based on 24 INCHES tray spacing
and 80% of flood.

Bibliography
Distillation Design, by Henry Z. Kister.
Applied Process Design For Chemical And Petrochemical Plant, Volumes 1
and 3, by Ernest E. Ludvig.
Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations, by Tyler G. Hicks
Chemical Engineers HandBook, by Perry and Chilton, 6th Edition.

Bubble-Cap Tray Design


The allowable vapor velocity and the corresponding diameter for bubble-cap
trays have been represented by the Jersey Critical formula which
corresponds to the work by Souder and Brown for column flooding.

D = 0.0956 Wv / K L v

6 Sizing Project Components

12

253

where:
D

Diameter, FEET

Wv

vapor flow rate, LB/H

L
v

liquid density, LB/CF

vapor density, LB/CF

The factor K depends on the tray spacing as follows:


Tray Spacing, INCHES
K

18
3.4

24
4.2

30
4.7

30+
5.0

Packed Tower Design


Packed tower design is accomplished for both random and structured
packings. The various types of packings supported by the system are
described in the Icarus Reference.
Kister and Gill flood point correlation is used to estimate pressure drop at the
flood point as a function of packing factor alone.
FL

.155 (Fp0.7)

where:
FL

Fp

Pressure drop at flood point


Packing factor

Note: You can provide the value for the packing factor on the Design Criteria
specifications form. The system defaults are used for each of the different
types of packings if you do not enter a value.
Once this pressure drop is known, the flood velocity is calculated using the
latest version of GPDC (Generalized Pressure Drop Correlation) charts for
both random and structured packings.

HETP Prediction
You can provide the HETP value on the Design Criteria specifications form. If
the value is not specified, rules of thumb prediction reported in literature are
used to predict the packed tower efficiency.
For random packing columns, the following rules are used for estimating HETP
(FEET):
HETP
dp

1.5 dp

= Packing diameter, INCHES


for DT < 2 FEET
HETP > DT

For estimating the structured packing efficiency, the following rule of thumb is
used:
HETP,
INCHES

6 Sizing Project Components

1200 /ap + 4

254

ap

Packing surface area per unit volume, SF/CF

System Defaults
The following system default values may be modified on the Design Criteria
specifications form and Component Specifications form:

Trayed Tower Defaults


Tray Type

Sieve

Tray Spacing

24 inches

Flooding Factor

80 %

Foaming Tendency

Moderate

Packed Tower Defaults


Packing Type

Random

Packing Material

1.0PPR

Specific area per unit


volume for the
packing

0.75 SF/CF

Top vapor
disengagement
height

4 FEET

Bottom sump height

6 FEET

General Defaults

SimScis SHORTCUT Column Operation


In case of SHORTCUT column operation, the simulator provides only the
minimum reflux ratio for the distillation process. To design the tower, the
ratio of the operating reflux ratio and minimum reflux ratio has to be
provided. The system uses the default value of 2.0 for the ratio. The ratio can
be changed on the Design Criteria specifications form. If the simulator
report does not contain information (number of trays) for the operating reflux
ratio, the tower sizing program returns to the system without performing
sizing for the tower.

Vessels
Horizontal Vessels
The following graphic shows a typical horizontal vessel.

6 Sizing Project Components

255

The following design variables are specified on the Design Criteria


specifications form:

Residence Time

Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio

Minimum Vessel Diameter

Vapor/Liquid Separator Sizing Method

Average Liquid Particle Diameter

Design factor multiplier for disengagement velocity

Separation Factor

Vapor area /cross sectional area

Separation Factor Multiplier

Minimum Boot Length (used in Horizontal Vessel Design)

Minimum Boot diameter

Boot Leg Liquid Velocity

Design Requirements
The maximum number of exit streams is three; two of the streams can be
liquid.

Calculating Diameter
Vessel diameter is based on the maximum allowable vapor velocity inside the
separator, to reduce the liquid entrainment in the vapor.
The following two methods are available in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
(chosen from the Design Criteria specifications) to obtain vapor velocity.

Liquid Entrainment Method

Particle size separation method.

6 Sizing Project Components

256

Calculating Vapor Velocity


Liquid Entrainment Method
The maximum allowable vapor velocity, to reduce liquid entrainment is
obtained as a function of liquid and vapor density and the Separation Factor,
which itself is a polynomial function of vapor and liquid density and vapor and
liquid flowrates. The polynomial equation was based on 5% of liquid entrained
in the vapor and is valid for the range (defined below) of 0.006 to 5.0. Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer allows you to override the computed value of
Separation Factor.
W

l_mfr/v_mfr * sqrt (v_rho/l_rho)

ln (SF)

k_v

EXP(A + BX + CX^2 + DX^3 + EX^4)

k_v * k_vm

v_m

K * sqrt ((l_rho - v_rho)/v_rho)

where:
l_mfr

Light Liquid Mass Flow rate

v_mfr

Vapor Mass Flow rate

l_rho

Light Liquid Density

v_rho

Vapor Density

System Factor

SF

Separation Factor

k_v

Polynomial Function of SF

k_vm

Separation Factor Multiplier

-1.877478097

-0.8145804597

-0.1870744085

-0.0145228667

-0.0010148518

The above relation for Separation Factor is valid for a W(SF) between 0.006
and 5.0. If W falls outside the range, the sizing program gives a warning
message and the limiting value of W is used to estimate Separation Factor.
For example, if calculated value of W is 0.001, then the value used in the
correlation is 0.006. If the calculated value of W is 10.0, then the value used
in the correlation is 6.0.

Particle Size Separation Method


This method estimates the disengagement velocity of liquid bubble in the
vapor space. The maximum allowable vapor velocity is determined as a
percentage of the disengagement velocity.
Liquid drops falling in gases appear to be spherical up to a Reynolds number
of 100. Large drops (greater than 0.3125 INCHES) will deform, with a
resulting increase in drag, and in some cases shatter.

6 Sizing Project Components

257

For estimating vapor velocity, the liquid bubbles are assumed to remain in
spherical shape.
The terminal settling velocity can be obtained for different flow conditions.
For laminar flow (K < 3):
v

g * (rho_l - rho_v) *(dp^ 2)/ (18.0 * mu_v)

and for turbulent region:


v

1.74 (g * dp * (rho_l - rho_v) / rho_v)^0.5

dp * (g * rho_v * (rho_l - rho_v)/ (mu_v^2) )^0.33

disengagement velocity

where:

gravitational constan

rho_l

liquid density

rho_v

vapor density

dp

liquid bubble diameter

mu_v

gas viscosity (assumed to be 0.05 LB/FT/H)

The design velocity is then estimated by the following equation:


v_m

v*f

v_m

disengagement velocity

design factor multiplier for disengagement velocity

disengagement

where:

Calculating vessel cross-sectional area


Vapor cross sectional area is estimated based on the vapor velocity and the
vapor volumetric flow. The vapor cross sectional area is divided by the ratio of
vapor area/cross sectional area to get the total required cross sectional area.
v_csa

v_vol/v_m

t_csa

v_csa/r_vc

v_csa

Vapor area

v_vol

Vapor volumetric flow

r_vc

Vapor area/cross sectional area

t_csa

Vessel cross sectional area

where:

Estimate Vessel diameter based on vapor flow:

6 Sizing Project Components

258

D_v

sqrt ((t_csa * 4) /)

Vessel Diameter based on vapor flow


3.14

where:
D_v

Estimate vessel diameter based on liquid holdup volume and user-specified


value of L/D ratio.
The maximum value of diameter calculated using vapor velocity and liquid
holdup is used for final design.

Calculating Length
Vessel liquid holdup volume is obtained based on the light liquid flowrate and
the residence time. The vessel length is then calculated as given below:
l_vol

l_vfr * r_t

(l_vol * 4) / ( * D^2 * (1 - r_vc))

Liquid holdup volume

where:
l_vol
L

Length

l_vfr

=
=
=

Light liquid volumetric flowrate

r_t
r_vc

Residence time
r_vc

Checking L/D Ratio


For all liquid vessels L/D is calculated as follows:
If
If 250

<

If

P <=

250

PSIA,

P <=

500

PSIA, then L/D

500

then L/D=

P>

then L/D=

PSIA,

3
4
5

After estimating the length (L) and diameter (D) of the vessel, the ratio of
L/D is compared with the Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio specified on
the Design Criteria specifications form.

Estimating Boot Dimensions


Boot dimensions will be estimated only if the exit streams contain a heavier
liquid phase. Boot diameter is based on the heavier liquid phase volume and
boot liquid velocity.
Boot volume (bt_vol)

hl_vfr * r_t

Boot cross section area


(bt_csa)

bt_vol / hl_vel

6 Sizing Project Components

259

Boot diameter (d)


Boot length (l)

=
=

sqrt (4.0 * bt_csa /)


(bt_vol * 4)/( * d^2)

where:
hl_vfr

heavy liquid volumetric flow rate

hl_vel

heavy liquid velocity

boot length

boot diameter

Vertical Vessels
The following graphic shows a typical vertical vessel.

The following design variables are specified on the Design Criteria


specifications form:

Residence Time

6 Sizing Project Components

260

Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio

Minimum Vessel Diameter

Vapor/Liquid Separator Sizing Method

Average liquid particle diameter

Design factor multiplier for disengagement velocity

Separation Factor

Minimum Disengagement Height

Minimum height above the mist eliminator

Height of Mist Eliminator

Vessel diameter is calculated in the same manner as for horizontal vessels.


The default value of Separation Factor Multiplier is available in the Design
Criteria specifications.

Calculating Vessel Height


Vessel liquid holdup volume is based on the light liquid flowrate and the
residence time. The liquid height in the vessel is then calculated and the
additional height is added to obtain the overall vessel height.
l_vol

l_vfr * r_t

l_ht

(l_vol * 4) / ( * D^2)

LLLTap_ht + l_ht+ HLLTap_ht + d_ht + me_ht + mea_ht

where:
l_vol
l_vfr

=
=

light liquid volumetric flowrate

r_t

residence time

l_ht

liquid height based on residence time

LLLTap_ht

=
=

ddHLLTap_ht

height between inlet nozzle and high liquid level


tap (desig criteria)

d_ht

=
=
=

disengagement height

me_ht
mea_ht

liquid holdup volume

minimum height between low liquid level tap and


tangent line (design criteria)

mist eliminator height


Height above the mist eliminator

If the calculated l_ht is less than the minimum height between the taps,
specified in the design criteria, then the minimum height is used.

Checking L/D ratio


For all liquid
After estimating the length (L) and diameter (D) of the vessel, the ratio of
L/D is compared with the Process Vessel Height to Diameter Ratio specified on
the Design Criteria specifications form.

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261

6 Sizing Project Components

262

7 Piping and Instrumentation


Models

Interconnecting Volumetric
P&ID Lines
Connect pipelines between components in a Aspen Capital Cost Estimator
project, estimate the project, and create piping line list report for connected
lines with the same line tag.

Open an Aspen Capital Cost Estimator


project
Open a new or existing Aspen Capital Cost Estimator project, add equipment
components to the new project.

7 Piping and Instrumentation Models

263

Run Interconnect Piping Lines


To run interconnect piping lines:
1

On the main tool bar, click Run.

Click Interconnect Piping Lines to launch the GUI as shown below:

The GUI displays five lists. All equipment and its associated pipelines in the
project are displayed in two groups:

Connect From

Connect To

The first two lists display equipment and piping lines in the Connect From
group.
The third list displays all connected lines.
The fourth and fifth lists display piping lines and equipment in the Connect
To group.

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264

On the list in the Connect From and Connect To groups, click the
desired equipment item.

The line lists will then display only the lines corresponding to the selected
equipments. When the mouse hovers over an equipment or a line, the tooltip
in the list provides additional information related to this item. The related
additional information is also displayed in the bottom text area when clicking
on an equipment or a line.

Connecting Piping Lines


To connect two lines:
1

Select the Auto Generate Line Tag check box, or, in the Line Tag field,
type a unique line tag.

In the Connect From line list, click a piping line.

In the Connect To line list, click the desired line.

Click Connect.

7 Piping and Instrumentation Models

265

Repeat Steps 1-4 above to connect all the desired lines between the
equipment items.

Note: Use Filter to display all disconnected equipment or all disconnected


lines.

Disconnecting Piping Lines


To disconnect all existing pipeline connections between
all equipments:

Click Disconnect All.

All connected lines will be removed from middle list and will be displayed in
the respective line list.

To disconnect a specific line between the two equipments:

In the middle list, click a line item; then click Disconnect.

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Renaming a Line Tag


To rename a line tag:
1

On the Connecting list, click the desired item.

In Line Tag field, edit the line tag.

Click Rename Line Tag.

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267

Saving All Connections and (optionally)


Updating the Project
To save all the connections and update the project:

Click the Update Project.

To save all the connections without updating the project:

Click the Save Mapping & Exit.

All connections on the GUI are saved, but the project is not updated.

Getting the Connected Line List Report


To get the connected line list report:
1

Evaluate the above project.

Click View | Capital Cost View.

The Select Report Type to View dialog box appears.


3

On the Select Report Type to View dialog box, click Interactive


Reports; then click OK

The reporter is active.


4

Click Excel reports.

Click Other reports | Discipline | Pipe:


o

Connected Line List


-or-

Model Line List

as shown below:

Click Run Report.

7 Piping and Instrumentation Models

268

The report is shown below:

Connected Line List

Model Line List

Mapping Streams to Piping


Lines
Note: For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator with Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer Overlay project, see the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer user
guide (AspenProcessEconAnalyzerV7_0-Usr.pdf).
In an existing or new Aspen Process Economic Analyzer (or Aspen Capital
Cost Estimator with Aspen Process Economic Analyzer Overlay) project, you
can assign stream physical properties to lines in order to size the line
diameter.

To Map Streams to Lines:


1

Open an existing Aspen Process Economic Analyzer or Aspen Capital Cost


Estimator (with Aspen Process Economic Analyzer overlay) project, or
create a new project.

On the main menu, click Run | Map Stream to Lines to launch the GUI.

7 Piping and Instrumentation Models

269

The GUI displays four lists. All the streams are displayed in the STREAM list
box. All equipments and their associated pipelines in the project are displayed
in the last two list boxes. The middle list displays all mapped streams and
lines.

On the Equipment list, click an equipment item.

The line list will then display only the lines corresponding to the selected
equipment. When the mouse hovers over an equipment or a line or a stream,
the tooltip in the list provides additional information related to this item. The
related additional information is also displayed in the bottom text area when
clicking on an equipment item, a line, or a stream.

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Mapping Streams to Piping Lines


To map a stream to a pipeline:
1

On the STREAM list, click a stream.

On the Aspen Capital Cost Estimator | Line list, click a piping line.

Click Map.

Mapped streams and lines are displayed in the middle list.

Repeat steps 1-3 above to map all the desired streams and lines.

Note: Use Filter to display all unmapped equipment and all unmapped lines
if needed.

Un-mapping Streams to Piping Lines


To Un-map all existing mapped streams and lines:

Click Un-map all.

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To Un-map a specific stream and line:


1

On the Mapping list, click a mapped item.

The Map button becomes Un-Map.


2

Click Un-Map.

The selected items are removed from the middle list and go back to their
respective lists.

Using the Auto-Map Option


You can set the Auto-Map option in two ways:

On the Preference tab

From the Mapping GUI

To use the Auto-Map Option using the Preference tab:


The Auto Map button will be unavailable in the mapping GUI if on the Tools
| Options | Preferences | Process tab the Auto Map Streams to Lines
check box is selected.
The Pre-auto-mapped streams-lines will be displayed in the middle list box of
the Map Stream to lines GUI.

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272

To make the Auto Map button available:

On the Tools | Options | Preferences | Process tab, clear the Auto


Map Streams to Lines check box.

To use the Auto-Map Option from the Mapping GUI:

On the Map Stream to Lines dialog box, click Auto Map to automatically
map streams to lines.

To save all the stream mappings to lines and update the


project:

Click Update Project.

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To save all the stream mappings to lines without updating


the project:

Click Save Mapping & Exit.

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274

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275

8 Developing and Using Cost


Libraries

The Libraries view on the Palette arranges libraries in a tree-structure. Most


of the libraries listed access project specifications (explained in Chapter 3).
The Cost Libraries are unique, however, in that they comprise collections of
particular cost items that you can add as project components. The cost
libraries are customizable; you can add items to the libraries provided, as well
as add your own libraries.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer includes two types of cost libraries:
Equipment Model Library (EML) and Unit Cost Library (UCL). Each library type
may include one or more library files, which in turn may contain one or more
library items, each representing a particular type of cost item.

Equipment Model Library (EML)


The EML is intended to store custom equipment items, for which you create
component specification forms. In a project, you can add an item from the
EML as a component and fill out the form that you earlier created.
The library can store a generic equipment item that comes in discrete sizes,
such as an extruder, or an equipment item that follows a continuous
cost-capacity relationship such as linear, semi-log or log-log.

Unit Cost Library (UCL)


The UCL is intended to store and retrieve direct costs and installation
man-hours, which are based on a simple unit of measure (for example, the
cost of a material item or installation man-hours per unit of area, per unit of
length, per item, etc.). Costs can also be stored in a library for indirect items
such as project management man-hours per month, crane rental (plant hire)
on a daily, weekly, monthly basis, etc.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

276

For one-of-a-kind cost items not worth storing in a library, the unit cost
library may be used to create a dummy item for recall and modification in a
project. The dummy item is stored in the library with as little data as possible.
This can be retrieved and modified in as much detail as required whenever
you need a one-time cost added into a project.

Developing and Using an


Equipment Model Library (EML)
Creating an EML
The instructions in this sub-section show you how to create an EML. The
instructions in the sub-sections that follow this one, which show you how to
add an item to an EML and then add the item to a project, use a single
example that can be added either to an Inch-Pound EML that you created or
to one of the two Inch-Pound EMLs provided.

To create an EML:
1

With no project open, go to the Palettes Libraries tab view.

Expand Cost Libraries in the tree-structure, and then expand Equipment


Model Library.

The libraries are divided into Inch-Pound and Metric.


3

To create a library for use in projects with an Inch-Pound units of measure


basis, as in the example used in these instructions, right-click InchPound; then click New on the pop-up menu.

The New Equipment Model Library dialog box appears.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

277

Enter a file name (required) for the EML and a brief description (optional),
then click OK.

An empty Library dialog box appears.

You can now add items to the new library.

Adding an Item to an EML


The instructions below for defining and using an EML item follow a single
example from item creation through the addition of the item to a project.
Using the example provided will define the item in such a way that it
automatically generates a foundation and/or electrical power supply bulks.

To add an item to an EML:


Note: If you just added a library, the Library dialog box is displayed, and
you can skip to Step 2. If not, follow these steps:
1

Go to the Palettes Libraries tab view.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

278

Expand Cost Libraries, Equipment Libraries, and either Inch-Pound or


Metric. (If following the example provided, select Inch-Pound.)

Right-click on the library to which you want to add an item, and then click
Modify on the pop-up menu.

Click Add on the Library dialog box.

Enter a Reference ID for the item in the Add Item dialog box.
The one- to six-character alphanumeric Reference ID uniquely identifies
the library item being added. The ID is used to sort and search for library
items. The first character must be a letter.

Click OK.

Enter the descriptive data for a the item in the Develop Equipment Model
Library form. If following the example, enter the data exactly as shown
below. Be sure to correctly enter the sizing parameters, CAPFLOW and
PWRDRVR; Aspen Process Economic Analyzer knows to use GPM (or L/S
for METRIC) and HP, respectively, for these parameters.

Sizing method: the data


is in the form of either a
continuous curve
(linear, log-log or
semi-log) or a set of
discrete tabular values.
When an equipment
model library item is
retrieved into a project,
the specified size for
the project component
is used to develop the
appropriate cost,
man-hours and weight
from the library data.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

279

Click OK to save your specifications.

The new item appears on the Library dialog box, which you can now close.

Adding an EML Item to a Project Scenario


To add an EML item to a project scenario:
1

Open the project to which you want to add the EML item. For the purposes
of this example, you can use either an existing or newly created US/I-P
based project.

In Project Explorer (Project view), right-click on the area in which to add


the EML item, and then click Add Project Component on the pop-up menu.

On the Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box, specify a project


component name for the item.

Click Equipment Model Library and click OK.

On the Select an Equipment Model Library File dialog box, click the
EML to which you added the item; then Click OK.

On the Select an Equipment Model Library Item dialog box, select the
item you added; then click OK.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

280

Enter your specifications for the item at the Component Specifications


form, as shown below. Note that the Size parameters CAPFLOW and
PWRDRVR are included on the form.

Click OK to apply and save the specifications.

The item will now be included in project evaluations.

Developing and Using a Unit


Cost Library (UCL)
The instructions below use as an example a library of asbestos abatement
(ASBABT) costs and man-hours. This example has been selected because
environmental remediation data is difficult to model, since costs and

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

281

man-hours tend to vary greatly based on site conditions and project types.
Items of a unique and/or variable nature are ideal for storing in a UCL.
The instructions take this example through the following stages: library
creation, adding items to the library, adding a library item to a project as a
component, and forming an assembly in the project out of multiple UCL
items.

Creating a Unit Cost Library


To create a unit cost library:
1

With no project open, go to the Palettes Libraries tab view.

Expand Cost Libraries in the tree-structure, and then expand Unit Cost
Library.

The libraries are divided into Inch-Pound and Metric.

To create a library for use in projects with an Inch-Pound units of measure


basis, as in the ASBABT example used in these instructions, right-click on
Inch-Pound and click New on the pop-up menu.

In the New Unit Cost Library dialog box, enter a file name (required) for
the UCL and a brief description (optional).

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

282

Click OK to create the new UCL.

An empty Library dialog box appears.

You can now add items to the new UCL.

Adding an Item to a UCL


To add items to a UCL:
1

If you just added a library, the Library dialog box is displayed, and you
may skip to Step 2. If not, follow these steps:
a. Go to the Palettes Libraries tab view.
b. Expand Cost Libraries, Unit Cost Libraries, and either Inch-Pound or
Metric.
c. Right-click on the library to which you want to add an item, and then
click Modify on the pop-up menu.

Click Add on the Library dialog box.

Enter a Reference ID for the item in the Add Item dialog box.

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283

The one- to six-character alphanumeric Reference ID uniquely identifies the


library item being added. The ID is used to sort and search for library items.
The first character must be a letter.

Click OK.

In the Develop Unit Cost Library form, enter information for the new item.

Note: Costs for the item will be allocated to the specified Code of Account
(COA). See ICARUS Reference, Chapter 34, for COA definitions.
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer uses the Material Cost Per Unit and Labor
Cost Per Unit to cost the item in an estimate. If Labor Hours Per Unit is
specified and Labor Cost Per Unit is left blank, Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer will calculate the labor cost using the project wage rates at the time
of the estimate.
The Unit of Measure can be designated for each or by any appropriate unit
(i.e., 1000 SF ). Be sure to sufficiently describe the item so that you know
what the unit costs include when the item is retrieved at some future date.
The quantity is entered when the library item is retrieved into a project.
The Date and Source are for your reference and are not transferred into an
estimate.
6

When done entering specifications for the item, click OK.

To add a set of items as in the ASBABT example, repeat the process (Steps
2-4) to add the following items in addition to the one shown in the previous
graphic.
Reference No. Item Description

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

Code of
Account

Matl Cost Per Labor Cost Unit of


Unit
Per Unit
Measure

Date of
quotation

284

AAB200

Polyethylene
Sheeting

800

.021

AAB201

Duct Tape ( 300 roll ) 800

AAB202

Adhesive Spray (60 /


can)

AAB300

Decontami-

.004

SF

04APR01

3.50

ROLL

04APR01

800

6.00

CAN

04APR01

800

300.00

EACH

04APR01

300.00

EACH

04APR01

.01

EACH

04APR01

nation Shower
AAB301

Neg Air Pressure


System

800

AAB400

Lighting Fixture
Removal

800

After the above are added, the Library dialog box will appear as shown
below.

When done adding items to the UCL, click Close on the Library dialog box.

Adding a UCL Item to a Project


To add a single UCL item to a project:
1

Open the project to which you want to add the UCL item. To add an item
from the ASBABT library developed as an example in the previous
instructions, you can open either an existing or newly created US/I-P
based project.

In Project Explorer (Project view), right-click on the area in which to add


the UCL item, and then click Add Project Component on the pop-up menu.

On the Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box, specify a project


component name for the item.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

285

Select Unit Cost Library and click OK.

On the Select a Unit Cost Library File dialog box, select the UCL to
which you added the item and click OK.

On the Select a Unit Cost Library Item dialog box, select the item you
added and click OK.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

286

On the Component Specifications form, click the Option drop-down


button and click Unit Cost Items.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer retrieves the unit cost data you set up in
Libraries.

Creating an Assembly of UCL Items


This section shows how to add several items from the library to form an
assembly. In the example, the items from the ASBABT library are added to
form an Asbestos Abatement Area Preparation Assembly.

To create an assembly of UCL items in a project:


1

In Project Explorer (Project view), right-click on the area in which to add


the UCL item, and then click Add Project Component on the pop-up menu.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

287

On the Icarus Project Component Selection dialog box, enter as the


project component name a description of the assembly.

Click Unit Cost Library and click OK.

At the Select a Unit Cost Library File dialog box, select the UCL
containing the first item to add to the assembly and click OK.

At the Select a Unit Cost Library Item dialog box, select the first item
to add to the assembly and click OK.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

288

On the Component Specifications form, click the Option drop-down


button and select Unit Cost Items.

Click Add.

On the Select a Unit Cost Library File dialog box, select the UCL
containing the next item to add to the assembly and click OK.

On the Select a Unit Cost Library Item dialog box, select the next item
to add to the assembly and click OK.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

289

10 Repeat the process of adding items until the form contains columns for all
the items in the assembly.

11 After entering quantities for the items click OK.


The assembly is listed as one project component on the Project Explorer
(Project view) and the List view.
You can now run an evaluation on the item (see page 462 for instructions).
An Item Report would summarize total costs and man-hours, as well as list
each assembly items costs and man-hours.
496H

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

290

Working with Cost Libraries


Equipment model and unit cost libraries share the functions described in this
section.

Copying a Library Item


When adding a library item similar to one that already exists, it is easier to
copy the existing library item and modify the necessary specifications.

To copy a library item:


1

Highlight a library item in the Library dialog box and click Copy.

Enter a Reference ID for the new item.


The one- to six-character alphanumeric Reference ID uniquely identifies
the library item being added. The ID is used to sort and search for library
items. The first character must be a letter.

Click OK. Aspen Process Economic Analyzer adds the new item with all the
same data as the original only the Reference ID has changed.

Deleting a Library Item


When a library item is no longer useful, it can be removed from the library
file.

To delete a library item:


1

Highlight a library item in the Library dialog box and click Delete.

A dialog box appears to confirm the delete.


2

Click Yes to delete the selected library item.


-orClick No to retain the library item in the library file.

Escalating Library Costs


Library items contain costs which change over time due to inflation.
Escalating library costs bring the library costs up to date.

To escalate library costs:


1

Click Escalate on the Library dialog box.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

291

The Escalate Costs dialog box appears.

Enter the escalation specifications.

In this field

type

New Base Date:

The date of escalation or the date


at which the prices are current.

Material Escalation:

Amount by which to escalate


material costs.

Labor Escalation:

Amount by which to escalate


labor costs. Since equipment
model libraries only include
setting man-hours, not labor
costs, this field only appears
when escalating unit cost
libraries.

Click OK to escalate all the library items in the library file.

Importing a Cost Library


You can import UCL files, which have the extension .LIB, and EML files,
which have the extension .EML, from elsewhere on your computer or
network.

To import a cost library:


1

In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the appropriate Units of


Measure basis (Inch-Pound or Metric), and then click Import on the
pop-up menu.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

292

In the Select a File for Import window, locate the file and then click
Open.

The file is now included in the Palette and its items can be added as Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer project components.

Duplicating a Cost Library


To duplicate a cost library:
1

In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the library you wish to


duplicate, and then click Duplicate on the pop-up menu.

Enter a file name and description (optional) for the new library.

8 Developing and Using Cost Libraries

293

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Library dialog box for the new
Library, which contains the same items as the original. You can add, modify,
or delete the items without affecting the original.

Deleting a Cost Library


To delete a cost library:

In the Palette (Libraries view), right-click on the library to be deleted,


and then click Delete on the pop-up menu.

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294

9 Changing Plant Capacity


and Location

Two modules within Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, Analyzer Scale-up


Module (ASM) and Analyzer Relocation Module (ARM) let you evaluate
alternate plant capacities and locations.
Analyzer Scale-up Module (ASM) When you change plant capacity,
Analyzer re-sizes each project component to your desired plant capacity.
Unique expert system rules, based on engineering principles, provide the
basis for revising the size of every project component in the process facility
that is implicated in stream flows, as well as the size of other plant facility
components in the plant layout, including process and utility components
inside battery limits (ISBL) and outside battery limits (OSBL), associated
installation bulks, piping, cable runs, buildings, structures, pipe racks, and
site improvements. Quoted costs and installation hours, and in some
instances, numbers of identical items (for example, the number of trees along
a fenceline) are also subject to change on changing production capacity.

Changing Plant Capacity


Changing the production capacity affects not only every stream flow, but the
size, and in some cases, the number of project components. The Analyzer
Scale-up Module (ASM) automatically examines each element of a project,
applies a set of scale-up rules unique to that element and recreates the entire
plant description according to the new production capacity.
ASM contains rules for each of the hundreds of Aspen Icarus project
components. Rules are based on engineering principles for elements that are
directly linked to production capacity. For other elements that are footprint
oriented such as building and structures, rules based on heuristics are
applied.
When the scaled project is evaluated, design quantities that are developed for
the newly sized components are designed to meet the needs of a project.
Further, revisions to P&IDs and similar user adjustments contained in the
baseline project are also treated in the same way. The idea is to design a
scaled project as it is intended to be built. This methodology eliminates the

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

295

need for applying a factor to the baseline plant cost to scale it up or down.
Given a new capacity, ASM recreates the entire plant.
The ASM process is automatic and rapid. ASM revises sizes of components to
meet a revised capacity and the project evaluation engines do the difficult,
time-consuming evaluation work. Users find ASM performs its re-sizing
operation results to be similar to engineering design methods with the added
benefit of much reduced time and resources. Further, equal confidence can be
applied to evaluation results before and after using ASM as rules are
discipline-based and the before and after evaluation processes are identical.

To change plant capacity:


1

Open your baseline project and save it under a new scenario name that
reflects the new capacity. This will ensure that your baseline project
remains intact, separate and apart from your about-to-be scaled project.

On the Run menu, click Decision Analyzer or click the A button on the
toolbar.

The Decision Analyzer dialog box appears.

Select the Change Plant Capacity by (5-600%) check box.

Enter the desired percentage adjustment or select it using the Up/Down


arrow buttons. For example, if you need to revise the capacity by a value

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

296

beyond 600% to 700%, scale your project twice. For this, the Evaluate
Project check box should be cleared. Then you can split the desired
700% into two parts: first use 350%, and on completion, scale it again at
200%.
5

Click OK to initiate the Analyzer Scale-up Module.

Upon completion, save the scaled project.

Analyzer Scale-Up Module


(ASM)
How ASM Works
Scale-up of a project to a new production capacity is a two-step process.

1. The Aspen Scale-up Module is invoked. The ASM processor


(a) analyzes each specification in your project
(b) applies the appropriate scale-up rule
(c) revises the specification to a new value
(d) moves on to the next specification
You can follow the progress of this phase by noting the item names in the
display at the bottom of your screen.
2. The project is evaluated. This phase performs the designs, develops quantities,
hours, costs, etc., and prepares the basic set of reports for your project at the
new capacity. On completion of this step, you can proceed to prepare special
reports and perform other analyses on your newly scaled project.
Save the project after the scale-up operation.

Scale-Up Rule Set


Analyzer contains rules for hundreds of components and cost elements that
are based on:

engineering design principles for scale-up of all process equipment,


stream flows, quoted costs and hours, and so on.

heuristics for plant items that are based on footprint and plot plan

The current rule set in some instances modifies the number of items rather
than change sizes, as in the simple example of trees along a fence line, where
the number of trees would be revised rather than the size of each tree. In the
current rule set, there is no automatic provision for changing the number of
project components.

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

297

Limiting Conditions
It is possible that on extreme capacity scale-ups, sizes of certain equipment
or bulk items may surpass a system limiting value. In this case, an error
condition would be issued. The user would then examine the scaled model for
the particular item(s) and revise the size and number of out-of-range items
accordingly, as an item in an error condition would be excluded from the
estimate.

Scale-up Candidates
ASM rules apply to the following types of project information:
1

Area specs: distances, dimensions, cost per unit weight

Project Component specs: specific rules based on item type and


specification, typically size dimension, capacity, power and occasionally
number of items

Note: Several sanitary process equipment items associated with batch food
processing are not scaled.
3

Installation specs: quoted costs, hours and numeric dimension specs for
piping, duct, civil, steel, electrical, insulation, paint. Text-based sizes such
as pipe schedule, wire size, etc. are symbolic and are not scaled.

Project Component Quoted Cost and Hours: While ASM has rules for
quoted cost and hours, the ASM rule may not be the best for your type of
item. Here, its better to apply a % Adjustment to the systems estimated
cost in an amount that will bring the estimated cost up to your quoted
value. Then, on scaling, the new reported cost will be calculated by
applying your % Adjustment to the estimated cost. Based on the scaled
sizes.
o

Quoted hours: based on item type

Quoted weight: based on item type

Stream flow rate: scaled to the new capacity

Scale-Up for Configuration Analysis


Often, sections of a proposed facility may be required to consist of parallel
trains, joining up to meet downstream units. Situations such as these are best
handled by creating models of these sections at a standard capacity and then
scaling desired sections to say 50% capacity. You would then import the
various sections into an overall model, with multiple trains being imported as
many times as required. The resulting model would then be evaluated for
capital investment and process economics.

Analyzer Relocation Module


(ARM)
The Analyzer Relocation Module lets you evaluate the impact of worldwide
location on capital cost and a variety of other econometrics. Specifically, you

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

298

can relocate a project from one base location to any one of 89 worldwide
locations. You can choose to retain the location of your engineering workforce
or choose any one of 89 worldwide locations.
When you need to evaluate a project that you might engineer and/or
construct in a different city or country location, ARM will quickly and
automatically revise your project parameters with those contained in its
location knowledge base. The ARM knowledge base includes key locationdependent data and rules to convert your project from its starting base
location to your selected location using location dependent values for design
parameters, engineering and construction work forces, cost of materials, and
engineering, material and construction indirects. You can use ARM in
combination with the Analyzer Scale-up Module (ASM) and Analyzer
Economics Module (AEM) all in the same run or separately from the other
modules.

Relocation Terminology

Baseline project: initial case, before executing ARM.

Relocated project: after ARM processing of the baseline project.

Relocation: a process of evaluating an initially formulated project


(baseline project) to a new location (relocated project).

Locations: a general location, characterized by a city and country name,


which is used to represent a particular EPC function. The function may or
may not be physically sited in that city.

Engineering location: city and country name used to characterize the


engineering workforce assigned to the project.

Plant location: city and country name used to characterize the plant site.

Workflow
The figure below shows the general work process. ARM specs, contained in
the ARM rule set are applied to the users model. A description of the
elements in the table is provided in the section following the Workflow.

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

299

How the Analyzer Plant Relocation Module (ARM) Works

Relocation Reports
For New
Engineering and
Plant Location

Baseline Reports
For Base
Engineering and
Plant Location

Baseline
Project

Analyzer
Project
Relocation
Module
(ARM)

Relocated
Project

ARM Specs
Project
Specs

Construction
Hours

Construction
Rates

Material
Quantities

Engineering
Hours

Engineering
Rates

Construction
Indirects

Materials
Indirects

Engineering
Indirects

Construction
Contingency

Materials
Contingency

Engineering
Contingency

Construction
Fee
Construction
Cost

Engineering
Cost
Material
Cost

Project
Contingency

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

300

Since ARM processing is automatic, it is wise to first save your base


project under a new scenario name in advance of running ARM. Use a
scenario name that refers to the planned new capacity. This will ensure
that your baseline project remains intact for further evaluations.

On the Run menu, click Decision Analyzer or click the A button on the
button bar:

Figure 1. Button Bar


This will
display the Decision Analyzer dialog box, Figure 2.
Note: ARM shares space with ASM and AEM and Evaluate Project on the
four-part Decision Analyzer dialog box.
3

Select the check box Change Plant Location to.

Click the Plant Location from its pull-down list.

Click the Engineering Location from its pull-down list.

Use the remaining check boxes to select options to:


o

Enable escalation for Aspen Process Economic Analyzer


projects.

Retain your defined construction start date and duration. If


unchecked, a new date will be developed on relocation.

Note: The last line on the Decision Analyzer dialog box displays three pieces
of information:

plant location

currency name

currency symbol, in parentheses

This information is a reminder to users of the Analyzer Economics Module


(AEM) who are interested in reporting costs in currency different from the
plant location currency. For this, two entry slots are provided for an exchange
rate and symbol. If AEM is not invoked, values so entered will not affect the
reporting aspects of relocation aspects. In Figure 2, the user elected to run
AEM. This would take place immediately after ARM completed the relocation
process, described as follows.
Figure 2. Decision Analyzer Dialog Box Illustration for a plant to be
engineered in Rotterdam and constructed in Singapore. The currency of the
plant location is displayed in the last wire-frame.

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

301

Figure 2. Decision Analyzer Dialog Box

Relocating the Project


7

Having completed the choices, click OK to run the project. If you click
Cancel, all choices will be ignored and control will return to the explorer
view.

With your OK, Decision Analyzers relocation module will automatically


convert your base location project to the selected engineering and plant
location. Your project will then contain the results of the relocation, which you
can review and modify. To do this, select the Project Basis view and click on
the desired basis category. Open the associated form, review the data and
modify, as you desire. When pleased with the results, SAVE the project,
making sure that it is saved under a scenario name that describes the
relocation and most important, that your baseline project is not disturbed by
the SAVE. You can then evaluate the project and review the results. A final
SAVE will save the results.

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

302

ARM Knowledge Base


The ARM knowledge base consists of approximately ten thousand locationspecific data values plus rules that govern the way the location data will be
applied to your baseline project. The ARM knowledge base is derived from a
variety of qualified sources including:

Aspen Richardson international construction data: raw data from this


source (also used to prepare the Aspen Richardson International Cost
Factor Manual) were analyzed and mapped into Icarus technology formats
for use in ARM

Proprietary sources

Practicing professionals, EPC and owner customers and associates

Surveys

Technical publications that specialize in international construction costs

Government sources: seismic, climate data and other location data

Financial sources: exchange rates, etc.

Aspen Icarus models: to blend and fill in sparse data areas

Five Bodies of Data


The ARM knowledge base consists of five bodies of data:

Location specs

Project specs

Engineering specs

Construction specs

Material Cost specs

Highlights of each component follow.

Location Specs
ARM is formulated for 89 locations in 33 currencies. Locations listed below
include the four Icarus country base locations. The locations are similar to
those in the Aspen Richardson International Cost Factor Manual list.
Locations are organized and sorted by continental region, country and city.
For Canadian and US locations, names include state, province or territory.
Conventional short forms of country and city names are used for simplicity.

Regions - The number of locations for each region is listed in Table 1.

City Locations outside the US are listed in Table 2

US locations are listed in Table 3.

TABLE 1. List of Locations in Each Region


Africa

Asia

15

Australia

Canada

Central America

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

303

Europe

12

Middle East

South America

United States

37

All Locations

89

Non-US Locations

52

TABLE 2. List of Non-US Locations


Region

City, Country

Near

Africa

El Hassania, Morocco

Casablanca

Ibadan, Nigeria
Johannesburg, South Africa
Asia

Beijing, China
Guangzhou, China
Shanghai, China
Bhopal, India

New Delhi

Mumbai (Bombay), India


Jakarta, Indonesia
Kobe, Japan
Tokyo, Japan
Kuantan, Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur

Manila, Philippines
Singapore, Singapore
Seoul, South Korea
Taipei, Taiwan

Australia

Samutprakam, Thailand

Bangkok

Binh Duong, Vietnam

Hanoi

Melbourne, Australia
Perth, Australia
Sydney, Australia

Central America

Guatemala City, Guatemala


Mexico City, Mexico

Canada

Calgary, Canada
Montreal, Canada
Toronto, Canada
Vancouver, Canada
Windsor, Canada
Winnipeg, Canada

Europe

Brussels, Belgium
Paris, France
Frankfurt, Germany
Dublin, Ireland
Milan, Italy

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

304

Amsterdam, Netherlands
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Warsaw, Poland
Moscow, Russia
Barcelona, Spain
London, United Kingdom
Manchester, United Kingdom
Middle East

Cairo, Egypt
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Al Jubail

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Gebze, Turkey

Istanbul

Abu Dhabi, UAE


South America

Buenos Aires, Argentina


Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Medellin, Colombia
Lima, Peru
Caracas, Venezuela

TABLE 3. List of US City Locations


Anchorage, AK
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Boston, MA
Cape Girardeau, MO
Cayey, PR
Charlotte, NC
Chicago, IL
Cincinnati, OH
Dallas, TX
Denver, CO
Fairbanks, AK
Green Bay, WI
Houston, TX
Huntsville, AL
Indianapolis, IN
Kansas City, MO
Knoxville, TN
Las Vegas, NV
Los Angeles, CA
Louisville, KY
New Orleans, LA
New York, NY
Newark, NJ

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

305

Oakland, CA
Philadelphia, PA
Phoenix, AZ
Portland, ME
Portland, OR
Sacramento, CA
San Francisco, CA
Seattle, WA
Sherman, TX
Spartanburg, SC
St Louis, MO
Syracuse, NY
Wilkes-Barre, PA

Project Data
The ARM knowledge base contains a comprehensive set of values for project
level data. These should be considered as a starting point in the evaluation of
a project. Concerned users should replace the ARM knowledge base values in
their relocated project with more representative values obtained from
company surveys of the intended site.

Currency: Exchange rate (FEX), as of the first day of the basis year, with
exchange rate and currency units scaled to meet Icarus currency formats.
Scaled currency units are provided at three levels: 3-character symbol, 8character name and 24-character description. Values are listed in Table 4.
o

Currency: 33 currencies are defined; some ARM locations


share the same currency

Exchange rate, for each location. The ARM knowledge base


works with exchange rates relative to the currency of each of
the four country bases (US, UK, JP, EU). The currency table
contains the rates as of the listed date.

Exchange rates are scaled in size to conform with Icarus


exchange rate formats (0.01 to 99.9 in value)

Scaled currency symbols, names and descriptions are defined


to conform to Icarus format; these contain symbols such as K
to represent thousands and M to represent millions of scaled
currency units, as indicated in Table 4.

TABLE 4. List of Currencies

Country

Currency
Description

Currency
Name

Currency
Symbol

Exchange
Rate, per
USD (1
Jan 2006)

Argentina

Argentine Peso

Peso-A

3.0459

Australia

Australian Dollar

Dollar-A

A$

1.3644

Brazil

Brazilian Real

Real

2.3517

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

306

Canada

Canadian Dollar

Dollar-C

C$

1.1641

China

Chinese Yuan
Renminbi

Renminbi

8.0755

Colombia

K Colombian Peso

K Peso

K-P

2.28393

Egypt

Egyptian Pound

Pound-E

PDE

5.786

European Union

Euro

Euro

EUR

0.8446

Guatemala

Guatemalan Quetzal

Quetzal

7.615

India

Indian Rupee

Rupee

45.195

Indonesia

K Indonesian Rupiah

K Rupiah

K-R

9.85222

Japan

K Japanese Yen

K Yen

K-Y

0.117681

Kuwait

Kuwaiti Dinar

Dinar

DK

0.2921

Malaysia

Malaysian Ringgit

Ringgit

3.7837

Mexico

Mexican Peso

Peso-MX

10.66485

Morocco

Moroccan Dirham

Dirham-M

9.3661

Nigeria

K Nigerian Naira

K Naira

K-N

0.1305

Peru

Peruvian Nuevo Sol

NuevoSol

NS

3.422

Philippines

Philippine Peso

Peso-P

53.14

Poland

Polish Zloty

Zloty

3.255

Russia

Russian Rouble

Rouble

RBL

28.75

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Riyal

Riyal

3.7503

Singapore

Singapore Dollar

Dollar-S

S$

1.6642

South Africa

South African Rand

Rand

ZAR

6.3359

South Korea

K South-Korean
Won

K Won

K-W

1.0287

Taiwan

Taiwan Dollar

Dollar-T

T$

33.147

Thailand

Thai Baht

Baht

41.0767

Turkey

Turkish New Lira

New Lira

NL

1.34979

United Arab
Emirate

Utd. Arab Emir.


Dirham

Dirham-U

3.6732

United Kingdom

British Pound

Pound-UK

PDS

0.5802

United States

US Dollar

DollarUS

USD

Venezuela

K Venezuelan
Bolivar

K Boliv

K-B

2.15

Vietnam

K Vietnamese Dong

K Dong

K-D

15.904

Current European Union Locations:

Belgium

France

Germany

Ireland

Italy

Netherlands

Spain

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

307

Note: Certain combinations of location currencies and country base


currencies may result in exchange rates that exceed the format bounds for
exchange rate. In such cases, ARM will automatically scale the exchange rate
ratio and revise the currency units, usually with a prefix of "K" to indicate
thousands of the above-listed currency unit. Example: The exchange rate for
Plant location: India, at 45.145 per USD and Country Base: Japan at 0.1177
is 385.85 R/K Yen, which is beyond the exchange rate bound: the resulting
ratio will be scaled by 1000 to 0.38585 KRupee/K Yen, and costs will be
reported in KRupee (KR)

Equipment: design code (ASME, BS5500, DIN, JIS depending upon the
plant location)

Civil and Steel: seismic acceleration, soil, footing depth, low/high ambient
temperatures, wind velocity, hand excavation

Electrical: power supply frequency

Equipment Rental: a Construction Technology Level (CTL) parameter


(L, M, and H) is assigned to each location. Locations assigned as H-level
draw from the entire system slate of equipment rental items. S-level
locations select from a smaller slate than M-level locations.

Use of gin poles vs. heavy cranes: each location is assigned a value for
the heavy lift option

Engineering Work Force


The ARM knowledge base contains a comprehensive set of engineering
workforce values, which should be considered as a starting point in the
evaluation of a project. Concerned users should replace the ARM knowledge
base values in their relocated project with more representative values
obtained from company surveys of the intended site.

The following are provided by ARM for each engineering work force location:

Hourly rates for each of 77 disciplines in the engineering workforce slate.


Hourly rates are provided in the currency of the engineering location.
During the processing of a project, these rates are converted, for
consistent cost reporting, to the currency of the plant location using the
exchange rate ratio:
Discipline Rate in Plant Location Currency =
Discipline Rate in the Engineering Location Currency x Plant Location
Exchange Rate / Engineering Location Exchange Rate

Engineering workforce productivity one value is provided for each


engineering location, relative to the engineering productivity at the
country base location

Engineering Indirect Costs values are provided for each location for each
of the eight phases of engineering:
o

Expense rates

Payroll burdens

Office indirects

The eight phases of engineering are:


o

Basic Engineering

Detail Engineering

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

308

Procurement

Engineering Management

Home Office Construction Services

Field Office Supervision

Construction Management

Start-up, Commissioning

Engineering confidence level, associated with the sources of the ARM


knowledge base data, used to compute a value of engineering
contingency. Engineering contingency is computed as the root-mean
square value of the user engineering contingency and engineering
confidence level. For example, if the user contingency before relocation
UC =18% and the ARM location confidence value LC = 10%, then the
computed contingency after relocation is:
= (UC2 + LC2) = (182+102 )
P

= 20.6%
P

Construction
The ARM knowledge base contains a comprehensive set of construction
workforce values, which should be considered as a starting point in the
evaluation of a project. Concerned users should replace the ARM knowledge
base values in their relocated project with more representative values
obtained from company surveys of the intended site.
The following are provided by ARM for each construction work force location:

Field Craft rates hourly rates (nearly all-in) for each of 28 field crafts
in the construction work force slate and a foreman differential for each
location. By nearly all-in, we mean that each craft rate is a unique
composite of the following rate contributions:
o

Craft Worker Base Hourly Wage Rate

Health, Welfare, Pension

Fringe Benefits

Hourly Indirect Rate for:

Temporary Construction

Consumables and Small Tools

FICA Unemployment Workers Compensation Insurance

Multi-level construction

Craft rates in the ARM knowledge base do not include indirect


construction costs for the following categories as these would be
determined during project evaluation:

Construction Equipment Rental, including Fuel, Oil, Lubrication,


Maintenance (FOLM)

Field Supervision

Contractor Home Office Costs

Construction workforce productivity one value is provided for each plant


location, relative to the construction productivity at the country base
location

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

309

Field indirect costs, including construction equipment rental (see Project


Data, below), field supervision, home office costs

Work week: hours, number of shifts, overtime

Construction equipment rental: slate of items (see Project Data, below)

Extent of hand excavation vs. machine excavation

Construction confidence level, associated with the sources of the ARM


knowledge base data, used to compute a value of construction
contingency. Contingency is computed as the root-mean square value of
the user construction contingency and construction confidence level. For
example, if the user contingency before relocation UC =18% and the ARM
location confidence value LC = 10%, then the computed contingency after
relocation is:
= (UC2 + LC2) = (182+102 )
P

= 20.6%
P

Material Costs

Location Indexing
The ARM knowledge base contains a set of location indexes which will
adjust country base material costs to the plant location. Two sets are
provided:
o

The first deals with equipment costs.

The second applies to bulk materials.

Use of the supplied location indexes should be considered as a starting


point in the evaluation of a project. Concerned users should replace the
ARM knowledge base values in their relocated project with more
representative values obtained from company surveys of the intended
site.
The location indexes make use of Aspen Richardson values for the average
split of local vs. imported materials. Costs of local and imported materials
are figured by applying location values for freight, taxes, VAT, and other
expenses. Location indexes are stored for each of the four-country bases
and are used to characterize material costs by account code (100 to 299
for equipment, 300 to 999 for bulk materials.)
o

Unit cost of rebar, ready-mix concrete, in the currency of the


plant location

Material cost confidence level, associated with the sources of


the ARM knowledge base data, used to compute a value of
material cost contingency. Contingency is computed as the
root-mean square value of the user material contingency and
material cost confidence level. For example, if the user
contingency before relocation UC =18% and the ARM location
confidence value LC = 10%, then the computed contingency
after relocation is
= (UC2 + LC2) = (182+102 )
P

9 Changing Plant Capacity and Location

= 20.6%
P

310

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

Introduction
Analyzer Utility Modules (AUM) Design
and Scope Generators for Utility Systems
One of the difficulties with process economic analyses, both capital cost and
payback determination, is the lack of scope definition for non-process or
outside boundary limit (OSBL) portions of the project. With AUM modules
creating utility systems in harmony with the process sections of a project,
more accurate, realistic and confident business assessments can be made for
cost and economics.
Each AUM module works in the same way. It extracts information on the
specific utility needs of each project component and area in your project. You
can then interactively revise default values for design preferences and
configuration, evaluate messages, review reports of design results. On
completion, a press of a Load button will automatically transfer to your
project, a list of selected, sized, designed project components assembled
within a unique date- and time-stamped utility area. Should a prior utility
area of the same type be present in your project, you can chose to delete the
old one and replace it with new scope.
All of this takes place in times measured in minutes rather than traditional
days and weeks. Of course, evaluation time depends on the size of the
project. For front end engineering design work, AUM modules can be revisited
in each cycle of scope change to ensure the project needs are properly
satisfied by each utility system.
A Control Panel, a task bar button and numerous hypertext links provide for
easy navigation and rapid access to a status report, specs for preferences and
configurations, reports, an a guide. Messages are provided to assure data
integrity; an error condition will disallow loading of results into your project.

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

311

AUM_CW: Cooling Water Utility Selection,


Sizing, and Design Module
The cooling water utility module requires Aspen Process Economic Analyzer or
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer plus Aspen Process Economic Analyzer to
identify cooling water resource streams and their flow conditions. Up to four
cooling water systems can be configured for a project, each with its own set
of sized components: cooling towers, circulation pumps, chemical injection
pumps, supply and return distribution piping, valves, and fittings.
You can interactively define design conditions such as ambient air
temperatures, size limits to distribution piping, equipment types, and assign
individual areas to each cooling water system. Redundancy capabilities
include stand-alone pumps, two 50% capacity pumps, stand-by spares.
Distribution piping includes expansion loops for long runs and circuits include
main lines, branch lines, area headers, and risers and laterals for 3D-type
areas. Each line type has its own iso for valve and fitting type. Line sizes
and pump heads are pressure drop based.

AUM_Air: Instrument and Plant Air Utility


Selection, Sizing, and Design Module
The air utility module can be accessed by either Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer or Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. AUM_ Air gathers air
requirements from your project in two ways:

Instrument air: From a count of air operated control valves and controllers
and instrument air flow required for each based on control valve size

Plant air: From an air usage model based on a common air tool usage set,
with area utility stations derived from area size and equipment count
within an area

Up to four air plant units (APU) can be configured for a project, each with its
own set of sized components:

air intake filters/screens

ductwork

compressors

interstage coolers

air receivers

pre-filters

air dryers

after-filters

piping distribution network

You can interactively define design premises such as ambient air conditions,
equipment types, equipment redundancy, etc. and assign individual areas to
be served by each air plant unit. Redundancy capabilities include stand-alone
compressors, start-up compressors, receivers, dryers. Redundancy choices
include one at 100% capacity, two at 50% capacity, stand-by spares.
Distribution piping includes two sets, each sized for the required flow of
instrument air and plant air. Piping isos for line segments include expansion

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

312

loops for long runs, valves and fittings, Line segments are defined for main
feeders, main manifolds, main lines branch lines, area feeders, area headers
and for 3Dtype areas, risers and laterals. Each line type has its own iso for
valve and fitting type. Line sizes are pressure drop based.

Analyzer Utility Module (AUM)


Cooling Water (AUM_Water)
Introduction to Analyzer Utility Module
(AUM) Cooling Water
Cooling Water Selection, Sizing, Design Model
This section is divided into four parts:
1 Overview

Analyzer Utility Module (AUM)

Cooling Water Design Model


o

Value in Time and Effort

The Key Steps

2 Working with the Cooling Water Model

Preparation Workflow

The Workflow Cycle

Accessing The Cooling Water Model

Interactive Session Workflow the Design Phase

Overview

Details of the Work Process

The Initial Design

Interactive Session Workflow The Design Phase


o

Overview

Details of the Work Process

The Initial Design

3 Working with the Cooling Water Model Worksheets

Introduction
o

Worksheets

Button actions

Cooling Water Design Model Worksheets

Worksheet Details
o

Status Worksheet

Preferences Worksheet

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

How to Revise Default Values

313

Design Preference Categories

Circuits Worksheet

Initial Configuration

Step 1: Assignment of Areas to Circuits

How Area Assignments are Used for Circuit Design

Step 2: Assignment of Spacing Between Areas

Status messages and Values Used for Circuit Design

4 Basis for the Cooling Water Design Model


o

General Flow sheet for cooling water service

Cooling Water Model Circuitry

Cooling water distribution network

Naming conventions

Project cooling water area

Areas Requiring Cooling Water

Plant bulk pipe item descriptions

Distribution Piping Line types

Sequencing of Areas on the Main Line

Cooling Water Footprint Model

Pipe, Valves and Fittings Count

Line Sizing and Pressure Drop Calculations

Projects with a prior cooling water utility model area

Cooling towers- terminology and the defining stream


temperatures

1. Overview
Analyzer Utility Module (AUM) Water
One of the difficulties with economic analysis, both capital cost and payback
determination, is the lack of scope definition for non-process utility or outside
boundary limit portions of the project. The Analyzer Utility Module, AUM, was
created as the home for a series of automated utility design models to
address this difficulty. The Cooling Water Selection, Design and Sizing Model
is the first utility design model in AUM and its functionality and method of use
is described in detail in this chapter.

Cooling Water Design Model


The Cooling Water Design Model is an automated, interactive and rapid design
module that is contained in Aspen Decision Analyzer and works with streambased projects. The cooling water model identifies heat exchanger equipment
or any other type of project component that requires cooling water by its
connection to a cooling water utility resource stream.

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

314

To access the Cooling Water Design Model:


1

Starting with an open project that contains utility streams as part of its
definition, click Run, then click Utility Model. Or, simply click the U
button to access utility models.

Click Cooling Water.

At this point built-in design and processing procedures do all the hard work
under your control and guidance and a few minutes later, your project will be
augmented with a new cooling water utility area that contains designed
cooling water circuitry and associated project components. You can use the
model results using its set of adjustable design parameters or revise any and
default values within prescribed limits to suit your needs.
In the discussions to follow, the term early design metrics is used to
indicate values prepared by the cooling water model during an interactive
design session. These are presented for guidance in advance of final design
values that would be prepared on completing a project evaluation run.
Note: Worksheet names are shown in italic bold face to distinguish the
names from text.

Value in Time and Effort


The cooling water design model does all the hard work design, selection,
reporting, loading the design results in minutes rather than traditional hours
and days. It is a powerful resource in the development of a typical Front End
Engineering Design:

Early process technology evaluation stage - focus is on Inside Battery


Limits (ISBL) components

With the process technology selected and additional scope, total project
costs are sought. Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) components are
required, particularly cooling water utility service.

The cooling water design model

Automatically selects, designs, and adds sized utility system components


to the project scope definition

Can be revisited in each cycle of scope change.

The Key Steps


On initiating the cooling water model, the model automatically analyzes your
project for cooling water requirements and automatically generates selected,
sized and designed cooling water utility service project components all
based on initial default design preferences and circuitry. Two interactive
workbooks Preferences and Circuitry enable you to revise default values for
the design and selection basis. Studying design alternatives starts with either
a click of an option box or a data entry. Being interactive, the cooling water
model enables you to cycle from design basis to early design results in a
matter of mouse clicks. Each new specification results in a new design and a
report of key decision metrics. The list of sized project components is
retained until you choose to load the results into your project. Messages and

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

315

metrics reports are provided extensively to guide you quickly and knowingly
through a study of design alternatives.
When you have settled on a design you can load the results into your project.
The loading operation begins with a click of a Load button and processing is
automatic. After a minute or so, the loading process will be complete and the
Project Basis view will be displayed on your screen. Scope items added to
your project include a uniquely named cooling water area followed by a list of
cooling water utility project components: cooling towers, circulation pumps,
chemical injection pumps, working and stand-by spares, and distribution
piping, valves and fittings. Each component is selected, designed and sized in
harmony with your design basis and the needs of heat exchange equipment in
your various project areas.

2. Working with the Cooling Water Model


Preparation Workflow
The Cooling Water Design model requires a stream-based project built in
either Aspen Process Economic Analyzer or Aspen Decision Analyzer, with
components that require cooling water connected to one or more cooling
water utility resources.
The flow rates, water temperatures, duties and components provide the basis
for the design requirements. The cooling water model will first diagnose the
projects requirements and initiate a design. The user can then revise the
design basis and review early design metrics for a variety of design scenarios,
settle on a design basis and load the design results into the project.

The Workflow Cycle


Figure 2.1 illustrates the cooling water design cycle: from project to design
model and back to the project with added new scope. Two buttons control the
process:

U to select the cooling water model

Load to load designed results

Using these two actions, you can participate interactively in the design
process, making design selections, reviewing early metrics, revising
selections, and clearing any error messages.

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

316

Figure 2.1. The Workflow Cycle, extracted from the Welcome worksheet

To initiate a cooling water design model session, three steps are required
1

Save the project under a new scenario name.

Evaluate the project

Run the Cooling water utility model

Each of these steps is detailed and illustrated in the following sections.

Accessing the Cooling Water Utility Model


1

SAVE AS: Since AUM-Cooling Water processing is automatic, it is wise to


first save your base project under a new name. This will ensure that your
base project remains intact for further evaluations.

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2 Evaluate the project: Click Run |Decision Analyzer as in Figure 2.2a or


click the A button as in Figure 2.2b. This will provide the Decision Analyzer
dialog box, Figure 2.2c. Check Evaluate Project and provide a file name.

Figure 2.2a. To evaluate from Run:

Figure 2.2b. To evaluate using the A-button.

Figure 2.2c. Choose Evaluate Project.

The reason for this step is to ensure that the project scope and cooling water
requirements developed during evaluation are current and up to date. It will
also eliminate an error message (Figure 2.2d) that would be displayed when
accessing the cooling water model no evaluation data were available.

.
Figure 2.2d. Error message if the project was not evaluated

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Select the Cooling Water Model: To do this, choose Run>Utility Model


(Figure 2,2a) or press the U button on the button bar (Figure 2.3a):

Figure 2.3a. To obtain utility models using the U-button.

This will bring up the Utility Model dialog box, Figure 2.3b. A blank value
under Status indicates the project does not contain a prior cooling water
model area. If a project contained a prior area, the Status field would indicate
Loaded.

Figure 2.3b. Utility model selection

3b Select Cooling Water: Click OK. This will either initiate an interactive
Cooling Water Design session in MS Excel and display a Load option or
display a project-not-evaluated error message (see Step 2 above).

Interactive Session Workflow the Design Phase


Overview
When the cooling water model is invoked, it:
(a) analyzes for project cooling water requirements
(b) works from Preferences (user-modifiable, default set of design
parameter values)
(c) prepares an initial design.
Results of the initial design and any subsequent interactive scenario are
presented in a Capture worksheet. If the design meets with the users
approval, a user click of the parked Load button will load the design results
into the project, at which time the project can be re-evaluated.
The Preferences and Circuits worksheets allow the user to modify the
default design basis. Each spec change will result in a new design. Hyperlinks
provide rapid access from one sheet to another and sections in a sheet. The

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Control Center toolbar button opens the Control Center worksheet, which
has hyperlinks to other sheets and their major categories. Worksheet tabs
are color coded to match hyperlinks at the top of each worksheet.
The following sections provide a detailed description of the work process as
well as detailed descriptions of each worksheet, category and item.

Details of the Work Process


With the click of the OK button in step 3b above, three actions will occur
1

The model first identifies if a prior cooling water model area is present in
the project. If present, the user can choose to Delete the prior area and
continue with the model or return to the project. If Delete is chosen, the
utility model will proceed with the design and delay deletion until it is time
to load the new results.

If no prior cooling water utility area is detected, the Welcome screen is


displayed and remains present during a time when:
a

Project requirements are automatically passed to the model

The model prepares an initial design

c A Load | Cancel | Minimize option is provided (Figure 2.4). To


at the top. This will park the
continue, click the minimize button
button box for access during the design phase. Cancel will end the cooling
water model session and return normal project functions with no change
to the project.

Figure 2.4. Load-Cancel-Minimize button boxes

a Control Center button bar (figure 2.5) is provided to access the


Control Center worksheet from any worksheet

Seven worksheets are presented in a MS Excel framework:


o

Welcome

Control Center

Status

Preferences

Capture

Guide

The model then displays the Control Center worksheet, which links to all
other worksheets and provides an indication of success (green signal) or
failure (red signal) to create an initial design based on default design
parameters.

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The Initial Design


On initiation, the cooling water model will report the Status of the design on
the Control Center (see Figure 2.5) worksheet under Status Report, and if
any, will identify clashes on the Status worksheet and further, on the
Preferences and Circuits worksheet.
A Status Report message: Successful. A Load can proceed indicates all is
well between project requirements, design parameters and design
methodology. At this point, it is wise to review early design metrics by
accessing the Captured Results worksheet (see Figure 2.6). The user can
return to Preferences and Circuits to study design alternatives. If captured
results are acceptable, a click of the parked Load button will (1) carry the
design results into the project, (2) close the worksheets and (3) return to the
project for evaluation of the augmented project.
Should the design basis produce a clash with project requirements, error
messages and flags will be displayed in a top-down succession of worksheets.
The first indication is given under Status Report on the Control Center
Worksheet. The Status worksheet is the central reporting agency, where
checks are made and links are provided to source locations in the
Preferences and Circuits input worksheets.

Figure 2.5. Illustration of the Control Center Worksheet, with display of


Control Center toolbar and Load button

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Figure 2.6. A section of a Results Capture sheet showing values in the project
units of measure set.

3. Working with the Cooling Water Model


Worksheets
Introduction
Worksheets: Seven worksheets are provided, of which Preferences and
Circuits are for user input, to revise the design basis:

Welcome: greetings, workflow graphic

ControlCenter: navigation

Status: message center

Preferences: design selections

Circuits: circuit definition

Capture: early design metrics

Guide: help

Button Actions: The Control Center toolbar is always available during a


model session. A click will open the Control Center worksheet and a hyperlink
click will direct you to a chosen worksheet. When the Control Center toolbar is
parked together with the Excel Web toolbar you can quickly search forward
and backward.

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You can step from one sheet to another, revise the design basis, review
status and results, decide on an alternate design basis, make revisions,
review the results and when ready, click the Load button (see Load-CancelMinimize) to inject the results in the project. Or, you can refuse the design
using Cancel. Clicking Load conveys the design results to the project, the
cooling water design models Excel sheets and return to normal Analyzer
functions. Cancel bypasses the cooling water model and returns to Analyzer.

Cooling Water Design Model Worksheets


The SPECS cooling Model workbook consists of

Two design basis sheets this is where you input your selections
o

Preferences: process and mechanical design specs:

Red error flags and messages are displayed for out of


range or missing data values

Uses click boxes for either/or choices, B and R


switches to select base (default) or revised value and
user value to replace the base value

Circuits: assignment of areas to a circuit, spacing of areas in


a circuit along the main line:

Assignment uses 1, 2, 3, 4 to assign an area to a circuit

Spacing uses the B and R switch method and user


spacing to replace the base footprint model value
2H

Status sheet all messages are summarized here for your review and
repair
o

Key status message is highlighted in color (green: Loading can


be performed, red: Errors must be cleared)

Summarizes other messages, links directly to input locations for


revision

Capture Results: displays early design metrics for decision making,


provides the basis for alternative choices of preferences or circuitry.
By early design metrics is meant values in advance of those created
during project evaluation

Guide: provides instructions, describes data entry, color coding

Control Center: hypertext links interconnect all sheets and main


categories for rapid navigation

All sheets: are conveniently color coded, with red flags appearing on
error condition. All error conditions must be cleared before results can
be loaded

Welcome sheet: Welcome, displayed during the initiation process,


contains a workflow graphic

On completion of an error-free interactive session, pressing the LOAD button


will automatically load and inject the results into the project. The project will
then contain new scope additions: (1) a uniquely named, time-stamped
cooling water area will be used to contain (2) a selected, designed list of
cooling water utility project components. Each item so added by the model
may be opened, reviewed, revised in the same way as any other project
component.

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Worksheet Details
Status Worksheet
The Status sheet reports messages and has hypertext links to source
locations in the event of a reported error. Major report categories are:

Overall status

Existing cooling water area is in the project

Cooling circuit components wet bulb temperature, minimum


approach temperature, lowest desired cooling water temperature

Cooling water resources: naming, excluded streams and reasons, net


number

Project components: total, number served by cooling water

Project areas: total number, those served by cooling water

Cooling water loads: total flow rate, total heat duty, excess capacity,
total flow rate at excess capacity

Layout distances: number of parameters out of range

Pumps specs out of range

Piping specs out of range

Circuit assignments out of range

Spacing assignments out of range

Figure 3.1 illustrates an extract of a Status sheet

Figure 3.1 Extract, sample of a Status Sheet

Preferences Worksheet
Units of measure used in the Preferences worksheet correspond to those
defined in the project. Error messages are displayed alongside each entry;
errors are flagged in red. This sheet uses click boxes and data entry fields for

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specifying design preferences. Each preference is provided with a


explanatory text, limit values, user entry field and a default value which is
used in the initial design and any subsequent design should the user not
provide an over-ride selection or value.
How to Revise Default Values
This worksheet uses two methods, check boxes and data entries controlled by
switch boxes to revise the supplied set of default (base) design parameters.
Throughout data entry discussions, the term used for a model-supplied set of
data is referred to as default values. For a particular parameter, the modelsupplied value is termed a base value, symbolized by the letter B. A value
supplied by the user is termed a revised value and is symbolized by the letter
R. A mouse click will switch between using a base value and a revised value.
See Figure 2.2c (page 318) for information on how to use a check box:
497H

A default value is provided to the left of the check box

A check box title signifies the alternative to the default value

The resulting choice is displayed to the right

A status message is displayed that provides additional information

Figure 3.2 Extract, sample of a Preferences sheet showing click box method
of selection

Design Preference Categories:

Cooling Tower (values in this section affect the circuitry, sizing of


cooling towers and flow-related equipment such as circulation pumps
and distribution piping)
(a) Design Capacity, excess capacity
(b) Design Temperature: Summer wet bulb temperature (see
Cooling Tower discussion of wet bulb temperature, approach
gradient, range)
3H

(c) Messages relating to cooling water resource requirements


vs. design preferences
(d) Number of Cooling Towers

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(e) Multiple Cooling Towers: choose either one tower for all
circuits or one for each circuit
(f) Working Twin: choose a single tower at 100% capacity or
two (twins), each at 50% capacity

Layout (these are dimension limit checks that are applied to entries on
the Circuits worksheet
o

Distance

From tower to first branch to an area

Minimum value to first branch to an area (often defined


by fire regulations)

From a branch to an area header

Maximum spacing between areas (a limit check)

Status messages related to distance

Pumps
o

Area Pressure Drop: pressure drop for equipment requiring


cooling water, applies to all areas

Working Pumps

Limiting value for number of working pumps in a circuit

Pump type: horizontal (CENTRIF or API 610 model


types) or vertical (TURBINE model type, at low speed
only)

Pump speed: low or high RPM

Stand-by pumps if four or less pumps in a circuit: yes


or no

Stand-by pumps if more than four pumps in a circuit:


yes or no

Electrical power to pumps based on voltage choice: LV


(low-voltage), MV (mid-voltage), HV (high-voltage).
Limiting values of power per pump motor are displayed
based on project specifications. A voltage choice defines
the maximum power to a motor driver and hence, the
number of pumps in a circuit. Recall that each change
to a specification results in a completely new design; a
voltage selection results in a design value for the
number of pumps and can produce an error condition
and message if the number of pumps exceeds the
limiting value for number of pumps in a circuit.

Design messages for pumps and piping for each of four


possible circuits

Piping: Limiting values for line size, by line type, where line sizes are
in the units of measure of the project, either IN DIAM or MM DIAM

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Suction line size for circulation pumps (a flow rate per


pump suction line based on selected line size is provided
for information purposes)

Main line segment line size

Branch line size

Area header line size

326

Risers line size (for 3D area types)

Laterals line size (for 3D area types)

Circuits Worksheet
Units of measure used in the Circuits worksheet correspond to those defined
in the project
This worksheet is designed to handle up to one hundred cooling water areas.
Areas are listed vertically. The worksheet is divided into five major categories
in columns of data:
1

Initial Configuration

See Figure 3.3 for the initial configuration

Figure 3.3 Extract from Circuits sheet Initial Configuration (left), Step 1
(right)

The following (see Figure 3.3, left side) are reported for each area being
served by a recognized cooling water utility resource stream:

Initial Sort Sequence: sequenced by area, from the area with highest
cooling water requirements to the area with the lowest

Area Name: user-assigned name, carried into the cooling water


design model from project area specs

Area Type: user-assigned area type, carried into the cooling water
design model from project area specs

Area CW Rate: area cooling water (CW) flow rate, the sum of all
recognized cooling water flow rates for equipment in an area as
adjusted by the Excess Capacity value in the Preferences worksheet

Initial Circuit Number: always 1 as all areas are initially assigned to a


single circuit

Initial Circuit ID: always A

Step 1 Assignment of Areas to Circuits (User entry one of two)

Please refer to Figure 3.3 (right side):

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Enter a Circuit Number 1, 2, 3, or 4: user value is required; if only


one area requires cooling water, enter 1. If two areas, use 1 for both
or assign 1 to one area and 2 to the other. The design model will
sequence the areas. In an error condition, an error message and a red
flag will be displayed. Error conditions must be resolved to obtain
loadable design results.

System-Assigned Circuit Id: The model will assign a letter ID (A, B, C,


D) to each area based on circuit assignments and total circuit flow
rate. If the project contains four or more areas, then it is possible to
assign areas to circuit numbers 1 to 4. The model will collect all the
area flow rates in each circuit and sequence the circuits from greatest
flow to least in the sequence A, B, C, D. The A circuit will have a
larger total flow rate than circuit B, B will be greater than circuit
C and D will have the least flow rate. Similarly, for three areas in a
project, valid circuit numbers range from 1 to 3 and circuit IDs assign
to these circuits, based on total flows will be sequenced and labeled A,
B and C. A one-area project will be assigned a circuit ID of A.

Status
o

Status of all entries: summarizes number or errors to be


resolved; if none, OK is displayed

Status for individual entries: message is issued for invalid


circuit numbers and field is flagged in red

How Area Assignments are Used for Circuit Design

Please refer to Figure 3.4

Figure 3.4 Extract of Circuits sheet defining area spacing using the B/R
switch

Each line item in this section represents an area and its properties. Areas are
sorted and sequenced in descending total circuit flow rate and then by area
flow rate. Circuits are labeled A, B, C, D with circuit A being the one with the
highest flow rate; B is next etc. An area that was tagged as circuit 2 in step 1
may be in a circuit with the lowest flow and would be organized accordingly
and given a Circuit ID letter depending on the other circuit flows.
This section displays the properties and attributes of each area in the
sequenced list.

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Values displayed for information purposes are:

New Sort Sequence: displays values vertically in the sequence 1, 2, 3,


etc

Initial Sort Sequence: displays the initial sort sequence number for the
area
ID of Area In Report Group (ArRg): the ArRg ID for the area

Area name: user-assigned project area description

4H

5H

Area CW Rate: displays the cooling water rate, as adjusted by the


Preferences value for excess capacity

6H

Area Heat Duty: heat duty requirements for all equipment within the
area identified as requiring a valid cooling water resource

User circuit number: value entered in Step 1, for reference purposes


Circuit ID: letter A, B, C, D assigned by the cooling water model based
on sequencing circuit flow rates
7H

Position Of Area In Circuit: Only one area can be first in line in a


circuit. First if the area has the highest flow rate of all areas in the
circuit, otherwise no a blank display. The area with a First position
will take on a default distance from the cooling tower as defined by the
Preferences value for that distance.

4 Step 2: Assignment of Spacing Between areas


Each line item in this section corresponds to item 4 above. A line item
represents an area and its properties, with areas being sorted and sequenced
in descending circuit and area flow rate.
This section enables the user to revise base values for the spacing of areas
along the main line. It uses the Switch method to revise a base value as
described in the section on Preferences.

Base Value for Spacing Along Circuit Main Line: This is the run length
of the main segment between the prior and current area as developed
by the footprint model.
8H

Enter Switch: B for Base, R to revise. Choose a blank entry or enter


either a B (or b) to indicate use of the base value. Use R (or r) to
indicate use of a revised value
o

Switch value is blank: design will use the base value

Switch value is B or b: design will use the base value

Switch value is R or r: indicates a forthcoming user value will


revise the default spacing value. The design will use the
revised value if the user value is within range of prescribed
limits.

Enter Revised Spacing Along The Circuit Main Line: This value will
replace the base value if it meets range limit conditions set forth in the
Preferences worksheet. By spacing is meant the distance between
successive areas. As the line items in this section represent areas that
are sorted and sequenced, the spacing for a particular line item is the
spacing between the start of the prior area and the start of the current
area. This spacing is a measure of the areas main line segment. See
the section on the Cooling Water Footprint Model. Piping runs lengths are
typically longer than spacing as they include pipe to configure fittings,
expansion loops, etc.
9H

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Enter a value. The resulting action depends on the corresponding switch


value
o

Switch value is blank, B or b: user value is ignored, base value


will be used

Switch value is R or r: user value is tested against range limits


and design criteria. If error free, the user value will be
displayed as the Applied Value. Error conditions will display
instructional status messages, red flag, and prevent completion
of a valid design

5. Status messages and values used for design


o

Flag: A red flag is displayed to indicate a line item error


condition

Status: B (Base) uses base value, R (Revise) uses revised value


or status message (displays limiting values, error messages)

Value used for spacing along circuit main line: The value used
in the design

4. Basis for the Cooling Water Design


Model
This section describes the basis of the cooling water design model. It is
presented with numerous graphics to enable a clear understanding of the
work being performed by the model when it is analyzing and designing
cooling water project components that are in harmony with your design
preferences and the needs of components requiring cooling water.

General Flow Sheet for Cooling Water Service


Figure 4.1 is a schematic diagram of a typical cooling water circuit. In this
figure, circulation pumps draw cooled cooling water, the cooling water supply
stream, from the supply basin at the bottom of a cooling tower and distribute
it through piping to heat exchanger located in one or more project areas.
Cooling water return streams are combined and sent to a cooling tower where
it is cooled, principally by evaporative cooling. Motor driven fans mounted on
the tower draw (induced draft) or force (forced draft) ambient air into the
cooling tower where it contacts the downward flow of cooling water. The
cooled cooling water drops down from the tower into a supply basin, awaiting
withdrawal by the circulation pumps.
Water is added to make up for losses through evaporation, air-born drift and
for blow-down. Water drawn from the system to prevent the build-up of
contaminants is termed blow-down.
See below for more on cooling towers, terminology and defining stream
temperatures
10H

Cooling water in such a circuit tends to accumulates algae, corrosion


contaminants and particles that slough off the distribution system. Water
treatment chemicals are added to alleviate these conditions, with the degree
of such treatment depending on the water supply source and environmental
conditions. Five types of treatment chemicals are typically used in small

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quantities to control the water quality. The cooling water model provides each
cooling tower with a diaphragm type of pump and a stand-by for each of the
treatment chemicals. The model uses the following labels to identify the
types:

Sulfuric acid (pH control)

Sodium hypochlorite (pH control)

Biocide (algae growth control)

Corrosion inhibitor

Dispersant (suspended particles control)

Figure 4.1 Illustration: Cooling Water Flow Diagram

Cooling Water Model Circuitry


The cooling water model is designed to support up to four independent
cooling water circuits. Each circuit can have its own cooling tower or all
circuits can be defined to share a cooling tower. A circuit consists of pumps
and distribution piping to and from project areas. It is the P&ID specs that
define the components hook-up piping to the cooling water models circuitry.
Summarizing, the cooling water model develops piping runs to a project area
and distributes cooling water to components in the area via an area header or
risers and laterals in the case of 3D area types. Each circuit is provided with
a supply and return distribution network; what is supplied must be returned:
one supply line implies one return line.
Figure 4.2 is a schematic diagram showing several areas that have equipment
requiring cooling water and one that does not. The cooling water model will
not serve an area that does not have cooling water requirements. If such an
area is to be included, then it is recommended that one or more exchangers
connected with cooling water utility streams be introduced in that area.
The cooling water model allows for a one cooling tower (or two 50% towers)
to serve all circuits or individual cooling tower (or two 50% towers) for each
circuit. Clearly, if only one area requires cooling water, only one circuit can
be defined, up to two circuits for two areas, up to three circuits for three

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areas and a maximum of four circuits for four or more areas requiring cooling
water.

Figure 4.2 Single, Independent Cooling Water Circuit

Figure 4.3, case (a) is a diagram showing a single treed circuit. Figure 4.4,
case (b), illustrates multiple treed circuits. The difference between the two
cases is (a) one cooling tower for each circuit or (b) one for all circuits. Case
(a) would apply to projects with a single area or for multiple circuits, with
each circuit being served by its own cooling tower.

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Figure 4.3 (case a). Illustration of one cooling tower used to serve a set of
areas in a single circuit. The model will permit up to four single circuits, each
having its own cooling tower and circulation pumps.

Figure 4.4 (case b). Illustration of one cooling tower used to serve multiple
circuits. For this case, the model will provide one cooling tower for all
circuits and a set of circulation pumps for each circuit.

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Cooling Water Distribution Network


This section describes the methodology used in circuit design

Naming conventions

Sequencing of areas on the main line

Cooling water footprint model

Pipe, valves and fittings count

Line sizing and pressure drop calculations

Naming Conventions
Project Cooling Water Utility Area: The cooling water design model will create
a cooling water model utility area to contain project components for each
circuit. On loading, the area will be named with a date and time stamp to
ensure it is unique and can be detected and properly deleted when a new
design is to take its place.
The naming convention is: AUMCoolWater ddmmmyy_tttt, where

dd is the day number of the session month (1, 2, 3, .., 31)

mmm is a three character representation of the session month (jan,


feb, mar, apr, may, jun, jul, aug, sep, oct, nov, dec)

yy is the last two digits of the session year (05 for 2005, etc)

tttt is the decimal fraction of the session day

Utility project components are time-stamped in a similar manner. As only


four digits are used (tttt), it is possible that a load action might span two tttt
times (one ten-thousandth of a day, duration of 8.64 seconds) with no
significant resulting consequence.
Once a cooling water utility area is loaded in the project, the user may access
any item in the usual way, by using the Project View, clicking on any
component and viewing the design parameters in the forms view. Any and all
data in the cooling water utility area may be modified as required.
Areas Requiring Cooling Water: Each area that requires cooling water is
identified by a unique ArRg number that is made up of systemassigned
numeric values for Area ID and Report Group. An ArRg value of 201 indicates
Area ID = 2 in Report Group 1. The user-assigned area description, which
may not be unique in a given project, is printed in reports along with its
unique ArRg value.
Plant Bulk Pipe Item Descriptions: The naming convention above is combined
with the Area Code and is time stamped when loaded into the project. For
example, MainSeg, ArRg 201_T7883 is the item description for main line
supply and return line segment that serves area 2 in report group 1, time
stamped T7883.
Distribution Piping Line Types: The distribution network in this cooling water
model consists of the following named types of lines:

Main line segment: a portion piping along the main line

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MainSeg

MainChk for a main segment that contains a check valve

334

Branch segment: a short run of pipe, from the main line to a specific
project area
o

Branch

BrChk for a branch that contains a check valve

Area header: a line of pipe, valves and fittings that distributes cooling
water along the long dimension of the base of a project area
o

AH

Area Header

ArHdrChk for an area header that contains a check valve

Risers vertical runs of pipe to bring cooling water to each level in a


3d structure
o

Risers

RiseChk for a riser that contains a check valve

Laterals horizontal runs of pipe that distribute cooling water to each


floor in a 3D structure
o

Laterals

LatChk for a lateral that contains a check valve

Vents and drains high-point vents, low-point drains on supply and


return lines, short runs of small bore pipe
o

VD

VentDrain

Lines with check valves are of minimal length to satisfy the plant bulk PIPE
mode and are separate line items as only one check valve is assigned to a
supply-return line pair.
Figures 4.5 and 4.6 illustrate these line types for 2D (PAD, GRADE) and 3D
area types (OPEN, EXOPEN, FLOOR, MODULE)

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Figure 4.5 Schematic of cooling water piping for a 2D area type (PAD, GRADE)

Figure 4.6 Schematic of cooling water piping for a 3D area type (OPEN,
EXOPEN, FLOOR, MODULE)

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Sequencing of Areas on the Main Line


Upon identifying which areas that require cooling water and their assigned
circuit, the cooling water model arranges the areas in decreasing cooling
water usage. The largest consuming area is placed at the front of the line
and the smallest consumer is placed at the end. In this way, min line
segments will be larger in diameter at the front of the line and decrease as
each consumer reduces the total flow rate to the next area.
Figure 4.7 illustrates various line types and sequenced areas.

Figure 4.7

Schematic of Line Types Serving Areas Requiring Cooling Water

Cooling Water Footprint Model


Upon identifying an area as one that requires cooling water, the footprint
model develops an area footprint by using (a) the total number of
components in an area, (b) the area type (2D or 3D), (c) the number of level
and (d) a packing density (number of components in a bay) and (e) area
aspect ratio, length:width, of 1.5:1.0.
The result of the footprint model is a set of dimensions for each area requiring
cooling water. These dimensions are used to develop a default value of the
spacing between the start of one area along the main line and the next area.
The default spacing distances are reported in the Step 2 of the CIRCUITS
worksheet and can be over-ridden by the user.

Pipe, Valves and Fittings Count


Each line type is provided with a piping iso model that consists of set of pipe,
valves and fittings. Pipe and fitting diameter is determined by volumetric flow

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rate and limiting line velocity (suction lines being different from distribution
lines). Line length is determined by (a) minimum length of pipe required to
each type of fitting and (b) the long area dimension, which is developed from
a cooling-water footprint model for each project area and area type.
Fittings are assigned to each line type from a list that includes elbows (EL),
tees (TE), reducers (RE), flanges (FL), blind flanges (BL), gate valves (GA),
check valves (CH).
1H

Each line type is based on five configuration components. The total line
length is determined by as the sum of the linear run distance plus pipe
lengths of pipe to satisfy the make-up of the configuration components. The
make-up of each configuration component is based on line type and consists
of quantities of the following:

Main run component: pipe, of length determined by (a) the footprint


model, or (b) user preference value

Fixed component: FL, GA, CH fittings, pipe length based on diameter


of run

Head component: EL, FL fittings, pipe length based on diameter of


run, to provide directional change

Branch point component: TE, RE, FL, BL fittings, for connection to


next line type

Vent and drain station component: TE, FL GA fittings, pipe;


frequency of placement is based on linear run distance

Expansion loop component: EL fittings, pipe length based on


diameter of run, frequency of placement is based on linear run
distance

Expansion loops and vent and drain stations are placed along the run based
on line length
The configuration of each line type serving each area is defined as a project
component located in the cooling water area created by the cooling water
model. Once loaded in the project, any line configuration can be reviewed
and modified in the usual manner by opening that project component in its
form.

Line Sizing and Pressure Drop Calculations


The Cooling Water Model has a Preferences worksheet where, in the Piping
section, limiting sizes of each line type are defined. Once areas are assigned
to a circuit, the flows through the circuit are known. Areas are ordered in
sequence according to their flow requirements, with the largest consumer at
the head of the line. The computations are interactive and a new design will
be computed unnoticed each time a design value is revised. It is wise to
check early design results that are displayed in the Capture worksheet when
revising design specifications.
Line size and pressure drop computations take place in this general manner:

Starting point is limiting velocity, as defined in the Icarus Reference


Guide

Flow rate combined with limiting velocity results in required flow area

Maximum line size determines number of parallel lines

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338

Built-in iso for each line type defines valve and fitting count

Line length is derived from spacing between areas from circuitry input,
minimum spacing between areas and minimum lengths from line

Total run length is a combination of line length and number of parallel


runs

Pipe friction is based on Fanning type equation

Line-size based fitting resistances are used to determine fitting friction


losses

A single average value for the pressure drop across cooling water
usage components in any area is defined in the Preference worksheet

Pressure at junctions, where flows meet, is common to junction


streams

Overall circuit pressure drop comes from a stepwise calculation across


all junctions

An addition head loss due to cooling tower elevation completes the


pressure drop determination

It is possible that the limiting line size for branch and area headers may be
too small for some circuits with large flows. This would result in a cluster of
two or more parallel lines. To alleviate this condition, consider increasing the
limiting line size.

Projects with a Prior Cooling Water Utility Model Area


The cooling water model will allow a single cooling water utility area of its
making in a project. If a project contains a prior area, the model will detect
its presence and defer action until the user decides to load a new cooling
water model design. Choosing to load will delete the prior area and the new
one will be loaded. Is the choice is not to load, the model worksheets are
closed with a return to the normal view.

Cooling Towers: Terminology and the Defining Stream


Temperatures

Figure overview_4.8 shows a cooling tower with air and cooling water
streams and their temperatures.

Terms used in the cooling tower industry, illustrated in Figure 4.8, are:

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339

Cooling tower: a device used to cool water by the countercurrent


action of ambient air against a downward flowing stream of water to
be cooled. The cooling process involves the cooling of entering water
by evaporative cooling of water and sensible heat to a much lesser
degree

Cooling water supply stream: cooling water supplied to heat


exchangers for purpose of cooling process streams

Cooling water return stream: cooling water streams leaving heat


exchangers, combined for return to a cooling tower

Range: cooling water return temperature, Tr cooling water supply


temperature, Ts, directly related to the heat duty

Approach Gradient: the difference between the wet bulb air


temperature and cooling water leaving the cooling tower.
Theoretically, the cooling water temperature can not drop below the
air wet bulb temperature. For a given cooling water flow rate, as the
approach gradient decreases, the cost of a cooling tower will increase.

Notes to Analyzer Utility Model (AUM)


Users:
Cooling Water utility resources that must accounted in the Analyzer Utility
Model (AUM) should be named either:
Cooling Water or "Cooling Water xx"
where:
xx can be two digits ranging from 01 to 99,
for example, Cooling Water 01
User created utility resources that do not adhere to this format (for example,
CW, Sea Water, Cooling Water o3) will not be identified as cooling water
streams and will be excluded from AUM's cooling water analysis.
Cooling water streams that are not associated with any equipment, will be
assigned to the Area with the maximum cooling water flow rate. For areas
assigned to two or more circuits, the collected unassigned cooling water flow
rate will be assigned to the first area in the circuit handling the largest circuit
flow rate.
Cooling water can either be bought or be made. If it is to be made, the dew
point of ambient air added to the lower model limit for the approach gradient
will determine the lowest possible deliverable temperature. To ensure that
your specified cooling water utility resource streams can be made, please
review the limits for the two cooling water models:

CTWCOOLING

CTWPACKAGED

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340

AUM_Air
Utility Design and Scope Generator
for Instrument and Plant Air

Overview
The Air Utility Module automatically and interactively:

selects, designs, and sizes air plant project components that conform to
your:
o

Project scope design basis

Interactive entries for air utility design and configuration


preferences

Augments the scope of your project with a list of designed air utility
project components in a unique air utility area on the click of the Load
button

Interactive session enables a review of results prior to LOAD creates


o

Status messages, suggestions to alleviate design clashes

Interactive report of equipment and distribution piping design


results

With the Air Utility Module, you can review, revise, add other project
components and/or Run the augmented project to obtain a new project
evaluation.
The Air utility model can be

applied to projects that have been created using


o

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, Aspen Decision Analyzer

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer

within Aspen Process Economic Analyzer or Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer

Project areas and their project components

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer/Analyzer projects:


o

Each group of project components is contained in a unique


Report Group

A report group is a project area

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer projects: You can create

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

A project area

A report group to coordinate a group of project areas

The AUM Air utility module works with each project area and its
air requirements

341

Benefits:

You get early design metrics for decision making

Decide whats best, then trigger the LOAD operation

With LOAD, a new Air utility area will be inserted into your project with its
designed list of air system project components

Before LOAD, air system project components are interactively


o

Selected based on your selection preferences

Designed in accordance with your project basis and air design


preferences

Sized

Reported

In a small fraction of the time and effort it takes to do this work in the
traditional manner

Change the project scope? Re-run the utility module!

How AUM_Air Works

General AUM_Air Workflow


1

Press U button to initiate.

Select Air Utility.

AUM_Air opens in MS Excel


3

Move the supplied Control Center toolbar to the top and click it.

Check Status.

Review the Guide, page 349.

Select and enter Preferences.

Check messages, review results in Report.

Revise Configuration parts 1 and 2.

498H

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342

Check messages, review results in Report.

10 Click the Load button to close AUM_Air and load the design results into
your project.
11 Review Area and components.
12 Run the project, review results.

Using AUM_Air
Accessing AUM_Air
To access AUM_Air:
1

Starting with an open project that has been evaluated, click Run, then
click Utility Model. Or, click the U button to access utility models.

The Utility Model dialog box appears:

Click Air Instrument, Plant.

Click OK.

Three actions now occur


1
The model first identifies if a prior Air Instrument, Plant
model area is present in the project. If present, you can choose to
Delete the prior area and continue with the model or return to the
project. If you click Delete, the utility model will proceed with the
design and delay deletion until it is time to load the new results.
2
If no prior Air Instrument, Plant utililty area is detected,
the Welcome screen is displayed and remains present during a time
when:
a

Project requirements are automatically passed to the model

The model prepares an initial design

c The model then displays the Control Center worksheet, which


links to all other worksheets and provides an indication of success

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343

(green signal) or failure (red signal) to create an initial design


based on default design parameters.

3
4

A Load | Cancel | Minimize dialog box is provided.

at the top. This parks the


To continue, click the minimize button
button box for access during the design phase. Cancel ends the Air
Instrument, Plant model session and returns normal project functions
with no change to the project.

Note: A Control Center button bar


is provided to access the
Control Center worksheet from any worksheet.
Nine worksheets are presented in a MS Excel framework:

Welcome

Control Center

Guide

Status

Preferences

Config 1

Config 2

EquipStats

PipeStats

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344

The Initial Design


On initiation, the Air Instrument, Plant model reports the status of the
design on the Control Center worksheet under Status, and if there are any,
identifies clashes on the Status worksheet and, further, on the Preferences
worksheet.
A Status Report message: Successful. A Load can proceed indicates all is
well between project requirements, design parameters, and design
methodology. At this point, it is wise to review early design metrics by
accessing the EquipStats and PipeStats worksheets.
If captured results are acceptable, a click of the parked Load button:

carries the design results into the project

closes the worksheets

returns to the project for evaluation of the augmented project

Should the design basis produce a clash with project requirements, error
messages and flags are displayed in a top-down succession of worksheets.
The first indication is given under Status Report on the Control Center
worksheet. The Status worksheet is the central reporting agency, where
checks are made and links are provided to source locations in the EquipStats
and PipeStats worksheets.

To load the Air Instrument, Plant data into your Icarus


project:
When you are satisfied with the model and the Status worksheet shows that
there are no errors, you can load the Air Instrument, Plant model into
the project.
1

Click the Maximize button


dialog box.

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on the parked Load | Cancel | Minimize

345

Click Load.

The Aspen Icarus Loader appears, showing the progress of loading the XML
data into Icarus.

When the Air Instrument, Plant data has been loaded into Aspen Icarus,
the following confirmation message appears:

Click OK.

The Air Instrument, Plant data is now included in your project.

Modifying Air Instrument, Plant Data


When you have loaded Air Instrument, Plant data in your project, you
modify that data using the AUM_Air module.

To Modify Air Instrument, Plant Data:


1

On the main menu, click Run, then click Utility Model. Or, click the U
button to access utility models.

The Utility Model dialog box appears. Note that the Status column says
Loaded.

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346

Click Air Instrument, Plant.

Click OK.

The following warning message appears:

Note: Clicking Yes does not actually delete the Air Instrument, Plant
data in your project. You can click Yes, modify the Air Instrument, Plant
data, then choose not to replace the previous Air Instrument, Plant data
with the modified data by clicking Cancel on the Load | Cancel | Minimize
dialog box.
4

Click Yes.

Modify the data to your satisfaction.

If you want to replace the loaded data with your modified data, follow the
steps below.
1

Click the Maximize button


dialog box.

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on the parked Load | Cancel | Minimize

347

Click Load.

The Aspen Icarus Loader appears, showing the progress of loading the XML
data into Icarus.

When the Air Instrument, Plant data has been loaded into Aspen Icarus,
the following confirmation message appears:

Click OK.

The Air Instrument, Plant data is now included in your project.


If you want to keep loaded Air Instrument, Plant data and not replace it
with your modified data, follow the steps below.
1

Click the Maximize button


dialog box.

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on the parked Load | Cancel | Minimize

348

Click Cancel.

The following warning message appears:

Click Yes to cancel the loading process.

Your original loaded Air Instrument, Plant data is retained.

Guide for the Air Utility Model


(AUM)

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349

SPECS Organization Chart

About this SPECS Book

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350

About an Air Plant Unit

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351

About Distribution Piping for an APU


Methods
In the conceptual design phase, lacking a plot plan, this method is used to
develop air distribution piping.

Some runs may be long, some short.

Components in the augmented project scope definition may be modified,


deleted, new ones added.

The following is a brief description of the methods used.

Areas assigned to an APU are collected in the sequence of the project and
are assembled in a column-row array

Array dimensions are determined from area dimensions

Row and column dimensions are figured from total area, number of areas
and an initial aspect ratio of 3:2

Air Distribution

Piping is developed for Instrument Air as well as Plant Air.

Piping for each service is developed in the same way, except for
volumetric flow and line size

Distribution Piping

The APU feeds air to the array through a Main Feeder (MF)

The Main Feeder length is defined in Preferences

Two Main Manifolds (MM) are used on extra-wide arrays, els one or none
for an array one column wide

Each MM feeds a Main Line (ML)

Main lines feed Branch Lines (BR)

A tee of the Branch line supplies air to an Area Feeder (AF)

Area Feeders connect to Area Headers (AH)

Area headers, for 2-D area types such as Grade, Pad, etc supply air to the
I-P transducers, control valves
o

P&ID information from the original project provide the


requirements for I-P and control valve components

Utility station requirements are developed for each area based


on anticipated air tool usage and area size

A plant air connection is made off the Area Header Plant


for each utility station

Area headers, for 3-D area types such as open steel structures, etc supply
air to Risers, then Laterals which then connect to I-P transducers and
control valves.
o

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Utility station requirements are developed for each 3-D type


area based on anticipated air tool usage and area size

352

Schematic
The following schematic was prepared to illustrate a large project of 78 areas:

Configuration of Air Utility


Project Components

Project Components

An Air Plant Unit - APU

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353

Schematic of an APU

Multiple APUs

Compressor Redundancy

Project Components
The Instrument and Plant Air Utility Model creates a set of project
components in accordance with the needs of your:

Project Scope definition

Design and selection preferences for Instrument and Plant Air

Typical components

Air Compressors

Interstage and After-coolers

Air Filters

Air Receivers

Air Dryers

Air distribution piping (instrument, plant air)

Utility Stations (air, water, steam, condensate drain services)

Associated installation bulks would be developed during project run

Components are contained in a uniquely defined


Area

Area Title contains a unique time and date to differentiate one run from
another

Area can be modified or deleted in the usual way using Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer/Analyzer

An Air Plant Unit - APU

Air intake screens

Air intake ductwork

Air compressors
o

One main compressor at 100% capacity or two at 50%


capacity each

Optional standby spare compressor

Optional start-up compressor

Interstage and after-stage coolers

Air receivers

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

Optional TEMA water cooled or fin-fan air cooled exchangers

Optional individual receivers for instrument and plant air or


combined receiver

Optional main receiver or two at 50% capacity each

Optional stand-by receiver

354

Air filters pre-filter and post-filter, one or more of each

Air dryers - dual tower type (one working, one regenerating)


o

One main at 100% capacity or two at 50% capacity each

Optional standby spare air dryer

Optional dryer for Plant Air

Utility piping for turbine steam/condensate, cooling water/return

Distribution piping
o

Instrument and plant air

Utility stations

Cooling water, steam/condensate headers

Interconnects between two or more air plant units

Schematic of an Air Plant Unit

General Layout

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

355

Multiple Air Plant Units for Multiple Areas


One or up to four Air Plant Units to serve area air requirements.

Two distribution networks for each APU:

instrument air

plant air

Compressor Redundancy: Multiple, Standby, Start-up

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356

Design Considerations

Units of Measure

Designed Components

Volumetric Air Flow Rate

Equipment Selection and Design


o

Compressor Model Selection

Interstage and After Coolers; choice of

Air Coolers (for rack mounting)

Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers

Air Receivers

Air Filters

Air Dryers

Units of Measure
Values are reported in the Unit of Measure set of the users project, in the:

Utility Module interactive worksheets and reports

Augmented users project file

Air Utility Area

Designated as AUM_Air_ddmmyy_tttt (date and time stamped)

Contains Air Utility system project components

Air Utility Project Components


Each item is selected and sized:

Area headers for cooling water/return, steam/condensate, instrument and


plant air

Air intake screens

Air intake ductwork

Compressors

Interstage coolers

Utility piping for turbine steam/condensate, cooling water/return

Plant and Instrument Air Receivers

Air Pre-filters, After-filters

Air Dryers

Distribution Pipe, Valves, Fittings

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Distribution circuits: up to four circuits (one to four air plant


units)

Distribution piping, for 2D, 3D area types

Utility stations (total number of stations)

357

Instrument Air (IA) Requirements: Air Flow


Rate

Plant Air (PA) Requirements: Air Flow Rate

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358

Compressor Model Selection Method


Sizes compressor based on

Total project air flow

Number of desired air plant units

Project areas assigned to each air plant unit

Air plant unit redundancy (working spares, stand-by spares)

Specs for start-up compressor

Model type is based on compressor air flow rate

Low flow rates reciprocating

High flow rates centrifugal

Flow rates less than model minimum -reciprocating

Reciprocating Compressor for Low Capacity


Range

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359

Gasoline Motor-Driven Reciprocating Compressor


for Low Capacity Range, Stand-by Spare

Centrifugal Compressor for High Capacity Range

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360

Inter- and After-compression stage Coolers

Air Filters

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361

Air Receivers

Air Dryers

Interactive Specs

Design Basis
o

Equipment Redundancy

Equipment Configurations

Selection Specs

Design Preferences

Air Distribution

Areas and Air Plant Units

Layout

Air Distribution Configuration


o

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

Assignment of APUs to Areas

362

User Preferences

User enters specs interactively in MS Excel SPECS workbook

Preferences worksheet design and equipment configuration basis

Organized by category

Color coded

Either/or selections are provided with a base (default) value

Numeric selections are provided with a base (default) value

Help messages assist selections

Error messages are issued for out-of-limit or design clash


conditions

CONFIG worksheets: basis for distribution air piping to areas


o

Part 1: Assignment of plant air to areas devoid of equipment

Part 2: Assignment of an APU to an area

Equipment Redundancy

Main item at 100% capacity

Main item split into two, each at 50% capacity

Stand-by spare

Optional

Same size as main item or main item at 50% capacity

Power option for stand-by compressors

Electric motor drive

Large compressors: steam turbine drive

Small compressors: gasoline engine drive

Start-up compressors only


o

Optional

Size based on user % of total capacity of main item

Equipment Configurations
Equipment configuration choices:

Combined air train

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363

Individual Instrument air train

Wet or dry plant air train

Basis for Design: Preferences - 1


With the exception of item 1 (Conversion of Quoted cost items .) where no
default value is provided, every other user preference is supplied with a
default value and minimum and maximum limit values where appropriate.
Item 1 requires user entry for an exchange rate which is used in an air utility
internal cost model to evaluate costs of air intake screen/filters.
1

Conversion of "Quoted cost" items to Project Currency Units (PCU)


o

Exchange rate, Project Currency Units per USD:

Note: This entry is required.


2

Ambient Air Conditions (one set for all APUs)


o

Dry bulb temperature

Wet bulb temperature

Atmospheric pressure

Air Requirements - Capacity for Instrument and Plant air (one set for all
APUs)
o

Excess capacity, %

Instrument air

Plant air

Air system leakage, %

Install utility stations?

Number of utility stations, % adjustment

Air intake screens/filters (uses an AUM_Air cost model)

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

Air to media ratio

Adjustments to model estimate

Cost

Hour to install

364

Weight

Compressors (one set of specs for all APUs) Main compressor:


o

Main compressor

One at 100% capacity or two each at 50% capacity

Limiting flow rate for a single main compressor, % of


model maximum flow

Stand-by spare compressor

Install?

Driver type (electrical or other: turbine, gas motor)

Start-up compressor

Install?

Minimum flow rate to qualify for installation

Running time

Interstage Coolers

Type:

Water cooled (small: Pre-engineered type or


large: TEMA BEU)

Air cooled (AIR COOLER)

Cooling water inlet and rise temperature

Air temperature rise for fin-fan air coolers

Notes:
If low capacity type is selected, may generate multiple low capacity
compressors
High capacity compressors may require project mid- and/or high voltage
power distribution levels.
o

Utility services for compressors

Steam lines: run distance from boiler house to turbines

Cooling water lines: run distance from cooling water


plant

Air Receivers
o

Common or separate receivers for instrument air and plant air?

One main receiver at 100% capacity or two, each at 50%


capacity

Install a stand-by spare?

Horizontal or vertical vessels?

Maximum diameter

Maximum tangent-to-tangent length

Instrument air supply time during emergency shut-down

Plant air supply time during emergency shut-down

Air Dryers (Dual Bedone working, one regenerating)

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

Common air dryer for instrument and plant air?

Is plant air to be dried?

One main dryer at 100% capacity or two, each at 50% capacity

365

o
8

Air Filters
o

Air purge rate


Instrument air

Number of pre-filters

Number of post-filters

Plant air

Number of pre-filters

Number of post-filters

Distribution piping
o

Minimum line size for air piping

Distance from APU to process area

Typical tie-in run length from one APU to another

Configuration Layout Method and


Distribution
Basis for Air Utility Model Piping
o

Layout and primary distribution piping is based on the specs for


all areas assigned to an APU

Area feeder and header, risers, laterals are based on area specs

Area layout in lieu of a project plot plan


o

Project areas are arranged in project sequence

Each area is given an ID code based on its report group and


area number

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

Example:

Report group 2 Solvent Recovery

Area 4 description: Distillation

Is given an ID code of 100 x 2 + 4 = 204

ID code 204 is characterized by its report group


name and area description

Areas are placed in a rectangular array according to the total


number of areas with an initial aspect ratio of 2:3 (fewer
columns than rows)

Column-row arrangement is modified to obtain a row-column


balance

A branch line is run across each row with area feeder take-offs
to each area in a row

Area headers (and risers and laterals for 3D area types)


connect to individual project components in that area

Branches are fed using a Main Line

Main Lines are fed by Main Manifolds for wide arrays

Main Manifolds are fed by a Main Feeder from the Air Plant Unit

366

APU Configuration:
o

Choose default (one APU for all) or assign each Report Group to
one of four APUs

Example layout group of areas served by


APU A

Circuit Preferences: Configuration of APUs

Worksheet provides a list of Project Areas and air consumption

Configuration in two parts:

Part 1: enables areas with no Instrument air requirements to


be provided with plant air, else no air is provided

Part 2: enables each area to be assigned to an APU

Initial configuration: all areas are assigned to APU A


o

Design results are presented for the initial configuration

Revised configuration: use of up to four (4) APUs


o

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

Design results are presented for the revised configuration

367

Sample Layouts: One APU

Sample Layouts: Multiple APUs

Design Methods

Sizing Distribution Piping

Schematic of Distribution Piping

Basis for Sizing Air Distribution Piping

Configuration (IA = instrument air; PA = plant air)

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

368

Assignment of an APU to Project Areas

Initial configuration: all are areas assigned to one APU

APU Air flow for IA and PA is determined from sum of area


usage requirements

Air Module uses a built-in layout model to estimate air


distribution piping line lengths

Each line type is assigned an Iso with valve and fitting counts,
expansion loops for long runs

Areas provides air flow requirements for each line

Lines are sized based on air consumption and a pressure drop


of 1 PSI per 100 ft [22.6 KPAG/100 M] or less with a minimum
line size as defined in Preferences

Design pressure: 150 psig [1350 KPAG]

Sizing

Air Distribution Piping to Project Areas

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

369

Distribution for a 3D-Type Area

Sample AUM_Air Worksheets


Displayed below are sample AUM_Air worksheets. Note the following details
about AUM_air and these sample worksheets:

sheets are non-functional

all worksheets visible to the user have the version number printed at the
bottom of the sheet

the project illustrated is Aspen Process Economic Analyzer ETOH Sample


Project

except for currency and exchange rate, sheets are in the user's units of
measure defined in the user's project specs
o

currency is referred to as PCU - project currency unit

you must enter an exchange rate when opening a project for


the first time. The exchange rate value will be "remembered"
on opening the project thereafter

ControlCenter, Status and Preferences sheet will always


show an error because you must enter an exchange rate for the
currency of the project (hyperlinks lead the you from
ControlCenter to Status to Preferences to the item to be
revised)

on entering a proper value, the error message is not displayed

List of AUM_Air Worksheets

Welcome

ControlCenter

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370

Guide

Status

Preferences

Config_1

Config_2

EquipStats

PipeStats

Welcome Worksheet

Control Center Worksheet

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

371

Guide Worksheet

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372

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373

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374

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375

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376

Status Worksheet

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377

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378

Preferences Worksheet

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

379

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

380

Configuration Part 1: Assignment of Plant


Air to Areas Not Requiring Instrument Air

Configuration Part 2: Assignment of Areas


to an APU

10 Analyzer Utility Modules

381

Note: For clarity in this documentation, the following screen shot is shown
below the one above it. On the actual Config 2 Worksheet, they are side by
side.

Report Equipment Component Stats

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382

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383

Report Pipe Stats

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384

11 Evaluating the Project

Running a Project Evaluation


After all the process simulator data has been properly mapped and defined,
you are ready to run a project evaluation. The project evaluation produces
capital costs, operating costs and investment analysis reports. If any of the
components are modified, the evaluation process must be re-run.

To run a project evaluation:


1

Click

on the toolbar.

or
On the Run menu, click Evaluate Project.
The Evaluate Project dialog box appears.

The dialog box shows the default Capital Costs report file name, Cap_Rep.ccp.
This is the report reviewed in Icarus Editor. If you want it to have a different
name, type the file name in the Report File field.
2

Click OK.

If you are using the default Preferences, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
scans the project specifications for errors and/or inconsistencies and any

11 Evaluating the Project

385

found are listed in the Scan Messages window.

Note: You can select in Preferences to skip the scan for errors (see page
48).
X49H

There are four types of messages:


Scan Message

Description/Importance Level

INFOrmational

For your information

WARNing

Design can be produced, but you are alerted to problems

ERROR

A design or cost cannot be produced for an item

FATAL

Rare instance for extreme problems

You have the option to continue or stop the evaluation process (except in the
case of FATAL errors, which stop the evaluation process). You should carefully
review these and fix any problems before proceeding.
When the project evaluation is done, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer lists
all errors found in the capital cost evaluation for your reference.

If you are using the default Preferences, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
automatically displays the Investment Analysis spreadsheets in the Main
Window when the evaluation is complete. See Reviewing Investment
Analysis on page 439 for a description of these spreadsheets.
X50H

Note: You can select in Preferences not to have Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer automatically display the Investment Analysis (see page 48).
X501H

11 Evaluating the Project

386

Reviewing and Revising


Process Economics in the
Analyzer Economics Module
The Analyzer Economics Module (AEM) includes an interactive economic
evaluation workbook, that allows you to review economic, scheduling, and
manufacturing premises and see the impact of revisions to those premises. It
displays in Excel key economic information over the project timeline to help
you evaluate projected operations and the return on investment.

Loading the Analyzer Economics Module


(AEM)
To initiate an economic scenario, first load the AEM.
To load AEM:
1

On the Run menu, click Decision Analyzer.

On the Decision Analyzer dialog box, mark the Develop Detailed Process
Economics Reports check box.

Enter the desired reporting currency symbol to use for the reporting of all
costs.

If the plant location currency is different from the currency used on the
reports, enter the exchange rate as the ratio of Report Currency/Plant
Location Currency.

Click OK.

In Excel, two workbook files open: SPECS and RESULTS.

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Overview of Workbooks
In addition to showing you the economic analysis of the current project basis,
the workbooks allow you to instantly see the impact that revisions to the
basis will have on economic measurements. For example, you can revise the
required working capital percentage on the Project Input worksheet in SPECS
and, as a result, the Cash Flow bar chart on the Figures worksheet in
RESULTS will change to reflect this revision. This is explained in detail in the
Revising Premises section, page 397.
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SPECS Workbook
The SPECS workbook consists of the following worksheets, which you can
navigate by clicking the sheet tabs at the bottom of the workbook window:

Guide
The Guide provides you with an online reminder of helpful information, which
you may refer to during an interactive scenario session:

Purpose of Analyzer's Economics Module (AEM) and what AEM does.

The three classes of information from which AEM works.

The two workbooks for new scenario premises.

Details on the worksheets containing input.

Details on the worksheets containing results.

Strategy - how to use this module effectively for evaluating business and
economic options.

Control Panel
The Control Panel allows you to revise high-level stream premises. It features
spinner controls and reset buttons, enabling you to change unit prices and
instantaneously see the resulting economic metrics and graphed results.

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Key economic metrics displayed include: graphs of net present value (NPV)
and annual production revenue, payout date, Internal Rate of Return (IRR),
NPV over project lifetime, gross, operating and net revenue margins.

Decision Center
The Decision Center is AEM's navigator. It enables you to move quickly across
all of AEM's user-interactive worksheets, all of which are included in horizontal
format. To view all the worksheets in a vertical format, use the DC_V
worksheet.
Both the horizontal and vertical formats enable you to quickly locate high
level and lower level categories and the ultimate worksheet locations.
Important error messages are displayed on the Decision Center header.
An NPV graph displays the current state of the scenario including high-level
error messages with pointers to error locations.

DC_V
This worksheet contains the same content as the Decision Center worksheet
in a vertical format.

Input Worksheets
The two input worksheets are for user-interactive revisions to premises. They
define your economic scenario. Revisions are immediately reflected in the
Status, Statements, EPC, and Figures worksheets. See page 397 for
information on revising economic premises.
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Project Input
In the Project Input worksheet, you can revise the schedule, time periods,
capital investment, cost of capital investment, phase durations, capital cost
parameters, manufacturing cost parameters, operating labor and
maintenance cost parameters, general investment parameters, and
escalation.
The following is an excerpt:

Stream Input
In the Stream Input worksheet, you can revise the stream factor to determine the
impact of turndown, turnarounds or a proposed expansion; split production into a
domestic and export stream with their associated unit prices; revise prices of byproducts, raw materials, and utilities. An important aspect of the Stream Input
worksheet is the use of periodically changing values of stream factor, unit costs
and percent to export. This feature will enable you to study the impact of market
cycles and identify economic threats and opportunities related to production over
the life of the project.
Status Worksheet
View the Status worksheet for a quick summary of which values on the input
worksheets have been revised, need correction, or are incomplete.

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The Status worksheet also displays a panel board


graph of Net Present Value (NPV) and summary
status report of project and stream input
conditions and major economic indicators to help
guide the analyst.

Capture Worksheet
The Capture worksheet and its initiating buttons
enables you to review and capture highlights of up
to 50 economic scenarios. A set of buttons is
provided to initiate the capture of current scenario
highlights in advance of working on the next
scenario.

RESULTS Workbook
The RESULTS workbook consists of six worksheets, which you can navigate by
clicking the sheet tabs at the bottom of the workbook window.
The following is an overview of the worksheets.

EPC Worksheet
The EPC worksheet provides before and after information regarding the
engineering, procurement and construction aspects of your project. The term
before refers to the state of your project based on your initial premises,
prior to interactively changing from one scenario to another in Analyzers
Economic Module. The EPC workbook provides costs in both the currency of
the plant location and a user-defined reporting currency. For example, if your
project were modeled using the European Union country base (EU, currency
in Euro) and you wished to see costs reported in Euro for a project relocated
to Mexico (reporting currency in k-Peso), you could define the reporting
currency to be Euro and enter the desired exchange rate between the Euro
and k-Peso. You would define the reporting currency and exchange rate along
with the relocation country, at Run time. The EPC worksheet would report
plant location costs in both Euro and k-Peso. This worksheet currently
provides the only connection between costs in the country base currency and
plant location currency.
The EPC worksheet provides the following information:

EPC results based on the initial premises (before the scenario)

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Status of stream data

Exchange rate used to compute plant location costs in the


country base currency

Summary costs, man-hours in both plant location and country


base currencies

EPC start and end dates

Breakouts of costs and man-hour for direct materials,


engineering and construction and project indirects.

392

EPC scenario results and key economic measures

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Economic measures: NPV, IRR, payout time, average annual


production over the life of the project

Summary and detailed cost and man-hour information resulting


from changes during the interactive session.

393

Project Basis
The Project Basis worksheet provides project name, project description,
simulator type, capital cost evaluation and parameters, time periods,
construction schedule, manufacturing cost parameters, operating labor and
maintenance cost parameters, general investment parameters, escalation,
cost summary, and EPC details based on your initial economic premises.
The following is an excerpt:

Design Basis
The Design Basis worksheet provides summary-level presentations of income,
product revenue, manufacturing costs, margins, raw material costs, utility
costs, and earnings based on your initial economic premises.

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The following is an excerpt:

Statements Worksheet
The Statements worksheet, like the EPC, Status and Figures worksheets,
shows results of changes made in the Input worksheets.

Timeline of events (dates, periods).

Payout time, IRR, NPV.

Present values for individually selected production periods.

Period-to-period statements with a display of results for a selectable


production period: income-expense statement, summary cash flow
statement, capital expenditures statement, margins, and NPV graph.

The following is an excerpt:

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Figures Worksheet
The Figures worksheet, like the EPC, Status and Statements worksheets,
shows results of changes made in the Input worksheets.

Flows, by Calendar Period: Net and Cumulative Cash Flow, Margins, Gross
and Operating and Net Income as a % of Revenue, Product Revenues:
Domestic and Export.

Production: Domestic and Export.

Distributions, for a selected Production Period: Product Revenues,


Manufacturing Costs, Operating Costs, Fixed Charges.

The following is an example of one of the distribution graphs on the Figures


worksheet:

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Revising Premises
The premises on which an economic scenario is based can be modified on the
Project Input and Stream Input worksheets. The results of modifications are
immediately reflected on the Status, Statements, and Figures worksheets.
Note: Revisions made in the workbook have no impact on the actual project
basis.

To revise premises:
1

Select either the Project Input or Stream Input worksheet.

Go to the Select field of the item you wish to change. Pressing TAB moves
the cursor to the next field, while pressing CLEAR+TAB moves the cursor
to the previous field. You can also use the mouse and arrow keys.

The Select field can contain one of the following symbols (not case-sensitive):
Enter To denote
B

Use of base value.

Use of revised value.

Use of period-to-period values on the Stream Input


worksheet.

For example, changing the symbol from B to R acts as a toggle between


the base and revised value.

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397

In the event a symbol is not entered, the base value will be used.
3

As this is an exercise in revising premises, enter R (or r) in the Select


field.

Go to the input field and enter the new value. For percentage values,
simply enter the percentage value. If 0.2% is to be entered, enter 0.2. If
50% is required, enter 50. If a negative value is required, for example to
indicate construction is to begin 0.5 periods early, enter a negatively
signed value, 0.5.

As you make revisions, notes and other messages are provided to assure data
integrity. Each line item of data entry has at least one status flag.
Informational and other messages are provided to guide you in preparing a
consistent set of premises.

Revised value of 10.00% will


be used.
Flag field displays ? and
Status of Revision field displays
FIX! because r has been
entered without a revised value
Base value will be used

As soon as you move from the revised field, the revision is reflected in the
Status, EPC, Statements, and Figures worksheets.
Note: Viewing the workbooks in a split screen arrangement lets you instantly
see the results of modifications. To do so, click Arrange on the Window menu,
select Horizontal, and click OK. You will likely need to adjust the zoom to
about 50%. Keep ECOSYS.xls minimized.
For example, if you revise the required working capital percentage on the
Project Input worksheet (shown in window at the top of the split screen
pictured below), the Cash Flow bar chart on the Figures worksheet (shown in
the lower window) will change.

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Color Coding

Base Values: green background, black text.

Revised Values: blue background, black text.

Status Values: yellow background, red text.

Text Notes: blue text.

Error Messages: yellow background, red text and flag symbols.

Dates of key events: blue background, red text.

Saving AEM Workbook


To save changes to AEM worksheets, it is recommended that you save all
workbooks by closing Excel and answering Yes when prompted to save.
Saving the worksheets individually has been found to result in an error when
re-launching AEM.

Discussion of Economic Premises


The AEM workbooks organize economic premises into two main categories:
project and stream input. This section describes the concepts behind the
various parameters.

Project Input
As described previously, base values are listed to the right of the item
category. The Select field and Enter Revised Base Value field enable alternate
studies. First, enter either an R (not case-sensitive) in the Select field to
revise the base value. Then enter a revised value in the Enter Revised Base
Value field. You can then enter a B (not case-sensitive) in the Select field to

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switch between revised and base value. The Value Used field shows the
current status of your selection.
The following provides additional information about the individual parameters.

Scenario Reporting

Title and date data: will be displayed in the headers of the various
worksheets and in the footer of the Status worksheet.

Currency for Scenario Reporting: every cost value in the Economic


Analysis workbook will be in the Reporting Currency and converted from
the plant location currency by the designated exchange rate.

Plant Location Currency: costs in country base location currency are


developed by the Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE) and are revised by
Analyzers Relocation Module (ARM). Costs in the plant location currency
are reported only in the EPC worksheet if the user elects a reporting
currency.

Reporting Currency: this currency is defined upon entering the Analyzers


interactive Economics Module along with an exchange rate relative to the
plant location currency. The exchange rate may be changed, within limits,
in the Project Input worksheet. This will enable a user to trend a project
over a period of time, should exchange rates vary from the initial premise.
Costs in the reporting currency are reported in all worksheets.

Exchange rate: number of currency units of Reporting Currency per unit of


Plant Location Currency. The exchange rate may be modified in the
Project Input worksheet to reflect a more current or anticipated future
value.

Reporting of Cash flows: in millions of reporting currency units.

Schedule
A timeline is established with a calendar start date to enable the study of
economic cycles and report the timing of events. A base calendar start date is
automatically generated to accommodate the base start date of engineering.
However, as new premises are added, the lead-time between start of
calendar and start of engineering may be too short to accommodate other
efforts such as studies and changes to the fixed capital investment. Or, you
may wish to base your reporting calendar on a calendar year basis or your
companys fiscal year. Once you select the start date of the reporting
calendar, you might wish to review your initial premise for the start date of
engineering.
The engineering start date may be modified as well as the calendar start date.
Messages are provided in this section for lead-time, pre-planning time and
float to help you to establish timing of other events (see next section on
Capital Investment).

Start Date of the Reporting Calendar: defines (a) the project timeline, (b)
enables the escalation to the start date of the calendar of costs entering
the workbook from Analyzer that are founded on the System Cost Base
Date, and (c) enables the dating of tasks and events, including:

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Strategic planning and decision engineering

Contractors engineering and procurement

400

Construction delay/early start of construction

Plant Start-up

Start of Production

Payout

End of production, salvage of fixed capital investment (FCI),


return of working capital, salvage of catalyst and chemicals,
etc.

Start Date of Engineering.

Status of the calendar: lead time, planning time, float time and other
helpful status messages.

Time Period

Period: the designated period is a year. Only yearly periods can be


accommodated with this release.

Hours per period: determines stream factor, stream flows per period. Your
initial premise may be revised in the Stream Input worksheet.

Capital Investment

Decision Engineering Studies: duration is developed from the cost entry


and placed on the timeline.

Owners Engineering: duration is developed from the cost entry and


placed on the timeline.

Increment/Decrement to FCI (fixed capital investment, also known as


total installed cost, total project cost) at the System Base Date: enables
studies of FCI such as the trade-off between inside and outside battery
limits (ISBL/OSBL), plant capacity (with associated change in stream
factor see Stream Input), and impact of FCI changes during engineering
on process economics, etc. Consider two uses of this feature (1) to
determine the impact on IRR and NPV of a 10% increase in capital cost
and (2) making a utility stream by adding more capital and setting the
utility stream cost to zero. A change here will impact the phase duration of
engineering, procurement and construction as well as their expenditures
along the timeline. In the AEM workbooks, FCI undergoes a number of
adjustments from the time it is evaluated by the Icarus Evaluation Engine
(IEE), as follows and as reported in the EPC worksheet:

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Initial evaluation in Analyzer performed by applying design and


cost specifications to the list of project components for the
specified production capacity of the process facility and plant
location.

In the AEM workbooks:

Currency revision of FCI from the Plant Location


Currency to the Reporting Currency, using exchange
rate first established during Plant Relocation and then
under Scenario Reporting in AEM.

Escalation from System Base Date to the Start Date of


the Calendar.

Percentage Increment/Decrement adjustment (this


section).

401

Escalation of engineering, materials, construction to the


period of expenditure as determined by the duration of
each phase, progress of each phase duration, and
position along the timeline.

Start-up costs: included as a capital expense, range of typical values: 8%


to 10% of FCI.

Phase Durations

Duration of EPC Phase: base value, from Analyzer (CPM-based planning


schedule).

Delay or Early Start of Construction: enables study of impact of delay


prior to start of construction or early start. The planning schedule includes
early start. Analyzer splits construction from EPC duration to enable
delays to be studied. A negative delay value results in an early start. As
phase durations are revised, so too are dates of key events along the
timeline. As stream flows and expenditures are moved along the entire
time line by changes in phase durations (or other revisions), they will be
evaluated for escalation or unit costs/prices that are assigned to each
period.

Capital Cost Parameters

Working Capital, as a percentage of fixed capital investment (FCI). The


range of typical values is 10% to 25% of FCI (10% to 20% of the total
investment, i.e. the sum of FCI and working capital), but you can enter
any percentage. A range of typical values is provided for guidance.

Catalyst and Chemicals: for the initial charge, as a percentage of FCI and
salvage value at the end of production.

Patents and Royalties, as an initial fee and/or fee, escalated for each
period of production and figured on the production for each period.

Land: range of typical values: 1% to 2% of FCI.

Manufacturing Cost Parameters

Operating Charges: if no base value is provided, Analyzer will estimate


and report a cost value based on Plant Operating Labor. It will split
operating charges into costs for Operating Supplies and Laboratory
Charges, which values may be revised individually as a percentage of
Operating Labor.

Range of typical values


o

Operating Supplies: 10% to 20% of Maintenance

Laboratory Charges: 10% to 20% of Operating Labor

Note: Typical ranges do not define limits on user entry.

Operating Labor and Maintenance Costs

Number of Shifts: base value determined by project components, type of


facility, etc. might be revised, especially if Increment/Decrement is made
to FCI.

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Operator: number of operators and hourly rate may be revised from the
base value; Total Operating Labor Cost is displayed.

Supervision: Number of Supervisors and hourly rate may be revised; Total


Supervision Cost is displayed.

Maintenance: Cost/period is displayed and is reported as a percentage of


FCI, which % may be revised; range of typical values: 2% to 10% of FCI.

General Investment Parameters


Base values for the following items come from your system input and may be
revised in AEM:

Tax Rate.

Interest Rate: used in calculating net present values and payout time.

Economic Life of Project: defines the time for depreciation and should be
the same as production life.

Salvage Value, as a fraction of the initial capital cost. This value is


recovered at the end of the project life.

Depreciation Method: select from Straight Lines, sum of the Digits, Double
Declining (Balance).

Escalation
Base values of the following items come from your system input and may be
revised.

Project Capital Evaluation, a single value is expanded in AEM for individual


treatment of expenditures along the calendar timeline for:
o

Engineering

Materials

Construction

Product Escalation: individually for domestic and export product; periodto-period price/cost values take priority over escalation.

By-products: period-to-period price/cost values for an individual by-product


take priority over escalation for that by-product.

Raw Materials: period-to-period price/cost values for an individual raw


material take priority over escalation for that raw material.

Utilities: period-to-period price/cost values for an individual utility take


priority over escalation for that utility.

General: for remaining categories.

Stream Input
This worksheet allows you to revise base values (assigned or default) for
product, by-product, raw material and utility streams. Either a single value,
applicable to every period (subject to escalation if a cost), or a period-toperiod value (not subject to escalation) may be assigned. Indicate use of base
(B), revised (R) for a single value for all periods, or individual period-toperiod values (P). Symbols are not case-sensitive.

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Phases Along the Project Timeline


The following resulting values guide other input specifications.

Phase.

Phase duration.

Start date.

Fraction of a period devoted to each phase along the calendar timeline,


which includes the following:

Start date of each period.

Year: displayed with each section to maintain integrity of


period-to-period input data.

Calendar Periods: Period (year) from the start of basic


engineering.

Periods of Operation year from start-up.

Start-up, Payout, Shutdown dates.

Production Operations
Stream Factor, to study the impact of turndown and expansion.

Production
Price of domestic and export product and percentage of production devoted to
export product. The production capacity is reported for reference.

By-Products
Price of each by-product. By-product rates are reported for the designated
production capacity. The current version is limited to reporting 25 byproducts.

Raw Materials
Price of each raw material. Consumption of each raw material is reported for
designated production capacity. The current version is limited to reporting 25
raw materials.

Utilities
Price of each utility; for ISBL/OSBL studies, consider revising an ISBL utility
stream cost in lieu of its production by an OSBL unit and revision of the FCI
(Project Input>Capital Investment>Increment/Decrement to FCI) to account
for the OSBL units FCI Consumption of each utility is reported for
designated production capacity.

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Reviewing Results in Aspen


Icarus Reporter
Accessing Aspen Reporter
To access Aspen Icarus Reporter:
1

Click

on the toolbar.

or
On the View menu, click Capital Costs View.
The Select Report Type To View dialog box appears.

Keep Interactive Reports selected and click OK.

The Reporter imports and loads the reports from Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer.

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After the reports are loaded, the Aspen Icarus Reporter window appears.

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Aspen Icarus Reporter Menu Bar


File Menu
Import Data Import project reports. See page 428 for instructions.
X504H

Run Report Run selected report. See pages 408 (Standard reports), 421 (Excel reports),
and 416 (HTML reports) for instructions.
X50H

X507H

X506H

Open Workbook Open the last Excel workbook created. See page 424 for instructions.
X508H

Create User Database Export SQL database. See page 429 for instructions.
X509H

Exit Close Aspen Icarus Reporter.

Trend Menu
Add Trend Data to Database Add the trend data from the project reports currently loaded
in Aspen Icarus Reporter to the trending database. See page 425 for instructions.
X510H

Create New Trend in Excel Export trending database to Excel. See page 426 for
instructions.
X51H

View Existing Trend Data Open the trending data workbook in Excel. See Data Trending,
pages 425 through 428, for instructions
X512H

X513H

Clear All Saved Trends Clear the trending database. See page 425 for instructions.
X514H

Which Report Mode?


There are four report modes: Standard reports, HTML reports, Management
reports, and Excel reports. All but Management reports present Capital Costs
and Design and Basis reports. Management reports contains snapshots of
project data frequently requested by project management.
Standard, HTML, and Excel reports do not just present the same data in
different applications. Because of the differing capabilities of the applications,
data is presented differently in each. The choice of mode may depend upon
what you wish to do with the data at a particular time.

Standard Reports
With Standard reports selected in the Report Mode section, the Reports
section displays a tree-structure grouping of standard reports.

Report Descriptions
Open the necessary category and sub-category folders and click on a report
to display a brief description of that report in the Description section.

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Aspen ICARUS Reporter displays a description of the selected report.


See page 412 for descriptions of all Standard reports.
X51H

Opening a Report
Not all of the reports contain each of the features described in this guide. For
example, the Contents view only appears on reports with multiple sections.
In order to see all the features described, select the Contractor COA
Summary report located in the following folder:
Capital Cost Reports\Direct Costs\COA Summaries

To open the selected report:

Click the Run Report button .


- or On the File menu, click Run Report.
- or Double-click on the report.

The report window appears.

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Navigating
If there are multiple sections, a tree-structure Contents view appears on the
left side of the window, allowing you to jump to a section simply by clicking
the section in the Contents.
The arrow buttons on the toolbar let you page through the report:
Next Page

Previous Page

Last Page

First Page

Because the last page of a report usually contains the totals, clicking the Last
Page button is a convenient way to access them.

Magnification
To change the magnification level:
1

In the Magnification box, click


menu.

11 Evaluating the Project

, then click the desired level from the

409

Note: You can also click directly in the Magnification box (without clicking
) and then zoom in and out using the up and down arrow keys on your
keyboard.
2

When viewing the report at large magnification, you may wish to hide the
Contents view by clicking the Toggle Group Tree button
more room for the report.

. This makes

Segregating a Cost Section


If the cursor changes into a magnifying glass icon when placed over a cost
sections title or totals, you can double-click to open a separate tab window
containing only that cost section.
For example, under Civil in the Contractor COA Summaries report, the
cursor changes into a magnifying glass when placed over the Concrete cost
sections title or totals.

Double-clicking on this cost sections titles or totals opens a separate tab


window.

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Here, the Equipment cost section is displayed in a separate tab window,


where it can be viewed and printed apart from the rest of the report.

Searching
To search the report:
1

Click

on the toolbar.

Type the text string for which you want to search.

Click Find Next.

The next instance of the text string is framed in red.

Printing
To print the report:
1

Click

on the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears.

Make any desired changes to the default settings; then click OK.

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List of Standard Reports

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412

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413

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414

HTML Reports
With HTML reports selected in the Report Mode section, the Reports section
displays a tree-structure grouping of HTML reports.

Report Descriptions
Open the necessary category and sub-category folders and click on a report
to display a brief description of that report in the Description section.

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Opening an HTML Report


To open the selected report:
1

Do one of the following:

Click the Run Report button.


or

On the File menu, click Run Report.


or

Double-click on the report.

A status window tells you when the export is complete and asks if you would
like to view the report now.

Click Yes.

Your browser displays the report.

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Note: Generating the report as an .htm file allows the report to be sent in an
e-mail.

Management Reports
With Management Reports selected in the Report Mode section, the Reports
section displays a tree-structure grouping of Management reports. These
reports are intended to serve as snapshots of the project scenario.

Opening a Management Report


To open a Management report:
1

Select the report.

Do one of the following:

Click the Run Report button.

- or

On the File menu, click Run Report.

- or

Double-click on the report.

The Management Reports Viewer displays the report. Pictured below is the
Detailed Weight Information report, one of the Piping reports in the
Discipline folder.

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Other reports, like the Equipment Cost (Total Cost) report shown below,
show simply a bottom-line total.

Exporting Management Reports to Excel


You can export Management reports to Excel. This is particularly useful for
when you want to be able to e-mail the report.

To export a Management report to Excel:


1

Click Export to Excel on the Viewers File menu.

Reporter searches for the last Excel workbook to which you exported a report.

If no existing workbook is found, Reporter asks you to specify a worksheet


name (see step 3) and creates a workbook either DefaultWB.xls in the
Reporter output folder (if this is your first export to Excel since last rebooting) or a workbook with the file and path name of the last workbook
to which you exported since starting your computer.

If an existing workbook is found, the Export to Excel Workbook dialog box


appears, asking if you want to overwrite the existing workbook, append
the report to the existing workbook, or create a new workbook.

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Select

To do this

Overwrite existing
workbook

Reset the existing workbook with the selected report as


the only worksheet; any previously created worksheets
will be cleared.

Append to existing
workbook

Add the report as another worksheet in the existing


workbook; previously created worksheets will be retained.

Create new workbook

Specify a new workbook in which the selected report will


appear as a worksheet.

Clicking Create new workbook expands the dialog box to let you select a
folder and enter a file name.

Note: Do not enter a file extension or period when entering a new workbook
name.
2

Make your selection; then click OK.

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Enter a name for the worksheet.

Click OK.

The Export Status dialog box informs you when the export is done and asks
if you would like to open the workbook now.

Click Yes to open the workbook.

Excel displays the report.

Excel Reports
With Excel reports selected in the Report Mode section, the Reports section
displays a tree-structure grouping of Excel reports.

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420

Report Descriptions
Open the necessary category and sub-category folders and click on a report
to display a brief description of that report in the Description section.

Aspen ICARUS Reporter displays a description of the selected Excel report.

Opening an Excel Report


To open a report:
1

Select the check box next to the desired report.

You can select multiple report check boxes to open multiple reports.
Marking a folders checkbox will open all of the reports in the folder.
2

Click the Run Report button or click Run Report on the File menu.

Reporter searches for the last Excel workbook to which you exported a report.

If no existing workbook is found and this is your first export to Excel


during this session, Reporter creates DefaultWB.xls in the Reporter
output folder:

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...Economic Evaluation V7.0\ic_cache\Reporter\Output

If no existing workbook is found, but you have exported from Reporter to


Excel since you last started you computer (to a file thats since been
moved or deleted), Reporter creates a workbook with the file and path
name of the last workbook to which you exported.

If an existing workbook is found, the Export to Excel Workbook dialog


box appears, asking if you want to overwrite the existing workbook,
append the report to the existing DefaultWB.xls workbook, or create a
new workbook.

Select

To do this

Overwrite existing
workbook

Reset the existing workbook with the selected report as


the only worksheet; any previously created worksheets
will be cleared.

Append to existing
workbook

Add the report as another worksheet in the existing


workbook; previously created worksheets will be retained.

Create new workbook

Specify a new workbook in which the selected report will


appear as a worksheet.

Selecting Create new workbook expands the dialog box to let you enter a
workbook path and name.

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Note: Do not enter a file extension or period when entering a new workbook
name.
After you make your selection and click OK, Excel opens a workbook
displaying the report.

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Note: Exporting the report to an .xls file allows it to be sent in an e-mail.

AutoFilter
Several of the larger Excel reports generated by Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer take advantage of the AutoFilter feature in Excel.

To view a report that includes AutoFilter:

Open the following report:


Capital Cost Reports\Direct Costs\Item Summaries\Combined

When AutoFilter is available, clicking


next to a column displays a list of all
the different entries made in the column. Selecting an entry displays only
rows that contain that entry in the column.

For example, selecting 105 Misc. Item Allowance in the COA


Description column of the Item Summary Combined report would display
only accounts with Code of Account (COA) 105.
Selecting Top Ten displays only items that contain one of the top ten most
frequent entries.
Selecting Blanks (from the bottom of the list) displays only rows that contain
a blank cell in the column, while selecting NonBlanks displays only rows that
contain a value in the column.

Opening Workbook Without Running Report


To view the last workbook created without running a new
report:

On the File menu, click Open Workbook.

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Data Trending
Data Trending facilitates comparison of scenarios by allowing you to review
capital cost summaries of different scenarios in a single Excel workbook. If,
for example, you created three different scenarios for a project, you could use
the Data Trending feature to display the direct costs of each on one
spreadsheet, with a separate row for each scenario.

Clearing Trending Database


Because you only want to compare certain scenarios, the first step is usually
to clear the database used to populate the Excel trending workbook.

To clear the trending database:


1

On the Trend menu, click Clear All Saved Trends.

A confirmation dialog box appears.

Click Yes to confirm clearing of the data.

The Trending Data Update dialog box tells when this is done.

Click OK.

Adding Trend Data to Database


The next step is to add trend data to the database.

To add the current project reports trend data to the


database:
1

On the Trend menu, click Add Trend Data to Database.

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The Trending Data Update dialog box tells you when Reporter has finished
adding the trend data.

Click OK.

You will need to add the trend data from the project reports of the other
scenarios you are comparing. For each of the other scenarios, open the
reports in Reporter and complete the Adding Trend Data to Database
instructions above.
Using Reporters import function, you can open the other scenarios reports
in Reporter without opening the scenarios in Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer. See page 428 for instructions.
X516H

Creating a New Trend in Excel


After you have added the trend data from the Capital Cost reports of the
scenarios you are comparing, you are ready to create a new trend in Excel.

To create a new trend in Excel:


1

On the Trend menu, click Create New Trend in Excel.

The Export to Excel Trending Workbook dialog box gives you the choice of
either appending the trend data to the existing file or creating a new file.

Make you selection; then click OK.

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The Export Trend Data into Excel dialog box appears. By default, all six
capital cost categories are marked.

Clear any categories you want to exclude from the workbook; then click
OK.

The Export Status window tells you when the export is complete and asks if
you would like to open the trending workbook now.

Click Yes.

Excel displays the trending workbook containing a spreadsheet for each of the
capital cost categories. Each set of trend data entered into the trending
database is displayed on a separate row. (The workbooks for any categories
excluded at the Export Trend Data into Excel dialog box are blank).

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After having created the trending workbook, you can access it from
Reporter by clicking View Existing Trend Data on the View menu.

Importing Data into Aspen Icarus Reporter


When you have a project scenario open in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
and select Capital Costs (Interactive) from Aspen Process Economic
Analyzer, Reporter automatically imports that project scenarios Capital Cost
reports as it opens.
However, once youre at the Aspen Icarus Reporter window, you can
import a project scenarios Capital Cost reports without having the project
scenario open in Aspen Process Economic Analyzer.

To import a Capital Cost report:


1

Click Import Data on the File menu.

The Import Selection dialog box appears.

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Use the browse tree to locate the project scenario folder, which should be
at:
Archives_Aspen Process Economic Analyzer\[Project]\[Project Scenario]

After clicking the project scenario folder, PROJID should appear in the File
set to import section.
3

Click PROJID; then click Import.

Reporter imports the data. When complete, the selected scenarios reports
can be run from Reporter.

Creating a User Database


You can export the Icarus SQL Database, listing the Relation attributes used
by the Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE), to a Microsoft Access Database (.mdb)
file.
ICARUS Reference, Chapter 35, Database Relations, defines the ICARUS
Database Relations and the different attributes under each.

To create a user database:


1

Click Create User Database on the File menu.

Reporter searches for the last .mdb file it created.

If the file is not found or if this is your first database creation, the Create
User Database dialog box appears with only one Export Option: Create
New Workbook. The lower part of the dialog box provides fields for
selecting a path and filename.

However, if the last created file is found, the Export Options also include
Overwrite Existing Workbook. This option is marked by default, so the
lower part of the dialog box is not visible until you select the Create New
Workbook check box.

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Select a folder, enter a database name, and then click OK.

Reporter creates the .mdb file.


3

To review and work with the database, start Microsoft Access and open
the .mdb file.

Reviewing Results in Icarus


Editor
Icarus Editor is a fully OLE-compliant, Multiple Document Interface (MDI) text
editor program.

Accessing Icarus Editor


To view Capital Costs in Icarus Editor:
1

Do one of the following:

Click

on the toolbar.

or

2
T

Click Capital Costs View on the View menu.

On the Select Report Type To View dialog box, click Evaluation


Reports; then click OK.
T

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Icarus Editor opens displaying the Capital Cost report.

The right-hand pane contains the report and the left-hand pane contains a
tree-structure Contents view that lets you jump to sections of the report.
Note: Click
on the toolbar to turn the Contents view on and off (or click
Contents on the View menu).

Printing a Single Section


The Contents view also lets you print a single section, rather than the entire
report.

To print a single section:

Right-click on a section; then click the Print button that appears.

Icarus Editor Toolbar


New open a new document in the Document View

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Open open an existing document


Save save current document to disk
File Properties view selected properties of current document
Print print the current document
Print Preview print preview the current document
Page Setup specify how the current document will be printed
Cut cut selected text to windows clipboard
Copy copy selected text to windows clipboard
Paste paste contents of windows clipboard into insertion location
Bold bold selected text
Italic italicize selected text
Underline underline selected text
Select Font specify font for selected text
Find (CTRL+F) find any text string within the current document
Preferences set and save your preferences
Toggle Contents turn OFF/ON the Contents View
Cascade display multiple documents cascaded
Tile Horizontal display multiple documents tiled horizontally
Tile Vertical display multiple documents tiled vertically
Help Contents display on-line help

Report Sections
Title Page
Two title pages are produced. This way, if the report is being printed on fanfold paper, one of the title pages will be produced on a page facing up.

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Features

Estimate Base: financial quarter from which cost basis is derived and date
Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE) was produced. Run Date: Date and time
that project evaluation was run.

The currency symbol used in the report.

Telephone numbers to call for technical support.

Contract Structure
The Contract Structure section provides names of contractors and reporting
arrangement.

Table of Contents
The Table of Contents lists section names and the page number on which
each starts. The number of sections may vary depending on the number of
Report Groups. If the project contains only one, then there will be only a
single summary. If more than one, there will be a separate summary for
each, plus a summary for the total project.

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Project Summary
The Project Summary provides an overview of project costs.

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Project Data Sheet


The Project Data Sheet lists items with separate columns showing userentered values and system default values.

Total Manpower Schedule


The Total Manpower Schedule shows construction manpower loading based on
the CPM Construction Schedule.

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Ways to influence this schedule include:

Adjusting productivities, shifts per day, length of the workweek using the
General Rates specifications form and the Craft Rates specifications form.
These forms are accessed in Project Basis view under Project Basis\Basis
for Capital Costs\Construction Workforce.

Indexing man-hours either at the Project level (Project Basis\Basis for


Capital Costs\Indexing) or at the Area level.

The number of MEN PER DAY for each vertical bar is generated by summing the
labor assigned to all the work items that fall within the period represented by
that bar in the barchart.

Cash Flow Summary


The Cash Flow Summary shows total capital cost spent.

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436

This barchart schedule assumes that the DESIGN ENGG AND PROCUREMENT
monies are already spent at the start of construction - the curve is not truly
tied to the CPM schedule. During construction, capital is then spent for
material, direct field labor, equipment rental and subcontract work, Home and
Field Office, Start-up, etc., as the cost is incurred. By the end of construction,
the TOTAL,AMOUNT given in the Project Summary is indicated here.
Operating costs, such as start-up utilities, raw materials, initial catalyst
charges, etc., are not included.

Project Schedule Data Sheet


The Project Schedule Data Sheet lists the fabrication and ship times for
equipment items by class and provides barcharts of the following:
General Schedule: Balanced display of Basic and Detail Engineering,
Procurement and Construction (EPC).
Engineering Schedule: Details for Basic and Detail Engineering and
Procurement; summary for Construction.
Construction Schedule: Details for Construction- others summarized.
Contracts Schedule: Schedule for contractor(s). When a single contractor is
performing all work, this schedule shows no new information.

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Contract Summary
The Contract Summary breaks costs down by contractor.

Summaries By Report Group


Summaries By Report Group provides the direct material and labor costs and
manhours by report group for all areas reporting to that group.

List of Equipment and Bulk Material By Area


For each Area, the Equipment and Bulk Material List is divided into three
sections. First there is the Component List, followed by the Area Bulk Report,
and finally the Area Data Sheet. Following the last Area of each Report Group,
there are two more reports - the Report Group Summary and the Report
Group Equipment Summary.

Appendix A- Design Data Sheets


Appendix A contains the Design Data Sheets for those items which are heavily
designed by the system- fewer items will have Design Data Sheets than are
listed in the Component List, above, which lists all user-added components.
Since the Design Data Sheet details the design on which the cost and
installation labor is based, it is especially useful during calibration of the

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systems material costs and man-hours. It helps you compare your


benchmark item to Icarus on an apples-to-apples basis.

Appendix B- Detailed Bulk Material and Field Manpower


Listing
Appendix B lists the design and cost details for every component, whether
system-generated or user-added. The results are reported in the sequence
that the items appear in the Area tree diagram.

Appendix C- Bulk Material and Field Manpower Summaryby Report Group


Appendix C consists of one summary of the material and manpower manhours and cost for all direct costs in the project. There is one report per
Report Group; if there is only one Report Group, then this report is
eliminated. It is replaced by the project bill of material (see Appendix D
description below).

Appendix D Bulk Material and Field Manpower Summary


- Total Project
Appendix D is a project bill of material (BOM). The format summarizes total
direct costs for all accounts. Due to the fact that the numbers are large, this
is the best source of material costs and man-hours for calibration.

Appendix E Direct Material and Manpower Summary by


Major Account - Total Project
Appendix E lists the Icarus default units of measure as well as any user
modifications.

Reviewing Investment Analysis


You can view the Investment Analysis results generated by Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer in two modes:
1

View the results in the Main Icarus Window (ICS spreadsheets).

View the results in MS Excel.

If you are using the default Preferences, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
automatically displays the four Investment Analysis spreadsheets in the Main
Window after you run an evaluation. You can set Preferences so that Aspen
Process Economic Analyzer does not automatically display the spreadsheets,
in which case you would have to select to view them as described below.

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Viewing Investment Analysis


To view the Investment Analysis in the Main Icarus
Window (ICS spreadsheets)
1

Do one of the following:

Click

on the toolbar.

or

On the View menu, click Investment Analysis View.

Use the tabs at the bottom of the window to move among the four
spreadsheets.

To view the Investment Analysis in MS Excel


On the main menu, click Tools | Options | View Spreadsheets in Excel.

Do one of the following:

Click

on the toolbar.

or

On the View menu, click Investment Analysis View.

Note: In the Excel mode, additional spreadsheets are generated that report
details with regards to utilities, raw material and products. For instructions to
generate customized investment analysis reports, see Using the Reporting
Assistant in Excel mode, page 458.
X517H

Equipment Summary
The Equipment Summary (EQUIP.ICS) contains a list of project components
used in the analysis.

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For each component, the summary contains the following information:


Area Name: The name of the operational unit area.
Component Name: The name of the project component.
Component Type: The type symbol for the component.
Total Direct Cost: The total direct material and labor costs associated with the
project component (including installation bulks), in the project currency.
Equipment Cost: The bare equipment cost associated with the project
component.

Project Summary
Project Summary (PROJSUM.ICS) contains a project summary for the capital
costs (equipment plus bulks) and schedule. This worksheet also includes
operating unit costs (labor wage rates and utility unit costs), utility flow/use
rates (steam/water flow rates, etc.) and operating and maintenance costs.

Project Summary Input Data


The following information on the Project Summary spreadsheet is userentered, except where noted:
Project Information
Project Name

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project name

Project
Description

Brief description of Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer project, from Project Properties

Analysis Date
and Time

The date and time this analysis was performed

Simulator Type

The name of the process simulator from which


process data was imported

Simulator

The version of the process simulator

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Version
Simulator Report
File

The name of the process simulator report file

Simulator Report
Date

Date and time of the process simulator report file

Economic
Analysis Type

The name of the Icarus system used for the


evaluation

Aspen Process
Economic
Analyzer Version

Version number for Aspen Process Economic


Analyzer system

Project Directory

Directory path for the current Aspen Process


Economic Analyzer project

Scenario Name

Name of the current scenario (if applicable)

Scenario
Description

Description of the current scenario, from Project


Title on the General Project Data form.

Capital Cost Evaluation Basis


Date

Date of capital costs/schedule analysis

Country

Country basis for the capital costs/schedule


analysis

Units of Measure

Units of Measure for analysis

Currency (Cost)
Symbol

System currency symbol which depends on the


selected country basis

Currency
Conversion Rate

Conversion factor between user-selected


currency to the currency used by the system
internally for the selected Country basis. For
example, if the US country basis is selected, the
internal system currency is US Dollars.
Therefore, all numbers will be reported in US
Dollars. However, if a currency conversion rate
of 1.5 is specified, all internal values will be
multiplied by 1.5 and then reported

System Cost Base


Date

The capital costs basis date of the system. The


Adjusted Total Project Cost represents the
calculated capital cost of the project (calculated
at this base date) escalated to the Start Date of
Engineering.

Project Type

Project type identified on General Specs form

Design code

Selected design code for equipment

Prepared By

Identifier for the preparer of the process


evaluator

Plant Location

Location of the plant

Time Difference
Between System
Cost Base Date
and Start Date for
Engineering

Number of days between the date of the


systems Cost Base data (for example, first
quarter, 2000) and the projects start date for
basic engineering.

User Currency
Name

User assigned name for the currency

User Currency
Description

User assigned description of the currency

User Currency
Symbol

User assigned symbol of the currency. This is


the symbol used for reporting the cost results in

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the reports.

Descriptions for the following parameters are provided in more detail under Investment Parameter
specifications (page 101).
X518H

Time Period
Period Description

Duration of time

Operating Hours
per Period

Number of hours in specified period

Number of Weeks
per Period

Number of weeks in specified period

Number of Periods
for Analysis

Set to 20 periods for investment analysis

Schedule
Start Date for
Engineering

The beginning date for EPC (engineering,


procurement, and construction)

Duration of EPC
Phase

The calculated EPC duration in weeks

Length of Start-up
Period

Number of weeks scheduled for start-up


beyond the end of the EPC phase

Duration of
Construction Phase

The calculated construction duration in weeks

Completion Date for


Construction

The calendar date for the end of EPC

Capital Costs Parameter


Working Capital
Percentage

Percentage of total capital expense per period


required to operate the facility until the
revenue from product sales is sufficient to
cover costs.

Operating Costs Parameters


Operating Supplies

Indicates the lump-sum cost of operating


supplies.

Laboratory Charges

Indicates the lump-sum cost of laboratory


charges.

User Entered
Operating Charges
(as percentage)

Indicates the user-entered value for total


operating charges.

Operating Charges
(Percent of
Operating Labor
Costs)

Includes operating supplies and laboratory


charges. If the user enters a lump-sum value
for either Operating Supplies or Laboratory
Charges, the addition of the two values will
override the User Entered Operating Charges

Plant Overhead
(Percent of
Operating Labor
and Maintenance
Costs)

Consists of charges during production for


services, facilities, payroll overhead, etc.

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G and A Expenses
(Percent of Subtotal
Operating Costs)

General and administrative costs incurred


during production such as administrative
salaries/ expenses, R&D, product distribution
and sales costs.

General Investment Parameters


Tax Rate

The percent per period of earnings that must


be paid to the government.

Desired Rate of
Return

Indicates the desired (i.e., user- entered)


return rate, in percent per period, for the
investment.

Economic Life of
Project

Indicates the length of time in terms of periods


over which capital costs will be depreciated.

Salvage Value
(Fraction of Initial
Capital Cost)

The expected value of an asset at the end of its


usable life for the company. The difference
between an assets cost and its salvage value
is the amount to be depreciated over the
assets usable life.

Depreciation
Method

There are four depreciation methods allowed in


Aspen Process Economic Analyzer: Straight
Line, Sum of the Digits, Double Declining
(Balance), Accelerated Cost Recovery System
(ACRS). See Investment Parameters in
Chapter 3 for a detailed definition of each
depreciation method.

Escalation
Project Capital
Escalation

Rate at which project capital expenses may


increase expressed in percent per period. If the
addition of Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC)
period and start-up period is greater than one
whole period, Project Capital Escalation is used
to escalate the capital expenses for periods
beyond the first period.

Products Escalation

Rate at which the sales revenue from products


of the facility are to be escalated (increased) in
terms of percent per period.

Raw Material
Escalation

Rate at which the raw material costs of the


facility are to be escalated (increased) in terms
of percent per period.

Operating and
Maintenance Labor

Rate at which the operating and maintenance


costs of the facility are to be escalated
(increased) in terms of Escalation percent per
period. The operating labor costs include
operators per shift and supervisory costs.

Utilities Escalation

User-entered percentages reflecting the


anticipated utility price increase each period.

Project Summary Output Data


The following OUTPUT data is generated by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer
:

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444

Project Results Summary


Total Project
Capital Cost

The total capital cost investment needed for


the project. If the calculated EPC period is
more than a year, the capital costs expenditure
will be spread out over the length of the EPC
period.

Total Raw Materials


Cost

The total raw material cost of the facility ex


pressed in terms of cost per period.

Total Products
Sales

The total product sales of the facility expressed


in terms of cost per period.

Total Operating
and Maintenance
Labor Cost

The operating labor (including operators/shift


and supervisors/shift) and maintenance labor
costs in terms of cost per period. The
maintenance cost includes maintenance labor
and supplies.

Total Utilities Cost

The total utilities usage cost expressed in cost


per period.

Total Operating
Cost

The total of raw material, utility, operating


labor, maintenance, operating charges, plant
overhead and G and A expenses.

Operating Labor
Cost

Includes operators per shift and supervisors


per shift costs.

Maintenance Cost

Maintenance cost of the equipment including


labor and materials.

Operating Charges

Includes operating supplies and laboratory


charges.

Plant Overhead

Consists of charges during production for


services, facilities, payroll overhead, etc.

Subtotal Operating
Cost

Subtotal cost of raw materials, operating labor,


utilities, maintenance, operating charges, and
plant overhead.

G and A Cost

General and administrative costs incurred


during production. This is calculated as a
percentage of the Subtotal Operating Costs.

The costs listed under Project Results Summary are broken down into
individual elements under Project Capital Summary:
Project Capital Summary
Purchased
Equipment

The total material cost of process equipment


and quoted equipment cost items. Material cost
is accounted for in the codes of account 100 299.

Equipment Setting

The total construction labor cost for setting


equipment in place.

Piping

Instrumentation

The cost reported for each of these items


indicates the total material and construction
labor cost calculated for the category. The
above cost items may have originated from
two sources:

Electrical

Installation Bulks (please refer to Icarus

Civil
Steel

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445

Insulation

Reference).

Paint

User: The user can add project components


that create cost items in these categories. The
project components may be in the following
categories: Plant bulks, Site development and
Buildings.

Other

This item is the total of the following costs:


design, engineering, and procurement costs;
material charges (freight and taxes); and
construction field indirect costs (fringe
benefits, burdens, consumables/small tools,
insurance, equipment rental, field services,
field office construction supervision, and plant
start-up).

Subcontracts

The total cost of subcontracted work. This cost


item is normally zero in Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer.

G and A Overheads

General and administrative costs associated


with engineering, materials, and construction
work.

Contract Fee

The total cost of contract fees for engineering,


material, construction, any subcontracted
work.

Escalation

The total capital costs escalation amount. This


cost item is normally zero in Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer.

Contingencies

The additional costs required to bring this


project to completion. In Aspen Process
Economic Analyzer, this cost item is
automatically calculated based on the project
type and process complexity.

Total Project Cost

The total project capital cost of the plant


calculated by the Icarus Evaluation Engine as
of the System Cost Base Date.

Adjusted Total
Capital Cost

Indicates the Total Project Cost (described


above) adjusted to the Start of Basic
Engineering. The Total Project Cost is
escalated , using the Project Capital Escalation
Parameter, from the system Cost Base date to
the start date of basic engineering.
Below is the formula used:
C_at=C_t*(1+(t_diff*e)/(w*7*100))

where:
C_at =

Adjusted Total Capital Cost

C_t =

Total Capital Cost

t_diff = Time difference between System Cost Base Date


and Start Date for Engineering
e =

Project Capital Escalation

w =

Number of weeks per period

Raw Material Costs and Product Sales


Raw Materials Cost
per Hour

11 Evaluating the Project

Total raw material usage cost per hour


specified in the Raw Material Specifications
file.

446

Total Raw Materials


Cost

Total cost of raw materials per period. This


number is generated by multiplying Raw
Materials Cost per Hour by Operating Hours
per Period.

Products Sales per


Hour

Total produced product sales expressed in cost


per hour.

Total Products Sales

Total product sales per period. This number is


generated by multiplying Products Sales per
Hour by Operating Hours per Period.

Main Product Name

The main product of the plant is considered to


be the product which produces the largest
sales figure per period. This field contains the
description of the main product (assigned by
the user).

Main Product Rate

The production rate of the main product.

Main Product Unit


Cost

The unit cost rate of the main product.

Main Product

The production basis (or unit of measure) of


Production Basis the main product (LB,
GALLONS, etc.).

Main Product Rate


per Period

The production rate of the main product per


period .

Main Product Sales

The total sales figure of the main product per


period.

By-product Sales

The total sales figure per period of the


by-products (i.e., products other than the
main product of the plant).

Operating Labor and Maintenance Costs


Operating Labor
Operators per Shift

The number of operators per shift per hour


necessary to operate the plant.

Unit Cost

The wage rate for each operator expressed in


cost per operator per shift.

Total Operating
Labor Cost

Total operating labor cost obtained by


multiplying number of operators per shift by
the unit cost and by Operating Hours per
Period.

Maintenance
Cost/8000 Hours

The cost of maintaining the facility equipment


for 8000 hours of operation of the facility.

Total Maintenance
Cost

The total maintenance cost of the facility per


period.

Supervision
Supervisors per
Shift

11 Evaluating the Project

The number of supervisors per shift per hour


necessary to oversee personnel who operate
the facility.

447

Unit Cost

The wage rate for each supervisor expressed


in cost per supervisors per shift.

Total Supervision
Cost

Total supervising labor cost obtained by


multiplying number of supervisors per shift by
the unit cost and by Operating Hours per
Period.

Utilities Costs
The utility cost breakdown is given below for electricity, potable
water, fuel and instrument air as well as user defined process utilities
such as steam.
Note: The Process utilities details are available only when the results
are viewed in Excel. These are made available through separate
spreadsheets.
The description of each utility includes:
Rate

The rate of use of the utility in terms of


amount per hour.

Unit Cost

The unit cost of the utility in cost per amount.

Total Cost

The total cost of the utility in cost per period.

Cashflow
Cashflow (CASHFLOW.ICS) calculates the net present value (NPV), internal
rate of return (IRR), profitability index (PI), payback period, etc.

The spreadsheet displays the cashflow information shown by period. The beginning part of the
spreadsheet contains data/results carried over from the Project Summary (PROJSUM.ICS)
spreadsheet.
Item

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Description

448

TW

Number of Weeks per Period

Number of Periods for Analysis

DTEPC

Duration of EPC Phase

DT

Duration of EPC Phase and Startup

WORKP

Working Capital Percentage

OPCHG

Operating Charges

PLANTOVH

Plant Overhead

CAPT

Total Project Cost

RAWT

Total Raw Material Cost

PRODT

Total Product Sales

OPMT

Total Operating Labor and Maintenance Cost

UTILT

Total Utilities Cost

ROR

Desired Rate of Return/Interest Rate

AF

ROR Annuity Factor

TAXR

Tax Rate

IF

ROR Interest Factor

ECONLIFE

Economic Life of Project

SALVAL

Salvage Value (Percent of Initial Capital Cost)

DEPMETH

Depreciation Method

DEPMETHN

Depreciation Method Id

ESCAP

Project Capital Escalation

ESPROD

Products Escalation

ESRAW
ESLAB

Raw Material Escalation


Operating and Maintenance Labor Escalation

ESUT

Utilities Escalation

START

Start Period for Plant Startup

PODE

Desired Payout Period (excluding EPC and Startup


Phases). Reserved for future use.

POD

Desired Payout Period: Reserved for future use.

DESRET

Desired Return on Project for Sales Forecasting.


Reserved for future use.

END

End Period for Economic Life of Project

GA

G and A Expenses

DTEP

Duration of EP Phase before Start of

OP

Total Operating Labor Cost

MT

Total Maintenance Cost

Construction

Sales
A number will appear in this category only after the time allotted for all prior
phases (engineering, procurement, construction and startup phases) has
expired.
SP (Products
Sales)

11 Evaluating the Project

The total products sales value per period calculated


in PROJSUM.ICS.

449

SPF (Forecasted Reserved for future use.


Sales Annuity
Factor)
SF (Forecasted
Sales)

Reserved for future use.

S (Total Sales)

Indicates the amount received per period from sold


products. This number is either SP or SF.

Expenses
Includes both capital and operating expenditures per period listed
below.
CAP (Capital
Costs)

Indicates, by period, total funds spent prior to startup.


Unescalated Cumulative Capital Cost: Indicates the
total capital costs spent through the current period.
This is based on the Total Project Capital Cost in
PROJSUM.ICS.
Capital Cost: Indicates, by period, the amount of
initial, non-variable costs associated with the project.
This number is based on the Total Project Capital Cost
found in PROJSUM.ICS.
Cumulative Capital Cost: Indicates capital expenditures
through period n. For example, the number in period 4
represents the total capital expenditures beginning in
period 1 and ending in period 4.
Working: Indicates the amount required to operate the
facility before the revenue from product sales is
sufficient to cover costs. Working Capital is a lumpsum amount which takes effect during the start-up
period. It is escalated at rate equal to the Project
Capital Escalation rate.

OP (Operating Indicates, by period, the total expenditure on the


Costs)
following items necessary to keep the facility
operating: Raw Materials, Operating Labor Cost,
Maintenance Cost, Utilities, Operating Charges, Plant
Overhead, Subtotal Operating Costs, and G and A
Costs. This number is the Total Operating Cost
imported from PROJSUM.ICS and entered in this field
after capital expenditures cease.

(R)Revenue
Indicates, by period, the amount of money available after capital and
operating expenses have been paid. This number is obtained by subtracting
Capital Costs and Operating Costs from Sales.
DEP
Depreciation Expense: the amount by which the value of the capital
cost decreases each period. The Total Project Capital Cost is depreciated, via
the chosen depreciation method, over the useful Economic Life of the facility.
The Straight Line Method assumes that the item will depreciate by a constant
amount over its Economic life. When the Sum of the Years Method is used,
the depreciation expense decreases during each year of the projects useful
life. When the Double Declining Balance Method is used, the project is
depreciated in geometric increments. The Accelerated Cost Recovery System

11 Evaluating the Project

450

assumes that the project begins operating in the second half of the first year,
rather than in the beginning of the first year.
E
Earnings Before Taxes: funds available after all expenses have been
paid. This number is obtained by subtracting the Depreciation and the
Interest Expenses from the Revenue.
TAX
Indicates amount owed to the government. This number is obtained by
multiplying the tax rate by Earnings Before Taxes.
NE
Net Earnings: funds available after taxes have been paid. This number
is obtained by subtracting the Taxes from the Earnings Before Taxes.
TED
Total Earnings: total cash available from project. This number is
computed by adding the Depreciation Expense to the Net Earnings. Since the
depreciation expense is a non-cash expense (no cash actually leaves the
facility in order to pay the depreciation expense) adding the depreciation to
the net earnings gives the total cash flow obtained from the project. Inclusion
of the Depreciation Expenses reduces the amount of taxable income.
TEX
Total Expenses (Excludes Taxes and Depreciation): the total expenses
of the project including capital, operating, and any interest expense.
FVI
Future Value of Cumulative Cash Inflows: sums the Sales received
through period n and indicates what the Sales would be if they had been
received in the current period. For example, the value in period 4 is what the
sales in periods 1-4 would have been if all of these funds had been received in
period 4.
PVI
Present Value of Cumulative Cash Inflows: the current worth of all the
cash received through period n. For example, the number in period 4
represents the value that the sales generated in periods 1 through 4 would be
if those sales were received in the first period. This number is obtained by
summing all of sales from prior time periods adding this amount to sales in
the current time period. Using the specified interest rate, this total is then
discounted back to the first time period.
PVOS Present Value of Cumulative Cash Outflows, Sales.
PVOP Present Value of Cumulative Cash Outflows, Products: the current
worth of all of the cash paid through period n. For example, the number in
period 4 represents the value that the expenses paid in periods 1 through 4
would be if those expenses were paid in the first period. This number is
obtained by summing all of the outflows (Capital Costs, Operating Costs,
Interest Expense) from prior time periods and adding this amount to the
outflows in the current period. Using the specified interest rate, this total is
then discounted back to the first time period .
PVO
Present Value of Cumulative Cashflows: represents PVOS or PVOP
depending on whether or not you entered a desired payout period. If you
entered a desired payout period, the basis for the cash outflow calculation is
the Forecasted Sales. Otherwise, the basis is Product Sales.
PV
Present Value of Cashflows: the present worth of the Total Earnings
received in the current period. For example, the number in period 4
represents the value that the Total Earnings generated in period 4 discounted
back to the first time period.
Final results are shown below:

11 Evaluating the Project

451

NPV
Net Present Value: the current worth of all the Net Earnings received
through period n. For example, the number in period 4 represents the value
that the Net Earnings generated in periods 1 through 4 if those earnings were
received in the first period. This number is obtained by summing all of the Net
Earnings from prior time periods and adding this amount to the Net Earnings
in the current time period. Using the specified interest rate, this total is then
discounted back to the first time period. The sign of this value determines the
analysis result. If, in a certain period, the sign of the net present value is
negative, then the proposed investment appears not to be profitable, thus far.
For example, if the sign of the net preset value is negative in period 3, then
the project does not appear to be profitable during periods 1, 2, and 3.
However, if the sign is positive, then the project appears to be profitable,
from period 3 onward. If the net present value equals zero, then the project
does not incur any losses or gains (break-even point).
IRR
Internal Rate of Return: the rate at which the present value of all cash
flows is zero. It is also known as the Discounted Cash-Flow Rate of Return.
This value is calculated at the End Period for Economic Life of Project (i.e.,
Economic Life of Project and considering the length of EPC and Startup
Period). At the End Period for Economic Life of Project, it is assumed the
salvage value of the plant and the working capital are recouped. IRR is the
after-tax interest rate at which the organization can borrow funds and break
even at the end of the project life.
MIRR Modified Internal Rate of Return: the profitability of the project. The
internal rate of return is the interest rate which equates the present value of
a projects expected cash inflows to the present value of the projects
expected costs (or outflows). The internal rate of return for each period is
calculated by dividing the Present Value of Cumulative Inflows by the Present
Value of Cumulative Outflows and raising this to a power and multiplied by
100. Two criteria are critical in evaluating the internal rate of return. First, if
the sign of the rate of return is negative, the project appears not to be
profitable. If the sign is positive, then the project appears to be profitable. If
the rate of return equals zero then the project incurs no losses or gains
(break-even point). In addition, if the rate of return is greater than the rate
which could be obtained from other opportunities (i.e., investing in a bank),
then the project probably should be undertaken.
NRR Net Rate of Return: the profitability of the project. The net rate of
return for each period is calculated by dividing the Net Present Value by the
Present Value of Cumulative Outflows and then multiplying the result by 100.
PO
Payout Period: the expected number of years required to recover the
original investment in the project. This row will indicate the length of time
that the facility needs to operate in order to recover the initial capital
investment (total capital cost plus working capital). If a number is entered for
the Desired Payout Period, the spreadsheet will determine the amount of
Sales necessary to meet this desired payout.
ARR
Accounting Rate of Return: measures a projects contribution to the
firms net income. This number is the ratio of the projects Average Annual
Expected Net Income to its Average Investment. For example, the Average
Annual Expected Net Income for the fourth period is determined by summing
net earnings from periods 1 through 4 and divided by 4. The Average
Investment is determined by finding the Salvage Value, and adding this

11 Evaluating the Project

452

number to the Total Project Cost and dividing this total by 2. If the accounting
rate of return is greater than one, then this is an indication that the project
might be a profitable undertaking. If the sign is negative, then the project
does not appear to be profitable. If this number equals zero then the project
incurs no losses or gains (break-even point).
PI
Profitability Index: shows the relative profitability of any project; it
shows the present value of the benefits relative to the present value of the
costs. For each period, this number is computed by dividing the Present Value
of the Cumulative Cash Inflows by the Present Value of the Cumulative Cash
Outflows. If the profitability index is greater than one, then the project
appears to be profitable. If this index is less than one, then the project
appears not to be profitable. If this number equals zero then the project
incurs no losses or gains (break-even point).
Analysis

Analysis results are shown by period. ( - ) indicates the project in the current
period appears unprofitable, while 0 indicates break-even status.
Depreciation Calculations
This section presents details on the calculation of depreciation.

Executive Summary
Executive Summary (EXECSUM.ICS) contains a project summary intended to
be reviewed by executives and other business decision makers.

It contains the following information:


PROJECT NAME

11 Evaluating the Project

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer project


name

453

CAPACITY

Capacity of plant for major product

PLANT LOCATION

Location of plant

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Brief description of project, from Project


Properties

SCHEDULE
Start Date for
Engineering

The beginning date for EPC (engineering,


procurement, and construction)

Duration of EPC
Phase

The calculated EPC duration in weeks

Completion Date for


Construction

The calendar date for the end of EPC

Length of Start-up
Period

Number of weeks scheduled for start-up


beyond the end of the EPC phase

INVESTMENT
Currency Conversion

Conversion factor between user-selected


currency to the currency used by the
system internally for the selected Country
basis. For example, if the US country basis
is selected, the internal system currency is
US Dollars. Therefore, all numbers will be
reported in US Dollars. However, if a
currency conversion rate of 1.5 is specified,
all internal values will be multiplied by 1.5
and then reported

Total Project Capital

The total capital cost investment needed for


the project. If the calculated EPC period is
more than a year, the capital costs
expenditure will be spread out over the
length of the EPC period

Total Operating Cost

The total of raw material, utility, operating


labor, maintenance, operating charges,
plant overhead and G and A expenses

Total Raw Materials


Cost

The total raw material cost of the facility


expressed in terms of cost per year

Total Utilities Cost

The total utilities usage cost expressed in


terms of cost per year

Total Product Sales

The total product sales of the facility


expressed in terms of cost per year

Desired Rate of
Return

Desired rate of return expressed in terms of


percent per year.

PROJECT INFORMATION
Simulator Type

The name of the process simulator from


which process data was imported

Version

The version of the process simulator

Report File

The file name of the process simulator


report file

Report Date

Date and time of the process simulator


report file

11 Evaluating the Project

454

Economic Analysis
Type

The name of the Icarus system used for the


evaluation

Version

Version number of the Icarus system.

System Cost Base


Date

The capital costs basis date of the system.


The Adjusted Total Project Cost represents
the calculated capital cost of the project
(calculated at this base date) escalated to
the Start Date of Engineering.

Project Directory

Directory path for the current Aspen Process


Economic Analyzer project

Analysis Date

Date investment analysis was run.

Country basis

Country basis for the capital costs/schedule


analysis

Project Type

Project type identified in the standard basis


specs

Design code

Selected design code for equipment

Prepared By

Identifier for the preparer of the process


evaluator

Using the Reporting Assistant


The Reporting Assistant feature lets you create your own customized report
spreadsheets, combining information from all other Icarus generated
spreadsheets.
The sections below describe the steps to create such custom reports when
viewing the results within the Icarus Main Window (ICS) and when viewing
them in Excel.

Using the Reporting Assistant in ICS


To develop a customized spreadsheet file and template
1

On the Tools menu, click Options | Reporting Assistant.

11 Evaluating the Project

455

The Reporting Assistant Options dialog box appears.

On the Report File tab, click New.

In the Save As dialog box, type a name for the report file that will contain
your customized spreadsheet. For example, type Custom as shown
below.

Click Save.

Click the Report Templates tab.

11 Evaluating the Project

456

In the Template Files section, click New.

In the Save As dialog box, type a name for the template file (for
example, summary) and click Save.

This example creates a reporting template for future use called


Summary.tra.
8

In the Template Entries section, click New Entry. In the Column Label
field, enter a label (for example, Project Name) for the first column on
your custom report spreadsheet. The Display Column box should
automatically display 1.

The Entry Definition section defines the data to be entered in the above
column. Select a file name in the Source box, then enter the column and
row of the source data.

For example, in the figure below, the contents of Column C, Row 8 of


Project.ics has been specified to appear in the customized report
spreadsheets Project Name column.

11 Evaluating the Project

457

10 Follow the same procedure (steps 7 - 8) to add more entries. You can use
a variety of sources. For example, adding the following entries will result
in a report template that uses all three of the previously discussed .ics
files as sources.
Column Label

Display
Column

Source

Source
Column

Source
Row

Project Name

projsum.ics

Start Date for


Engineering

projsum.ics

61

Tax Rate

projsum.ics

112

Purchased
Equipment Cost

projsum.ics

172

Total Project
Cost

cashflow.ics

14

Total
Maintenance
Cost

cashflow.ics

40

Completion
Date for
Construction

execsum.ics

17

11 When all the template entries are added, return to the Report File tab
view. To the right of the Template File field, click Browse.
12 Select the newly created template file (for example, Summary.tra) and
click Open.
13 Click OK to exit the Reporting Assistant Options dialog box.

Using the Reporting Assistant in Excel mode


When the results are viewed in Excel, certain additional results are made
available to the user. These include details about the process utilities as well
as the individual raw material and products in the project.

11 Evaluating the Project

458

The Excel mode uses two files:


Aspen Process
Economic
AnalyzerWB.xls

This workbook contains the spreadsheets used to


report the investment analysis results. This is an
ICARUS system file and users are recommended
not to modify its contents.

Aspen Process
Economic
AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls

The Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls file


stores the customizations that are in turn used
by the Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB.xls. You
can modify its contents to customize the Run
Summary worksheet.

The global copy of these files resides in the \Data\ICS folder. The files are
copied into the individual project folder when the investment analysis results
are invoked
Note: If copies of these files already exist within the projects, then they may
not be replaced and so may have to be replaced manually by the user. In the
case of ICARUS projects that are migrated from previous versions, any older
versions of these files will be saved as a backup and the newer versions will
be used.
The Run Summary worksheet in the Aspen Process Economic
AnalyzerWB.xls workbook is the sheet that can be customized by the user.
The Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls file stores the
customizations that are in turn used by the Aspen Process Economic
AnalyzerWB.xls. The Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls files
stores:

The template to be used in the Run Summary worksheet

Any additional user defined functions (UDF) that the user wishes to
incorporate.

The default Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls that is


provided with the system can be used to review these aspects of the file. The
sections below explain this further.

Steps to customize the Run Summary


worksheet:
If you want to view a particular piece of information from
one of the spreadsheets in Aspen Process Economic
AnalyzerWB.xls, on the Run Summary sheet, follow these
steps.
1

Close any open ICARUS projects and close ICARUS.

Open the ICS>>Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls file.

Edit the Template worksheet and add any user-defined functions that you
intend to use (see sections below).

Save and close the Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls


file.

Re-open the ICARUS project.

11 Evaluating the Project

459

Delete or rename any previous versions of Aspen Process Economic


AnalyzerWB.xls and Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls
that may exist within the ic_cache>>Current Working Project folder.

Run the investment analysis and ensure that your changes are reflected in
the Run Summary worksheet.

Aspen Process Economic


AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls>>Template
worksheet:

The Template worksheet has three columns that you can modify.
This column

denotes

Dest

the destination column in the Run Summary worksheet, where a


particular piece of data should be reported.

Column Heading

the title that should be used.

Source/Formula

the source from which the data should be retrieved. Formulas


could also be used.

Here is an example:
Dest

Column Heading

Source/Formula

Time

Now()

Project Name

'Project Summary'!C8

Keep the following in mind when editing the Template:

Entries must begin at cell D10

Processing of entries will end when a cell in column D is empty

The Source/Formula should not contain =;


Now(),'Project Summary'!C8

If you intend to define and use other functions, see the sections below.

for example,

Aspen Process Economic


AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls>>User defined
functions:
All user-defined functions should begin with UDF_,

11 Evaluating the Project

460

for example, UDF_UtilCost_Steam100PSI().


Functions that begin with Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerF_ refer to
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer system functions.
Using the Visual Basic Editor, you can view, edit, and add user defined
functions in the Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerWB_TRA.xls
workbook. The screen capture below shows a snippet from this file. Using the
samples provided, you could add more functions in the sections marked
Insert your functions here. If you need technical assistance in this regard,
contact the AspenTech Support Team.

Generating the Custom Report


To generate a report developed in Reporting Assistant:
1

Run a project evaluation.

On the Run menu, click Add Entry for Reporting Assistant.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer generates the report based upon the
template created in the Reporting Assistant. The data that was entered under
List of Entries on the Reporting Assistant Options dialog box appears as
columns in the spreadsheet.

Every time Add Entry for Reporting Assistant is selected, the latest data is
entered on the bottom row of the report. This way, you can compare results.

11 Evaluating the Project

461

Item Evaluation
Aspen Process Economic Analyzer allows you to run an evaluation on a single
component and view an Item Report. The type of Item Report displayed can
be selected in Preferences (see page 48).
X519H

To run an item evaluation and display the Item Report:


1

Right-click on the component in either Project Explorer or the List view,


and then click Evaluate Item on the pop-up menu.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer runs the item evaluation.


Note: If the evaluation has already been run, you only have to click Item
Report.

Right-click on the component and click Item Report on the pop-up menu.

You can also click the Evaluate button on the Component Specifications
form to run the item evaluation and display the Item Report.

Aspen Process Economic Analyzer displays the Item Report.

11 Evaluating the Project

462

You can include multiple components in the Item Report: on the List view
(area level), select the desired components, right-click on one of the
components, and click Item Report on the pop-up window. The resulting
Item Report lists individually the summary data (cost or sizing) for each
selected component.

Automatic Item Evaluation


You can have Aspen Process Economic Analyzer automatically run an item
evaluation whenever you click OK or Apply on a Component Specifications
form.

To turn automatic item evaluation on and off:


1

On the Tools menu, point to Options.

On the Options sub-menu, a check appears next to Automatic Item


Evaluation when the feature is turned on. Clicking Automatic Item
Evaluation turns the feature on and off.

11 Evaluating the Project

463

11 Evaluating the Project

464

Appendix A: Equipment and


Slots of those Equipment
Affected by Mapping

The following table lists the Equipment and Slots of those Equipment which
will be affected by mapping:
Important: When you do Map Based On Last Session, the slots listed on
this table WILL CHANGE.
Object Name

Attributes wiped out during re-size

DAT MIXER

CpTangentTangentHeight
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
VESSEL T-T HEIGHT

DAT OPEN TOP

CpTangentTangentHeight
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
VESSEL T-T HEIGHT

DAT REACTOR

CpTangentTangentHeight
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume

DCP ANSI

CpPumpEfficiencyPercent

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

465

CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpDriverPower
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidFlowrate
Capacity
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
Driver power
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
Pump fractional efficiency
Pump % efficiency
No. of identical items
DCP ANSI PLAST

No. of identical items


Pump % efficiency
Pump fractional efficiency
Design press. -gauge
Design temperature
Driver power
Liquid specif. grav.
Head
Capacity
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperature
CpDriverPower
CpFluidHead
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpPumpEfficiencyPercent

DCP API 610

CpPumpEfficiencyPercent
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpDriverPower
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidFlowrate
Capacity
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
Driver power
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
Pump fractional efficiency
Pump % efficiency

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

466

No. of identical items


DCP API 610 IL

CpPumpEfficiencyPercent
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpDriverPower
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidFlowrate
Capacity
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
Driver power
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
Pump fractional efficiency
Pump % efficiency
No. of identical items

DCP CENTRIF

CpPumpEfficiencyPercent
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpDriverPower
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidFlowrate
Capacity
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
Driver power
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
Pump fractional efficiency
Pump % efficiency
No. of identical items

DCP GEN SERV

No. of identical items


Pump % efficiency
Pump fractional efficiency
Design press. -gauge
Design temperature
Driver power
Liquid specif. grav.
Head
Capacity
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperature
CpDriverPower

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

467

CpFluidHead
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpPumpEfficiencyPercent
DCP GEN-SERV

CpPumpEfficiencyPercent
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpDriverPower
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidFlowrate
Capacity
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
Driver power
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
Pump fractional efficiency
Pump % efficiency
No. of identical items

DCP IN LINE

CpPumpEfficiencyPercent
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpDriverPower
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidFlowrate
Capacity
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
Driver power
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
Pump fractional efficiency
Pump % efficiency
No. of identical items

DDDTPACKED

CpTrayType
CpTangentTangentHeightTopSection
CpDiameterTopSection
CpDesignTemperatureTopSection
CpDesignPressureTopSection
CpTangentTangentHeightBottomSection
CpDiameterBottomSection
CpDesignTemperatureBottomSection
CpDesignPressureBottomSection
TRAY TYPE
BOTTOM DESIGN PRESS.

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

468

BOTTOM DESIGN TEMP.


TOP DESIGN PRESSURE
TOP DESIGN TEMP.
TOP T-T HEIGHT
TOP SECT'N DIAMETER
BOTTOM T-T HEIGHT
BOTTOM SECTION DIAM.
DDDTTRAYED

CpTrayType
CpTangentTangentHeightTopSection
CpDiameterTopSection
CpDesignTemperatureTopSection
CpDesignPressureTopSection
CpTangentTangentHeightBottomSection
CpDiameterBottomSection
CpDesignTemperatureBottomSection
CpDesignPressureBottomSection
TRAY TYPE
BOTTOM DESIGN PRESS.
BOTTOM DESIGN TEMP.
TOP DESIGN PRESSURE
TOP DESIGN TEMP.
TOP T-T HEIGHT
TOP SECT'N DIAMETER
BOTTOM T-T HEIGHT
BOTTOM SECTION DIAM.

DF ROTY DISK

CpSurfaceArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

DF ROTY DRUM

CpSurfaceArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

DGC CENTRIF

CpDesignTemperatureInlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpActualGasFlowrateInlet
ACTUAL CAPACITY
INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE
INLET TEMPERATURE
No. of identical items

DGC CENTRIF IG

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE
INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
EXIT TEMPERATURE

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

469

CpActualGasFlowrateInlet
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignTemperatureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet
DGC RECIP MOTR

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE
INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
CpActualGasFlowrateInlet
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet

DHE AIR COOLER

DUTY
[2]CpTubeWallThicknessSecondService
[3] CpTubeWallThicknessThirdService
CpTubeWallThicknessFirstService
CpTubeLength
CpNumberBays
CpNumberTubeRows
[3] CpDesignTemperatureInletThirdService
[2] CpDesignTemperatureInletSecondServ
CpDesignTemperatureInletFirstService
CpHeight
[3] CpDesignGaugePressureThirdService
[2] CpDesignGaugePressureSecondService
CpDesignGaugePressureFirstService
CpBayWidth
[2] CpBareTubeAreaSecondService
[3] CpBareTubeAreaThirdService
CpBareTubeAreaFirstService
No. of tube rows
Height
Number of bays
Bay width
Tube length
Tube thickness/BWG
Inlet temperature
Design press. -gauge
Bare tuo. of identical items

DHE FIXED T S

No. of identical items


Surface area
Number of shells
Tube pressure -gauge
Tube temperature

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

470

Shell pressure-gauge
Shell temperature
No. of tubes/shell
Extended tube length
Tube thickness
Tube pitch
No. of tube passes
Tube outside diam.
Shell diameter
CpTubeLengthExtended
CpNumberTubePasses
CpNumberTubesPerShell
CpNumberShells
CpShellDiameter
CpDesignGaugePressureShell
CpDesignTemperatureShell
CpHeatTransferArea
CpTubeOutsideDiameter
CpTubePitch
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperatureTube
CpTubeWallThickness
Required surface area (with overdesign)
RAW SURFACE AREA
DUTY
DHE FLOAT HEAD

No. of identical items


Surface area
Number of shells
Tube pressure -gauge
Tube temperature
Shell pressure-gauge
Shell temperature
No. of tubes/shell
Extended tube length
Tube thickness
Tube pitch
No. of tube passes
Tube outside diam.
Shell diameter
CpTubeLengthExtended
CpNumberTubePasses
CpNumberTubesPerShell
CpNumberShells
CpShellDiameter
CpDesignGaugePressureShell
CpDesignTemperatureShell

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

471

CpHeatTransferArea
CpTubeOutsideDiameter
CpTubePitch
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperatureTube
CpTubeWallThickness
Required surface area (with overdesign)
RAW SURFACE AREA
DUTY
DHE PRE ENGR

No. of identical items


Surface area
Tube pressure -gauge
Tube temperature
Shell pressure-gauge
Shell temperature
Tube thickness
No. of tube passes
CpNumberTubePasses
CpDesignGaugePressureShell
CpDesignTemperatureShell
CpHeatTransferArea
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperatureTube
CpTubeWallThickness
Required surface area (with overdesign)
RAW SURFACE AREA
DUTY

DHE TEMA EXCH

DUTY
RAW SURFACE AREA
Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpTubeWallThickness
CpDesignTemperatureTube
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpTubePitch
CpTubeOutsideDiameter
CpHeatTransferArea
CpDesignTemperatureShell
CpDesignGaugePressureShell
CpShellDiameter
CpNumberShells
CpNumberTubesPerShell
CpNumberTubePasses
CpTubeLengthExtended
Shell diameter
Tube outside diam.
No. of tube passes

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

472

Tube pitch
Tube thickness
Extended tube length
No. of tubes/shell
Shell temperature
Shell pressure-gauge
Tube temperature
Tube pressure -gauge
Number of shells
Surface area
No. of identical items
DHE U TUBE

No. of identical items


Surface area
Number of shells
Tube pressure -gauge
Tube temperature
Shell pressure-gauge
Shell temperature
No. of tubes/shell
Extended tube length
Tube thickness
Tube pitch
No. of tube passes
Tube outside diam.
Shell diameter
CpTubeLengthExtended
CpNumberTubePasses
CpNumberTubesPerShell
CpNumberShells
CpShellDiameter
CpDesignGaugePressureShell
CpDesignTemperatureShell
CpHeatTransferArea
CpTubeOutsideDiameter
CpTubePitch
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperatureTube
CpTubeWallThickness
Required surface area (with overdesign)
RAW SURFACE AREA
DUTY

DHT HORIZ DRUM

VESSEL T-T LENGTH


DIAMETER
CAPACITY
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

473

CpLiquidVolume
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperature
CpVesselDiameter
CpTangentTangentLength
DHT JACKETED

CpTangentTangentLength
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
VESSEL T-T LENGTH

DHT MULTI WALL

CpTangentTangentLength
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
VESSEL T-T LENGTH

DRB KETTLE

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpDesignTemperatureTube
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpHeatTransferArea
CpDesignTemperatureShell
CpDesignGaugePressureShell
CpDuty
SHELL PRESSURE-GAUGE
TUBE PRESSURE -GAUGE
SHELL TEMPERATURE
TUBE TEMPERATURE
DUTY
NO. OF IDENTICAL ITEMS
surface area

DRB THERMOSIPH

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpDesignTemperatureTube
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpHeatTransferArea
CpDesignTemperatureShell

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

474

CpDesignGaugePressureShell
CpDuty
SHELL PRESSURE-GAUGE
TUBE PRESSURE -GAUGE
SHELL TEMPERATURE
TUBE TEMPERATURE
DUTY
NO. OF IDENTICAL ITEMS
surface area
DRB U TUBE

surface area
NO. OF IDENTICAL ITEMS
DUTY
TUBE TEMPERATURE
SHELL TEMPERATURE
TUBE PRESSURE -GAUGE
SHELL PRESSURE-GAUGE
CpDuty
CpDesignGaugePressureShell
CpDesignTemperatureShell
CpHeatTransferArea
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperatureTube
Required surface area (with overdesign)
RAW SURFACE AREA

DTW DC HE TW

CpDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperature
CpVesselDiameter
CpTangentTangentHeight
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
Diameter
Vessel t-t height

DTW PACKED

CpTangentTangentHeight
CpTrayType
CpTotalPackingHeight
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
TRAY TYPE
Diameter
Vessel t-t height
Total packing height

DTW TRAYED

CpTangentTangentHeight
CpTrayType

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

475

CpTraySpacing
CpNumberTrays
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
NUMBER OF TRAYS
TRAY TYPE
Diameter
Vessel t-t height
tray spacing
DVT CONE BTM

CpVesselHeight
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
HEIGHT

DVT CYLINDER

CpVesselDiameter
CpTangentTangentHeight
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume

DVT GAS HOLDER

CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpGasVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER

DVT JACKETED

CpTangentTangentHeight
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
VESSEL T-T HEIGHT

DVT LIVE BTM

CpVesselHeight

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

476

CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpSolidVolume
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
HEIGHT
DVT MULTI WALL

CpTangentTangentHeight
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
VESSEL T-T HEIGHT

DVT SPHERE

CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER

DVT SPHEROID

CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolume
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER

DVT STORAGE

CpVesselHeight
CpVesselDiameter
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpLiquidVolumeGallonsBarrels
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
HEIGHT

EAC CENTRIF M

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

477

INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
CpActualGasFlowrate
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet
EAC CENTRIF T

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE
INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
CpActualGasFlowrate
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet

EAC RECIP GAS

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE
INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
DRIVER POWER
CpActualGasFlowrate
CpDriverPower
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet

EAC RECIP MOTR

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE
INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
CpActualGasFlowrateInlet
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet

EAC SINGLE 1 S

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE
INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
CpActualGasFlowrate
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet

EAC SINGLE 2 S

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

478

EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE


INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
CpActualGasFlowrate
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet
EAD AIR DRYER

CpGasFlowrate
CAPACITY

EAT COND CELL

VOLUME
CpCellVolume

EAT FLOAT CELL

VOLUME PER CELL


NUMBER OF CELLS
CpNumberCells
CpVolumePerCell

ECP AXIAL FLOW

CpTemperature
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpDriverPower
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
Driver power
Temperature
No. of identical items

ECP TURBINE

CpTemperature
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpDriverPower
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
Driver power
Temperature
No. of identical items

ECR BRADFORD

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

ECR CONE

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

479

RATE
ECR ECCENTRIC

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

ECR GYRATOR

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

ECR HAMMER MED

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER
PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER
CpDriverPower
CpMantleDiameter
CpProductSize
CpCrusherFlowrate

ECR JAW

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

ECR PULVERIZER

CpFlowrate
CpProductMeshSize
CpProductFeedSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

ECR REV HAMR

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER
PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

480

CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
CpProductSize
CpCrusherFlowrate
ECR ROLL RING

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

ECR ROTARY

CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
CpCrusherFlowrate
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

ECR S IMPACT

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER
PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER
CpDriverPower
CpMantleDiameter
CpProductSize
CpCrusherFlowrate

ECR S ROLL HVY

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER
PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER
CpCrusherFlowrate
CpDriverPower
CpMantleDiameter
CpProductSize

ECR S ROLL LT

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER
PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER
CpDriverPower
CpMantleDiameter
CpProductSize
CpCrusherFlowrate

ECR S ROLL MED

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

481

PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER
CpDriverPower
CpMantleDiameter
CpProductSize
CpCrusherFlowrate
ECR SAWTOOTH

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

ECR SWING HAMR

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER
PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER
CpDriverPower
CpMantleDiameter
CpProductSize
CpCrusherFlowrate

ECRYBATCH VAC

CpLiquidVolume
CAPACITY
No. of identical items

ECRYMECHANICAL

CpLength
LENGTH
No. of identical items

ECRYOSLO

CpCrystallizerRate
RATE
No. of identical items

ECT ATM SUSPEN

CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
No. of identical items

ECT BATCH AUTO

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CAPACITY
CpCentrifugeCapacity
[2] CpBatchFlowrate
CpCentrifugeDiameter

ECT BATCH BOTM

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CpCentrifugeDiameter

ECT BATCH TOP

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CpCentrifugeDiameter

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

482

ECT BOT UNLOAD

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CpCentrifugeDiameter

ECT DISK

CpCentrifugeDiameter
DIAMETER
No. of identical items

ECT INVERTING

CpCentrifugeDiameter
DIAMETER
No. of identical items

ECT RECIP CONV

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CpCentrifugeDiameter

ECT SCREEN BWL

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
INSIDE DIAMETER
INSIDE LENGTH
CpBowlDiameter
CpBowlLength

ECT SCROLL CON

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CpCentrifugeDiameter

ECT SOLID BOWL

CpBowlLength
CpBowlDiameter
DIAMETER
INSIDE DIAMETER
No. of identical items

ECT TOP UNLOAD

CpCentrifugeDiameter
CpCentrifugeCapacity
CAPACITY
DIAMETER
No. of identical items

ECT TUBULAR

CpBowlDiameter
DIAMETER
No. of identical items

ECT VIBRATORY

CpProductFeedSize
CpScreenDiameter
DIAMETER
SCREEN DIAMETER
No. of identical items

ED ATMOS TRAY

No. of identical items


TRAY AREA
CpTrayArea

ED PAN

CpSurfaceArea
AREA
No. of identical items

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

483

ED SPRAY

CpEvaporationRate
EVAPORATION RATE
No. of identical items

ED VAC TRAY

No. of identical items


TRAY AREA
CpTrayArea

EDC CENTRF PRE

No. of identical items


FLOW RATE
CpGasFlowrate

EDC CLOTH BAY

CpSurfaceArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

EDC CYCLONE

CpCycloneDiameter
DIAMETER
No. of identical items

EDC ELC H VOLT

No. of identical items


FLOW RATE
CpGasFlowrate

EDC ELC L VOLT

No. of identical items


FLOW RATE
CpGasFlowrate

EDC MULT CYCLO

No. of identical items


FLOW RATE
CpGasFlowrate

EDC PULSE SHKR

CpGasFlowrate
FLOW RATE
No. of identical items

EDC WASHERS

SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

EDD DOUBLE ATM

CpTrayArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

EDD SINGLE ATM

CpTrayArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

EDD SINGLE VAC

CpTrayArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

EE FALL FILM

No. of identical items


Heating area
CpHeatTransferArea

EE FORCED CIR

CpHeatTransferArea
Heating area
No. of identical items

EE LONG TUBE

CpTubeMaterial

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

484

Mat'l of construction
CpHeatTransferArea
Tube material
Heating area
No. of identical items
EE LONG VERT

No. of identical items


Area
CpSurfaceArea

EE STAND HOR

No. of identical items


Area
CpSurfaceArea

EE STAND VERT

No. of identical items


Area
CpSurfaceArea

EF CARTRIDGE

CpLiquidFlowrate
FLOW RATE
No. of identical items

EF LEAF DRY

No. of identical items


SURFACE AREA
CpSurfaceArea

EF LEAF WET

No. of identical items


SURFACE AREA
CpSurfaceArea

EF PLATE FRAM

No. of identical items


FRAME CAPACITY
CpFrameCapacity

EF SCROLL

CpProductFeedSizeSelection
FEED SIZE
No. of identical items

EF SEWAGE

CpSurfaceArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

EF SPARKLER

CpSurfaceArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

EF TUBULAR

CpLiquidFlowrate
FLOW RATE
No. of identical items

EF WHITEWATER

CpLiquidFlowrate
FLOW RATE
No. of identical items

EFU BOX

CpStandardGasFlowrate
CpProcessType
CpDuty
CpDesignTemperature

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

485

CpDesignGaugePressure
No. of identical items
Duty
Standard gas flow
Process type
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
EFU HEATER

CpStandardGasFlowrate
CpProcessType
CpDuty
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
No. of identical items
Duty
Standard gas flow
Process type
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge

EFU PYROLYSIS

CpDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperature
CpDuty
CpProcessType
CpStandardGasFlowrate
No. of identical items
Duty
Standard gas flow
Process type
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge

EFU REFORMER

CpStandardGasFlowrate
CpProcessType
CpDuty
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
No. of identical items
Duty
Standard gas flow
Process type
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge

EFU VERTICAL

CpDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperature
CpDuty
CpProcessType
CpStandardGasFlowrate
No. of identical items

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

486

Duty
Standard gas flow
Process type
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
EGC RECIP GAS

No. of identical items


INLET TEMPERATURE
EXIT PRESSURE -GAUGE
INLET PRESSURE-GAUGE
ACTUAL CAPACITY
DRIVER POWER
CpActualGasFlowrate
CpDriverPower
CpDesignGaugePressureOutlet
CpDesignGaugePressureInlet
CpDesignTemperatureInlet

EGP CANNED RTR

CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDriverPower
Flow rate
Driver power
No. of identical items

EGP GEAR

CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDriverPower
Flow rate
Driver power
No. of identical items

EGP MECH SEAL

No. of identical items


Driver power
Flow rate
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDriverPower

EHE CROSS BORE

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpHeatTransferArea
Heat transfer area
No. of identical items

EHE FIN TUBE

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpTubeLength
CpNumberFins
CpNumberTubesPerShell
CpHeatTransferArea
CpDesignGaugePressure
Number of fins
Design press. -gauge
No. of tubes/shell

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

487

Tube length
Heat transfer area
No. of identical items
EHE HEATER ELC

No. of identical items


Power output
CpHeaterPower

EHE HEATER STM

No. of identical items


Heat transfer area
CpHeatTransferArea
Required surface area (with overdesign)
RAW SURFACE AREA

EHE HEATER-ELC

CpHeaterPower
Power output
No. of identical items

EHE HEATER-STM

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpHeatTransferArea
Heat transfer area
No. of identical items

EHE JACKETED

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpTubeLength
CpNumberTubesPerShell
CpHeatTransferArea
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
Design temperature
Design press. -gauge
No. of tubes/shell
Tube length
Heat transfer area
No. of identical items

EHE ONE SCREW

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpHeatTransferArea
Heat transfer area
No. of identical items

EHE PLAT FRAM

DESIGN TEMPERATURE
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
Surface area
No. of identical items
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpDesignTemperature
CpSurfaceArea
CpHeatTransferArea
Required surface area (with overdesign)

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

488

RAW SURFACE AREA


EHE PLAT+FRAM

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpHeatTransferArea
CpSurfaceArea
CpDesignTemperature
CpDesignGaugePressure
No. of identical items
Surface area
DESIGN PRESS. -GAUGE
DESIGN TEMPERATURE

EHE SHELL TUBE

No. of identical items


Heat transfer area
Tube length
CpHeatTransferArea
CpTubeLength
Required surface area (with overdesign)
RAW SURFACE AREA

EHE SHELL+TUBE

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpTubeLength
CpHeatTransferArea
Tube length
Heat transfer area
No. of identical items

EHE SPIRAL PLT

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpTubeDesignGaugePressure
CpHeatTransferArea
Tube pressure -gauge
Heat transfer area
No. of identical items

EHE SUC HEATER

No. of identical items


Heat transfer area
CpHeatTransferArea
Required surface area (with overdesign)
RAW SURFACE AREA

EHE SUC-HEATER

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpHeatTransferArea
Heat transfer area
No. of identical items

EHE TWO SCREW

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpHeatTransferArea
Heat transfer area

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

489

No. of identical items


EHE WASTE HEAT

RAW SURFACE AREA


Required surface area (with overdesign)
CpFlowrate
CpHeatTransferArea
No. of identical items
Rate
Heat transfer rate

EM ATTRITION

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

EM AUTOGENOUS

CpSolidFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpDiameterInside
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

EM BALL MILL

CpSolidFlowrate
CpMantleDiameter
CpProductSize
CpDiameterInside
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

EM MIKRO PULV

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER
PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER
CpDriverPower
CpMantleDiameter
CpProductSize
CpCrusherFlowrate

EM MIKRO-PULV

CpCrusherFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

490

PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE
EM ROD CHARGER

RATE
MANTLE DIAMETER
PRODUCT SIZE
DRIVER POWER
CpDriverPower
CpMantleDiameter
CpRodDiameter
CpProductSize
CpSolidFlowrate

EM ROD MILL

CpSolidFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpDiameterInside
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER
RATE

EM ROD-CHARGER

CpSolidFlowrate
CpProductSize
CpRodDiameter
CpMantleDiameter
CpDriverPower
DRIVER POWER
PRODUCT SIZE
MANTLE DIAMETER

RATE

EM ROLLER
EP DIAPHRAGM

CpTemperature
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDriverPower
Liquid specif. grav.
Head
Temperature
Flow rate
Driver power
No. of identical items

EP DUPLEX

CpTemperature
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpLiquidFlowrate

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

491

CpDriverPower
Liquid specif. grav.
Head
Temperature
Flow rate
Driver power
No. of identical items
EP RECIP MOTR

No. of identical items


Driver power
Flow rate
Temperature
Head
Liquid specif. grav.
CpDriverPower
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpFluidHead
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpTemperature

EP ROTARY

CpTemperature
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDriverPower
Liquid specif. grav.
Head
Temperature
Flow rate
Driver power
No. of identical items

EP SIMPLEX

CpTemperature
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDriverPower
Liquid specif. grav.
Head
Temperature
Flow rate
Driver power
No. of identical items

EP SLURRY

CpTemperature
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDriverPower
Liquid specif. grav.

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

492

Head
Temperature
Flow rate
Driver power
No. of identical items
EP TRIPLEX

CpTemperature
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpDriverPower
Liquid specif. grav.
Head
Temperature
Flow rate
Driver power
No. of identical items

ERD DIRECT

CpSurfaceArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

ERD INDIRECT

CpSurfaceArea
SURFACE AREA
No. of identical items

ERD JAC VACUUM

No. of identical items


CAPACITY
CpDryerCapacity

ERD JAC-VACUUM

CpDryerCapacity
CAPACITY
No. of identical items

ERD VACUUM

CpDryerCapacity
CAPACITY
No. of identical items

ETDSATM SYSTEM

No. of identical items


TRAY SURFACE
CpTraySurfaceArea

ETDSATM-SYSTEM

CpTraySurfaceArea
TRAY SURFACE
No. of identical items

ETDSTURBO

CpTraySurfaceArea
TRAY SURFACE
No. of identical items

ETDSVAC SYSTEM

No. of identical items


TRAY SURFACE
CpTraySurfaceArea

ETDSVAC-SYSTEM

CpTraySurfaceArea
TRAY SURFACE
No. of identical items

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

493

ETDSVACUUM

CpTraySurfaceArea
TRAY SURFACE
No. of identical items

ETURCONDENSING

CpPowerOutput
Power output
No. of identical items

ETURGAS

CpPowerOutput
Power output
No. of identical items

ETURNON COND

No. of identical items


Power output
CpPowerOutput

ETURNON-COND

CpPowerOutput
Power output
No. of identical items

EVP MECH BOOST

No. of identical items


Actual capacity
CpActualGasFlowrate

EVP MECH-BOOST

CpActualGasFlowrate
Actual capacity
No. of identical items

EVP MECH-BOOST

CpActualGasFlowrate
Actual capacity
No. of identical items

EVP MECHANICAL

CpDriverPower
CpActualGasFlowrate
Driver power
Actual capacity
No. of identical items

EVP WATER SEAL

No. of identical items


Actual capacity
CpActualGasFlowrate

EVP WATER-SEAL

CpActualGasFlowrate
Actual capacity
No. of identical items

EVS HUMMER

CpNumberDecks
CpSurfaceArea
NUMBER OF DECKS
AREA
No. of identical items

EVS ONE DECK

CpWidth
CpLength
WIDTH
LENGTH
No. of identical items

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

494

EVS SIFTER 1

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CpScreenDiameter

EVS SIFTER 2

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CpScreenDiameter

EVS SIFTER 3

No. of identical items


DIAMETER
CpScreenDiameter

EVS SIFTER-1

CpScreenDiameter
DIAMETER
No. of identical items

EVS SIFTER-2

CpScreenDiameter
DIAMETER
No. of identical items

EVS SIFTER-3

CpScreenDiameter
DIAMETER
No. of identical items

EVS THREE DECK

CpWidth
CpLength
WIDTH
LENGTH
No. of identical items

EVS TWO DECK

CpLength
CpWidth
WIDTH
LENGTH
No. of identical items

EVT PLAST TANK

CpLiquidVolume
CpTemperature
CpVesselHeight
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpVesselDiameter
GAUGE PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
HEIGHT
VOLUME
DIAMETER

EVT WOOD TANK

CpLiquidVolume
CpTemperature
CpVesselHeight
CpDesignGaugePressure
CpVesselDiameter
GAUGE PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
HEIGHT

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

495

VOLUME
DIAMETER
EWFETHIN FILM

Heat transfer area


No. of identical items
CpHeatTransferArea

EWFEWFE SYSTEM

Heat transfer area


No. of identical items
CpHeatTransferArea

Size Interactive Slots - AirCooler

Overall U
Fin Thickness
Duty
CpTubePitch
CpTubeOutsideDiameterFirstService
CpTubeLength
CpTubeFinHeight
CpPowerPerFan
CpNumberTubeRows
CpNumberBays
CpFinPitch
CpBayWidth
CpBareTubeAreaFirstService
Overall Heat transfer Coefficient

Size Interactive Slots Compressor

CpSpecificHeatRatio
CpDriverPower
CpCompressibilityFactorOutlet
CpCompressibilityFactorInlet
CpActualGasFlowrateInlet

Size Interactive Slots TurboExpander

CpSpecificHeatRatio
CpPowerOutput
CpCompressibilityFactorInlet
CpActualGasFlowrateInlet

Size Interactive Slots HeatExchanger

Heat Exchanger Area Minimum Overdesign Factor


Overdesign Factor
Final Surface Area
LMTD
Overall Heat transfer Coefficient
Raw Surface Area
Shell Side Fouling Resistance
Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
Side For Hot Stream
Surface Area with Overdesign
Temperature Correction Factor
Tube Side Fouling Resistance
Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
UA
Overall U

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

496

Size Interactive Slots HeatExchanger_PlateFin

CpExchangerDepth
CpExchangerLength
CpExchangerVolume
CpExchangerWidth
CpRemarks2 :
CpMaterialCostPerUnit
CpLaborHoursPerUnit

Size Interactive Slots - Pump

CpLiquidFlowrate
CpFluidViscosity
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead

Size Interactive Slots Pump_Gear

CpViscosityCS
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead

Size Interactive Slots Pump_Vacuum

CpActualGasFlowrate
CpLiquidFlowrate
CpFluidViscosity
CpFluidSpecificGravity
CpFluidHead

Size Interactive Slots Vessel_Horizontal


Size Interactive Slots Vessel_Spherical
Size Interactive Slots Vessel_Spheroid
Size Interactive Slots Vessel_Vertical
WFE WFE SYSTEM

Heat transfer area

No. of identical items


CpHeatTransferArea

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

497

Appendix A: Equipment and Slots of those Equipment Affected by Mapping

498

Index

.
.D01 file extension, Icarus Object
files 128
.EML file extension, importing cost
libraries 292
.UCL file extension, importing cost
libraries 292

2
2/3 rule 89, 238

A
About command
Help menu 42
Absolute Basis
streams 114, 117, 122124, 178
Accelerated Cost Recovery System
(ACRS)
Investment Parameters,
Depreciation Method 104
Accounting Rate of Return (ARR)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
ACRS See Accelerated Cost
Recovery System (ACRS)
Activate Custom Model option
Preferences 49
Add Area command 182
Add button
Pipe Details form 193
Wage Rate Info form 73
Add Entry for Reporting Assistant
Run menu 39, 462
Add Project Component command
183
Add Stream button
toolbar 37, 178

Index

Add Stream command


View menu, PFD 174
View menu, PFD 178
Add Trend Data to Database
command
Trend menu, Aspen Icarus
Reporter 426
Adding
areas 182
project components 182
streams 216219
Additional Project Component files
importing from 5.0/5.1 22
Adjusted Total Capital Cost
Project Summary spreadsheet
447
AdminDir
location, Preferences 50
AEM See Analyzer Economics
Module (AEM)
Air coolers
design criteria specifications 89
Air supply
instrumentation loop 196
All Crafts Percent of Base
General Wage Rates 71
Allow Docking command 35
Analyzer 2.0B
importing from 2224
Analyzer Economics Module (AEM)
388405
error when re-launching 400
loading 388
RESULTS workbook 393398
revising premises 398399
saving workbooks 400
SPECS workbook 389393
Analyzer Scale-Up Module (ASM)
295298

499

Analyzer Utility Model (AUM)


notes 120
Anchor bolts
civil installation bulk 194
Apply 2/3 Rule for Design Pressure
Design Criteria 89
Apply button
Develop Stream specifications
form 116, 217
Installation Bulks form 188
Interactive Sizing form 224
Mat'l Man-hour Adjustments
form 190
Preferences dialog box 47
Area
adding 182
deleting 205
icons 27
importing 200
List view display of items 30
mapping 152
pop-up menu 183
re-numbering 205
simulator 144, 153, 158, 171
type 182
Area Information dialog box 182
Area title 199, 200
Areas
dimensions 199, 200
electrical specifications 199, 200
equipment specifications 199,
200
index manhours 199, 200
index material costs 199, 200
insulation specifications 199, 200
paint specifications 199, 200
piping specifications 199, 200
steel specifications 199, 200
title 199, 200
type definition 199, 200
ARR(Accounting Rate of Return)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
ASME
pressure vessel design code
selection 65
Aspen Icarus Reporter
accessing 406
creating a user database 430
Data trending 426
Excel reports 418425
HTML reports 416418
importing data 429
Management reports 418421

Index

menu bar 408


report mode 408
standard reports 408416
Aspen Plus
link to IPE 135
map specs 82
models used in sizing towers 243
AspenTech
Aspen Plus simulator program 82
Auto Filter 425
Automatic Item Evaluation
checked command
Tools menu 41, 464
Automatic task backup 49

B
Backup options
Preferences 49
Base Design Value
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 398, 399
Base Stream
Develop Stream specifications
form 117
Develop Streams dialog box
122124, 178
BaseCase, default scenario name
19
Basis
Map dialog box 153
streams 114, 117, 124, 122
124, 178
Basis for Capital Costs
construction workforce 7073
indexing 74
input units of measure 59
introduction 58
libraries 125, 126
output (reports) units of
measure customization 61
selecting defaults 126
BFD See Block Flow Diagram (BFD)
BinCacheDir
location, Preferences 50
Block Flow Diagram (BFD)
displaying 146
Drag & Find feature 147
introduction 146
right-click commands 148
View menu 150
Zoom commands 148149
Bottom sump height

500

towers, design criteria 90


BS5500
pressure vessel design code
selection 65
Buildings 181
By-products
escalation 404
Stream Input worksheet 405

C
Cached project information 44
Cancel button
Develop Stream specifications
form 116
Preferences dialog box 47
Capacity
changing 295
Capacity over-design factor See
Pump overdesign factor
Capital cost parameters
Project Input worksheet 403
Capital Costs
Cashflow spreadsheet 451
depreciation 103104, 451
errors 387
escalation 104, 447, 450
Executive Summary spreadsheet
455
Investment Parameters 105
Project Summary spreadsheet
444, 446447
reports 48, 435, 437
toolbar button 37, 406, 431
View command 40, 150, 173,
406, 431
Capital investment
Project Input worksheet 402
Capture worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 393
Cascade command
Window menu 28, 42
Cash Flow Summary
reports, Icarus Editor 437
Cash flows
Project Input worksheet 401
Cashflow spreadsheet 449454
CASHFLOW.ICS
Cashflow spreadsheet 449454
ChemCAD
map specs 83

Index

simulator report preparation


136137
Chemstations
link to IPE 11, Also See
ChemCAD
Civil
installation bulk 194
material costs and man-hours
189
Clear All Saved Trends command
Trend menu, Aspen Icarus
Reporter 426
ClipboardDir
location, Preferences 50
Close command
File menu 38
COA See Code of Account (COA)
COADir
location, Preferences 50
Code of Account (COA)
allocating UCL item costs to 284
Cold Inlet Stream field 224
Cold Outlet Stream field 224
Color coding
Component Specifications form
187
Component Map Information 156,
158
Component Name 157
Component Specifications form
accessing 186
color coding 186, 187
Options button 187, 188
P&ID button 191, 194
Component Status 157
Components See Project
components
Components view
Palette 33
ComponentsDir
location, Preferences 50
Compressors
design criteria specifications 89
sizing 214
Computer name
scenario information 25
Configuration options
mapping 154, 158
Construction
workforce 7073
Construction schedule
Project Schedule Data Sheet 438
Contingency

501

General Specs 63, 64, 66


Project Summary spreadsheet
447
Contingency Percent field
General Specs 63, 64
Contractor
fees 447
reports 438
Control Center button bar 344
Control centers
instrumentation loop 196
Control Panel worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 389
Control signal
instrumentation loop 196
Control valve
instrumentation loop 196197
Copy button
toolbar, Icarus Editor 433
Copy command
library items 291
project components 202, 204
Cost libraries
deleting 294
duplicating 293
Equipment Model Library (EML)
277281
importing 292
introduction 276
Unit Cost Library (UCL) 281287
Costs See Capital costs; Direct
costs; Equipment; Labor;
Operating costs; Project cost;
Project direct costs; Total
direct cost; Total project cost;
Utility costs
Design Basis worksheet 395
distribution graph, Figures
worksheet 397
EPC worksheet 393
Country Base 21
Craft code 74
Craft rates
construction workforce 7374
Create New Project dialog box 18,
22
Create New Trend in Excel
command
Trend menu, Aspen Icarus
Reporter 427
Create Stream dialog box 121,
123, 217, 218

Index

Create tab view


Develop Streams dialog box 121
Create User Database command
File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter
408, 430
Create User Database dialog box
Aspen Icarus Reporter 430
Creating
project scenarios 1822
streams 216219
Creating a new project 18
Currency
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 388, 393
Currency Conversion Rate
creating a project 21
Executive Summary spreadsheet
455
General Project Data 21, 58
Project Summary spreadsheet
443
Currency Name 21
Currency Symbol 21
Current Map List
Project Component Map
Specifications dialog box 81
Custom Model
instructions 206210
Preferences 49
Custom Tasks command
Tools menu 41
Cut command
project components 203
Cyclone inlet linear velocity
design criteria specifications 98

D
Data trending
Aspen Icarus Reporter 426
DC_V worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 390
Decision Analyzer command
Run menu 388
Decision Analyzer dialog box 388
Decision Center worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 390
Delete button
Pipe Details form 193
Delete Mappings command 158
Deleting

502

areas 205
components 204
mappings 158
projects and project scenarios 43
Density
Develop Stream specifications
form 118
Depreciation expense
Cashflow spreadsheet 451
Depreciation method
Project Input worksheet 404
Depreciation Method
Cashflow spreadsheet
(CASHFLOW.ICS) 450, 451
Investment Parameters 103
Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 445
Design code
Executive Summary spreadsheet
456
Project Summary spreadsheet
443
Design Code
General Specs 65
Design Criteria
libraries 125
selecting defaults 126
Design Criteria specifications 86
Design pressure
applying 2/3 rule for 90, 238
design criteria specifications 87
sizing agitators 233
sizing heat exchangers 239
sizing towers 249
utility specifications 101
Design temperature
design criteria specifications 88
sizing agitators 233
sizing heat exchangers 239
sizing towers 249
utility specifications 100
Desired Rate of Return
Cashflow spreadsheet
(CASHFLOW.ICS) 450
Executive Summary spreadsheet
(EXECSUM.ICS) 455
Investment Parameters
specifications 103
Project Summary
(PROJSUM.ICS) spreadsheet
445

Index

Detailed Process Economics reports


Error! Not a valid bookmark
in entry on page 388
Develop Equipment Library Model
form 279
Develop Product Specifications
dialog box 112
Develop Stream specifications form
116, 217, 219
Develop Streams dialog box 121,
122, 217, 218
Develop Utiltiy Specifications dialog
box 99
Dimensions, areas 199, 200
DIN
pressure vessel design code
selection 65
Direct costs Also see Total direct
cost
Directories
project, locations - Preferences
5053
Disconnect command
streams 180
Disconnected Streams dialog box
180
Discounted cash-flow rate of return
See Internal Rate of Return
(IRR)
Display results after evaluation
Preferences 48
Docking 35
Documentation 15
Double Declining (Balance)
Investment Parameters,
Depreciation Method 103
Draw Disconnected Stream button
toolbar 180
Draw Disconnected Stream button
toolbar 37
Draw Disconnected Stream
command
View menu, PFD 180
Draw Disconnected Stream
command
View menu, PFD 174
Duct installation bulk 193

E
Earnings
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
Economic Life of Project

503

Investment Parameters 103


Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 445, 450
ECOSYS.xls 388, 399
Edit Connectivity button
toolbar 37, 175, 176
Edit Connectivity command
View menu, PFD 174, 175
Electrical
installation bulk 197
material costs and man-hours
189
specs, areas 199, 200
Electricity
operating unit costs
specifications 108
E-mail
reports 418, 419, 424
EML See Equipment Model Library
(EML)
Engineering schedule
Project Schedule Data Sheet 438
Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC)
period
Cashflow spreadsheet
(CASHFLOW.ICS) 450
Executive Summary spreadsheet
(EXECSUM.ICS) 455
Investment Parameters 104
Engineer-Procure-Construct period
Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 444, 445
EPC See Engineer-ConstructProcure (EPC) period
EPC Phase
Project Input worksheet 403
EQUIP.ICS
investment analysis
spreadsheets 441
Equipment
adding 182
cost 442
specifications, areas 199, 200
Equipment Model Library (EML)
adding an item to 278
adding EML item as a
component 280
creating 277
definition 276
EMLDir, location 50
Equipment Summary
investment analysis
spreadsheets 441

Index

ERROR message 387


Error Messages command
View menu 40
Escalating library costs 291
Escalation
Cashflow spreadsheet
(CASHFLOW.ICS) 450, 451
cost libraries 291
Investment Parameters 104
Project Basis worksheet,
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 395
Project Input worksheet 404
Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 445, 447
Estimate Class 58
Estimate Date 58
Evaluate button
Component Specifications form
187, 463
Evaluate Item command 463
Evaluate Project button
toolbar 37, 386
Evaluate Project command
Run menu 39, 386
Evaluation
item 463
Preferences 48
project 386
Evaluation Engine 241, 430
Excavation and backfill
civil installation bulk 194
Excel
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 388405
Excel Custom Model files 206210
Excel reports
Auto Filter 425
descriptions 422
opening 422
Exchange rate See Also Currency
Conversion Rate
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 393, 401
EXECSUM.ICS 454456
Executive Summary spreadsheet
454456
Exit command
IPE File menu 4042
Expenses
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
Export to Excel Trending Report
dialog box

504

Aspen Icarus Reporter 427


Export to Excel Workbook dialog
box
Aspen Icarus Reporter 419, 423
Export to SPECS Command
File menu 38
Export Trend Data into Excel dialog
box
Aspen Icarus Reporter 428
External Simulation Import Tool
command
Tools menu 41
External Simulation Import Tool
command
Tools menu 139141

F
Facility Type
Investment Parameters 105
FATAL message 387
Figures worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 397
File menu
Aspen Icarus Reporter menu bar
408
IPE menu bar 38
Fit into one page
Zoom dialog box 149
Float in Main Window command 35
Flow rate units
product specifications 113
Fluid classes
utility streams 99
Foaming tendency
trayed towers, design criteria 92
Foreman wage rate
general wage rates 73
Form work
civil installation bulk 194
Fraction basis 119
Freeze Content button
Properties Window 34
Freight
General Specs 64
Fuel
operating unit costs
specifications 108
Furnace fractional efficiency
heat exchanger design criteria 89
FVI (Future Value of Inflows)
Cashflow spreadsheet 452

Index

G
G and A Expenses
Cashflow spreadsheet
(CASHFLOW.ICS) 450
Investment Parameters 105
Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 446
Galvanizing (for steel)
paint installation bulk 198
General and administrative costs
Investment Parameters 105
Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 446
General investment parameters
Project Input worksheet 404
General Project Data
creating a new project scenario
21
project specifications 57
General rates
construction workforce 7073
General Specs 6265
Gray borders
Component Specifications form
187
Green borders
Component Specifications form
187
Grid Settings command
View menu, PFD 174, 175
Grids
viewing in Block Flow Diagram
(BFD) 151
viewing in Process Flow Diagram
(PFD) 175
Grids Visible command
View menu, BFD 151
Grout
civil installation bulk 194

H
Heat exchangers
design criteria specifications 90
sizing 238240
utility specifications 98
Help menu 42
Helper wage rate
general wage rates 72
HETP (height equivalent of a
theoretical plate)
packed towers, design criteria 91

505

Hot Inlet Stream field 221


Hot Outlet Stream field 224
HTML reports
descriptions 416
Item Report 48
opening 417, 418
Hyprotech
link to IPE 11, Also See HYSIM,
HYSYS
HYSIM
map specs 84
models used in sizing towers 243
simulator report preparation
137139
HYSYS
map specs 85
models used in sizing towers 243
simulator report preparation
139141

I
Icarus Editor
printing report 433
printing report section 432
reviewing results 431440
toolbar 432
Tools menu 41
Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE)
241, 430
Icarus interface 2636
Icarus Object files 128
Icarus Project Component
Selection dialog box 156, 280,
285, 288
IEE See Icarus Evaluation Engine
(IEE)
Import command
File menu 38
Libraries view, Palette 127, 292
Import Connected Streams option
Preferences 49
Import Data command
File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter
408
File menu, Aspen Icarus
Reporter 429
Import Installation Bulks option
Preferences 49
Import Selection dialog box
Aspen Icarus Reporter 429
Importing
areas 200

Index

components 200
project from previous version
2224
scenarios 201
specification files 127
Inch-Pound (IP), units of measure
20, 126, 127
Incomplete items 31
Indexing
Project Basis specifications 74
Indicating signal
instrumentation loop 196
Indirect costs
general wage rates 71
Project Summary spreadsheet
447
reports 447
Unit Cost Library (UCL) 276
Indirects
general wage rages 71
INFOmational message 387
Input Units of Measure
Specifications dialog box 20,
59
Installation bulks
accessing 188
civil 194
duct 193
electrical 197
instrumentation 194
insulation 197
introduction 188
material man-hour additions 191
paint 198
pipe details 191
pipe spec 191
Preferences 48
steel 194
Instrument air
operating unit costs
specifications 108
utility costs, Project Summary
spreadsheet 449
Instrument volumetric model 194
196
Instrumentation
installation bulk 194
loop adjustments 196197
material costs and man-hours
189
Insulation
installation bulk 197
material costs 189

506

Interactive sizing 213219


Interactive Sizing form 153, 157,
220, 224
Interest rate
Project Input worksheet 404
Interface layout 2636
Save Window States option
48
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
Statements worksheet 396
Status worksheet 393
Investment Analysis
project specifications 101114
viewing in MS Excel 441
Investment Analysis View
command
View menu 40, 441
Investment Parameters
libraries 125
project specifications 101108
selecting defaults 126
IP, units of measure 20, 126, 127
IPE 5.0/5.1
importing from 2224
IPELog.txt
Preferences, Logging 53
IRR (Internal Rate of Return)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
Item evaluation 463
automatic 464
Item Report
instructions for running 463
Preferences 48
Item Report command 463

J
JIS
pressure vessel design code
selection 65
Job Number field 58
Junction boxes
instrumentation loop 196

L
Labor cost per unit
Unit Cost Library (UCL) 284
Labor hours per unit
Unit Cost Library (UCL) 284
Labor Unit Costs

Index

operating unit costs


specifications 107, 108
Laboratory charges
Project Input worksheet 403
Laboratory Charges
Investment Parameters 105
Project Summary spreadsheet
444, 446
Ladders, steel - installation bulks
194
Length of Start-up Period
Investment Parameters 106
Libraries
Basis for Capital Costs 59, 125
cost libraries 262294
Design Criteria 125
Equipment Model Library (EML)
277
input units of measure 5960
moving to another directory 129
Project Component Map
Specifications 125
specification libraries 125129
Unit Cost Library (UCL) 281
Utility Specifications 125
view 32
Liquid entrainment method 95, 257
List view
description 30
mapped components 157
simulator file name 144
Status column 157, 184
Load Data button
toolbar 37, 144
Load Data command
Run menu 39, 144
Locations
plant relocation 295
plant/project location 64, 443
Preferences 5053
Logging
Preferences 53
Loops
instrumentation installation bulks
194
modifications 196197

M
Magnification
Aspen Icarus Reporter 410
Block Flow Diagram (BFD) 148
149

507

Main product
Project Summary spreadsheet
448
Main Window
display options 35
interface, default position 26
printing 38
understanding 2829
Management reports 418421
Man-hour indexing 74
Manpower Productivity Expert
(MPE)
Tools menu 41
Manufacturing cost parameters
Project Input worksheet 403
Map All Items option
Map dialog box 153
Map command
pop-up menu 152
Map dialog box 152
Map Items button
toolbar 151
Map Items command
Run menu 39, 151
Map Selected Item(s) option
Map dialog box 153
Map Unsupported Models To
Quoted Cost Item
Preferences, Process tab 49
Mapping simulator models
instructions 151158
specifications 81
units of measure mapping specs
7780
unsupported models 49, 82
Mass flow
Develop Stream specifications
form 118
Material adjustments
indexing, area level 199, 200
Material and man-hour additions
installation bulks 191
Material and man-hour
adjustments
installation bulks 189, 208
Material and man-hour indexing 74
Material cost per unit
Unit Cost Library (UCL) 284
Material costs
indexing 74
Material Index Info form 75
Material streams
product specifications 111

Index

Mean temperature difference


(MTD) 238
Menu bar
Aspen Icarus Reporter 408
IPE 26, 4042
Metric, units of measure 20, 126,
127
Microsoft Access Database (.mdb)
file 430
MIRR (Modified Internal Rate of
Return)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
Mixture button
Develop Stream specifications
form 116
Mixture Specs
developing streams 118
Modify command
simulator block 145
streams 180
Modify tab view
Develop Streams dialog box 115
MTD See Mean temperature
difference (MTD)
Multi-core runs
instrumentation loop 196
MUSE
design criteria specifications 89

N
Net Earnings
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
Net Present Value (NPV)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
Statements worksheet 396
Status worksheet 393
Net Return Rate (NRR)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
New command
File menu 18, 22, 38
New Component Information dialog
box 184
New Project button
toolbar 18, 37
NPV (Net Present Value)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
NRR (Net Return Rate)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
Number of Periods for Analysis
Investment Parameters 103
Number of shifts 71
Project Input worksheet 403

508

Number of Weeks per Period


Investment Parameters 103

O
OK button
Develop Stream specifications
form 116
Installation Bulks form 48, 189
Mat'l Man-hour Adjustments
form 190
Open button
toolbar 24, 37
Open command
File menu 24, 38
Palette Projects view 25
Open Existing Project dialog box 24
Open Workbook command
File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter
408, 425
Opening an existing project 24
Operating and Maintenance Labor
Escalation
Investment Parameters 104
Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 445
Operating charges
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Investment Parameters 105
Project Input worksheet 403
Project Summary spreadsheet
444, 446
Operating costs
Cashflow spreadsheet 451
Figures worksheet 397
introduction to IPE 12
Investment Parameters 105
product specifications needed to
evaluate 113
Project Summary spreadsheet
444
raw material specifications
needed to evaluate 109
Operating Hours per Period
Investment Parameters 106
Project Summary spreadsheet
444
Operating labor and maintenance
Project Input worksheet 403
Operating labor and maintenance
costs
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Investment Parameters 105, 107

Index

Project Summary spreadsheet


445, 446, 448449
Operating Mode
Investment Parameters 106
Operating supplies
Project Input worksheet 403
Operating Supplies
Investment Parameters 105
Project Summary spreadsheet
444
Operating Unit Costs
libraries 125
project specifications 107
108
selecting defaults 126
Options button
Component Specifications form
187, 188
Options menu
Component Specifications form
49, 187, 188
Options sub-menu
Tools menu 41
Order Number 205
Overall column efficiency
design criteria specifications 93
tower sizing 251
Overdesign factor 225
heat exchangers 90, 239
pumps 88
Overtime
hours,general wage rates 72
rate, general wage rates 72
Overwrite Project Backups option
48, 49

P
P&ID button 191, 194
Packed towers
design criteria specifications 91
sizing 254, 255
Paint
material costs 189
specs, areas 199, 200
Palette
Components view 33, 183
cost libraries 277294
deleting a project from 44
description 3234
Docking and undocking 35
dragging components from 183
floating in Main Window 35

509

hide/display 33
interface, default position 26
Libraries view 32, 125129,
277294
opening projects 25
Projects view 25, 32, 33, 44, 46,
51
Recent Items folder 183
specification libraries 125
unlocking projects from 46
View menu 40, 173
Paste button
toolbar, Icarus Editor 433
Paste command
project components 202, 204
Patents and royalties
Project Input worksheet 403
Payout period
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
Period Description
Investment Parameters 102
Phase durations
Project Input worksheet 403
Phases
Stream Input worksheet 405
PI (Profitability Index)
Cashflow spreadsheet 454
Pile types 67
Pipe Details installation bulk 191
Pipe Spec installation bulk 191
Pipe volumetric model 192193
Piping
installation bulks 191193
material costs and man-hours
189
volumetric model 192
Piping and Instrumentation
Drawings (P&ID) manual 191,
194
Piping specifications
areas 199, 200
Plant bulks
component categories 181
difference from installation bulks
188
Plant capacity
changing 295
Plant location
changing 295
Plant Overhead
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Investment Parameters 105

Index

Project Summary spreadsheet


444, 446
Platforms, steel - installation bulks
194
PO (Payout Period)
Cashflow spreadsheet 453
PODE (Payout Period Desired
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Ports Visible button
toolbar 37, 175
Ports Visible command
View menu, PFD 174
Potable water
operating unit costs specifiations
108
utility costs, Project Summary
spreadsheet 449
Precooler
suffix for mapping 155
tower configurations 159, 245,
247
Preferences
accessing 46
Backup tab view 49
buttons 46
description 46
General tab view 47
introduction 46
Locations tab view 5053
Logging tab view 53
Process tab view 49
prompts 47
saving window states 48
Tools menu 41
Prepared By field
general project date 58
Present Value of Cashflows
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
Pressure vessel design code
General Specs 65
Primary fluid component 116, 119,
217
Print command
IPE File menu 38
Print Preview command
File menu 38
Print Setup command
File menu 38
Printing
Aspen Icarus Reporter 412
forms and reports in Main
Window 38
Icarus Editor 432

510

Pro/II
models used in sizing towers 243
R/R minimum 90
simulator report preparation
141142
Problem description
SimSci report preparation 142
Process Complexity
contingency affected by 66
General Specs 63
Process connection
intrumentation loop 196
Process Control
General Specs 64
Process Description
contingency affected by 66
equipment design allowance
affected by 66
General Specs 63
Process Design specifications 77
101
Process equipment 181
Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) 171
180
Process Fluids
Investment Parameters 106
Process options
Preferences 49
Process Stream field
product specifications 113
raw material specifications 110
Process vessel height to diameter
ratio
design criteria specifications 94
vessel sizing procedure 259, 261
Product escalation
Project Input worksheet 404
Product sales
per hour, Project Summary
spreadsheet 448
per period, Project Summary
spreadsheet 448
total, Project Summary
spreadsheet 446
Product specifications
investment analysis
specifications 111114
libraries 126
selecting defaults 126
Product Support on the Web
command
Help menu 42
Production

Index

Stream Input worksheet 405


Production operations
Stream Input worksheet 405
Productivity adjustments 71
Products Escalation
Investment Parameters 104
Project Summary spreadsheet
445
Profitability Index
Cashflow spreadsheet 454
Project areas See Area
Project Basis
Basis for Capital Costs 5874
default specifications 125
General Project Data 57
introduction 55
Investment Analysis 101114
Process Design 77101
Project Properties 56
specification libraries 125
Streams 114125
Project Basis view 27
Project Basis worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 395
Project Capital Escalation
Cashflow spreadsheet 450, 451
Investment Parameters 104
Project Summary spreadsheet
445, 447
Project capital evaluation
Project Input worksheet 404
Project component
connecting to stream 176
Project Component Map Preview
dialog box 154, 156, 158
Project Component Map
Specifications
dialog box 80
libraries 125
project specifications, Process
Design 8086
selecting defaults 125
Project components
adding 182
component specifications 186
copying 202
deleting 204
Equipment Model Library
(EML) items 280
importing 200
installation bulks 188
re-numbering 204

511

Unit Cost Library (UCL) item 285


Project cost
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
contingency percentage 63
Project Summary spreadsheet
447
Project Data Sheet
reports, Icarus Editor 436
Project Description
Project Properties 19, 56
Project Summary spreadsheet
442
Project directories
alternate directories 51
copying 46
default, setting 52
Project evaluation
Preferences 48
running 386
scan for errors 48, 386
Project Explorer 26, 27
Docking and undocking 35
floating in Main Window 35
interface, default position 26
relation to Palette 32
View menu 40, 173
Project in use - message 45
Project Input worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 390, 398399
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 400404
Project Location
General Specs 64
Project Name
Aspen Plus - IPE simulator link
135
Cashflow spreadsheet 454
Create New Project dialog box
19, 23
Project Summary spreadsheet
442
Save As dialog box 43
Project Properties
creating a new project 19
Project Basis specifications 56
Project scenarios
creating new 18
deleting 43
importing 201
opening existing 24
salvaging 44
saving 42

Index

unlocking 45
Project Schedule Data Sheet
reports, Icarus Editor 438
Project Summary
reports, Icarus Editor 435
Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 442449
Project Title
General Project Data 58
Project Summary spreadsheet
443
Project Type
contingency affected by 66
Executive Summary spreadsheet
456
General Specs 63, 64
Project Summary spreadsheet
443
Project view 27
Projects
copying 46
creating 1822
deleting 43
opening existing 24
view 32, 33
PROJSUM.ICS
investment analysis 442449
Prompts
Preferences 47
Properties Window
description 34
Docking and undocking 35
floating in Main Window 35
Freeze Content button 34
interface, default position 26
relationship to specifications
form 34, 186
View menu 40, 173
PROVISION See SimSci's Pro/II
with PROVISION
Pump overdesign factor
design criteria specifications 88,
241
sizing procedures 241
Pumps
design criteria specifications 88
sizing 214
PV (Present Value)
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
PVI (Present Value of Inflows)
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
PVO (Present Value of Outflows)
Cashflow spreadsheet 452

512

PVOP (Present Value of Outflows


Products)
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
PVOS (Present Value of Outflows
Sales)
Cashflow spreadsheet 452

Q
Question mark in Status column
component specifications 157,
186
Quoted cost item
mapping overhead/bottoms split
to 245
mapping unsupported models to
49
Quoted cost items
mapping unsupported models to
81
Quoted equipment 181, 188

R
Rate field
product specifications 113
raw material specifications 110
Rate Units field
product specifications 113
raw material specifications 110
Raw material
costs, Cashflow spreadsheet 450
costs, Executive Summary
spreadsheet 455
costs, project specifications 111
costs, Project Summary
spreadsheet 446, 447
escalation 104, 445, 450
project specifications 108111
Raw Material Escalation
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Investment Parameters 104
Project Summary spreadsheet
445
Raw Material Specifications
investment analysis, project
basis 108111
libraries 126
selecting defaults 126
Raw materials
escalation 404
Stream Input worksheet 405
Rebar

Index

civil installation bulk 194


Recent Items folder 183
Reconnect Sink command
stream, Process Flow Diagrams
(PFD) 180
Reconnect Source command
streams, Process Flow Diagram
(PFD) 180
Red borders
Component Specifications form
187
Refrigerant 222
Relation attributes 430
Relative Basis
streams 114, 117, 122124, 178
Relocating
introduction 12
Remarks field
project properties 20
Project Properties 56
Re-number command
Run menu 205
Re-numbering
areas 205
project components 204
Report files
Reporting Assistant 457
Report templates
Reporting Assistant 457
Reporter See Aspen Icarus
Reporter
Reporting Assistant 456462
Reports
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) Error! Not a valid
bookmark in entry on page
388
customizing 456462
data trending 426428
Excel Error! Not a valid
bookmark in entry on page
388, 418425
HTML 416418
Item report 463
Management reports 418
producing 386, 388, 463
Standard reports 408416
Reroute All Streams command
Run menu 172
Reset button
Develop Stream specifications
form 116
Residence time

513

design criteria specifications 92,


94
sizing crystallizers 235
sizing vessels 256, 259, 261
Re-Size command
project component pop-up menu
153, 215
RESULTS workbook
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 393398
Revenue
Cashflow spreadsheet 451454
Royalties See Patents and
royalties, Project Input
worksheet
Run Report command
File menu, Aspen Icarus Reporter
408

S
Sales
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Salvage Project As dialog box 45
Salvage Value
Project Input worksheet 404
Salvage Value (Percent of Initial
Capital Cost)
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
impact on depreciation 103
Investment Parameters 103
Project Summary spreadsheet
445
recouped 453
Salvaging project scenarios 44
Save As command
File menu 38, 43
Save button
toolbar 37, 42
Save command
File menu 38, 42
Save Project As dialog box 43
Save Window States checkbox
Preferences 48
Saving
cached information 44
project scenarios 42
window states 48
Scan for Errors before evaluation
Preferences 48
Scan Messages 387
Scenario Description
General Project Data 58

Index

Project Summary spreadsheet


443
Scenario Name
creating a new project 19
importing Standard Basis from
5.0 23
Project Summary spreadsheet
443
Scenario reporting
Project Input worksheet 401
Scenarios
creating 1822
importing 201
opening existing 2425
Schedule
Project Input worksheet 401
Project Schedule Data Sheet 438
Screens
design criteria specifications 97
Select a Suffix dialog box 155
Select command
Project Basis pop-up menu 129
Select Import Type dialog box 23
Select Simulator Type dialog box
143
Sensor
instrumentation loop 196197
Separation factor
design criteria specifications 95
sizing vessels 256, 257
Show Page Bounds
View menu, BFD 151
View menu, PFD 174
Sieve tray design 253
Signal cabling, instrumentation installation bulks 194
SimSci's Pro/II with PROVISION
models used in sizing towers 243
R/R minimum 90, 255
SHORTCUT column operation
255
simulator report preparation
141142
Simulation reports
Aspen Plus 132135, 243, 245
ChemCAD 136137
HYSIM 137139, 243, 245
HYSYS 139141, 243, 245
loading 28
Pro/II 141142, 243
selecting 144

514

Simulation Sciences Also See


SimSci's Pro/II with
PROVISION
link to IPE 11
Simulator data
loading 143145
mapping 151158
mapping specifications 81
unsupported models 49
Simulator File Name
project specifications, Process
Design 143
Simulator Type
Executive Summary spreadsheet
455
project specifications, Process
Design 143
Project Summary spreadsheet
442
Simulator Units of Measure
Mapping Specs
libraries 126
project specifications, Process
Design 7780
selecting defaults 126
Single Component Summary
Report
Preferences 48
Site development 181
Size button 213, 220
Size Icarus Project Component(s)
options
Map dialog box 153
Size Item option 177, 213
Sizing
calculations 230261
ChemCAD items 137
defaults 230261
HYSIM items 138
mapped components 153, 157,
213
overview 213
parameters 87, 89, 91, 92, 94,
96, 98
requirements 230261
Sizing Expert 98, 153, 177, 213
219
Sizing Method field
Equipment Model Library (EML)
279
Snap to Grid checkbox
Grid properties 175
Snap to Grid command

Index

View menu, BFD 151


View menu, PFD 174
Soil conditions
General Specs 64, 67
Solids handling information
design criteria specifications 97
Source
Map dialog box 153
Specification basis
product specifications 113
raw material specifications 110
Specification files
creating 126
deleting 128
duplicating 128
importing 127
introduction 125
modifying 127
moving to another directory 129
selecting 129
Specification libraries
customizing 126129
introduction 125
moving to another directory 129
SPECS workbook
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 389393
Spreadsheets
customizing 456462
SQL database
exporting to Microsoft Access
430
Stairs, steel - installation bulks 194
Standard Basis
file, selecting 129
input file, General Project Data
57
Standard reports
descriptions 408, 413412
navigating 410
opening 409
printing 412
searching 412
Start date, basic engineering
Executive Summary spreadsheet
455, 456
General Specs 64
Project Summary spreadsheet
443, 444, 447
Starting program 17
Start-up period, length
Investment Parameters 106
Statements worksheet

515

Analyzer Economics Module


(AEM) 396
Status bar 26
View menu 40, 173
Status column
List view 157, 184
Status worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 393
Steam utility 222
Steel
installation bulk 194
material costs and man-hours
189
specifications, areas 199, 200
Straight Line
Investment Parameters,
Depreciation Method 103
Stream Input worksheet
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 404405
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 398399
Analyzer Economics Module
(AEM) 390
Streams
absolute basis 123
adding 121, 177
basis mode 123
connecting to equipment during
sizing 219226
connectivity, Process Flow
Diagram (PFD) 175
creating 121, 177
creating from Project Explorer
216219
deleting 124, 180
material 111
modifying 115
process 113
product specifications 111
relative basis 123
Streams List command
View menu, BFD 151
View menu, PFD 174
Subcooling
tower configurations 159
Suffixes
mapping 154, 155
Sum of the Digits
Investment Parameters,
Depreciation Method 103
Supervision

Index

costs, Project Input worksheet


404
System administration files
locations, Preferences 50
System cost base date
Executive Summary spreadsheet
456
Project Summary spreadsheet
443

T
Tax Rate
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Investment Parameters 103
Project Summary spreadsheet
445
Taxes
amount owed, Cashflow
spreadsheet 452
General Specs 64, 66
indirects, Project Summary
spreadsheet 447
Template files
Reporting Assistant 458
TEX (Total expenses)
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
Tile command
Window menu 28, 42
Time period
Project Input worksheet 402
Timed backup 49
Toolbar
buttons 36
description 36
docking 36
interface, default position 26
View menu 40, 173
Tools menu 41
Total direct cost
Capital Cost report, Icarus Editor
440
Equipment Summary
spreadsheet (EQUIP.ICS) 442
Total earnings
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
Total Expenses
Cashflow spreadsheet 452
Total Manpower Schedule
reports, Icarus Editor 436
Total Operating Cost, Executive
Summary spreadsheet 455
Total project cost

516

Cashflow spreadsheet 450


Project Summary spreadsheet
447
Tower configurations
mapping 154, 161169, 245
248
Training command
Help menu 42
Transducers
instrumentation loop 196
Transmitters, instrumentation installation bulks 194
Trayed towers
design criteria specifications 92
sizing 251, 252, 255
Trend menu, Aspen Icarus
Reporter 408, 426, 427
Trending database reports 426
428
Trim cooler
suffix for mapping 155
tower configurations 159, 245,
247
Type definition, area 199, 200

U
UCL See Unit Cost Library (UCL)
Unique Project Backup options 49
Unit Cost field
product specifications 114
raw material specifications 111
Unit Cost Library (UCL)
adding an item to 283
adding UCL item to a project 285
creating 282
definition 276
Units of measure
input customization 20, 59
output (reports) customization
61
project properties 20
scenario information 25
Unit Cost Library (UCL) 284
Units of Measure Specification
dialog box 78
Unlock command 45
Unsupported simulator models
Preferences 49
Update button
Develop Stream specifications
form 116
User Custom Model 206210

Index

User name
scenario information 25
Utilities
escalation 404
list of availiable utility resources
222
Stream Input worksheet 405
usage estimation 119
Utilities Escalation
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Investment Parameters 104
Project Input worksheet 404
Project Summary spreadsheet
(PROJSUM.ICS) 445
Utility costs
Cashflow spreadsheet 450
Executive Summary spreadsheet
455
heat-transfer utilities 101
non-heat transfer utilities 108
Project Summary spreadsheet
449
Utility Specifications
libraries 125, 126
project specifications 98101
selecting defaults 126
Utility stream
creating 98
modifying 98
Utility Unit Costs
operating unit costs
specifications (non-heat
transfer utilities) 108
utility specifications (heattransfer utilities) 101

V
Valve tray sizing 253
Vapor disengagement height
towers, design criteria 90
Version
scenario information 25
Vessel
design criteria specifications 95
97
diameter, General Specs 65
height to diameter ratio 94, 259,
261
sizing 214, 255
View Existing Trend Data command
Trend menu, Aspen Icarus
Reporter 408, 429

517

View menu 40, 173

W
Wage rates
construction workforce
specifications 7073
WARNing message 387
What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get
Zoom dialog box 149
Window menu 42
Window states, saving 48
Workbook mode
understanding 2829
View menu 40, 173
Workforce reference base
General Wage Rates 71
Working capital
Project Input worksheet 403
Working capital percentage
Project Input worksheet 399
Working Capital Percentage
Investment Parameters 105
WYSIWYG
Zoom dialog box 149

Z
Zoom
Aspen Icarus Reporter 410
Block Flow Diagram (BFD) 148
149
toolbar 37

Index

518

Index

519

Index

520