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30-talet var ungt fit* den schweiriske tonsamren Frank Martin ( I ~ W - I Wup.
~ I egonen
fllr kollqan Arnold Schonberg. Martin, som tidigare verkat i mmantisk anda, tog stark inttyck av
dsnnes tolutmssystem och bdjade anvanda sig av element ur detta men alltid p i en psrsonligt,
tonalt fllrankrat sBtt. Quatre p i k s bdvss(1833) Br ett tidigt exempel p i den nya tyriska stil sorn
i och rned oratoriet Le vin heWfrAn 1938 leddefram till Martinsgenombrott. h e n i Quatre pieces
brbves I l t han sig inspireras av en Bldre musikform, namligen franska bamckdanser. Dess
modemta modernism i nyktassisk dakt var ernellertid b r vigad f6r den ytterst konservative
And& Segovla. Denne hade Wtt verket tillBgnat sig men han avhrdade det sorn oljud.
En, annan tonssttare 1 Parisvimlet fick dock carte blanche ail fllr m8staren Segovia skriva hsla
samlingar av stycken. Bland mycket annat skrev Brasiliens stwe tonsattare Heltor Villa-tobos
(1887-1959) 12etyder. 5 preludiersamt en gitarrkonsettfrAn 1951.Villa-Lobosvar sjBlv en skicklig
gitarrist. I sina kornpositioner fur gitarr kombinerade han klassiskt tonsprik med gitarrtekniker
hamtade frAn sydamerikansk folkmusik, frarnfllrsllt det som kommit att bli Villa-Lotms signum;
ackord $om fijfflyttas stegvis llver hela greppbrdan mot Iosa sblingar. Detta idiomtiaka skrivsitt
slBppte frarn gitarrens klangliga rikedom och har sedan dess varit en f6rebild for rnhnga
gitarrkompos#8rer.
Carlo Domenlconi fades 1947 i Italien men Ar sedan IBnge bosatt i Berlin. Under en perlod pa
70-talet undewisadehanpa musikkonservatoriet i Istanbul.Isina kompositioner blandar hanformer
och tonsystem f d n utomeumpeisk musik med sin personliga, impmvisatoriska och ofta mckl
bluesf3rgade s61. Den etniskt Wrgade och utitriktade karakwren i hans verk m h framhnden
hargjort honomtill en internationsllt ertsrsllkttonsBttareochgitarrist.I Variationeroverenanatolisk
folkvisa op. 15 (1982) Ar det egentligen intefriga om variationer i den traditionella, v3sterlandska
betydelsen, utan om dsterlBndsM Prgade figurationer. Dessa spinns allt Mare f6r an slutligen
Ater landa i det outsrnyckade temat, sengen 'Uzun ince bir yoldayim".
I Paraguay gjorde gitarristen Agustln Barrlos (1885-1944) pionj8rm8ssigaskivinspelningar med
egna kcinpositionerredanpb 1810-talet.Undersinatumberhade Barriosimagwlav"denkuKwerads
vilden", dB han frarnforde sin fdrfinade tonkonst ifiird komplett indiansk~d.PA att och vis var
dst en riktig bild, eftersom Barrios var stdt dver och gama frarnhbll sitt indianska ursprung och
samtidigt var htgt bildad inom europeisk filosofi, poesi och spdk.

I hans musik framtrader flem influsnser; rnycket bygger p$ latinamerikansk folkmusik och
popukrmusik, som Mazurka apasionata och OraqionPara Todos. Julia Florida Br en barcade,
en venetiansk gmdoUarsing, medan skildringen av en religi6s upplevelse, La Catedral, 8r
uppenbart inspirerat av Bach, Barrios stora ledstjslma i kornposition. Msd tonkaskaderna i Las
Abejas har han sUnM gitarrepertoaren en egen "Humlans flykt" (aven om det har ar bin sorn
surrar).

Antonio Lauro (1917-1986) studerade piano, fiol och kornpmition i Caracas i Venezuela tills
han 1932 hllrde en konsert rned Agustin Barrios. Han hst8mde sig dB fllr att lita gitarren bli
sin instrument.Inspireradav hur ton&ttare som Smetana och Granados f6rt in sina hemlanders
folklorn i konsertsalarnavllle han gora nigot liknande. Laum valde att ta upp a& H n 1800talets tonsittare och deras Valses Venezolanm", melcdiska karaMBrsstyckenrnedden typiska
synkoperade skifiningen rnellan 314-taM och 618-taM s m drivmotor. Valsema tilUgnas eller
portrStterar alltid en p e r m eller plats; El Negrito Br smeknamnet pa Lauros yngste son, Vels
nr 3 ar tillagnad donem Natalie, medan Vats nr 2 k r undertiteln Andreina, Laums brorsdotIer.
Valsema blev genast en succe och spreds dver vArlden tack vare landsmannen och
studiekarnratsn Alirio Diaz, vars konse@mgram alltid inneh6ll stycken av Laum. Hans muslk
hbr alltjBmt till den mest spelade reprtoaren.
Man kan undra om Joaquin Rodrigo (1901-1999) ink nhgon ging h n d s att hansomfattande
produktion ftlr alltid skuggades av den massiva uppm8rksmheten kring det tidiga verket
Concierto de Aranjuez (1939). Sonata Giomsa,sorn skrevs 1560, tillignades Renata Tarmgo
och var Rodrigosflinta sonat f8r gitarr. Det I r en fusion avtlamenw och bamckmusik. Iftlrsta
satsens Allegro mderato hors typiska "Rodrigo-dissonanser", tillagda sm3 sekunder dar
grepphanden tilliter m h sorn spetsar harmoniken. Andra satsen Brett riktigt bamck-andante
i e moll, medan tredje satsen. Allegro, effektivt forenar Bachs "hlmmelska dans" med latinskt
svang.

Mdrten Josj6
(In English, page 6)

D u r i n g th. ea3y pan oi~le1930r, h e swiss composer Frank Martin {l8W-1914)6800vered


his colleagueArnold Schonberg. Martin,whohad uptothenwohdin a Romanticidiwn,wasdeeply
affected by Schdnberg's twelve-tone system and began using elements taken fmm it -always.
however, in a p m n a l , tonallyanchred manner. Q u a t f e p h sb e v e s ( l 9 3 3 )is an early example
of his new lyrical style that led to Martin'sbreakthroughwith the oratorio Le vin herb&from 1938.
In Quatre piPces breves, earlier musical forms inspired him as well: namely. Frcnch bamquc
dances. Their moderate modernism 111 new classical clothing was however too dariw for the
extremely wnservative Andres Segovis.The work was dedicated to him, but he dismissed it as
noise.
AAother cornpcser on the Parisianmusical scene was howevergiven wrte blanchetowr'iteentim
wllectbns of piecesfor the masterful Segwia. Among otherthings, the great Brazilian c o m w e r
Heltor Vllla-Lobor (1887-1959) wrote 12 etudes, 5 preludes, and a guitar concerto from 1951.
Villa-Lobs was himself a fine guitarist. In his compositions for guitar, he wmbined a classical
tonal language with guitar techniques taken from South American folk music, above all one that
became Villa-Lobos tradema*: chords that move by steps over the entire fingerboard towards
open strings. This idiomaticwriting style freed the sonomus richness of the guitar and has sinm
then become a model for numerous cornpowrs for the guitar.
Carlo Domenicon1 was born in 1947 in Italy, but has lived in Berlin for quite a while. He taught
at the conservatoryin Istanbul during a p e t i d in the 1970s. In his compitions, he mixes forms
and tonal systems from non-European music with his personal, improvisational style, ofIen
influenced by rock and blues. The ethnically mtored and outgoing character of his works and
performances has made him sought after internationally both as a composer and guitaist.
Variations on an Anablic Fdk Song opus 15 (1982) is not a set of variations in the traditional
Western sense; rather, it consists of figurations color4 by Eastern styles. These are spun ever
tighter, only to finally return to the unomamented theme, the song "Uzun in- bir Yddayirn."
In Paraguay, the guitalist Agustin Barrios (1885-1944) made pioneeringreardings of his own
mmpasitionsasearly as the 1910s. Dur~ng
his concerttours, he honed his image asa 'cultivated
wild man," playing his rafined compositions while being completely clad in Indian clothes. In a
way, this was an honest image, since Barrios was proud of his Indian roots while being highly

educated wimin the realmsof Europeanphilosophy, poetry, and language. Several influencesare
apparent in his music; much of it is built on Latin American folk music and popular music, such
as his Maruhapasionata and O
w Para Todo& JuliaFbdaiss barcarole,aVenetian gcmddier
song,while his description of a religious experience, La &&dm/, is obviously inspired by Bach.
With his tone caswdes in Las Abejas, he has given the guitar repertoire its own "FIQM of the
BumMebee"(thwgh hare, We bees are buzzing).

Antonio Laum (1917-1986) studied piano, violin, and cornpmition in CawaS. Venezuela, until
he heard a concert with Agustin Barrios in 1932. He then decided that the guitar would k his
instrument. Inspiredby the way that composers such as Smetana and Granados transferredthe
folklore of their home oountries into the concert halls, he wanted to emulate them. Laura chose
to take the heritage from l%h century composers and their " V a l ~ gVenezolarws," mebdic
charackr pieces with the typical shifts fmm 3 4 to W8 as hH motor. The walkes are always
dedicated to, or $ewe as a portrait of, a penon or place; El Negrib is the nickname of Lauro's
youngest son, WaHz No,3 is dedicated to his daughter Natalie, and Waltz No. 2 has the subtitle
Andreina, whowas Laura's niece. The wakes were an immediate sucoess and spread acrossthe
globe thanks to Laum's countryman and colleague from school, Alirio Diaz, whose m c e r t
prqrams always had pfeceswritten by Laum. His music is still some of the most performed in
the repertolre.
One might wonder if Joaquln Rodrigo (1901-1999) ever felt that his large body of works was
always overshadowed by the massive attention given to his early work, Cowierto de Aranjuez
(1939). $onafa Giocosa, which was written in I W , was dedicated to Renata Tarrago, and was
Rodriao'a first sonata for nuitar. It is a fusion of flamenco and Baroque music. In the first

movement, Allegro moderato, one hears typical "Rodrigo dissonancesL minor seconds added
where me fingerboard allows and which sharpen the harmony. The second movement is a true
Baroque ~ndantein e minor, while the third movement. Allegro, effectively merges Bach's
'heavenly dance" with Latln swing.
Mdssrten Josjd
(Tmm'atjon Gmg Kmtrm)

biqu~

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rainte
:omme une Gigue
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S Venezdano no 2
20'h Gatica