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TOPIC 1: GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

BASIC CONCEPTS
-

Guidance
The activities undertaken to
provide
individuals
or
members of groups with
specific knowledge and skills.
a process to help individuals
or groups at any time to
expand their capacity in order
to make a wise choice in
terms of personal, social and
academic career, in the
interest of the individual.
An educational process to
give positive assistance to
individuals
to
understand
himself, using the potential
and
opportunities
of
education wisely to develop
one self and to expand it
more effectively.
Counselling
A process that experience by
a person at any time and not
necessarily
only
when
experiencing a crisis or a
change in their daily lives.
A process of professional
assistance aimed at helping
clients understand himself

and
the
surrounding
environment as well as create
a positive change in the
behaviour of the individual.
Psychotherapy
- A process that uses various
techniques to treat mental
health disorders, emotional
and Psychiatry.
- a treatment of emotional
disorders,
behaviour,
personality and Psychiatry by
using verbal or non-verbal
communication as well as
other interventions that does
not involves chemical or
physical pattern
AIMS
Guidance
1. Help individuals aware of
their potential in terms of
their
strengths
and
weaknesses.
2. Help individuals understand
themselves and others to
pursue and explore the
purpose of their lives.
3. Help individuals plan their
life direction more clearly
and effectively.

4. Help
individuals
make
personal adjustments in
public life.
5. Help creating individuals
who
are
competent,
assertive, confident and
able to maintain good
relations with everyone.
Counselling
1. Teach the client that they
are responsible for them
self.
2. Help clients to adapt to
other
people
or
the
environment in an effort to
reduce conflict or tension.
3. Guide
clients
to
form
positive image so that
there is stability or perfect
personality in order to
achieve their ambitions or
in taking any action in life.
4. Help clients understand
themselves and make them
ready
to
face
the
challenges in life and able
to handle it wisely.
5. Help clients realize that life
is not static and require
vigorous efforts if they are
looking for good results.

PRINCIPLE AND PHILOSOPHY


Guidance
1. Give
the
same
opportunities and rights for
all individuals to seek help
when they need it.
2. Guidance based on the
belief that every individual
has
the
ability
and
willingness
to
progress
itself.
3. Guidance is a continuous
process that educates an
individual through their life.
4. Guidance is towards mutual
consent, work together.
5. Guidance
based
on
behaviour, recognize and
respect one's self esteem.
6. Guidance is a process of
knowledge and useful to
individuals.
7. Guidance
must
be
practised on the basis of
ethical guidance and good
counselling.
Counselling
1. Provided to individuals who
are normal and are having
problems or stress up.

2. There is an interaction and


relationship
between
a
Counsellor
with
clients
based on friendliness and
trust.
3. The counsellor helps the
clients in decision making
based on the problems
faces by the clients
4. Counselling
orientation
must be towards mutual
consent and cooperation
rather than a compulsion.
5. Counsellor should wisely
use
a
method
or
appropriate
approach
based on the theory of selftendency.
6. Counselling is the process
which aims to influence
changes in client behaviour
on a voluntary basis or by
his will alone.
7. Counselling must be based
on good counselling ethics.
Importance
counselling

of

guidance

and

1. Career Education school


days

2. Career
path

school
graduate
3. Work short and long term
employment
Principles
of
counselling

guidance

and

A process of continuous and


planned education.
For all children.
All children have the right to
get help when they need it.
To serve the needs of children
for the development of their
potential and abilities.
Help children to understand
themselves and others.
A learning process.
Present
and
the
future
oriented.
A shared responsibility.
Need
a
deep
and
comprehensive understanding
of children.
Shall be carried out on the
basis of ethics counselling.
Activities
planned
and
implemented systematically.

The aims
counselling

of

guidance

and

The realization of the potential


of children.
Provide teachers with technical
assistance.
To help troubled children.
Contribute to the adaptation of
children.

GUIDANCE
CONCEPT

PSYCHOTHERAPHY

Helps
clients
to
understand themselves

Treats
mental
illness,
emotion and psychiatry

Focus on individuals aims


in making smart decision

Focus on short and long


term goals

FOCUS

giving
information
or The
developments
of
advice
to
self
specific
skills
towards
development and avoid
fostering self and avoid
problems
problems.

APPROACH

Preventive approach as
well as a variety of
strategies and techniques
to help the client solve
issues they are having
Related to everyday life
in terms of personal life,
academic, career, social
and
interpersonal
relations
Schools, higher education
institutions and so on

A recovery help client


solved serious emotional
problems
such
as
depression,
personality
disorder
A more complex Approach
and use strategies in
relation to the process of
consciously
and
unconsciously.
In
relation
to
the
emotional,
mental
disorders.

Preventive approach as
well as a variety of
strategies and techniques
to help the client solve
issues they are having
Related to everyday life
in terms of personal life,
academic, career, social
and
interpersonal
relations
Schools, higher education Hospitals, mental health
institutions and so on
canters and private clinics

Quite short: 1 5
sessions or 1 session
only.

Quite short: 1 5 Long-years


sessions or 1 session
only.

AIMS

CLIENTS PROBLEM

SETTING
TIME FOR TREATMENT

Provide information and


guidance
that
are
relevant.
Focus on short term goals

COUNSELLING

WHO INVOLVES

Teachers,
teachers

subject

TARGET GROUP

Individuals, small and big


groups

TYPES OF SERVICES:

TOPIC 2 :

Guidance
- Inventory collection of
information about the child
as a whole and specifically
for the clients
- Assessment - counsellor
teachers efforts to analyse
and use different types of
students data, including
personal
data,
psychological and social
obtained
from
different
types of inventories. In
form of Objective and
subjective.
- Records - 1) logbook for
guidance and counselling
session, 2) the records of
guidance and counselling
sessions, 3) records of the
guidance and counselling
program.

Counsellor, psychologist.

Individuals,
clusters.

Guidance related on
personal development and
social,
academic
and
GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELLING
career.
- Counselling

Service
carried out by individuals or
groups. Clients range from
3
categories;-voluntary,
invitation, referred to.
- Placement

involving
assessment of children,
information services and
relevant
counselling
assistance
with
their
choices.
- Follow-up

involves
systematic
planning
to
maintain
contact
with
former student.
- Consultation
and
reference-collaboration
and
consultation
with
parents of students and
other teachers.
- Evaluation evaluating
the personalia: reflects the
assessment
of
teacher

Counselling psychologists,
clinical
psychologists,
psychiatrists.
small Individuals with serious
psychological
problems,
neurosis, and a light
psychosis.
guidance and counselling
via the data collected,
SERVICESassessment: describe the
status of school counselling
and Guidance programs
compared
with
a
predetermined
program
standards,
- the evaluation result:
answer questions related to
the impact of the guidance
and counselling program
with the success of the
children
academic
achievement

Counselling
- The
development
efforts to equip children
with
the
skills
and
knowledge. Foster positive
attitude based on their
needs.
- Prevention effort taken
by the teacher (counsellor)
to prevent a problem from
arise
through
the

implementation
of
the
campaign,
briefings,
workshops and lectures.
The crisis for cases
requiring
attention
or
action
of
the
teacher
(counsellor).
Recovery carried out on
at-risk children (related to
disciplinary issues).

2. Responsibility
for
his
professional friends
3. Responsibility to the society
4. Responsibility
to
the
organization and employers
ROLE OF NORMAL
TOPIC TEACHERS
3 ROLE OF
IN
THE
COUNSELLING
PROGRAMMES
1.

Etiquette of a counsellor
5 Principles of ethics
1. Autonomy respect the
client's
right
to
make
decisions.
2. The generosity of heart to
do good to the client.
3. Not maliciously- avoid any
harm to a client.
4. Fairness provides access
and the same service, and fair
to all children (clients).
5. Honesty to be honest and
sincere. Avoid any lies and
always kept promises and the
commitments made.
Full
time
guidance
and
counselling teachers code of
conduct
1. Responsibility for the clients

2.
3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

Help students make personal


adjustments,
academic,
social, emotional and moral
with the school environment.
Help the students in their
learning.
Help students to create
planning in his early schooling
suitable with their abilities,
interests and development
respectively.
Provide awareness since the
beginning to the students on
the importance of learning in
life.
Help students in the process
of problem solving.
Help students form good
working habits, appreciating
the work and build the perfect
attitudes.
Work
with
parents
or
guardians of students in the
development of the growth of
the students.

8.

Help students in making


decision from time to time.
9. Always give full cooperation
to the teacher of guidance
and counselling in schools in
handling the guidance and
TEACHER
AS A GUIDANCE
TEACHER
counselling
program
in
school.
10. Make reference to guidance
and counselling teacher at
schools about pupils who they
think should get professional
services.
Gathering
students
information
a) Test technique
- Achievements test
- Aptitude test
- Career interest inventory
- Personal inventory and test
- Attitude test
b) Non-test technique
- Observation
1. Understand
students
behaviour
2. Assess
students
development
3. Assess
students
advancement
in
learning
-

Document analysis
1) Students reports card

2) Students
book
3)
Students
card
-

attendance

Related
activities

to

students

interviews
teachers

students,

f) Audio
and
recording
Students behaviour

video
S(sensation/school) in the
school: headaches, back pain,
stomach ache, problems of
perception,, academic failure
I (imagery) imagination:
bad dream or nightmare, low
self-esteem, fear of being
drops from the school, the
habit of excessive trance
C (cognition) thinking:
irrational thinking, problems in
setting life goal, problems
making decisions, difficult to
settingkah lakue a problem

b) Checklist
c) Sosiogram - maps or
diagrams
showing
the
patterns
of
interaction
among a group of children.
d) Pupils works
drawing
collage
writing
photo
students projects
e) Photo

phobias,

cumulative

IDENTIFYING
STUDENTS
PROBLEMS/ISSUES
a) Observation

using
special
form
for
observation. For example:
1. anecdotal records
2. running record
3. sampling time
4. sampling events
5. writing diary

anger,
anxiety,
depression

TOPIC 4 :
Model BASIC ID
B (behaviour) ACTION :
fighting, interrupting, talking
without reason,
stealing,
postpone the works
A ( affect) emotion: the
expression of feelings of

I(interpersonal
relationship)THEORIES
social life:
COUNSELLING
ashamed, conflict with adults
and peers, family problems
D (drugs/diet) lifestyle:
hyperactivity, drugs, heavy
drugs

Model HELPING

H (helping) health issue

Teori A-B-C-D-E (RET)

E (emotions) anxiety,
sadness, anger
L (learning problems)
failures, focus problem
P
relationships)
adults, peers

I (imagery) low selfesteem,


poor
problems
managements skills
N

(need

despair,

(personal
with

to

know)

confuse,

lack

of

information
G (guidance) behaviours,
action,
consequences
(behaviours problems and
motivation)

A trigger events
B judgement
events
i. Rational
ii.
irrational

BEHAVIOURIST THEORY
of

the

C consequences/feeling
from the judgements made
earlier (effect/results)
D individual efforts to
overcome
irrational
assessment (argument or
challenge to the system)
E Results were generated
to fight against irrational
thinking (new impact on
emotional and behavioural)

Ivan Pavlov
Skinner

and

B.F.

Concept: The concept of


the removal process and
learn again the unwanted
behaviour.
The role of teachers in
guidance
and
counselling; planner for
the strengthening of proper
behaviour while eliminating
inappropriate behaviour.
view on human
1) Was born in neutral
2) Have the same potential
to be good or evil
3) Rational and vice versa
4) Can
provide
an
appropriate response to
what you have just
learned.
5) Resulting
from
conditioning
(stimulusresponse). Depending on
experience

6) Learn and retain patterns


of
behaviour,
repeat
these patterns in the
future if necessary
Role
of
counselling:
action-oriented, clients are
actively act towards solving
the problems, the actions
include:
a) monitor
the
less
desirable behaviour
b) Practice the behaviour
management skills.
c) Complete
assignments/tasks.

Technique/strategy
helps the clients:
1) Contract

to

contingencies:a) Identify the problem


b) Gathering baseline
data
c) Determine
the
behaviour
d) Form a contingency
plan

e) Assess contingency
plan
f) Create
a
maintenance plan

7) Desensitise
systematic
8) Aversive
conditioning

2) Formation:
a) Step 1- identify
the

desired

behaviour
b) Step
2-

wait

until

the

behaviour

has

been shown
c) Step 3-provide
reasonable
reassurance
3) Modelling
character
4) Token
5) Role play
6) Assertive training

TEORI

PEMUSATAN

PERORANGAN
Carl Rogers
Concept- The concept of
giving the trust and more
responsibility to the client
that is operating.
The role of teachers in
guidance
and
counselling;
- A facilitator to help clients
know their capabilities and
find a solution.
view on human
1. have
positive
traits,
good, rational, social,
realistic and dynamic

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

(tendency towards selfperfection


people who are allowed
to grow freely, then he
will grow to perfection
tend
towards
selfimprovement
can make changes to
their behaviour
Have
a
significant
perception
of
themselves, others and
the environment.
since birth have own
experience

The role of counselling not direct, active listening,


give
appropriate
encouragement
during
counselling sessions, there
should be the nature of
empathy and unconditional
acceptance
Techniques / strategies
to help clients
1. Originality
a. Not bound by role
b. Be Spontaneous
c. Do not be defensive
d. Be consistent

e. share own experience


2. unconditional positive
acceptance
a. Pay attention to the
quality
of
client
concerns and feelings
b. dont start punishing
the client and take the
clients as a genuine
individual that has the
right to be treated
equally
c. React with empathy
and understanding of
the client's frame of
reference
d. Recognize
and
enhance the potential
and abilities of clients
3. Empathy

looks
through the eyes of the
clients, try to walk in
their shoes, feel their
experience, use suitable
skills and give silence
period

TEORI RASIONAL EMOTIF


Albert Ellis
Concept: emphasizes the
role of thinking and belief
systems as a source of
personal problems.
The role of teachers in
guidance
and
counseling;
active,

competent, confident and


able to apply the various
techniques of counselling in
changing the belief system
of the client.
View on human:
1. Has the potential to act
or behave in a rational
and vice versa.
2. Competent and have the
confidence to use their
own rational in solving a
problem.
3. The thought has a close
relationship
with
the
emotions and behaviour.
4. The main factor of the
existence of emotional
distress is themselves
and not what happens on
them.
5. Become more irrational
when received ideas that
are not rational in their
belief system.
6. Functioning as a whole
that is concerned, have
feelings, move and think.

Role
of
counselling:
cognitive restructuring of
clients, including irrational
thoughts and beliefs so that
clients get a view and
philosophy of life in a more
positive and rational ways
Techniques / strategies
to help clients
1) cognitive
a) Restructure
the
original
irrational
thoughts
and
beliefs through the
use of ABCDE.
b) Define again the
negative situations
and become more
positive situations
c) Conceptualize the
problem be holistic
rather than as a
small
separated
parts
2. Emotive
a) The elements of
joke
b) imagery
to
guide the client
(the emotion

c) practice
to
overcome
the
shyness (ignore
what
others
think of them)
2) Behavioural
a) operand
(assertiveness
training
and
formation)
b) Classical
(disensitasi
systematic)
c) SelfManagement
and monitoring
d) Assignment of
homework

STAGES IN COUNSELLING
1. Building a relationship
a) Creating
an
ambience
conducive for interaction
( give full attention, listen,
respond)

2.

3.

4.

5.

b) Deciding early on the aim


of the relationship (help
clients understand about
themselves)
c) Structuring
relationship
(role, time, venue)
d) Building trust (high ethical
behavior-counsellor)
Starting an exploration
a) Scope of the problem (how
serious, how long)
b) Clients level of functioning
( relationship with other
peoples-questioning
technique)
c) Clients life pattern (solving
previous problems)
d) Strengths and sources of
strength
Making decision
a) Clients (type of problem,
personality factor)
b) Counsellor (knowledge and
experience, skills)
c) Environment (place)
Taking action (Help clients
solve
problem,
May
use
different approaches)
a) Close parties
b) Additional sources
c) Reading materials
Ending a session
a) Summed up the progress

b) Stated the issues that need


to be deal with
c) How to maintain the growth
BASIC SKILLS IN GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELLING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Listening
Interpret non-verbal behavior
Giving responds
Identifying problem
Conduct intervention

CHILDREN
INTERVENTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

COUNSELLING

Play therapy
Storytelling therapy
Art therapy
Music therapy
Bibliotheraphy

2)

3)

4)

5)

GROUP COUNSELLING
1) Group counselling process
Stages:
a. Initial stage (orientation
and exploration)

b. Transition stage (dealing


with resistance)
c. Working stage (cohesion
and productivity)
d. Final stage (consolidation
and termination)
Choosing the members
- 8-10 members
- Group criteria (gender, age,
issues)
- Group goals
- Written contracts
Type of groups
- Therapy group
- Training group
- Career and guidance
- Task oriented group
Role of the counsellor
- Participate in the group
- Expert
- Resource person
- facilitator
Dynamics in the groups
a. Positive
b. negative

GINZBERG CAREER DECISION


MAKING
1. phase 1-fantasy
2. phase 2-tentative
a. interest (11-12)
b. capacity (13-14)
c. values (15-16)

d. transition (17-18)
3. phase 3-realistic
a. exploration
b. crystallization
c. specification
CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

CONCEPT OF CARRER
DEVELOPMENT
1. Career development involves
managing your career either
within
or
between
organizations.
2. It also includes learning new
skills,
and
making

improvements to help you in


your career.
3. Career development is an
ongoing, lifelong process to
help you learn and achieve
more in your career.