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UNIT I
1. Define system.

PART A

## When a number of elements or components are connected in a sequence to perform a

specific function, the group thus formed is called a system.
2. Define control system.
When the output quantity is controlled by varying the input quantity the system is called
control system.
3. Define open loop system.
The control systems in which the output has no effect upon the input quantity are called
open-loop control system.
4. Define closed loop system?
Control systems in which the output has an effect upon the input quantity in such a manner
as to maintain the desired output value are called closed loop systems.
5. Define transfer function.
The ratio between the laplace transform of output and laplace transform of input is called
transfer function.
6. What is negative feedback?
If the overall gain of the s/m decreases, then it is called negative feedback.
7. State Newtons second law of forces.
It states that the sum of applied forces is equal to the sum of opposing forces acting on a
body.
8. Define block diagram.
A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by
each component and of the flow of signals.
9. What are the elements of block diagram?

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## The elements of block diagram are

1. Block
2. Summing point
3. Branch point
10. Define signal flow graph.
A signal flow graph is a diagram that represents a set of simultaneous linear algebraic
equations.
11. Define node.
A node is a point representing a variable or signal.
12. Define input node.
The node which has only outgoing branches are called input node. This is also known as
source node.
13. Define output node.
The node which has only incoming branches are called output node. This is also called as
Sink node.
14. Define non-touching loops.
If the loops does not have a common node then they are said to be non-touching loops.
15. Give some basic properties of signal flow graph.
1.
2.
3.

## It is applicable to linear systems only.

A node in the signal flow graph represents the variable or signal.
The signal flow graph of system is not unique.

16. Find the number of forward paths in the given signal flow graph.
Two forward paths
P1 = G1 G2 G3 G4 G5
P2 = G6 G4 G5

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## 17. What are the components of feedback control system?

The components of feedback is are plant, feedback path elements, error detector and
controller.
18. Why negative feedback is preferred in control system?
The negative feedback results in better stability in steady state and rejects any disturbance
signals. It also has low sensitivity to parameter variations.
19. Compare open loop and closed loop system.
Open loop
Inaccurate and unreliable.
Simple and economical
Stable

Closed loop
Accurate and reliable.
Complex and costlier.
Great efforts are needed to design a stable system.

20. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical translational system?
Mass, Spring and dashpot.
21. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical rotational system?
1.
2.
3.

Moment of inertia,
Spring
Dashpot.

23. Name the two types of electrical analogous for mechanical system.
Force Voltage analogy.
Force Current analogy.

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## 24. What is transmittance?

The transmittance is the gain acquired by the signal when it travels from one node to
another node in signal flow graph.
25. Mention the electrical analogous of simple thermal system.
The electrical analogous of simple 1st order thermal system is RC parallel circuit.
26. What is the effect of positive feedback on stability?
The positive feedback increases the error signal and drives the output to instability. But
sometimes the positive feedback is used in minor loops in control systems to amplify certain
internal signals or parameters.
27. What are the characteristics of negative feedback?
Accuracy in tracking steady state value.
rejection of disturbance signals.
28. Write the force balance equation of ideal dashpot?
fb B

dx
f
dt

29. Write the torque balance equation of an ideal rotational mass element.

Jd2
T Tj
dt 2
30. Write the analogous electrical elements in force-voltage analogy for the elements of
mechanical translational system.
Force, F

Mass, M

Stiffness, K
Frictional
coefficient, B

Voltage, C
inductance, L
Capacitance, C
Resistance, R

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## 31. Write the rule when two blocks are in cascade.

G1

G2

G1 G2
Cascade rule G1-G2 = G1 x G2
1. The open loop systems are simple and economical
2. The open loop systems are easier to construct
3. Generally, the open loop systems are stable
Disadvantages of open loop systems are
1. The open loop systems are in accurable and un reliable
2. The changes in the output due to external disturbances are not corrected automatically
The advantages of closed loop systems are
1. The closed loop systems are accurate
2. The closed loop are accurate even in the presence of non- linearities
3. The sensitivity of the systems are accurate even in the presence of non- linearities
The advantages of closed loop systems are
1.
2.
3.
4.

## The closed-loop systems are complex and costlier

The feedback in closed loop system may lead to oscillatory response
The feed back reduces the overall gain of the system
Stability is a major problem in closed loop system and more care is needed to design a
stable closed loop system.

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## 34. Give some examples of control system.

The examples of control systems are
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

## Temperature control system

Traffic control system
Numerical control system
Position control system

35. What is a linear time variant and linear time invariant system?
If the coefficients of the differential equations describing the system are constant, then the
model is linear time invariant system.
If the coefficients of differential equations are functions of time, then the model is linear
time varying system.
36. What are Analogue systems?
Systems whose differential equation are of identical form are called analogous system.
37. What is Servo Mechanism?
A Servo Mechanism is a feed back control system used to Control position (or) its derivative.
It has the following essential features.
1. It is a closed loop system
2. It is used to control position, velocity (or) Acceleration
3. Its characteristics include Automatic control , Remote operation
Fast response ,
High Accuracy
38. Define order of a system.
The highest power of the complex variables S in the denominator of transfer function is
called as the order of a system.
39. What is the functions of a error detector?
Error detectors are used to measure the error signal in control systems. The error is the
difference between the actual magnitude of output and magnitude of the desired output.
40. Give Masons gain formula.

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F
k

Transfer functions =

Where
FK = Forward part gain of Kth forward path
K= Number of forward path,
= Determinant of graph
= 1-Pm1 +Pm2 - Pm3+
Pm1 = Sum of all individual loop gains taking once at a time
Pm2 = Sum of gain products of all possible combination of two non-touching loops
Pm3= Sum of gain products of all possible combination of three non touching loops
k = Value of after eliminating the loops which touch Kth forward path.
41. Define signal flow graph.
A signal flow graph is a graphical representation of the relationship between variable of a
set of linear algebraic equations.
42. What is node?
Node is a system variable which is equal to sum of all incoming signals.
43. Define Self loop.
Self loop: A path starting from one node and terminates at same node without crossing any other
node even once.
44. Define path, Non-touching loop.
Path: It is the journey from one node to any other node in the direction of branch arrow
Non-touching loop: Loops are said to be non-touching if they do not posses any common node.

## 45. Give the properties of signal flow graph.

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1. The algebraic equations which are used to construct signal flow graph must be in the form
of cost and effect relationships.
2. Signal flow graph is applicable to linear systems.
3. A node in the signal flow graph represents the variable (or ) signal.
4. A branch indicates the functional dependence of one signal on the other.
46. What are the basic components of an automatic control systems?
The basic components of an automatic control systems are the following.
(1) Error detector
(2) Amplifier and controller
(3) Actuator
(4) Plant
(5) Sensor
47. What are sensor?
Sensors are low power transducers, which produces output signal as a measure of the
controlled variable.
48. What are the different types of control systems?
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

## Open loop control systems

Closed loop control systems
Linear and Non linear control systems
Time Variant and time invariant control systems

## 49. What is a mathematical model? What are the different types?

A mathematical model consists of a collection of equations describing the behavior of the system.
There are two types of mathematical modeling
(i)
(ii)

Input / output representations describing the relation between inputs and outputs of a
system
State model describing the relation between the input states and output states of a
system.

## 50. What is Synchro?

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## Synchro is an electromagnetic transducer that produces an output voltage depending upon

angular displacement.
51. What are servo motors?
The motors which are used for feedback control system are called servomotor. It converts
electrical signal into angular motion.
52. What is Synchro Transmitter?
A Synchro transmitter has star connected stator winding. The rotor is a salient pole dumpbell shaped magnet with a single winding.
53. What is a Gear train? What are electrical Analogous of gears?
A gear train is a mechanical device that transmits energy from one part of the system to
another part to attain Maximum power transfer.
The electrical Analogous of gears is Transformers.

PART B

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1. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical system and determine the transfer
function.

## For node M1:

d2 x1
dx1
d
2
M1 dt + B1 dt + B dt (x1-x) + k1x1 + K(x1-x) = 0
Taking laplace transform,
M1s2x1(s) + B1sx1(s) + Bs[x1(s)-x(s)]+ k1x1(s)+ k[(x1(s)-x(s)] =0
x1(s)[M1s2 + (B1+B)s + (k1+k)] x(s) [Bs+k]=0
x1(s)[M1s2 + (B1+B)s + (k1+k)] = x(s) [Bs+k]

x1(s) = x(s)

Bs K
M1s (B1 B)s (k1 k)
2

For node M2 :

d2 x
dx
d
2
M2 dt + B2 dt + B dt (x-x1) + k(x-x1) + K(x-x1) = F(t)
M2s2x(s) + B2sx(s) + Bs[x(s) x1(s)] + k[x(s) x1(s)] = F(s)
x(s) [M2s2 + (B2+B)s+k] x1(s) [Bs+k] = F(s)
Substituting for x1(s),

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(Bs k)2
2
x(s) [M2s2 + (B2+B)s+k] x(s) M1s (B1 B)s (k1 k) = F(s)
M1s2 (B1 B)s (k k1) M2s2 (B2 B)s k (Bs k)

x(s)
2
M1s (B1 B)s (k k1)

## M1s2 (B1 B)s (k1 k)

x(s)

f(s) M1s2 (B1 B)s (k1 k) M2s2 (B2 B)s k (Bs k)2

2. Write the equations of motion in s domain. Determine the transfer function of the system.

Solution:
For node (1):
B2

d
(x1 x) kx1 0
dt

## Taking laplace transform,

B2S[x1(s) x(s)]+ kx1(s) = 0
X1(s) [B2s + k] B2sx(s) = 0

B 2S
x(s)
B
S

k
2
X1(s) =
For Node 2

d2 x
dx
d
2
M dt + B1 dt + B2 dt (x x1) = f(t)

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## Taking laplace transform,

Ms2 x(s) +B1Sx(s) + B2s [x(s) x1(s)] = F(s)
Ms2 + (B1+ B2)s] x(s) - B2s x1(s)] = F(s)

B 2S

B sk
[Ms2 + (B1+B2)s] x(s) B2S 2
x(s) = F(s)
[Ms2 + (B1+B2 )s](B2s+k)-(B2s)2
B2 s k
x(s)
= F(s)

B2 s k
x(s)

2
F(s) [Ms + (B1+B2 )s](B2s+k)-(B2s)2 ]

3. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical rotational system. Obtain the
transfer function of the system?

At

J1:

J1

d21
dt 2 + k (1 - ) = T

J1

d21
dt 2 + k1 - k = T

## Taking laplace transform,

J1s21(s) + K1(s) - K(s) = T(s)
(J1 s2 + k)1(s) - K(s) = T(s)

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At node J2:

d2
d
2
J2 dt + B dt + k ( - 1) = 0
d2
d
2
J2 dt + B dt + k - k1 = 0
Taking laplace,
J2S2(s) + Bs(s) K (s) - K1(s) = 0
(J2S2+ Bs + K) (s) - K 1(s) = 0

J2S2 Bs k
(s)
k
1(s) =
Substituting for 1(s)

(J2s2 Bs x)
k
(J1s2+k)
(s) - K(s) = T(s)

(J2s2 k) (J2s2 Bs k) k 2

(s) T(s)
k

(s)
k

2
T(s) (J1s k) (J2s2 Bs k) k 2

## 4. Obtain the transfer function of the lag network.

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1
Ej(s) = R1I(s) + sc I(s) + I(s) R2.
1
E(s) = sc I(s) + R2 I(s).

1 SCR2
1

sc R2 I(s) sc

E(s) = I(s)

I (s) =

SCE0 (s)

1 SCR2

Substituting in (1),

## SCE0 (s) R1sc 1 SCR 2

sc

Ei(s) = 1 SCR 2

1 SC[R1 R2 ]
1 SCR2
= E0 (s)
E0 (s)
1 SCR2

Ei (s) 1 SC[R1 R 2 ]
This circuit is also called lag compensator.
5. Obtain the transfer function of the lead network shown.

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R1x 1
R1
sc
1 SR1C.
R 1
sc
Z= 1

## Ei(s) = ZI(s) + I(s) R2

----(1)

E0(s) = I(S) R2

E0 (s)
I(s) = R2
Sub in (1).
Ei(s) = I(s)[Z + R2]

E0 (S)
[Z R 2 ]
R
2
=
E0 (S)
R2

Ei (S) Z R 2
Sub Z, Transfer Function
R2
R1
R2
1 SR1C

R2 (1 SR1C)
R1 R2 (1 SR1C)

SR1R2C R2
R1 SR1R2C R2

S
= S

where

R R2
1
; = 1
R1c
R1R2C

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6. Reduce the given block diagram to its canonical form d hence obtain the equivalent transfer
function.
C(S)
R(S)

Solution :

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G1G2 (G3 G4 )
1 G1G2H1
Transfer Function =
G1G2 (G3 G4 )
1
.H2
1 G1G2H1

G1G2 (G3 G4 )
1 G1G2H1 G1G2 (G3 G4 )H2

G1G2G3 G1G2G4 )
1 G1G2H1 G1G2G3H2 G1G2G4H2
7. Obtain C(S)|R(S) using block diagram reduction rules.

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8. Find

C(S)
by using Masons gain formula.
R(S)

P1 = G1 G2 G3 G4
P2 = G5 G4
1 = 1- 0 = 1
2 = 1 [- G2H1] = 1 + G2H1.
= 1 [ -G2H1 G1G2G3G4H2 G5 G4 H2] + [G2 H1G5 G4 H2]
= 1 + G2H1 +G1G2G3G4H2 + G5 G4 H2 +G2 G5 G4 H1 H2

C(S)

## 9. Draw the signal flow graph and find.

C(S)
R(S)

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P1 = G1 G2
1 = 1-  = 1
= 1 [ -G1H1 G1G2 G2H2] + [G1H1G2H2]
= 1 + G1H1 +G1G2 +G2H2 + G1 G2 H1H2
P11
TF =

G1G2
1 G1H1 G1G2 G2H2 G1G2H1H2

10. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical system. Draw the force-voltage
and force current electrical analogous circuits and verify by writing mesh and node equations.

For M1,

d2 x1
dx
d
B1 1 B12 (x1 x 2 )
2
dt
dt
M1 dt
+k1(x1-x2) = f(t)
For M2,

d2 x 2
dx
d
B2 2 K 2 x 2 B12 (x 2 x1 )
2
dt
dt
M2 dt
+k1(x2-x1) = 0
On replacing the displacements by velocity,

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d2 x dv dx

;
v;x vdt
2
dt dt
i.e. dt
dv1
B1v1 B12 (v1 v 2 ) k1 (v1 v 2 )dt f(t)
M1 dt
dv 2
B2 v 2 k 2 v 2 dt B12 (v 2 v1 ) k1 (v 2 v1 )dt 0.
M2 dt

## The Mesh equations are,

L1

di1
1
R1i1 R12 (i1 i2 ) (i, i2 )dt e(t )
dt
c1

L2

di2
1
1
R2i2
i2 dt R12 (i2 i1 ) (i, i2 )dt 0
dt
C2
c1

## The node equations are

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C1

dV1 1
1
V1
(V1 V2 ) (V1 V2 )dt i (t )
dt R1
R12

C1

dV2 1
1
1
1
V2 V2 dt
(V2 V1 ) (v2 v1 )dt
dt R2
L2
R12
L1

11. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical rotational system shown. Draw
the torque-voltage and torque current electrical analogous circuits and verify by writing mesh
and node equations.

For J1

d 21
d
B1 1 k1 (1 2 ) T
2
dt
dt
for J 2 ,

J1

J2

d 2 2

B2 2 K 2 2 K1 ( 2 1 ) 0
2
dt
dt

## on replacing the angular displacements,

d 2
dw d
B2

w d w dt we get
2
dt
dt dt
d
J1 1 B11 K1 ( w1 w2 )dt T
dt
d 2
J2
B2 2 K 2 w2 dt k1 , ( w2 w1 )dt 0
dt
Torque voltage Analogous Circuit:

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## The mesh equations are,

L1

L1

di1
1
R1i, (i, i2 ) e(t )
dt
C1

L2

di 2
1
1
R 2i 2
(i 2dt (i2 i1 )dt

dt
C2
C1

## Writing the node equations,

C1

dV1 1
1
V1 (V1 , V2 )dt i (t )
dt R1
L1

C1

dV2 1
1
1
V2 (V2 dt V2 V1 )dt 0
dt R2
L2
L1

## 12. Derive the transfer function of armature controlled dc motor.

The speed of DC motor is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely
proportional to flux in field winding. In armature controlled DC motor the desired speed is
obtained by varying the armature voltage. This speed control system is an electro mechanical
control system. The electrical system consist of the armature and the field circuit. The mechanical
system consist of the rotating part of the motor and load connected to the shaft of the motor.

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## Let Ra = Armature resistance,

La = Armature inductance H
ia = Armature current, A
Va = Armature Voltage
eb = Back emf, V
Kt Torque constant NM/A
T = Torque developed by motor, Nm
B = Frictional coeff of motor and load, NM
Kb = Back emf constant V
By KVL,
dia
eb Va
iaRa+Lq dt

Torque of DC motor is proportional to the product of flux and current. Since flux is constant in
this system, the torque is proportional to ia alone
T ia
T = kt ia
The mechanical system of motor is shown below

The differential equation governing the mech, system of motor is given by,
d 2
d
B
T
2
dt
J dt

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## The back emf of DC machine is proportional to speed of shaft,

d
d
eb
,
eb K b
dt Back emf eb =
dt on taking laplace transform,
Ia(S)Ra +LasIa(S)+Eb(S)= Va(S) (1)
T(S) = KtIa(S)
JS2(S) +BSQ(S) = T(S)
Eb(S) = Kbs(S)
On equating, we get,
KtIa(s) = JS2+BS) (S)
Ia(S) = JS2 +BS) / Kt (S)
Eqn (1) Can be written as,
(Ra+sLa) Ia (S)+Eb(S) =Va(S)
Substituting for Eb(s) and Ia(S),
(Ra+sLa) JS2+BS Q(S)+ KbSQ(s) = Va(S)
------------Kt
(Ra+sLa) JS2+BS +Kb KtS Q(s) = Va(S)
------------Kt
(S )
Kt

Va ( S ) ( Ra SLa )( JS 2 Bs ) K b kt s
Kt
( Ra JS )( Ra BS LaJs 3 La BS 2 K b kt s
2

Kt
s ( JLa s [ JRa BLa ) S ( BRa kBX ]
2

Kt
BRa K b kl
JR BLa
s[ s 2 a
S

Jla
Jla

## 13. Derive the transfer function of field controlled DC motor.

The speed of a DC motor is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely
proportional to flux. In field controlled DC motor the armature voltage is kept constant and the
speed is varied by varying the flux of the machine. Since flux is directly proportional to field
current, the flux is varied by varying field current. The speed control system is an
electromechanical control system.
The electrical system consists of armature and field circuit and the mech, system consists of

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## rotating part of the motor and load

Rf = Field resistance ,
Lf = Field inductance, H
if = Field current, A
Vf = Field voltage V
T = Torque developed by motor, Nm
Kif = Torque constant Nm/A
J = Moment of inertia of motor
B = Frictional coefficient of motor
By KVL,
if
Vf
Rf if +Lf + t
The torque of DC motor is proportional to product of flux and armature current. Since
armature current is constant in this system, the torque is proportional to flux alone, but flux is
proportional to field current.
Tif
T = k if
The differential equation governing the mechanical system is ,
d 2
d
J 2 B
T
dt
dt
Taking laplace transform
RfIf(S) +LfsIf(S)=Vf(S) -(1)
T(S) = Ktf If(s)

- (2)

## Js2(S) +BS(S) =T(S)-(3)

Equating (2) and (3)

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## Ktf If(S) = Js2(S) +BS(S)

If (S) = S(Js+B) / ktf (s)
The eqn (1) can be written as
(Rf+SLf) If (s) =Vf(S)
on sub, for If (s),

(Rf+SLf)S

Js B
(s) V f (s)
K tf

ktf
( s)

V f ( s ) S ( R f sl f ) B SJ )
ktf

SL SJ
SR f 1 f B 1

R f
B

Km

S (1 ST f )(1 STm )
ktf

Rf B

## Field time constant, Tf = Lf/ Rf

Mechanical time constant, Tm = J/B.
14. Use Masons gain formula for determining the overall T.F. of the system shown.

Solution:
Maisons Gain formula
T =

pk k

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## k = No. of forward path

Pk Forward path gain of kth forward path
-1-

## sum of possible combination

of two Nontouching loop gain +

## d. Forward Path Gain:

P1 = G1 G3 G4 G6 G7

P2 = G1 G3 G4 G6 G7

P3 = G1 G2 G5 G6 G7

P4 = G1 G3 G5 G6 G7
k=4

## b) Individual loop Gain:

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L1 = G6 H1

L3 = G2 G4 G6 G7 H3

L4 = G3 G4 G6 G7 H3

L5 = G3 G5 G6 G7 H3

L6 = G2 G4 G6 G7 G5 H3

L2 = G7H2

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## C. Two Non touching Loop Gain:

L12 = G6 H1 G7 H2
1 = 1 - 0 = 1
2 = 1 - 0 = 1
3 1 - 0 = 1

d) 4 = 1 - 0 = 1
T =

P11 P2 2 P3 3 P4 4

= 1 - L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L12
G 6 H1 G7 H 2 G2 G4 G6 G7 H 3 G3G4 G6 G7 H 3
=1-

G3G5G6 G7 H 3 G2 G4 G6 G7 G5 H 3

G6 H1G7 H 2 .....
Over all gain of system is
G1G2 G4 G6 G7 1 G1G3G4 G6 G7 1
TF =

G1G3G5G6 G7 1
1 G6 A1 G7 H 2 G2 G4 G6 G7 H 3 G3G4 G6 G7 H 3
G 3G5G6 G7 H 3 G 2 G4 G6 G7 G5 H 3 G6 G7 H1

## 15. Obtain the Transfer function of the mechanical system shown.

Step: 1

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## According to Newtons Law

Fk1+fB1+fm1+fB+fk = 0

____ (1)

Let
Fk1 Opposing force offered by spring K1
FB1 Opposing force offered by Dashpot B1
FM1 Opposing force offered by Mass M1
FB Opposing force offered by Dashpot, B
Fk Opposing force offered by spring, k.
Bd x1 x
d 2 x1
; fB
df
df 2
dx
B1 1 ; f k k x1 x
df

f m1 M 1
f B1

fk1 = K1X1 ;
Substitute above valve in equ (1)

K1X1+M1

x x
d 2 x1
dx
Bd 1
B1 1 k x1 x
2
dt
df
df

## Taking LT on both sides

K1X1(s)+M1S2X1(s)+BS(X1(s)-X(s)-X(s)+B1SX1(s)+ K(X1(s)-X(s) = 0

M S
1

BS B1 S K1 K X 1 ( S ) - BS+K X S

X1 s

M1 S

Bs K X s
B1 B S K1 K

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Step: 2
Draw the free body diagram based on Mass M

f t M 2

d2x
dx Bd x x1
B2

k x x1
d 2
df
df

## Taking LT on both sides

F s M 2 S 2 x s B2 Sx s BS x s x1 s
k x( s ) X 1 s
F s M 2 S 2 B2 S BS K X s

BS k Bs k x s
s
M 1 S 2 B1 B K1 K

M S 2 B1 B s k1 k
( M 2 S 2 B2 S BS k ) 1

( BS K ) 2

x s
F s

2
M
S

B
S

K
1

1
1

T.F.
X s
F s

M 1 S 2 B1 B S K1 K

S 2 B2 B S K M 1 S 2 B1 B S K1 K BS K

## Draw Analog electrical circuits

Force Voltage Analog y

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M1

M2

L2

L1

B1 R1 K1 C1 F V
B R

K C X i
X1 i

## Force current Analog y

M 1 C1

K1 L1 B1 R1

F i =i

M 2 C2

k L B2 R 2

x1 V1

B R

x V2

16. The network shown figure modifies the error signal. It voltage Vi of a Servomechanism to a
. Find the T.F. Vo/Vi neglecting any load on the output terminals. Evaluate the function (a) p r
a sine signal voltage of 1.0 v at angular frequency w = 20 red/sec and b) for a step function input
signal voltage of 1.oV.

Solution:

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Vo s
Vi s

R2

R2

R1
R2

R1
R1cs 1

S=jw
Vo jw
Vi jw

R2

R2

R1
jR1cw 1

R1 = 200k

c = 0.2 uF
R2=20 k

## W C R1 = 20 x 0.2 x 10-6 x 200 x 103

R1/(1jR1CW) = 200/(1+j1)
V0
20

Vj
200
20

1
ji

Vi v
V0 0.128 39.805
V0 ( s )

Vi ( s )

(b)

R2
R1
R2
R1cs 1

V0 ( s ) S 25

Vi ( s ) S 275

Vi (s) = (S+25)/S(S+275)
1 1
10
1

11 s S 275
Taking Inverse LT.

= V0 (t ) 0.1 0.9e

222 t

V0(t)=0.1 [1+9e222t]
17. The solenoid shown in Fig. Produces a magnetic force proportional to the current I in the

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coil = kii. The coil has resistance (R) and inductance (L). Write the differential equation.
x s
Determine the transfer function 2
.
E s

Figure:
Solution:
The solenoid connected in the left end of the system develops a force proportional to the
current passing through it i.e., = ki i. The solenoid has a mass M1 and has a frictional coefficient
B1. The coil also has inductance L and resistance R.
When an emf e(t) is applied to the solenoid then a current i(t) results.

et L

di t

dt
f t k1i t

Ri t

## Total anticlockwise moment = f t l1

Total anticlockwise moment

dx1
d2 x 2
dx 2
d2 x1
M2 2 k 2 x 2 B2
M1 2 l1
l2 B1
dt
dt
dt

dt
we know that for a balanced torque system total anticlockwise moment is equal to total clock wise
moment.

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d2 x
dx
dx
d2 x
f t l1 M2 22 k 2 x 2 B2 2 l2 B1 1 M1 21 l1
dt
dt
dt

dt
dx1
l2 d2 x 2
dx 2
d2 x1
f t M2 2 B2
k 2 x 2 B1
M1 2
l1
dt
dt
dt
dt
f t M1

d2 x1
dx l
B1 1 2
2
dt
dt l1

dx 2

B2 dt k 2 x 2

X2 s
E s

## Taking Laplace transform on both sides of Eq. and we have

E s R sL I s I s

E s
R sL

F s k iI s

k iE s

R sL
Taking Laplace transform on both sides of Eq.
l
F s M1s2 B1s X1 s 2 M2s2 B2s k 2 X2 s
l2

X1 s

l1
X2 s
l2

## Substituting Eq. and Eq. in Eq. we have

k iE s
R sL

l1
l
M1s2 B1s X2 s 2 M2s2 B2s k 2 X2 s
l2
l1

X2 (s)

E s

k
l
l2

R sL 1 M2s2 B1s

l2
M2S2 B2s k 2
l1

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18. For the spring, damper and mass system shown in figure find the differential equations
governing the system.

Figure:
Solution:
The forces acting on mass M1 are shown in figure.
fk1

fml

fb1

M1

Tx1

Where fk1=k1(x1-x2)
d
fb1 B1 (x1 -x 2 )
dt
d2 x
fm1 M1 21
dt
The force balance equation in mass M1 is
fm1 fb1 fk1 0
M1

d2 x1
d
B1 (x1 -x 2 )+k1(x1 -x 2 )=0
2
dt
dt

The forces acting on mass M2 are shown in figure. The force balance equation is
d2 x
dx
M2 22 k 2 x 2 B2 2 k1 x 2 x1
dt
dt
d
B1 x 2 x1 f t
dt

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fk1 fm2

fb2
f(t)

M1

fk1

fB1

Figure:
Exercise 1.1
Obtain the differential equations of the following mechanical systems

(i) Figure:

(ii) Figure:
19. Using the block diagram reduction technique, find C/R.

Solution: I Reduction: moving takeoff point from point A to B. i.e., along the direction of flow.
So divide the takeoff point path by block gain G2.

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II Reduction:
1. Eliminating two blocks in parallel by a single block.

III Reduction:
2. Move summing point ahead of block H3 along direction of flow.

## IV Reduction: Eliminating summing point by multiplying signs.

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## V Reduction: Reduce feedback loop.

G=G1G2; H = H1 H3. Type of feedback is negative.

## VI Reduction: Cascade two blocks and reduce feedback loop.

G5
G1G2
G
G4 G3
; H =H2H3
G2
1 G1G2H1H3
Type of feedback is positive.
Feedback path reduction=

R S
C S

R S

G
1 GH

G1G2G3G4 G1G4G5
C S
1 G1G2H1H3 G1G2G3G4H2H3 G1G4G5H2H3

G1G2G3G4 G1G4G5
1 G1G2H1H3 G1G2G3G4H2H3 G1G4G5H2H3

20. Using Masons gain formula, find C/R of the signal flow graph shown in figure.

Figure:
Solution:
k

## By Masons gain formula, Transfer function

F
k

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## Forward path Fk:

Figure:
F1 = G1G2G3G4 ;

[R-X1-X2-X3-X5-X6-C]

F1 = G1G5G8G4 ;

[R-X1-X2-X4-X5-X6-C]

## Determinant of graph: 1 Pm1 Pm2 Pm3.

Pm1=Individual loop gains

Figure:
P11=G1 G2H1;
P21=G3 G4H2;
P31=G1 G5 G8 G4H1H2;
P41=G5 G6;
P51=G7;

[X1-X2-X3-X1]
[X3-X5-X6-X3]
[X1-X2-X4-X5-X6-X3- X1]
[X2-X4-X2]
[X4-X4] Self loop.

## pm2=Sum of product of all possible combinations of two non-touching loops.

P12=P11* P51 = G1 G2 G7 H1

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P22=P21* P41 = G3 G4 G5 G6 H2
P32=P21* P51 = G3 G4 G7 H2
pm3 = Sum of product of all possible combination of three non-touching loops.
pm3 = 0
1 P11 P21 P31 P41 P51 P12 P22 P32
1 G1G2H1 G3G4H2 G1G5G4G8H1H2 G5G6 G7
+G1G 2G 7H1+G 3G 4G 5G 6H2 +G 3G 4G 7H2

Calculation of k:
1 = 1-G7; as all loops touch forward path F1 except self loop.
2 = 1;

## as all loops touch forward path F2

F11 F2 2

G1G2G3G4 1 G7 G1G4G5G8 1

Transfer function =
T.F

## 1 G1G2H1 G3G4H2 G1G4G5G8H1H2 G5G6 G7

+G1G 2G7H1+G 3G 4G 5G 6H2 +G 3G 4G 7H2

21. Write the equations of motion in s-domain for the system shown in figure. Determine the
transfer function of the system.

Figure
SOLUTION
Let, Laplace transform of x(t) = X(s)
Laplace transform of f(t) = F(s)
Let x1 be the displacement at the meeting point of spring and dashpot. Laplace transform
of x1 is X1(s).

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The system has two nodes and they are mass M and the meeting point of spring and
dashpot. The differential equations governing the system are the force balance equations at these
nodes. The equations of motion in the s-domain are obtained by taking Laplace transform of the
differential equations.
The free body diagram of mass M is shown in figure. The opposing forces are marked as
fm, fb1 and fb2.
d2 x
dx
fm M 2 ; fb1 B1
dt
dt
d
fb 2 B2 ( x x1 )
dt

Figure:
By Newtons second law the force balance equation is
f m f b 1 f b 2 f (t )
d2 x
dx
d
B1
B2 ( x x1 ) f (t )
2
dt
dt
dt
On taking Laplace transform
Ms2 X( s) B1sX( s) B2 s[X( s) X1 ( s)] F( s)
M

## [ Ms2 ( B1 B2 )s]X( s) B2 sX1 ( s) F( s)

The free body diagram at the meeting point of spring and dashpot is shown in figure. The
opposing forces are marked as fk and fb2.
d
fb 2 B2 ( x1 x); fk Kx1
dt
By newton's second law, fb2 f k 0

B2

d
( x1 x) Kx1 0
dt

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Figure:
On taking Laplace transform

B2 s[X1 ( s) X( s)]KX1 ( s) 0
( B2 s K )X1 ( s) B2 sX( s) 0
B2 s
X1 ( s)
x( s)
B2 s K
Substituting for X1 (s) from equation

B2 s
[ Ms2 ( B1 B2 )s]X( s) B2 s
X ( s) F ( s)
B2 s K
[ Ms2 ( B1 B2 )s]( B2 s K ) ( B2 s)2
X ( s)
F ( s)
B2 s K
X ( s)
B2 s K

2
F( s) Ms ( B1 B2 )s ( B2 s K ) ( B2 s)2
RESULT
The differential equations governing the system are
d2 x
dx
d
1. M 2 B1
B2 ( x x1 ) f (t )
dt
dt
dt

## The equations of motion in s-domain are

1. [ Ms2 ( B1 B2 )s]X( s) B2 sX1 ( s) F( s)
2. ( B2 s K )X1 ( s) B2 sX( s) 0
The transfer function of the system is

X ( s)
B2 s K

2
F( s) [ Ms ( B1 B2 )s]( B2 s K ) ( B2 s)2

2. B2

d
( x1 x) Kx1 0
dt

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UNIT II
PART A
1. What do you mean by time response of the system?
It is the output of closed loop system as a function of time. It is denoted by c(t).
2. What are standard test signals?
The standard test signals are
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Step input
Ramp input
Parabolic input
Impulse input
Sinusoidal signals

## 3. Define ramp signal.

The ramp signal is a signal whose value increase linearly with time from an initial value of zero at
t=0.
4. Define impulse signal.
A signal which is available for very short duration is called impulse signal.
5. Define order of a system.
The order of the system is given by the order of the differential equations governing the system
6. Define damping ratio.
The damping ratio is defined as the ratio of the actual damping to the critical damping.
7. How the system is classified based on depending ratio?
The system is classified into 4 types
1.
2.
3.
4.

Undamped system
Underdamped system
Critically damped system
Over damped system

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## 8. What are time domain specifications?

The time domain specifications are
Delay time
Rise time
Peak time
Maximum overshoot
Setting time, ts
9. Define delay time.
It is the time taken for response to reach 50% of the final value, for the very first time
10. Define risetime.
It is the time taken for the response to raise from 0 to 100% for the very first time.
11. Define Peaktime.
It is the time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the very first time.
12. Define peak overshoot.
It is defined as the ratio of the maximum peak value measured from final value to the final value
13. Define settling time.
It is defined as the time taken by the response to reach and stay within a specified error.
The steady state error is the value of error signal e(t), when t tends to infinity.
15. What is the drawback of static error coefficient?
The drawback in static error coefficients is that it does not show not show the variation of error
with time and input should be a standard input.
16. What is transient and steady state response?
The transient response is the response of the system when the input changes from one state
to another. The response of the system as t is called steady state response.
17. What is the importance of test signals?

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The test signals can be easily generated in laboratories and are used to predetermine the
performance of the system.
18. Define step signal.
The step signal is a signal whose value changes from o to A and remains constant at A for t>0.
19. What will be the nature of response of a second order system with different types of
damping?
(1) Undamped system
2) Underdamped system
3) Critically damped
4) For overdamped

Oscillatory
damped oscillatory
exponentially rising
exponentially rising

## 20. What is type number of a system? What its significance?

The type number is given by number of poles of loop transfer function at the origin. The type
number of the system decides the steady state error.
21. What are static error constants?
The kp, kv and ka are called static error constants. These constants are associated with steady state
error in a particular type of a system and for a standard input.
22. Define velocity error constant.
The velocity error constant kv = l+ S G(S)H (s) The steady state error in type-1 system for unit
ramp input is given by 1 /kv
23. Mention two advantages of generalized error constants over static error constants.
1.
2.

## Generalized error series gives error signal as a function of time.

Generalized error constant is used to determine the steady state error for any type of input.

24. What is the effect on system performance when a proportional controller is introduced in a

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system?
1.
2.

It improves the steady state tracking accuracy relative stability and disturbance signal
rejection
Increases loop gain of the system.

## 25. What is the disadvantage in proportional controller?

26. What is the effect of PI controller on the system performance?
1.
2.

The PI controller increases the order of the system by one, which results in reducing the
The system becomes less stable

## 27. What is the effect of PD controller on the system performance?

The effect of PD controller is to increase the damping ratio of the system and so the peak
overshoot is reduced.
28. Why derivative controller is not used in control system?
The derivative controller produces a control action based on rate of change of error signal and it
does not produce corrective measures for any constant error.
29. A second order system bas a dumping ratio of 0.6 and natural frequency of oscillation is 10
rad/sec. determine the damped freq of oscillation

d n 1 Z 2
10 1 (0.6) 2
30. For the system given, find the type and order of the system.

G ( s) H ( s)

k
S ( S 1)( S 2 6S 8)

Type = 1
Order = 4
31. The damping ratio of a system is 0.75 and the natural frequency of oscillation is 12 rad/sec.

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## determine peak time

d n 1 Z 2
12 1 (0.75) 2
tp

d 7.94

0.396 sec
32. A unity feedback system has a open 100p transfer function of
the steady state error for unit step input.
10
K p s0 L G ( S ) s0 L
( S 1)( S 2)
kp 5
lss

G(S )

10
( S 1)( S 2) Determine

1
1 kp

1
6

tr

0
d

1 z2
where = tan

-1

## 34. Give the expression for peak overshoot (Apr -96).

%M p e

x100
1 Z 2
Where z = damping ratio.

35. What are the types of controllers that are used in closed loop system? Apr 98).
Proportional Integral controller (pI)
Proportional +derivative controller (PD)
Proportional+ Integral+ derivative controller (PID)

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Type

(April -98)

order

## i) Specified for loop TF

ii) Given by number of poles

## i) Specified for any transfer function

ii) Given by number of lying at the origin
poles of transfer function

## 36. Define positional error coefficient (Apr 97).

Kp = L+ G(s)H(s)
s0
37. What is the effect of PD controller on the system performance?
1.
2.
3.

## Increases damping ratio

Reduces peak overshoot
Reduces settling time

1.
2.
3.
4.

Less overshoot
Less rise time

## 39. What is rate feedback controller?

This is achieved by feeding back the derivative of output signal internally using a tachogenerator
and comparing with signal proportional to error.
40. What is step signal ?
The step signal is a signal whose value changes from zero to A at t=0 and remains constant
at A for t>0. The mathematical representation of step signal is
r(t) =Au(t)
Where u(t) =1 for t 0
U(t) = 0 for t< 0
41. What is a parabolic signal?

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The parabolic signal is a signal whose value varies as a square of time from an initial value
of Zero at t=0. This parabolic signal represents constant acceleration input to the signal. The
mathematical representation of parabolic signal in
At 2
;t 0
2
0;t 0

r(t)

## 42. What is positional Error Coefficient?

Steady state Error for a step input is

1
1 K P

## positional Error coefficient is giver by K P lim

G(s)H(s)
s0
43. Enumerate the advantages of generalized error coefficient.
The advantages of generalized Error coefficients are
1. It gives error signal as a function of time.
2. It can be used to determine the steady state error for any type of input.
44. A system has a transfer function

C(s)
4
2
R(s) S 1.6S 4

For the unit step response, the settling time for 2% tolerance band is
ts

4
;Given w n 2; 2w n 1.6
w n

ts

4
5 sec and =0.4
0.4 2

## 45. What are the roles of controller in Control systems?

The main role of controller is to modify the error and to achieve better control action.
46. What is a proportional Controller?
The controller which produces the output signal in proportional to the error signal is called
a proportional controller. The transfer function of proportional controller in K P.
47. What is a PI Controller?

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## PI Controller is a proportional plus integral controller which produces on output signal

consisting of two terms one proportional to error signal and other proportional to the integral of
the error signal.
48. What is PD controller?
PD Controller is a proportional plus derivative controller which produces an output signal
consisting of two terms, one proportional to error signal and other proportional to the derivative
of the error signals.
49. For the following differential equation 2
2

d2 y
dy
4
8y 0 Determine the damping ratio.
2
dt
dt

d2 y
dy
4
8y 0
2
dt
dt

## on taking Laplace Transform,

2S2Y11(s)+4sy1(s)+8y(s)=0
S2Y11(s)+2Sy1(s)+4Y(s)=0
Compare the above equation with the standard form of second order characteristic equation.
S2+2Wns+Wn2=0
Wn2=4
2wn=2
=

1
0.5
wn

50. What in the type and order of the given system is whose open loop transfer function?
The number of poles lie at origin of S-plane gives the types of system.
The highest power of the complex variables S in the denominator of transfer function is called as
the order of a system.
Type 1
Order 2
51. A first order system is shown in fig below. What is its time response to a unit step input.

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Solution:
C(s) 1

R(s) 1 ST

52. Give the relation ship between static and dynamic error coefficients.
Co

1
1 Kp

C1

1
Kv

C2

1
Ka

53. Give the steady state error for step and velocity input .
ess for step input =

1
1+K P

## ess for velocity input=

1
Kv

PART B
1. Obtain the response of first order system for unit step input

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c( s )
1

R( s) 1 s

----(1)

## The closed loop transfer function of first order system

If the input is unit step input, r(t) =1 and R(S) = 1/s
Response in S-domain, c(s) = 1 / 1+zs

s 1 zs
1
sz (1 / z s )
1/ z

S (S 1 / z)

By Partial fraction,
1
z

C (s)

S (S 1 / z)

A
S

B
S 1/ z

A( s 1 / z ) Bs

z
Put s= 0
1

A(1 / z )

z
A 1
Put S= -1/z
1/z =B(-1/Z)
B=-1
C (S )

1
1

s s 1/ z

## Taking inverse laplace transform,

1
1
C (t ) L1 L1
S
S 1/ Z
C (t ) 1 e t / z
2. Derive the response of undamped second order system for unit step input.

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The standard form of closed loop transfer function of second order system is,

C (S )
Wn 2
2
R( S ) S 2 zwn s wn 2
For undamped system, Z = 0

C(S)
Wn 2
2
R(S) S Wn 2

## when the input is unit step input, r(t) = 1 of R(s) = 1/s

wn 2
C ( s ) R( S ), 2
s wn 2
1 wn 2
2
s s wn 2
By partial fraction,

C (s)

wn 2
A
Bs c
2 2
2
2
s ( s wn ) s wn s

## wn2 = A(s2+wn2) + Bs+C)s

put S = 0
w2 = A(wn2)
A = 1
Equating coefficient of s2
0 = A+B
B= -1
Equating coefficient of S
O=C
1
(1) s
C (S ) 2
s s wn2

## Taking inverse laplace transform,

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s
2

s wnn
c(t) = L-1 (1/s) L-1
c(t) = 1 cos wnt
3. Obtain the response of second order underdamped system with unit step input.
The standard form of second order system is

wn2
C (s)
2
R( s ) S 2 zwn s wn2
we know r(t) = 1 R(S) = 1/s
We know r(t) =1 R(S) = 1/s
1
wn 2
C ( s)
s
s 2 2 zwn s wn2
Applying partial fraction,

C (s)

A
Bs C
2
s s 2 zwns wn2

## wn2 A( s 2 2 zwn s wn2 ) ( Bs C ) S

Puts 0
wn2 A( wn2 )
A 1
Equating coefficients of s2
0 = A(1) + B
B = -1
Equating coefficient of S,
0 = 27 wn A+C
C = -27wn
s 2 zwn
1
C (s) 2
s s 2 zwn s wn2
2
Adding and subtracting z 2 wn to the denominator of second term,

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S 2 zwn
2
2
2 2
2 2
S 2 zwn s wn z wn z wn

S 2 zwn
2
2
2 2
( S 2 zwn s zwn ) ( wn z wn )

S 2 zwn
2
2
2
( S 2 zwn ) wn (1 z )

1
s

1
s

## c(t ) [1 e zwnt coswd t

zwn zwnt
e
sinw dt ]
wd

S 2 zwn
1

s ( S 2 zwn ) 2 wn2 (1 z )

S 2 zwn
1

s ( S zwn ) 2 wd2 ,
where wd = w n

1-z 2

S 2 zwn
zwn
1

2
2
s ( S zwn ) wd ( s zwn ) 2 wd2

Taking L-1
C (t ) [1 e
1 e
1 e

zwnt
zwnt

zwnt

1 z

t
[cos wd

zw n zwnt
t
e
sin wd
wd

zwn
wn 1 z

t
[cos wd

z
1 z

t
sin wd ]

t
sin wd ]

t
t
2
[sin wd z cos wd 1 z ]

t
(sin wd cos cos wd tz sin ](Re fere note)

t
sin( wd )

( where = tan +

Note:

2
t
t
[ 1 z cos wd z sin wd ]

1 z
zwnt

zwnt

cosw d

1 z
zwnt

1 z

zwnt

1 z
z

2
)

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## 1-z2 SinQ = 1-z2

cos = Z
tan = 1-z2/ z

z
4. Desire the response of second order critically damped system with unit step input.
The standard form of closed loop transfer function is
C (S )
wn 2
2
R( s ) s 2 zwn s wn 2
for critical damping z=1

C (S )
wn 2
2
R( s ) s 2 zwn s wn 2
wn 2
2
2
= ( s wn )
for unit step input, R(s) = 1/S
1 wn 2
C (S )
s ( S wn ) 2

C (S )

wn 2
S ( S wn ) 2

## Applying partial fraction,

wn2
A
B
C

2
S ( s wn )
S S wn ( S wn ) 2
wn2 = A (S+wn)2+B (S) (S+wn) + CS
Put S = 0,
Wn2 = A[wn)2
A =1
Put S = - wn
W2n = C (-wn)
C = -wn

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Put S = 1
Wn2 = A(1+wn)2 +B(1+wn)+C(1)
Wn2 = 1+wn2+2wn+B(1+wn) +-wn
Wn2 = 1+wn2+wn+B(1+wn)
B(1+wn) =- wn2 +1+wn2+wn
B(1+wn) = = 1+wn
B= 1
wn
1
1

2
c(s) = s s wn ( s wn )

Taking L-1
C(t) = 1-e-wnt (1+wnt)
5. Derive the expression for rise time Response of second order system for underdamped case
is,
e zwnt

Sin( wd t )
1 z2
At t = tr, c(t) = c(tr) =1

C (t ) 1

c(tr ) 1

e zwntr
1 z2

Sin( wd tr ) 1

e zwntr

sin( wd tr ) 0
1 z2
Since e zwntr 0,sin( wd tr ) 0

sin = 0, =0, , 2
wdtr + =
wdtr = -

tr
wd
where =tan -1

1 z2

and w d wn 1 z 2
1 z2
tan
z
tr
2
wn 1 z
1

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## 6. Drive the expression for peak time.

Differentiate C(t) with respect to t and equate to 0
d
c(t )
dt

t tp

C (t ) 1

i.e

0
e zwnt p
1 z2

Sin( wd t 0)

differentiating w, r, t t,
d
e zwnt
c(t )
( zwn sin( w2t )
dt
1z 2
e zwnt

cos( wd t ) wd
2
1

Put w d = w n

1-z 2

d
e zwnt
c(t )
( zwn ) sin( wd t )
dt
1 z2
e zwnt
wn e
[ z sin( wd ) 1 7 z cos( wd t )
2
1 z

wn 1 z 2

e zwnt cos( wd t )

1 z
e zwnt
wn e
[ z sin( wd ) 1 7 z cos( wd t )
2
1 z
2

wn
1 z

wn

e zwnt

## [sin( wd t ) cos cos ( wd t ) sin ]

1 z2
t
wn
e zwn [sin( wd t ) ]
1 z2

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wn

1 z

e zwnt sin wd t

d
c(t ) 0
dt

at t = tp,
wn

e zwnt sin wd t p 0

1 z
0 sin wd t p 0
2

zwntp

sin 0, 0, , 2 .....
wd t p
tp

wd

t p
=

wn 1 z 2

7. Derive the relationship between the maximum overhead and damping ratio % peak
overshoot,

% Mp

c(tp ) c()
x100
C ( )
where c(tp) = peak response at t = tp c() = Final steady state

value
The unit step response of the second order s/m is given
c (t ) 1

zwnt
1 z

sin( wdt )

At t= , c(t) = c( ) = 1

-e

1 z

sin( wdt )

1 0
c ( ) 1
1-e

Sin ( wd t p )
2
1-z
-zw n t p
1-e
c(t p )
Sin ( wd / wd )
2
1-z

At t = tp c(t) = c(t p ) =

Put t p / wd
1-e

wn 1 z
2
1-z

-zw n

1-e

-z / 1 z 2
1-z

-zw n t p

2
z
2
1-z
2
1-z

sin( )

sin

( sin ( + )=-sin01

1+ec(t p )

1 z

c(t p ) 1+e -z / 1 z
%M

c (t p ) c ( )

x100

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1 z

At t= , c(t) = c( ) = 1

-e

1 z

sin( wdt )

1 0
c ( ) 1
1-e

Put t p / wd
1-e

wn 1 z
2
1-z

-zw n

1-e

-z / 1 z 2
1-z

-zw n t p

Sin ( wd t p )
2
1-z
-zw n t p
1-e
c(t p )
Sin ( wd / wd )
2
1-z

At t = tp c(t) = c(t p ) =

2
z
2
1-z
2
1-z

sin( )

sin

( sin ( + )=-sin01

1+ec(t p )

1 z

c(t p ) 1+e -z / 1 z
%M P
1 e

c (t p ) c ( )
c ( )

x100

2
1 z 1
x100
1

1 2

100
% Mp e

by88
8. Derive the equation for setting time (ts).
The response of second order system has two components, they are,
e zwnt
1. Decaying exponential component,
2. Sinusoidal component, sin(wdt+)

1 z2

In this decaying exponential term dampens (or) reduces the oscillations produced by
sinusoidal component. Hence the setting time is decided by the exponential component. The
settling time can be found out by equating exponential component to percentage tolerance errors.
For 2% tolerance, at t = ts;
e zwnts
0.02
1 z2
for least values of z,
e-zwnts = 0.02
-zwnts = ln 0.02
-zwnts = -4
ts = 4 / Zwn
= 4T,

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## where T=1 /zwn = Time constant of the system

For 5% error,
e-zwnts = 0.05
-zwnts = ln(0.05)
-Zwnts = -3
ts = 3 / zwn
=3T,
where T = 1 / zwn
9. A unit step input is applied to the unity feedback system for which open loop transfer
16
G (s)
S ( S 8) . Find
function
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Its closed loop transfer function

Natural frequency of oscillation
Damping ratio z
Damped frequency of oscillations, wd

Solution
(i)

c( s )
G (s)

R( s) 1 G ( s) H ( s)
16
s ( s 8)

16
1
s ( s 8)
16
2
s 8s 16

i)

## ii) The standard equation is,

S2+2zwns+wn2
Comparing S2+8S +16 with standard equation,
Wn2 = 16
2zwn =8
Wn =16
z= 8 / 8
= 4 rad / sec z = 1
iv) wd = wn 1-z2
= 41-1

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C (S )
25
2
10. A second order system is given by R( S ) S 6 S 25 Find its risetime, peak overshoot and
settling time if subjected to unit step input. Also calculate expression for its output response.
Solution:

wn2
2
2
Comparing transfer function with S 2 zwn s wn
Wn2 = 25 2zwn = 6
wn = 5

6
0.6
10
1 z2
tan 1
z

1 0.62
tan 1
0.6

wd = wn1-z2
=51-0.62
0.9272

wd
4
0.5535sec

tp

wd 4
tr

0.785 sec
z
%M p e
x100
1 z2
= 9.48/

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ts

4
1.33 sec
zwn

C(t) =

1-e-zw n t
1-z 2

sin( wd t )

1 e 3t

sin(4t 0.9272)
1 0.62
1 1.5625e 3t sin(4t 0.9272)
11. Obtain the response of unity feedback system whose open loop transfer function is
4
G (s)
and
S ( S 5)
when the input is unit step.
Solution:

C (S )
G(S )

R( S ) 1 G ( S )
4
S ( S 5)

4
1
S ( S 5)
4
2
S 5S 4
C (s)
4

R( s ) ( S 4)( S 1)
1
4

S ( S 4)( S 1)
By partial fraction,
A
B
C
C (s)

S S 4 S 1
4 A( S 4)( S 1) B ( S )( S 1) C ( S )( S 4)
Put S = 0,
4= A(4) (1)
A=1
Put S = -4
4= B(-4) (-4+1)
= B (-4) (-3)
4 = 12B

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B = 1/3
Put S = -1
4= C(-1)(-1+4)
=C(-1)(3)
4=-3C
C =-4/3

1 1/ 3 4 / 3
C (S )
s S 4 s 1
1
Taking L
1
C (t ) 1 e 4t 4 / 3e t
3
12. For servomechanisms with open loop transfer function given below explain what type of
input signal give rise to a constant steady state error and calculate their values.

20( S 2)
10
2) G(S) =
S ( S 1)( s 3)
(S+2)(S+3)

1) G ( S )

10

3) G(S )

2
S (S 1)S 2)
20(s 2)

i)G(s)

s(s 1)(s 3)

Kv L SG(S ) H(s)
S0
20(S+2)

=L+S,

(1)

S(S+1)(S+3)

20(2)

40

3
ess

Kv

40

0.075
(ii)G(S )

10
(S 2)(S 3)

K p L G(S)+(S)
s-->0
10

=L+

(S+2)(s+3)
s 0

10
6

5
3
1

1
3
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e

ss

Kv

40

0.075
(ii)G(S )

10
(S 2)(S 3)

K p L G(S)+(S)
s-->0
10

=L+

(S+2)(s+3)
s 0

10

ess

1
1 kp

1
1 5/ 3

3
8

ess 0.375
10

iii )G( s) 2
; H (S ) 1
S ( S 1)( S 2)
2
K L S G( S ) H ( S )
a
S-->0
=Lt S2G(S)
s-->0
2
=L+S

10
2
S ( S 1)( S 2)

s 0

10
2

5
ess

1 1

ka 5

0.2

13. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function ,
the position, velocity and acceleration error constants 01
Solution:
Position error constant, kp = L+ G(S) H(S)
S 0

G(S )

10( S 2)
.
S 2 ( S 1) find

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= L+

10(S+2)
---------S 0 S2 (s+1)
=

## Velocity error constant, Kr L+SG(S)H(S)

S0
L S2

10
S ( S 1)( S 2)
2

S 0

10
2
5

ess

1 1

ka 5

0.2

14. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function,

10( s 2)
2
G(S)= s ( S 1). . Find the error constants.
Solution:
Position error constant, Kp = L+G(S) H(S)
S0
10( S 2)
L 2
S ( s 1)
S 0

## Velocity error constant Kr = L+S G(S) H(S)

s0
10( S 2)
L 2
S ( s 1)
S 0

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## Acceleration error constant, ka L+S2 G(S) H(S)

S 0
10( S 2)
L 2
S ( s 1)
S 0
20 //

10( S 2)
2
For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function G(S) = S ( s 1) . Find the
3 2
1
R( S ) 2 3
s S
3S
steady state error when the input is R(S) where R(S) =
Solution:
C
C1
....r n 0 (t ) n
n1
e(t) = r(t) Co + r(t) C1 +r(t) 21
r(t) = L-1[R(s)]
3 2t

3 2t

3 21
2
t
6

r (t ) 2

2t

2 t / 3

6
r (t ) 1 / 3
F (S )

1
1 G(S )H (S )

1
1 G(S )

1
1

10( s 2)
2
S ( S 1)

2
S ( S 1)
2
S ( S 1) 10( S 2)

3
2
S S
3
2
S S 10 s 20

3
2

S S

3
2
S S 10 s 20

C0 L F ( s ) L
s-->0
=0

S-->0

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C1=L+

F (s)

ds
s 0
3
2

S S
3 2

ds S S 10 S 20
d

s 0

( S 3 s 2 10 s 20)(3s 2 2 s ) ( s 3 s 2 )(3s 2 2 s 10

3
2
2
( S s 10 s 20)

Lt

S 0
C1 0
C2 L

d2

F (s) L

ds 2

s 0
=L+

( F ( s ))

ds ds
d

s->0

20 s 3 70 s 2 40 s
3 2
2
ds ( s s 10 s 20)
d

## S3 S2 10s 20)2 (60s2 140s 40) 20s3 70s2 40s)

3 2

2
2(s s 10s 20)(3s 2s 10)

3
2
4

s s 10s 20)

s 0

202 x40 1

204
10

C2
r(t)
21
1
t2
t
2t (0) (2 )(0) 1/3x1/10x1/2
6
3
3

e(t) r(t)c0 cr
1 (t)

1/60
1
60
t->

ess L e(t) L
t->
=1
60

15. Measurement conduct on a servomechanism show the system response to be c(t) = 1+0.2 e-

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60t -1.2e -10t when subject to a unit step input. Obtain an expression for closed loop transfer
function. Determine the undamped natural frequency and damping ratio.
Solution:C(t) = 1+0.2e-bot 1.2e-10t

1
1
1
C(s) 0.2
1.2
s
s 60
s 10
1
1
1
C(S) 0.2
1.2
S
s 60
s 10
(s 60)(S 10) 0.23(S 10) 1.2s(S 60

## S(S 60)(S 10)

s2 70s 600 0.252 2s 1.2s2 72s

## S(S 60)(S 10)

1
600

s (s 60)(s 10)
600
C(s) R(s)
(s 60)(s 10)
C(s)
600
2
R(s) s 70s 600
Comparing with standard eqn,
wn 2
s 2 2 zwn s wn 2

wn 2 600
wn 600
2zw n 70
70
z
2 wn

70
224.49
Z 1.43

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cs
a
2
R s
S Ks a
16. Consider a Unity feed back system having TF
Determine the OLTF and
Solution:

cs
a
2
R s S Ks a
If G(s) is the forward transfer friction for unity feed back system,

cs
G(s)

R s 1 G(s)
G(s)
a

1 G ( s ) S 2 Ks a
G(s)
S 2 Ks a

1 G (s)
a
1
S 2 Ks
1
1
G(s)
a
1
S 2 Ks

G(s)
a
a
G(s)
S (s k )

## Positional error coefficient

1

K P S 0 G ( s) H ( s)
1

=S 0

a
1
S S K

KP

## velocity error coefficient

1

KV S 0 S .G ( s ) H ( s )
1

= S 0 S
KV

a
1
S S K
a
K

Acceleration co efficient]

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K a S 0 S 2G (s) H (s)
1

a
1
S S K

= S 0 S 2
Ka 0

G s

36
S s 0.72

## For a unity feed back system,

Determine the characteristic equation and hence, calculate damping ratio, peak time, settling time
Peak overshoot and number of cycles completed before output settles for unit step input.
G s

36
S s 0.72

H (s) 1
T .F

G s

1 G s H (s)

36
S s 0.72 36

## Characteristic equation of system

S(s+0.72)+36=0
S2+0.72s+36=0 ----------(1)
Comparing equ(1) with std. equation

S2+2hWns+Wn2=0--------(2)

2GWn 0.72

Wn2 36

0.72
2 Wn

0.72
0.06
2 6

Wd Wn 1 G2
= 6 1-(0.06)2 5.989rad / sec

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Peak time t P

0.5245 sec
Wd 5.989

Settling time t s

4
4

11.11 sec.
GWn 0.06 6

Peak overshoot % MP e

%MP e

0.06
1 (0.06)2

G
1 G2

100%

100%

=82.79%

## Number of cycles completed before settling

=Settling time /no. of cycles per second
ts

Wd
2

2
11.11
10.59
5.989

S 12

4
3
2
The closed loop T.F. of fourth order system is S 10s 35s 50s 24 Determine the
response of the system when a step input of 10 is applied to the input. Hence, calculate the steady
state output of the system.

R(t)=10
10
R(s)
s
T(s)

2s 1
2 s 1 s 2 s 3 s 4

2s 1
C(s)

R(s) 2 s 1 s 2 s 3 s 4
5
5
15
25
35

## 24s 6(s 1) 4(s 2) 6(s 3) 24(s 4)

Taking inverse LT
5 5 t 15 2 25 3t 35 4t
c(t)=
e e
e
e
24 6
4
6
24
c(s)

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Obtain the Unit impulse response and unit step response of a unity feed back system whose often
loop T.F. is
G(s)

2s 1
s2

## i. Let R(s) = 1/s unit step input

C(s)
G(s)

R(s) 1 G(s)H(s)
2s 1 2
C(s)
s

R(s)
2s 1 (1)
1
s2
C(s)
2s 1
2
R(s) s 2s 1
2s 1
C(s) R(s) 2

s 2s 1
1 2s 1
=
s s2 2s 1

C(s)

(2s 1)
S(s2 2s 1) By partial fraction

2s 1
A Bs C
2
S(s 2s 1) s S 2s 1
2

2s 1
s (s2 2s 1)
2s 1

A(s2 2s 1) Bs C
s(s2 2s 1)

=A(s2 2s 1) Bs C s

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comparing S2coefficient
Put s=0
0 A B
1=A
B 1
Comparing S coefficient
Z=2A+C
C=2-2A
C=2-2(1)=0
C=0

2s 1
1 s 0

s2 2s 1 s s2 2s 1
2s 1 1 s
2
S s2 2s 1 s s 1

1
S
C(t) L1 C(s) L1

2
s s 1
1
S
=L-1

2
s s 1
1 S 1
1
=L-1

2
2
s s 1
S 1
1
1
1
=L-1

2
s s 1 S 1
=1-e-t te t

C(t) 1 e t t 1
(ii) Input = Unit impulse
R(s) =1

C(s)
G(s)

R(s) 1 G(s)H(s)
2s 1
C(s) R(s) 2

S 2s 1
2s 1
2s 1
=1 2
2

S 2s 1 S 2s 1

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2S 1
C(t) L1 C(s) L1 2

S 2s 1
S S 1
S 1
1
-1
=L-1

=L

2
2
2
s 1
s 1
S 1
1
1
=L-1

e t te t
2
s

S 1
C(t)=e-t 1 t
A unit ramp input is applied to a unity feed back system whose transfer function is
100
Find the time response and steady state error.
2
s 5s 100
C(s)
100
2
R(s) S 5s 100
unit Ramp input
1
R(s) = 2
S
100
C(s) 2 2
S S 5s 100

## By partial fractions we get

C(s)

1
1
2
2os S

C(s)

1
1
2
2os S

s 3

2o
4
2
S 5s 100

5
s 5
s

1
2
2

2
2
2os 5 2 75 5 2 75
s 2 2 s 2 2

## Taking Inverse LT We get

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C(t)

1
1 2.5t
75
75
t
cos
t 4.04e 2.5t sin
t
e
2o
2o
2
2

R(t) t
e(t) R(t) C(t)
=

1
1 2.5t
75
75

cos
t 4.04e 2.5t sin
t
e
20 20
2
2

1
1 2.5t
75
75

cos
t 4.04e 2.5t sin
t
e
2o
2
2
t 2o

Css H
Css

1
2o

17. A second order system has 40%r peak overshoot and settling time of 2 sc for unit step input.
Find resonant peak gain and reasonant freq.
Solution:
Peak Overshoot =40%
G
%Mp e
100%
1 G2
G
40 e
100%
1 G2
G
0.4 e
100%
1 G2
ln(0.4)

G 0.2799

1 G2

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ts

4
GWn

4
GWn

2
0.2799
Reasonant Peak Mr 1
2 0.2799 1 0.2799 2

=1.86072
Wn

## =7.142 1-2 0.2799

18. For a unity feed back second order system, the open loop transfer function is
n2
G s
s s2 2n
Calculate the generalized error coefficients and find error series.
Solution:

n2
G s
s s 2n
Hs 1
F s

s2 2ns
1
2
1 G s H s s 2 s n2
s2 2ns
0
s 0 s2 2 s 2
n
n

Co lim F s lim
s 0

C1 lim
s 0

s
lim

d
F s
ds

s 0

2ns n2 2s 2n s2 2ns 2s 2n

2n3 2

n4
n

2ns ns

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2
2
2

d 2s 2n s 2ns n s 2ns
C2 lim
lim
2
s 0
s 0 ds
2
2

ds2
s

n
n

s2 2 s 2 2 2 s
n
n
n

s2 2 s 2 2s 2
n
n
n

2n2 lim
4
s 0
2
2

s 2ns n

n4 2n n2 2n
2

2n
n8

1 4 4
2

2
n

d2F s

1 4 2
2
et
r t
r t ....
2
n
n

1
s 1 2s

## . The input to the system is described by r

(t)=2+4t+6t2+2t3. Determine the generalized error coefficients and express the steady state error
as a function of time.
Solution:
Given G s
F s

1
H s 1; r t 2 4t 6t 2 2t 3
s 1 2s
1
1

s+G s H s 1 G s
1

=
1+

1
s 1 2s

s 1 2s
2s s 1
2

2s2 s
2s2 s 1

2s2 s
0
s 0
s 0 2s2 s 1
d
d 2s2 s
C1 lim
F s lim

s 0 ds
s 0 ds 2s2 s 1

C0 lim F s lim

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2s
lim

C1

2s

s 0

=lim
s 0

4s 1

2s

s 1 4s 1 2s2 s 4s 1

s 1

s 1

d2
d2
4s 1

F s lim 2
2
2
s 0 ds
s 0 ds
2

2s

C2 lim

=lim

2s

s 1

s 1 4 2 4s 1 2s2 s 1 4s 1
2

2s

s 0

=2
C0 0; C1 1; C2 2

Error signal
e t r t C0 r t C1

r t
2!

C2 ...

t Cn
n!

## Given r(t) = 2+4t+6t2

r(t) =4+12t
r(t) =12
r(t)C2
2!
12
=(2+4t+6t2)0+(4+12t)+ 2
2!

## e(t) =r(t) C0 + r(t) C1 +

=12t +16
es' s lim e(t)
t

20. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G(s)

K
s(Ts 1)

where K and T are positive constants. By what factor should the amplifier gain be reduced so
that the peak overshoot of unit step response of the system is reduced from 75% to 25%.
Solution:
Given: G(s)

K
s(Ts 1)

## Characteristic equation is given by 1

K
0
s(Ts 1)

C.E. = Ts2+s+K=0

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s
T

C.E.=s2
Case(i): %Peak overshoot Mp=75%
1

Mp =0.75

ln2 0.75
2 ln2 0.75

1 0.0912

## Case (ii): % Peak overshoot Mp = 25

(or) Mp = 0.25
1

ln2 0.25
2 ln2 0.25

1 0.0437

Comparing s2

s K
0 with s2 2n s n2 0.
T T
K
T
1
2n
T
K 1
2

T T
n

K
1
2
T T
1 T
K 2
T 4 2
1
K
4T 2
1
1
K1
,K 2
4T 2
4T 2
4 2

## The factor by which K1 has to be increased

2

K 4T12 1
0.0912
2

2
K1 4T 2 2
0.4037
K2
0.0510
K1
K 2 0.0510K1

K
0
T

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21. A servo mechanism is used to control the angular position 0 of a mass through a command
signal i. The moment of inertia of load is 200 kg-m2 and the motor torque at load is 6.88 104
N/m/rad of error. The damping torque coefficient is 5 104 N-m/rad/sec. Find the time
response for a step input of 1 radian.
Solution:

Figure:
Given

J 200kg m2 ;

kT=6.88 10 4N / m / rad

G s

kT
and H s 1
Js2 fs

G s

1 G sHs

That is,

kT
s
k
T s 0
Js fs 2 T
k
i s
Js fs k T
1 2 T
Js fs
kT / J
=
k
f
s2 s T
J
J
2

## Substituting the values kT, f, J in the above equation, we have

6.88 10 4
344
200
T s
2
3
4
5 10
6.88 10
s 25s 344
s2
s
200
200

Comparing the equation with the standard form of second order system as shown in equation we
have

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2n 25

25
0.6739
2 18.547

0 t 1

ent

sin n 1 2 t

1
2

## =1-1.353e -12.5t sin 13.7t 47.630

=tan-1

1 2

22. A system shown in figure is initially at equilibrium with r =1 and d = 0. a step function
disturbance d(t) = u(t) is then initiated at t = 0. Determine the response c(t) for t > 0.
(AU April 04).

Figure:
Solution:
The given system is in equilibrium with r=1.
c(t) = 1 at t = 0.
But we want the response from t=0. So, Let us take this value (c (t) =1) as new reference. (ie)
r(t) =c(t) = 0 at t=0.

C s

D s

## can be found by assuming r t 0.

Figure:

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2
2
2s s 4
2
s4
s4

. 2
2s s 4 6 s 4 2s 8s 6
D s 1 3 . 2
2s s 4
2s s 4
C s

4s
2s
2
2s 8s 6 s 4s 3
For step disturbance
1
1
2s
D s C s . 2
s
s s 4s 3
2s
2
C s 2

s 4s 3 s 1 s 3
=

A
B

s 1 s 3

1
1

s 1 s 3

C t e t e 3t u t
23. A second order position control system has OLTF G(s)

K
where K is the gain. Find
s(1 0.2s)

the value of K so that steady state error shall not exceed 0.5o when input shaft rotated as 5 r.p.m.
Solution:
Given
Angular velocity = 5 r.p.m

5 2
60

6
6

R(s) = 2
6s

ess 0.5o
360

We know
ess lim
s 0

sR s

1 G sHs

sR s
Gp
lim
360 s0 1 G s H s

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We know

lim
360 s0

2
6s
6
lim
s 0
K
K
1 s
s
1 0.2s
1 0.2s
s

6K

360 6K
K 60
=

24. A unity feedback control system has an amplifier with gain KA = 10 and gain ratio, G(s) =
1/s(s+2) in the feed forward path. A derivative feedback, H(s) = sK0 is introduced as a minor
loop around G(s). Determine the derivative feedback constant, K0 so that the system damping
factor is 0.6.
SOLUTION
The given system can be represented by the block diagram shown in figure.

Figure
1
Here, KA = 10; G(s) =
and H(s) = sK0
s( s 2)
The closed loop transfer function of the system can be obtained by block diagram reduction
techniques.
Step 1: Reducing the inner feedback loop.

Figure

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1
G( s)
1
1
s( s 2)

2
1 G( s)H ( s) 1 1 .sK
s( s 2) sK0 s 2s sK 0
0
s( s 2)
1
= 2
s (2 K0 )s

Figure.
Step 2. Combining blocks in cascade.

## Step 3. Reducing the unity feed back path.

Figure

Figure
The closed loop transfer function,

C ( s)
10
2
R( s) s (2 K0 )s 10

The given system is a second order system. The value of K 0 can be determined by
comparing the system transfer function with standard form of second order transfer function.

n2
C ( s)
10

2
2
2
R( s) s 2 n s n s (2 K0 )s 10
On comparing we get
n2 10

2 K0 2 n
K0 2 n 2
= 2 0.6 3.162-2 = 1.7944

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RESULT
The value of constant, K0 = 1.7944
25. A unity feedback control system has an loop transfer function, G(s) = 10/s(s+2). Find the rise
time, percentage overshoot, peak time and settling time for a step input of 12 units.
SOLUTION
(Note: The formula for rise time, percentage overshoot and peak time remains same for unit
step and step input).
The unity feedback system is shown in figure

## Figure: Unity feedback system

The closed loop transfer function,

C ( s)
G( s)

R( s) 1 G( s)

## Given that, G(s) = 10/s (s+2)

10
C ( s)
10
10
s( s 2)

2
R( s) 1 10
s( s 2) 10 s 2 s 10
s( s 2)

The values of damping ratio and natural frequency of oscillation n are obtained by
comparing the system transfer function with standard form of second order transfer function.

n2
C ( s)
10
2
2
2
R( s) s 2 wn s n s 2s 10

On comparing we get,

n2 10

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2 n 2
2
1

0.316
2 n 3.162

tan 1

1 2
1 0.316 2
tan 1

0.316

Rise time, tr

1.249

0.63 sec.
d
3

1 2

0.316
2

## 100 e 10.316 100

Percentage overshoot, % M P e
= 0.3512 100=35.12%
35.12
Peak overshoot =
12 units = 4.2144 units
100

Peak time, t P
1.047 sec .
d 3
1
1
Time constant, T =

1 sec
n 0.316 3.162

## For 5% error, Settling time, tS = 3T = 3 sec

For 2% error, Settling time, tS = 4T = 4 sec.
RESULT
Rise time
Percentage overshoot,
Peak overshoot
Peak time,
Settling time,

tr
= 0.63 sec
%MP = 35.12%
= 4.2144 units, (for a input of 12 units.)
tP
= 1.047 sec
tS
= 3 sec for 5% error
= 4 sec for 2% error

26. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function G(s) = 10(s+2)/s 2 (s+1).
Find (a) the position, velocity and acceleration error constants, (b) the steady state error when
3 2
1
the input is R(s) where R(s) 2 3
s s 3s
SOLUTION
(a) To find the static error constants
For a unity feed back system, H(s) = 1
Position error Constant , KP = Lt G( s)H ( s) Lt G( s)
s0

s0

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10( s 2)

s 0 s 2 ( s 1)

= Lt

s0

= Lt s
s0

s0

10( s 2)

s2 ( s 1)

## Acceleration error constant, Ka = Lt s2G( s)H ( s) Lt s2G( s)

s0

s0

10( s 2) 10 2
= Lt s2 2

20
s0
s ( s 1)
1
(b) To find steady state error Ist method
The steady state error for non standard input is obtained using generalized error series,
given below.
C
C
The error signal, e(t) = r(t) C0 r(t )C1 r(t ) 2 ....... r(t ) n .......
2!
n!
3 2
1
Given that, R(s) = 2 3
s s 3s
3 2
1
Input signal in time domain, r(t) = L1[ R( s)] L1 2 3
s s 3s
2
1
1t
1
t2
= 2t
2t
3
3 2! 3
6

d
1
t
r ( t ) r ( t ) 2 2t 2
dt
6
3
2

d
d 1
r(t ) 2 r(t ) r(t )
dt
dt
3
3

d
d
r(t ) 3 r(t ) r(t ) 0
dt
dt
The derivatives of r(t) is zero after second derivative. Hence we have to evaluate only three
constants C0, C1 and C2 .
The generalized error constants are given by
d
d2
C0 Lt F( s); C1 Lt F( s) ; C 2 Lt 2 F( s)
s0
s 0 ds
s 0 ds
s 2 s 1
1
1
1
F(s) =

2
1 G( s)H ( s) 1 G( s) 1 10( s 2) s s 1 10 s 2
s 2 s 1
s3 s2
= 3 2
s s 10 s 20

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s3 s2
C0 Lt F( s) Lt 3 2
0
s0
s 0 s s 10 20

d
d
s3 s2
C1 Lt F( s) Lt 3 2
s 0 ds
s 0 ds s s 10 s 20

## s3 s2 10s 20 3s2 2s s3 s2 3s2 2s 10

= Lt

s0
( s3 s2 10s 20)2

20 s3 70s2 40s
= Lt 3 2
0
s 0 ( s s 10 s 20) 2

d2
d d

F( s) Lt F( s)
2
s 0 ds
s 0 ds ds

C 2 Lt

## d 20s3 70s2 40s

s 0 ds ( s 3 s 2 10 s 20) 2

= Lt

## (20 s3 70 s2 40 s)2 ( s3 s2 10 s 20)(3s2 2 s 10)

= Lt

s0
( s3 s2 10s 20)4

20 40 1
=

20 4
10
.
..
C
e(t ) r(t )C0 r(t )Cl r(t ) 2
2!
2
1
t
t
1 1 1
Error signal,
= 2t 0 2 0
6
3
3 10 2!

3
1
=
60
1
1
Steady state error, ess Lt e(t ) Lt

t
t 60
60
IInd method
The error signal in s-domain, E(s) =

3 2
1
2 3
s s 3s
10( s 2)
G( s) 2
and
s ( s 1)

R( s)
1 G( s)H ( s)

## Given that R(s) =

H(s) = 1

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3 2
1
3 2
1
2 3
2 3
E( s) s s 3s 2 s s 3s
10( s 2) s ( s 1) 10( s 2)
1 2
s ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1)

2
3
s2 ( s 1)

2
s s ( s 1) 10( s 2) s2

1
s2 ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1) 10( s 2) 3s3

s2 ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1) 10( s 2)

The steady state error ess can be obtained from final value theorem.
Steady state error , ess Lt e(t ) Lt s.E( s)
t

3
2
1

s ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1)
ess Lt s 2

2
2
3
2
s
s s ( s 1) 10( s 2) s s ( s 1) 10( s 2) 3s s ( s 1) 10( s 2)

3s2 ( s 1)
2 s2 ( s 1)
( s 1)
Lt s 2
2
2

s
s ( s 1) 10( s 2) s ( s 1) 10( s 2) 3s ( s 1) 10( s 2)
2

00

1
60
method

1
1

60 60

ess
III rd

## Error signal in s domain, E(s) =

R( s)
1 G( s)H ( s)

E( s)
1
10( s 2)

, Given that G( s) 2
andH ( s) 1
R( s) 1 G( s)H ( s)
s ( s 1)

E( s)
1
s2 ( s 1)

R( s) 1 10( s 2) s2 ( s 1) 10( s 2)
s2 ( s 1)
s3 s2
s2 s3
s2 s3
3 2

....
s s 10 s 20 20 10 s s2 s3 20 40

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s 2 s3

E(s)=R(s)
...
20 40

1 2
1

s R( s) s3 R( s) ...
20
40
On taking inverse laplace transform,
1 ..
1 ..
e(t) = r(t )
r(t ) ...
20
40
3 2
1
Given that R(s)= 2 3
s s 3s

s2 s3

20 40
s2 s3
20 10 s s2 s3

s2

s3 s4 s5

2 20 20

s3 s4 s5

2 20 20
s 3 s 4 s 5 s6

2 4 40 40
-3 4 3 5 s6
s s
10
40
40

3 2
1 1
1 t2 1
t2

r(t ) L R( s) L 2 3 2t
2t
3 2! 3
6
s s 3s 3
.
d
1
t
r ( t ) r ( t ) 2 2 t 2
dt
6
3
..
d
d .
1
r (t ) 2 r (t ) r (t )
dt
dt
3
3
...
..
d
d
r (t ) 3 r (t ) r (t ) 0
dt
dt
1 d ..
1 1 1
r (t )
Error signal in time domain, e(t) =

20 dt
20 3 60
1
1
Steady state error, e ss Lt e(t ) Lt

t
t 60
60
1

RESULT
(a) Position error constant,
Velocity error constant,
Acceleration error constant

(b)
3 2
1 ess
when R(s)= 2 3
s s 3s

KP =
Kv =
Ka = 20

1
60

27. For servomechanisms with open loop transfer function given below explain what type of
input signal give rise to a constant steady state error and calculate their values.
(i) G(s) =

20( s 2)
10
10
; (ii) G(s) =
; (iii) G(s) = 2
s( s 1)( s 3)
s ( s 1)( s 2)
s 2 s 3

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SOLUTION
(i) G(s) =

20( s 2)
s( s 1)( s 3)

## Let us assume unity feed back system, H(s) = 1

The open loop system has a pole at origin. Hence it is a type-1 system. In systems with
type number-1, the velocity (ramp) input will give a constant steady state error.
The steady state error with unit velocity input, ess 1/ Kv
Velocity error constant, Kv Lt sG( s).H ( s) Lt sG( s)
s0

s0

20(s+2)
20 2 40
= Lt s

s0
s( s 1) s 3 1 3
3
1
3
0.075
K 40
10
(ii) G(s) =
s 2 s 3
Let us assume unity feed back system H(s) = 1
The open loop system has no pole at origin. Hence it is a type-0 system. In systems with
type number-0, the step input will give a constant steady state error.
1
The steady state error with unit step input = ess
1 KP
Position error constant, = K P Lt G( s).H ( s) Lt G( s)
s0

(iii) G(s) =

10
s ( s 1)( s 2)

s0

10
10
5
= Lt

s 0 s 2 s 2
2 3 3

## Let us assume unity feed back system H(s) = 1

The open loop system has two poles at origin. Hence it is a type-2 system. In systems with
type number-2, the acceleration (parabolic) input will give a constant steady state error.
The steady state error with unit acceleration input,
2

ess 1/ Ka
2

## Acceleration error constant , Ka Lt s G( s)H ( s) Lt s G( s)

s0

s0

10
10
Ka Lt s 2

5
s0
s s 1 s 2 1 2
2

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1 1
0.2
Ka 5

RESULT
1. Steady state error in system (i) with unit velocity input = 0.075
2. Steady state error in system (ii) with unit step input = 0.375
3. Steady state error in system (iii) with unit acceleration = 0.2
28. Consider a unity feed back system with a closed loop transfer function

C ( s)
Ks b
.
2
R( s) s as b

Determine the open loop transfer function G(s). Show that the steady state error with unit
a K
ramp is given by
.
b
SOLUTION
For unity feedback system, H(s) = 1.
C ( s)
G( s)
G( s)
The closed loop transfer function,

R( s) 1 G( s)H ( s) 1 G( s)
C ( s)
G( s)
Let M(s) =

R( s) 1 G( s)

G( s)
= M(s)
1 G( s)

On multiplication we get,
G(s) = M(s) [1+G(s)]=M(s)+M(s).G(s)
G(s) M(s).G(s) = M(s)
G(s) [1-M(s)] = M(s)
M ( s)
G(s) =
1 M ( s)
Ks b
Given than M(s) = 2
s as b
Open loop transfer function
Ks b
Ks b
G(s) = s as b 2
Ks b
s as b ( Ks b)
1 2
s as b
2

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Ks b
Ks b
Ks b
2

s as b Ks b s a K s s[s a K ]
2

s0

= Lt s
s0

s0

Ks b
b

s s s K a K
1
aK

KV
b

## Steady state error with velocity input, ess

RESULT
Open loop transfer function,

G(s) =

Ks b
s[s a K ]

## Steady state error with velocity input, ess =

aK
b

UNIT III
PART A
1. Define frequency response.
The frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the system is a
sinusoidal signal.
2. Write any three advantages of frequency response analysis.
1.
2.
3.

The absolute and relative stability of the closed loop system can be estimated from the
knowledge of their open loop response.
The practical testing of systems can be easily carried with available sinusoidal signal
generators and precise measurement equipments.
The transfer function of complicated system can be determined experimentally by frequency
response plots.

1.
2.
3.
4.

## Resonant peak, Mr.

Resonant frequency, or
Bandwidth
Cut-off rate

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5.
6.

Gain margin
Phase margin

## 4. Define resonant peak.

The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called the resonant peak.
5. Define resonant frequency.
The frequency at which the resonant peak occurs is called resonant frequency.
6. Define bandwidth.
The bandwidth is the range of frequency for which the system gain is more than -3dbr.
7. Define cut-off frequency.
The frequency at which the gain is -3db is called cut-off frequency.
8. Define cut off rate.
The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut off frequency is called cut off rate.
9. Define gain margin.
The gain margin is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open loop transfer function at
phase cross over frequency.
10. Define phase margin.
The phase margin is the amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required
to bring the system to the verge of instability.
11. What are the graphical techniques available for frequency response analysis?
Bode plot
Polar plot
Nichols plot
M and N circles
Nichols chart.

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## 12. What are the two graphs of bode plot?

A plot of the magnitude of a sinusoidal transfer function Vs log
A plot of the phase angle of a sinusoidal transfer function Vs log
13. What are the advantages of bode plot?
Multiplication of magnitudes can be converted into addition.
An approximate log-mag curve can be sketched.
14. What do you mean by polar plot?
The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G(jw) is a plot of the magnitude of G(jw) is a plot
of the magnitude of G(jw) Vs the phase angle of G(jw) on polar coordinates as is varied from
zero to infinity.
1
15. Draw the bode plot for G(s)= (1 4 s )(1 7 s )

## 16. Define phase cross over frequency.

It is the frequency at which the phase of G)j) is -1800.
17. Define gain cross over frequency.
It is the frequency at which the magnitude of G(j) is unity.

C (S )
64
2
18. Determine the resonant frequency of a 2nd order system whose R( S ) S 10 S 64
wN2 64

wn 8rod / sec

27w N 10
10
7=
0.625
28

w r wn 1 27 2

=8 1-2(0.625)2
=3.741

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19. Write the expression for resonant peak and resonant frequency.
1
2
Resonant peak, Mr= 2 1

## 20. Define corner frequency.

The magnitude plot can be approximated by asymptotic straight lines. The frequencies
corresponding to the meeting point of asymptotes are called corner frequency.
21. The damping ratio of a second order system is 0.5 calculate resonant peak.
1
2 1 2

1
2 0.5 1 (0.5) 2

## Mr= Mr. 1.154.

22. What is approximate bode plot?
In approximate bode plot, the magnitude plot of a first and second order factors are
approximated by two straight lines, which are asymptotes to exact plot.
23. What is the value of error in approximate magnitude plot of a first order factor at the corner
frequency?
The error is 3mdb, mmultiplicity factor. Positive error for numerator and negative error for
denominator factor.
24. What is minimum phase system?
The minimum phase systems are systems with minimum phase transfer functions. In minimum
phase transfer functions, all poles and zeros will lie on the left half of S plane.
25. What is all pass systems?
The all pass systems are systems with all pass transfer functions. In all pass transfer functions, the
magnitude is unity at all frequencies and the transfer function will have anti-symmetric pole zero
pattern.

## 26. What is non minimum phase transfer functions?

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A transfer function which has one or more zeros in the right half S-plane is known as nonminimum phase transfer function.
1
27. Draw the polar plot of G(s)= 1 ST

1
28. Sketch the polar plot of G(S)= S (1 ST1 )(1 ST2 )(1 ST3 )
2

## 29. What is Nichols chart?

The Nichols chart consists of M ad N contours superimposed on ordinary graph. Along
each M contour magnitude of closed loop system, M will be a constant. Along each N contour, the
phase of closed loop system will be constant.
30. What are the advantages of Nichols chart?
1.
2.
3.

It is used to find closed loop frequency response from open loop frequency response.
The frequency domain specifications can be determined from Nichols chart.
The gain of the system can be adjusted to satisfy the given specification.

1
31. Sketch the bode plot of G(s) 1 ST

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1
32. Draw the polar plot for G(s) H(s)= 1 TS

## 33. State the conditions for stability of the system.

1.
2.
3.

If gain cross over frequency <phase cross over frequency, then the system is said to be stable.
If the gain cross over frequency > phase cross over frequency, the system is unstable.
If gain cross over frequency = phase cross over frequency, the system is marginally stable.

1.
2.
3.
4.

## The complete closed loop frequency response can be obtained.

The value of Mr can be obtained
The 3 dB bandwidth of closed loop system can be obtained.
The frequency wr corresponding to Mr can be obtained.

## 35. What should be the values of GM and PM of a good system?

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An adequate gain margin of 6db and phase margin of about 300 is generally considered good
enough for a good system.
36. How to improve the GM and phase margin?
The GM and PM can be improved by adding compensating networks.
1. The design and parameter adjustment of the open loop Transfer function for the given
closed loop requirement is carried out easily
2. The effect of noise can be easily visualised in frequency response analysis.
1. The frequency response test is not recommended for the system with large time constant.
2. It cannot be performed on non-interruptable system.
38. What are the relations for resonant peak and resonant frequency of a second order system?
Mr

1
2 1 2

Wr w n 1 22

39. Draw the polar plat of a first order system for a first order system.
1
1 sT
1
G jw
1 jwT
1
G jw
1 jw 2 T 2
G s

G( jw) tan1 wT
when w=0, G( jw) 1 and G( jw) 0
when w=, G( jw) and G( jw) 90'

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40. What is the effect or polar plot if a non zero pole is added to the transfer function.
Addition of a non-zero pole to the transfer function results in further rotation of the end
points of polar plot through an angle of 90o
41. What is the effect on polar plot if a pole at origin is added to the transfer function.
When a pole at origin is added to the transfer function it rotates the entire polar plot by a
further angle of 90o.
42. What is Neper.
The real part of Natural logarithm of magnitude is measured in a basic unit called Neper.
A decade is an increase in frequency by a factor of 10 and octave is as increase in frequency
by a factor of 2.
44. What is the value of gain Margin and phase values for a good degree of relative stability?
For a good degree of relative stability the GM is about 6db or a PM is about 30-35o
45. What is the application of Nichols chart?
The Nichols Chart can be used to determine the closed loop frequency response form that
of the open loop.

## 46. A system has a transfer function G(s)

1 s
what type of system it is?
1 s

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## All pass system.

47. What is constant M- circle for M=1?
A straight line parallel to Y- axis at x=-1/2
48. The open loop Transfer function of a unity feed back control system is given by
G(s)

1
S 1 sT1 1 sT2

What are the phase cross over frequency and gain Margin Value.

Phase crossover
Frequency Wpc
gain margin G.M=

1
T1T2
T1 T2
T1 T2

## 49. Compare Bode plot and Nyquist plot Analysis.

Bode plot is suitable only for minimum transfer function. But Nyquist plot Analysis is suitable
for both non-minimum and minimum transfer.

PART B

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1. Sketch the bode plot for the following transfer function and determine phase margin and
gain margin.
75(1 0.2 S )
G(S )
S ( S 2 16 S 100)
Solution:
2
2
Comparing S2+16s+100 with S 2 n s n

Wn2 =100

G(S )

75(1 0.2 S )
S ( S 2 16 S 100)

75(1 0.2S )
S 2 16S
S 100(

)
100 100
G(S )

75(1 0.2 S )
S ( S 2 16 S 100)

G ( jw)

## 75(1 0.2 jw)

jw(1 0.01( jw) 2 0.16 jw)

G ( jw)

## 0.75(1 0.2 jw)

jw[(1 0.01w2 ) 0.16 jw)

## The corner frequencies are,

1
0.2
wc 2 con to rad / sec,
wc1

Magnitude plot:
Term

Corner freq.

Slope

## Change in slope dbsec.

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0.75
jw
1to2jw
1
1 0.01w2 jo.16 w

-

db/dec
-20

20

-20+20=0

10

-40

0-40=-40

Choose low corner frequency we such that we <wc1 and choose a higher corner frequency
wn such that wn>Wc2.

0.75
At w=we, A=20log | jw |
0.75
=20log | jw |
=3.5db

0.75
At w=wc1, A = 20log | jw |
0.75
=20log | jw |
=-16.5db
c2
At w=wc2, A=[slope from coc1 x coc2 x log c1 ]+Aw

10
(16.5)
5
16.5db
0 log

=-40 log

Phase plot:

wh
Awc 2
w c2

20
(16.5)
10

=-28.5db.

## The phase angle of G(jw) is given by,

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0.16
for wn
1 0.01 2

0.16

1800 , for wn
2
1 0.01

0.5
-88

01
-88

5
-92

10
-116

20
-148

50
-168

100
-174

## phase margin, =1800+gc

=1800-880
=920
Gain Margin = +.

2. Plot the bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and phase cross
over frequencies.
10
G(S )
S (1 0.4 S )(1 0.1S )

G ( jw)

10
jw(1 0.4 jw)(1 0.1 jw)

Magnitude plot:

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1
0.4
1
wc 2
0.1
wc1

Term

-

10
jw
1
1 jo.4w
1
1 jo.1w

Slope
db/dec
-20

## Change in slope dbsec.

wc1 =2.5

20

-20-20=-40

10

-20

0-40=-20=-60

Choose We, such that we<wc1 and choose wn, such that wn>wc2
At w=w e , A 20 log

10
10
20 log
jw
0.1
=40db.

At w=w c1 , A 20 log

10
10
20 log
jw
25
=12db.

## At w=w n , A=slope from w c2towh log

=-40 log

wh
Awc 2
w c2

20
12
2.5

=-12db.
At w=w n , A=slope from w c2towh log
=-60 log
=-54db.

50
12
10

wh
Awc 2
w c2

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phase plot:
900 tan 1 0.4 tan 1 0.1

0.1
-92

1
-118

2.5
-150

4
-170

10
-210

20
-236

## From the graph

3. For the following transfer function draw bode plot and obtain gain crossover frequency

G(S )

20
S (1 3S )(1 4 S )

Solution:

G ( jw)

20
jw(1 3 jw)(1 4 jw)

1
4
1
wc 2 0.33 rad / sec
3
wc1

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Term

20
jw
1
1 4 jw
1
1 3 jw

Corner freq.
-

Slope
db/dec
-20

## Change in slope dbsec.

0.25

-20

-20-20=-40

0.33

-20

-40=-20=-60

Choose We, such that we<wc1 and choose wn, such that wn>wc2

At w=w e , A 20 log

20
=42.5db.
0.15

At w=w c1 , A 20 log

20
=38db
0.25

w
At w=w c2 , A= slope from w c1towc 2 log c 2 Awc1
w c1

0.33
=-40 log
38
0.25
=33db.

w
At w=w n , A= slope from w c2towh log h Awc 2
w c2

1
=-60 log
33
0.33
=4db.

Phase plot:
The phase angle
90 tan 1 3 tan 1 4

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0.15 0.2
-146 -160

0.25
-172

0.33
-188

0.5
-210

0.6
-218

1
-238

From the graph, the gain crossover frequency is 1.1 rad/ sec.

## 4. For the function

G(S )

G(S )

5(1 2 S )
(1 4 S )(1 0.25S ) , draw the bode plot.

5(1 2 S )
(1 4 S )(1 0.25S )

G ( jw)

5(1 2 jw)
(1 4 jw)(1 0.25 jw)

1
4
1
wc 2 0.5 rad / sec
2
1
wc 3
0.25
Term
wc1

5
1
1 4 jw

wc1 =0.25

Slope
db/dec
0
-20

## Change in slope dbsec.

0-20=-20

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1+2jw
1
1 jo.25w

wc2 =0.25

-20

-20+20=0

wc3 =0.25

-20

0-20=-20

## Choose we<wc1 and wn>wc2

w
At w=w n , A= slope from w c2towc 3 log c 3 Awc 2
w c2

0.5
=20 log
14
0.25
=8db.

w
At w=w n , A= slope from w c3towh log h Awc 3
w c3

10
=-20 log 8
4
=0db.

Phase plot:

## tan 1 (2 w) tan 1 (4 ) tan 1 (0.25 )

0.1
-12

0.25
-22

0.5
-26

2
-33

4
-49

10
-70

50
-86

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Ke 0.2 S
S ( S 2)( S 8) find K so that the system is stable with a) gain margin equal to
5. Given
6db and b)phase margin equal to 450.
G(S )

Solution:

G(S )

G(S )

Ke 0.2 S
S ( S 2)( S 8)
Ke 0.2 S
S 2(1 S / 2) (1 S / 8)

0.0625Ke 0.2 S
S (1 0.5S )(1 0.125S )

Let K=1

0.0625Ke 0.2 w
G ( jw)
jw(1 j 0.5w)(1 j 0.125w)
1
0.5
1
wc 2
0.125
wc1

Term

Slope db/dec

## Change in slope dbsec.

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0.0625
jw
1
1 0.5 jw
1
1 j 0.125w

-20

-20

-20-20=-40

-20

-60

## Choose we<wc1 and wn>wc2

At w=w e , A 20 log

0.0625
0.0625
20 log
jw
0.5

=-18db.
At w=w e , A 20 log

0.0625
0.0625
20 log
jw
2

=-30db
At w=w c2 , A=slope from w c1towc 2 log

wc 2
Awc1
w c1

8
=-40 log (30)
2
=-54db.
At w=w n , A=slope from w c2town log
=-60 log

wn
Awc 2
w c2

50
(54)
8

=-102db.

phase plot:
0.2 w

180
90 tan 1 0.5 tan 1 0.125

0.01 0.1

-90
-94
Calculation of K:

0.5
114

1
-134

2
-172

3
-202

4
-226

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= 1800+gc
When =450, gc = -1800 = -1350
With K=1, the db gain at = -1350 is -24db this gain should be made zero to have to PM of
450. Hence to every point of magnitude plot a db gain of 24 db should be added. Hence the
magnitude of 24 bd is contributed by the term
20 log K=24
K=1024/20
K=15.84
With K=1, the gain margin =-(-34) = 34db. But the required gain margin is db. Hence to every point
of magnitude plot a db gain of 28db should be added. This addition of 28db shifts the plot up
wards.
20 log K=28
K=1028/20
K=25.12

6. The open loop transfer function of unit feed back system is given by

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1
(1 S )(1 2 S ) sketch the polar and determine the gain margin and phase margin.
1
G(S )
(1 S )(1 2 S )
G(S )

Put S=jw
1
jw(1 jw)(1 2 jw)
1
G ( jw)
jw(1 jw)(1 2 jw)

G ( jw)

1 w tan w 1 4 w2 tan 1 2 w
1

## 900 tan 1 w tan 1 2 w

2
2
w (1 w )(1 4w )
1

2
w (1 w )(1 4 w2 )
|G(jw)|
w 90

0
1
1
< G(jw) 90 tan w tan 2 w .

0.35
|G(jw)| 2.2
<G(jw) -144
Gain margin, Kg = 1.4286
Phase margin, = 120

0.4
1.8
-150

0.45
1.5
-156

0.5
1.2
-162

0.6
0.9
-171

0.7
0.7
-180

1.0
0.3
-198

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7. The open loop transfer function of unity feed back system in given by
sketch the polar plot and determine the gain margin and phase margin.

G(S )

Solution:

G(S )

1
S (1 S )(1 2S )
2

Put S=jw
G ( jw)

jw

(1 jw)(1 2 jw)

## w2 1800 1 w2 tan 1 w 1 4 w2 tan 1 2w

1
G ( jw)
w (1 w2 )(1 4 w2 )

## G ( jw) 1800 tan 1 w tan 1 2w

0.45
|G(jw)| 3.3
<G(jw) -246

0.5
2.5
-251

0.55
1.9
-256

0.6
1.5
-261

0.65
1.2
-265

0.7
1
-269

0.75
-0.8
-273

1.0
0.3
-288

1
S (1 S )(1 2S )
2

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## Gain margin, Kg=o

Phase margin, =-900

8. The open loop transfer function of a unity feed back system is given by,

G(S )

## (1 0.2 S )(1 0.025S )

S (1 0.005S )(1 0.01S ) sketch the polar plot and determine the phase margin.
3

Solution:

## (1 0.2 S )(1 0.025S )

S (1 0.005S )(1 0.01S )
(1 j 0.2 w)(1 0.025 jw)
G ( jw)
( jw)3 (1 j 0.005 jw)(1 0.01 jw)
G(S )

## 1 (0.2w)2 tan1 0.2w 1 (0.25w)2 tan1 0.25w

w3 2700 1 (0.005w)2 tan1 0.005w 1 (0.001w)2 tan1 0.001w

G( jw)

1 (0.2w)2 81 (0.025w)2
w3 1 (0.005w)2 1 (0.001w)2

1
1
o
1
1
<G(jw) tan 0.2 w tan 0.025 270 tan 0.005w tan 0.001w

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0.9
|G(jw)| 1.4
<G(jw) -259

0.95
1.2
-258

1.0
1.0
-257

1.1
0.8
-256

1.2
0.6
-255

1.4
0.4
-253

1.7
0.2
-249

## 9. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by

sketch the polar plot and determine the gain and phase margin.
Solution:

G(S )

1
S (1 S ) 2

Put S=jw

G ( jw)

1
1

2
jw(1 jw)
jw(1 jw)(1 jw)

G ( jw)

1
1

2
jw(1 jw)
jw(1 jw)(1 jw)

G(S )

1
S (1 S ) 2

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## w 900 1 w2 tan 1 w 1 w2 tan 1 w

1

900 2 tan 1 w
w ( 1 w2 ) 2
1
<G(jw) 90 2 tan w

0.4
|G(jw)| 2.2
<G(jw) -134

0.5
1.6
-143

0.6
1.2
-151

0.7
1
-159

0.8
0.8
-167

0.9
0.6
-174

1.0
0.5
-180

1.1
0.4
-185

Gain margin = 2
Phase margin =210

10. Consider a unity feed back system having an open loop transfer function
K
G(S )
S (1 0.5S )(1 4 S ) Sketch the polar plot and determine the value of K so that (i) Gain
margin is 20db (ii) phase margin is 300.
Solution:

G(S )
Let K=1

K
S (1 0.5S )(1 4 S )

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K
S (1 0.5S )(1 4 S )
1
G ( jw)
jw(1 0.5 jw)(1 4 jw)
G(S )

1
1

## w 90 1 (0.5w) tan 0.5w 1 (4 w) 2 tan 1 4 w

0

G ( jw)

1
w 1 0.25w2 1 16 w2

0.3
|G(jw)| 2.11
<G(jw) -149

0.4
1.3
-159

0.5
0.87
-167

0.6
0.61
-174

0.8
0.35
-184

1.0
0.22
-193

1.2
0.15
-199

## Gain margin, Kg = 2.27.

Gain margin in db, 20 log 2.27 = 7.12db
Phase margin, = 15.
Case (i):
Let G/A be the gain at -1800 for a gain margin of 20 db.
1
20 log
20
GA

log

1
20

1.
GA 20

1
101 10
GA
1
0.1
10
G
0.1
K A
0.227
GB 0.44

GA

Case : (ii)
With K=1, the phase margin is 150. This has to be increased to 300. Hence the gain has to be
decreased.
300 = 180+gc2

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gc2=300-1800
=-1500
Let GA = Magnitude of G(jw) at pt A.
GB = Magnitude of G(jw) at pt B.
From polar plot, GA = 2.04 and GB=1
G
K B
GA
1

2.04
K 0.49

11.

The

## open loop transfer

K
G(S )
S (1 ST1 )(1 ST2 )

function

of

unity

feedback

system

Derive an expression for gain K in terms of T1, T2 and specified gain margin, Kg.
Solution:
G(S )

Let S=jw

K
S (1 ST1 )(1 ST2 )

is

given

by

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G ( jw)

K
jw(1 jwT1 )(1 jwT2 )

K
jw(1 jwT2 jwT1 w2T1T2 )

K
jw(1 jw T1 T w2T1T2 )

K
jw w T1 T2 jw3T1T2 )

K
w T1 T2 jw(1 w2T1T2 )

## At w=COpc, the imaginary part is zero

K
w (T1T2 )

G ( jw)
=

Kg

K
w (T1T2 )
2

1
1

2
G ( jw) w w
K | CO pc
(T1T2 )
pc

=
Put Wpc2

Wpc2 (T1T2 )
K

1
T1T2

T1 T2
T1T2

Kg
K
1 T1 T2
K
Kg T1T2
=
K

T
1 T1
2

Kg T1T2 T1T2
1 1 1

Kg T1 T2

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G s
12. The Open loop T.F. of an unity feed back system is given by
Draw the plot and hence find the gain margin and phase margin?

s s 2 s 2 4 s 100

Solution:

G(s)

10 s 3
S(S 2)(s2 4s 100)

30 1 s
3
G(s)
1

2S 1 s (s2 4s 100)
2
30 1 1 s
3
G(s)
1

S 1 s (s2 4s 100)
2
puts jw

15 1 jw
3
G( jw)
2
1

jw 1 jw jw 4jw 100
2

## Corner frequency:Wc1 = 2 rad / sec

Magnitude plot:Term
15
jw
1
1 jw 1
2
(1+1/3jw)
1

jw

4jw 100

10 s 3

C.I.
-

Slope
-20

Change in slope
-20

-20

-40

3
10

+20
+40

-20
+20

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GM = - (-34.5)=+34.5db
PM==180+gc
gc=-152
=180-152=28
P.M=28
Bode Plot

Sketch the polar plot for the system whose open loop Transfer function is

G(s)H(s)

10 s 2 s 4
S(s2 3s 10)

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Polar plot

13. For the Bodeplot shown in fig. find the transfer function.

Solution:
Given plot is asymptotic plot. Therefore no need to draw tangents.
In the low frequency range, there is an asymptote with slope 20dB/decade. It indicates the
system is type 1 and the presence of a factor of the from

k
.
s

## At =1 the slope changes to -40 dB /

decade, a decrease of -20dB/decade. Thus there exist a factor 1+ sT1 in the denominator where T1 =

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1
. At =4 the magnitude is zero. The line joining the magnitudes at =1 and =4 is having a
1

## slope of -40dB/ decade. The change in magnitude at =1 to at =4 is 36dB.

-40 dB/ dec means when the frequency in increased by 10 times the change in
magnitude is -40dB. The change in magnitude is
-40 log 2+(-40 log 1)
=-40log

2
1

2
=10 when the change in magnitude is -40 dB.
1

To find 1 consider the change in magnitude from = 1 to = 4 which is equal to 40log 4(-40
log 1)=-36 dB
40log

4
36dB
1

1 0.5

T1

1
2
1

## The factor that contributes a negative slope 20dB/ dec at =1 is

1
1 2s

To find k
At = 1 = 0.5 the magnitude is 36dB.
By using Rule 4 in section 5.13, we can have
A
36
k 110 0.5(10)
20
20
=31.55

At the corner frequency 2 = 8 the slope is changing from -40dB/dec to -20dB/dec. It indicates the
presence of a first order factor (1+sT2) in the numerator where
T2

1
1
0.125.
2

## The first order numerator factor is (1+0.125s)

At corner frequency 3 the slope is changing from =20dB/dec to 40dB/ dec indicating the

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1
.3 is not
3

## given; but the

magnitude at =4 the magnitude is 0dB and the slope of the line is -40dB/dec(or 12dB/oct).
Therefore at 2=8 (double the frequency 4 i.e., the distance between 2=8 and 4 is one octave) the
magnitude is -12dB. The slope of the line between 2 is -20db/dec. The change in magnitude is 9dB.
That is
20 log 3 20 log 2 9

20 log 3 9
2

20 log 3 9
8
3 22.547
T3 0.04435
Therefore the first order denaminator factor is

1
1+0.04435s

## Combining all the factors, the overall transfer function is

G(s)

31.623 1 0.125s

s 1 2s 1 0.04435s

## 14. CORRELATION BETWEEN TIME AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE

The correlation between time and frequency response has an explicit form only for first and
second order systems. The correlation for second-order system is discussed here.
Consider the standard form of transfer function of second order system.

n2
C ( s)
2
R( s) s 2 n s n2
Where, = Damping factor
n = Undamped natural frequency