com
UNIT I
1. Define system.
PART A
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16. Find the number of forward paths in the given signal flow graph.
Two forward paths
P1 = G1 G2 G3 G4 G5
P2 = G6 G4 G5
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Closed loop
Accurate and reliable.
Complex and costlier.
Great efforts are needed to design a stable system.
20. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical translational system?
Mass, Spring and dashpot.
21. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical rotational system?
1.
2.
3.
Moment of inertia,
Spring
Dashpot.
23. Name the two types of electrical analogous for mechanical system.
Force Voltage analogy.
Force Current analogy.
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dx
f
dt
29. Write the torque balance equation of an ideal rotational mass element.
Jd2
T Tj
dt 2
30. Write the analogous electrical elements in forcevoltage analogy for the elements of
mechanical translational system.
Force, F
Mass, M
Stiffness, K
Frictional
coefficient, B
Voltage, C
inductance, L
Capacitance, C
Resistance, R
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G1
G2
G1 G2
Cascade rule G1G2 = G1 x G2
32. What are the advantages and disadvantage of open loop systems?
Advantages of open loop systems
1. The open loop systems are simple and economical
2. The open loop systems are easier to construct
3. Generally, the open loop systems are stable
Disadvantages of open loop systems are
1. The open loop systems are in accurable and un reliable
2. The changes in the output due to external disturbances are not corrected automatically
33. What are the advantages and disadvantages of closed loop systems.
The advantages of closed loop systems are
1. The closed loop systems are accurate
2. The closed loop are accurate even in the presence of non linearities
3. The sensitivity of the systems are accurate even in the presence of non linearities
The advantages of closed loop systems are
1.
2.
3.
4.
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35. What is a linear time variant and linear time invariant system?
If the coefficients of the differential equations describing the system are constant, then the
model is linear time invariant system.
If the coefficients of differential equations are functions of time, then the model is linear
time varying system.
36. What are Analogue systems?
Systems whose differential equation are of identical form are called analogous system.
37. What is Servo Mechanism?
A Servo Mechanism is a feed back control system used to Control position (or) its derivative.
It has the following essential features.
1. It is a closed loop system
2. It is used to control position, velocity (or) Acceleration
3. Its characteristics include Automatic control , Remote operation
Fast response ,
High Accuracy
38. Define order of a system.
The highest power of the complex variables S in the denominator of transfer function is
called as the order of a system.
39. What is the functions of a error detector?
Error detectors are used to measure the error signal in control systems. The error is the
difference between the actual magnitude of output and magnitude of the desired output.
40. Give Masons gain formula.
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F
k
Transfer functions =
Where
FK = Forward part gain of Kth forward path
K= Number of forward path,
= Determinant of graph
= 1Pm1 +Pm2  Pm3+
Pm1 = Sum of all individual loop gains taking once at a time
Pm2 = Sum of gain products of all possible combination of two nontouching loops
Pm3= Sum of gain products of all possible combination of three non touching loops
k = Value of after eliminating the loops which touch Kth forward path.
41. Define signal flow graph.
A signal flow graph is a graphical representation of the relationship between variable of a
set of linear algebraic equations.
42. What is node?
Node is a system variable which is equal to sum of all incoming signals.
43. Define Self loop.
Self loop: A path starting from one node and terminates at same node without crossing any other
node even once.
44. Define path, Nontouching loop.
Path: It is the journey from one node to any other node in the direction of branch arrow
Nontouching loop: Loops are said to be nontouching if they do not posses any common node.
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1. The algebraic equations which are used to construct signal flow graph must be in the form
of cost and effect relationships.
2. Signal flow graph is applicable to linear systems.
3. A node in the signal flow graph represents the variable (or ) signal.
4. A branch indicates the functional dependence of one signal on the other.
46. What are the basic components of an automatic control systems?
The basic components of an automatic control systems are the following.
(1) Error detector
(2) Amplifier and controller
(3) Actuator
(4) Plant
(5) Sensor
47. What are sensor?
Sensors are low power transducers, which produces output signal as a measure of the
controlled variable.
48. What are the different types of control systems?
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Input / output representations describing the relation between inputs and outputs of a
system
State model describing the relation between the input states and output states of a
system.
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PART B
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1. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical system and determine the transfer
function.
d2 x1
dx1
d
2
M1 dt + B1 dt + B dt (x1x) + k1x1 + K(x1x) = 0
Taking laplace transform,
M1s2x1(s) + B1sx1(s) + Bs[x1(s)x(s)]+ k1x1(s)+ k[(x1(s)x(s)] =0
x1(s)[M1s2 + (B1+B)s + (k1+k)] x(s) [Bs+k]=0
x1(s)[M1s2 + (B1+B)s + (k1+k)] = x(s) [Bs+k]
x1(s) = x(s)
Bs K
M1s (B1 B)s (k1 k)
2
For node M2 :
d2 x
dx
d
2
M2 dt + B2 dt + B dt (xx1) + k(xx1) + K(xx1) = F(t)
M2s2x(s) + B2sx(s) + Bs[x(s) x1(s)] + k[x(s) x1(s)] = F(s)
x(s) [M2s2 + (B2+B)s+k] x1(s) [Bs+k] = F(s)
Substituting for x1(s),
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(Bs k)2
2
x(s) [M2s2 + (B2+B)s+k] x(s) M1s (B1 B)s (k1 k) = F(s)
M1s2 (B1 B)s (k k1) M2s2 (B2 B)s k (Bs k)
x(s)
2
M1s (B1 B)s (k k1)
f(s) M1s2 (B1 B)s (k1 k) M2s2 (B2 B)s k (Bs k)2
2. Write the equations of motion in s domain. Determine the transfer function of the system.
Solution:
For node (1):
B2
d
(x1 x) kx1 0
dt
B 2S
x(s)
B
S
k
2
X1(s) =
For Node 2
d2 x
dx
d
2
M dt + B1 dt + B2 dt (x x1) = f(t)
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B 2S
B sk
[Ms2 + (B1+B2)s] x(s) B2S 2
x(s) = F(s)
[Ms2 + (B1+B2 )s](B2s+k)(B2s)2
B2 s k
x(s)
= F(s)
B2 s k
x(s)
2
F(s) [Ms + (B1+B2 )s](B2s+k)(B2s)2 ]
3. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical rotational system. Obtain the
transfer function of the system?
At
J1:
J1
d21
dt 2 + k (1  ) = T
J1
d21
dt 2 + k1  k = T
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At node J2:
d2
d
2
J2 dt + B dt + k (  1) = 0
d2
d
2
J2 dt + B dt + k  k1 = 0
Taking laplace,
J2S2(s) + Bs(s) K (s)  K1(s) = 0
(J2S2+ Bs + K) (s)  K 1(s) = 0
J2S2 Bs k
(s)
k
1(s) =
Substituting for 1(s)
(J2s2 Bs x)
k
(J1s2+k)
(s)  K(s) = T(s)
(J2s2 k) (J2s2 Bs k) k 2
(s) T(s)
k
(s)
k
2
T(s) (J1s k) (J2s2 Bs k) k 2
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1
Ej(s) = R1I(s) + sc I(s) + I(s) R2.
1
E(s) = sc I(s) + R2 I(s).
1 SCR2
1
sc R2 I(s) sc
E(s) = I(s)
I (s) =
SCE0 (s)
1 SCR2
Substituting in (1),
sc
Ei(s) = 1 SCR 2
1 SC[R1 R2 ]
1 SCR2
= E0 (s)
E0 (s)
1 SCR2
Ei (s) 1 SC[R1 R 2 ]
This circuit is also called lag compensator.
5. Obtain the transfer function of the lead network shown.
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R1x 1
R1
sc
1 SR1C.
R 1
sc
Z= 1
(1)
E0(s) = I(S) R2
E0 (s)
I(s) = R2
Sub in (1).
Ei(s) = I(s)[Z + R2]
E0 (S)
[Z R 2 ]
R
2
=
E0 (S)
R2
Ei (S) Z R 2
Sub Z, Transfer Function
R2
R1
R2
1 SR1C
R2 (1 SR1C)
R1 R2 (1 SR1C)
SR1R2C R2
R1 SR1R2C R2
S
= S
where
R R2
1
; = 1
R1c
R1R2C
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6. Reduce the given block diagram to its canonical form d hence obtain the equivalent transfer
function.
C(S)
R(S)
Solution :
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G1G2 (G3 G4 )
1 G1G2H1
Transfer Function =
G1G2 (G3 G4 )
1
.H2
1 G1G2H1
G1G2 (G3 G4 )
1 G1G2H1 G1G2 (G3 G4 )H2
G1G2G3 G1G2G4 )
1 G1G2H1 G1G2G3H2 G1G2G4H2
7. Obtain C(S)R(S) using block diagram reduction rules.
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8. Find
C(S)
by using Masons gain formula.
R(S)
P1 = G1 G2 G3 G4
P2 = G5 G4
1 = 1 0 = 1
2 = 1 [ G2H1] = 1 + G2H1.
= 1 [ G2H1 G1G2G3G4H2 G5 G4 H2] + [G2 H1G5 G4 H2]
= 1 + G2H1 +G1G2G3G4H2 + G5 G4 H2 +G2 G5 G4 H1 H2
C(S)
R(S)
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P1 = G1 G2
1 = 1 [0] = 1
= 1 [ G1H1 G1G2 G2H2] + [G1H1G2H2]
= 1 + G1H1 +G1G2 +G2H2 + G1 G2 H1H2
P11
TF =
G1G2
1 G1H1 G1G2 G2H2 G1G2H1H2
10. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical system. Draw the forcevoltage
and force current electrical analogous circuits and verify by writing mesh and node equations.
For M1,
d2 x1
dx
d
B1 1 B12 (x1 x 2 )
2
dt
dt
M1 dt
+k1(x1x2) = f(t)
For M2,
d2 x 2
dx
d
B2 2 K 2 x 2 B12 (x 2 x1 )
2
dt
dt
M2 dt
+k1(x2x1) = 0
On replacing the displacements by velocity,
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d2 x dv dx
;
v;x vdt
2
dt dt
i.e. dt
dv1
B1v1 B12 (v1 v 2 ) k1 (v1 v 2 )dt f(t)
M1 dt
dv 2
B2 v 2 k 2 v 2 dt B12 (v 2 v1 ) k1 (v 2 v1 )dt 0.
M2 dt
di1
1
R1i1 R12 (i1 i2 ) (i, i2 )dt e(t )
dt
c1
L2
di2
1
1
R2i2
i2 dt R12 (i2 i1 ) (i, i2 )dt 0
dt
C2
c1
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C1
dV1 1
1
V1
(V1 V2 ) (V1 V2 )dt i (t )
dt R1
R12
C1
dV2 1
1
1
1
V2 V2 dt
(V2 V1 ) (v2 v1 )dt
dt R2
L2
R12
L1
11. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical rotational system shown. Draw
the torquevoltage and torque current electrical analogous circuits and verify by writing mesh
and node equations.
For J1
d 21
d
B1 1 k1 (1 2 ) T
2
dt
dt
for J 2 ,
J1
J2
d 2 2
B2 2 K 2 2 K1 ( 2 1 ) 0
2
dt
dt
w d w dt we get
2
dt
dt dt
d
J1 1 B11 K1 ( w1 w2 )dt T
dt
d 2
J2
B2 2 K 2 w2 dt k1 , ( w2 w1 )dt 0
dt
Torque voltage Analogous Circuit:
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L1
L1
di1
1
R1i, (i, i2 ) e(t )
dt
C1
L2
di 2
1
1
R 2i 2
(i 2dt (i2 i1 )dt
dt
C2
C1
dV1 1
1
V1 (V1 , V2 )dt i (t )
dt R1
L1
C1
dV2 1
1
1
V2 (V2 dt V2 V1 )dt 0
dt R2
L2
L1
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Torque of DC motor is proportional to the product of flux and current. Since flux is constant in
this system, the torque is proportional to ia alone
T ia
T = kt ia
The mechanical system of motor is shown below
The differential equation governing the mech, system of motor is given by,
d 2
d
B
T
2
dt
J dt
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Va ( S ) ( Ra SLa )( JS 2 Bs ) K b kt s
Kt
( Ra JS )( Ra BS LaJs 3 La BS 2 K b kt s
2
Kt
s ( JLa s [ JRa BLa ) S ( BRa kBX ]
2
Kt
BRa K b kl
JR BLa
s[ s 2 a
S
Jla
Jla
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Rf = Field resistance ,
Lf = Field inductance, H
if = Field current, A
Vf = Field voltage V
T = Torque developed by motor, Nm
Kif = Torque constant Nm/A
J = Moment of inertia of motor
B = Frictional coefficient of motor
By KVL,
if
Vf
Rf if +Lf + t
The torque of DC motor is proportional to product of flux and armature current. Since
armature current is constant in this system, the torque is proportional to flux alone, but flux is
proportional to field current.
Tif
T = k if
The differential equation governing the mechanical system is ,
d 2
d
J 2 B
T
dt
dt
Taking laplace transform
RfIf(S) +LfsIf(S)=Vf(S) (1)
T(S) = Ktf If(s)
 (2)
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(Rf+SLf)S
Js B
(s) V f (s)
K tf
ktf
( s)
V f ( s ) S ( R f sl f ) B SJ )
ktf
SL SJ
SR f 1 f B 1
R f
B
Km
S (1 ST f )(1 STm )
ktf
Rf B
Solution:
Maisons Gain formula
T =
pk k
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P1 = G1 G3 G4 G6 G7
P2 = G1 G3 G4 G6 G7
P3 = G1 G2 G5 G6 G7
P4 = G1 G3 G5 G6 G7
k=4
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L1 = G6 H1
L3 = G2 G4 G6 G7 H3
L4 = G3 G4 G6 G7 H3
L5 = G3 G5 G6 G7 H3
L6 = G2 G4 G6 G7 G5 H3
L2 = G7H2
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L12 = G6 H1 G7 H2
1 = 1  0 = 1
2 = 1  0 = 1
3 1  0 = 1
d) 4 = 1  0 = 1
T =
P11 P2 2 P3 3 P4 4
= 1  L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L12
G 6 H1 G7 H 2 G2 G4 G6 G7 H 3 G3G4 G6 G7 H 3
=1
G3G5G6 G7 H 3 G2 G4 G6 G7 G5 H 3
G6 H1G7 H 2 .....
Over all gain of system is
G1G2 G4 G6 G7 1 G1G3G4 G6 G7 1
TF =
G1G3G5G6 G7 1
1 G6 A1 G7 H 2 G2 G4 G6 G7 H 3 G3G4 G6 G7 H 3
G 3G5G6 G7 H 3 G 2 G4 G6 G7 G5 H 3 G6 G7 H1
Step: 1
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____ (1)
Let
Fk1 Opposing force offered by spring K1
FB1 Opposing force offered by Dashpot B1
FM1 Opposing force offered by Mass M1
FB Opposing force offered by Dashpot, B
Fk Opposing force offered by spring, k.
Bd x1 x
d 2 x1
; fB
df
df 2
dx
B1 1 ; f k k x1 x
df
f m1 M 1
f B1
fk1 = K1X1 ;
Substitute above valve in equ (1)
K1X1+M1
x x
d 2 x1
dx
Bd 1
B1 1 k x1 x
2
dt
df
df
M S
1
BS B1 S K1 K X 1 ( S )  BS+K X S
X1 s
M1 S
Bs K X s
B1 B S K1 K
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Step: 2
Draw the free body diagram based on Mass M
d2x
dx Bd x x1
B2
k x x1
d 2
df
df
BS k Bs k x s
s
M 1 S 2 B1 B K1 K
M S 2 B1 B s k1 k
( M 2 S 2 B2 S BS k ) 1
( BS K ) 2
x s
F s
2
M
S
B
S
K
1
1
1
T.F.
X s
F s
M 1 S 2 B1 B S K1 K
S 2 B2 B S K M 1 S 2 B1 B S K1 K BS K
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M1
M2
L2
L1
B1 R1 K1 C1 F V
B R
K C X i
X1 i
K1 L1 B1 R1
F i =i
M 2 C2
k L B2 R 2
x1 V1
B R
x V2
16. The network shown figure modifies the error signal. It voltage Vi of a Servomechanism to a
. Find the T.F. Vo/Vi neglecting any load on the output terminals. Evaluate the function (a) p r
a sine signal voltage of 1.0 v at angular frequency w = 20 red/sec and b) for a step function input
signal voltage of 1.oV.
Solution:
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R2
R2
R1
R2
R1
R1cs 1
S=jw
Vo jw
Vi jw
R2
R2
R1
jR1cw 1
w = 20 rad/sec
R1 = 200k
c = 0.2 uF
R2=20 k
Vj
200
20
1
ji
Vi v
V0 0.128 39.805
V0 ( s )
Vi ( s )
(b)
R2
R1
R2
R1cs 1
V0 ( s ) S 25
Vi ( s ) S 275
Vi (s) = (S+25)/S(S+275)
1 1
10
1
11 s S 275
Taking Inverse LT.
= V0 (t ) 0.1 0.9e
222 t
V0(t)=0.1 [1+9e222t]
17. The solenoid shown in Fig. Produces a magnetic force proportional to the current I in the
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coil = kii. The coil has resistance (R) and inductance (L). Write the differential equation.
x s
Determine the transfer function 2
.
E s
Figure:
Solution:
The solenoid connected in the left end of the system develops a force proportional to the
current passing through it i.e., = ki i. The solenoid has a mass M1 and has a frictional coefficient
B1. The coil also has inductance L and resistance R.
When an emf e(t) is applied to the solenoid then a current i(t) results.
et L
di t
dt
f t k1i t
Ri t
dx1
d2 x 2
dx 2
d2 x1
M2 2 k 2 x 2 B2
M1 2 l1
l2 B1
dt
dt
dt
dt
we know that for a balanced torque system total anticlockwise moment is equal to total clock wise
moment.
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d2 x
dx
dx
d2 x
f t l1 M2 22 k 2 x 2 B2 2 l2 B1 1 M1 21 l1
dt
dt
dt
dt
dx1
l2 d2 x 2
dx 2
d2 x1
f t M2 2 B2
k 2 x 2 B1
M1 2
l1
dt
dt
dt
dt
f t M1
d2 x1
dx l
B1 1 2
2
dt
dt l1
dx 2
B2 dt k 2 x 2
X2 s
E s
E s
R sL
F s k iI s
k iE s
R sL
Taking Laplace transform on both sides of Eq.
l
F s M1s2 B1s X1 s 2 M2s2 B2s k 2 X2 s
l2
l1
X2 s
l2
k iE s
R sL
l1
l
M1s2 B1s X2 s 2 M2s2 B2s k 2 X2 s
l2
l1
X2 (s)
E s
k
l
l2
R sL 1 M2s2 B1s
l2
M2S2 B2s k 2
l1
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18. For the spring, damper and mass system shown in figure find the differential equations
governing the system.
Figure:
Solution:
The forces acting on mass M1 are shown in figure.
fk1
fml
fb1
M1
Tx1
Where fk1=k1(x1x2)
d
fb1 B1 (x1 x 2 )
dt
d2 x
fm1 M1 21
dt
The force balance equation in mass M1 is
fm1 fb1 fk1 0
M1
d2 x1
d
B1 (x1 x 2 )+k1(x1 x 2 )=0
2
dt
dt
The forces acting on mass M2 are shown in figure. The force balance equation is
d2 x
dx
M2 22 k 2 x 2 B2 2 k1 x 2 x1
dt
dt
d
B1 x 2 x1 f t
dt
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fk1 fm2
fb2
f(t)
M1
fk1
fB1
Figure:
Exercise 1.1
Obtain the differential equations of the following mechanical systems
(i) Figure:
(ii) Figure:
19. Using the block diagram reduction technique, find C/R.
Solution: I Reduction: moving takeoff point from point A to B. i.e., along the direction of flow.
So divide the takeoff point path by block gain G2.
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II Reduction:
1. Eliminating two blocks in parallel by a single block.
2. Cascading two blocks.
III Reduction:
1. Two blocks in cascade.
2. Move summing point ahead of block H3 along direction of flow.
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G5
G1G2
G
G4 G3
; H =H2H3
G2
1 G1G2H1H3
Type of feedback is positive.
Feedback path reduction=
R S
C S
R S
G
1 GH
G1G2G3G4 G1G4G5
C S
1 G1G2H1H3 G1G2G3G4H2H3 G1G4G5H2H3
G1G2G3G4 G1G4G5
1 G1G2H1H3 G1G2G3G4H2H3 G1G4G5H2H3
20. Using Masons gain formula, find C/R of the signal flow graph shown in figure.
Figure:
Solution:
k
F
k
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Figure:
F1 = G1G2G3G4 ;
[RX1X2X3X5X6C]
F1 = G1G5G8G4 ;
[RX1X2X4X5X6C]
Figure:
P11=G1 G2H1;
P21=G3 G4H2;
P31=G1 G5 G8 G4H1H2;
P41=G5 G6;
P51=G7;
[X1X2X3X1]
[X3X5X6X3]
[X1X2X4X5X6X3 X1]
[X2X4X2]
[X4X4] Self loop.
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P22=P21* P41 = G3 G4 G5 G6 H2
P32=P21* P51 = G3 G4 G7 H2
pm3 = Sum of product of all possible combination of three nontouching loops.
pm3 = 0
1 P11 P21 P31 P41 P51 P12 P22 P32
1 G1G2H1 G3G4H2 G1G5G4G8H1H2 G5G6 G7
+G1G 2G 7H1+G 3G 4G 5G 6H2 +G 3G 4G 7H2
Calculation of k:
1 = 1G7; as all loops touch forward path F1 except self loop.
2 = 1;
G1G2G3G4 1 G7 G1G4G5G8 1
Transfer function =
T.F
21. Write the equations of motion in sdomain for the system shown in figure. Determine the
transfer function of the system.
Figure
SOLUTION
Let, Laplace transform of x(t) = X(s)
Laplace transform of f(t) = F(s)
Let x1 be the displacement at the meeting point of spring and dashpot. Laplace transform
of x1 is X1(s).
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The system has two nodes and they are mass M and the meeting point of spring and
dashpot. The differential equations governing the system are the force balance equations at these
nodes. The equations of motion in the sdomain are obtained by taking Laplace transform of the
differential equations.
The free body diagram of mass M is shown in figure. The opposing forces are marked as
fm, fb1 and fb2.
d2 x
dx
fm M 2 ; fb1 B1
dt
dt
d
fb 2 B2 ( x x1 )
dt
Figure:
By Newtons second law the force balance equation is
f m f b 1 f b 2 f (t )
d2 x
dx
d
B1
B2 ( x x1 ) f (t )
2
dt
dt
dt
On taking Laplace transform
Ms2 X( s) B1sX( s) B2 s[X( s) X1 ( s)] F( s)
M
B2
d
( x1 x) Kx1 0
dt
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Figure:
On taking Laplace transform
B2 s[X1 ( s) X( s)]KX1 ( s) 0
( B2 s K )X1 ( s) B2 sX( s) 0
B2 s
X1 ( s)
x( s)
B2 s K
Substituting for X1 (s) from equation
B2 s
[ Ms2 ( B1 B2 )s]X( s) B2 s
X ( s) F ( s)
B2 s K
[ Ms2 ( B1 B2 )s]( B2 s K ) ( B2 s)2
X ( s)
F ( s)
B2 s K
X ( s)
B2 s K
2
F( s) Ms ( B1 B2 )s ( B2 s K ) ( B2 s)2
RESULT
The differential equations governing the system are
d2 x
dx
d
1. M 2 B1
B2 ( x x1 ) f (t )
dt
dt
dt
X ( s)
B2 s K
2
F( s) [ Ms ( B1 B2 )s]( B2 s K ) ( B2 s)2
2. B2
d
( x1 x) Kx1 0
dt
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UNIT II
PART A
1. What do you mean by time response of the system?
It is the output of closed loop system as a function of time. It is denoted by c(t).
2. What are standard test signals?
The standard test signals are
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Step input
Ramp input
Parabolic input
Impulse input
Sinusoidal signals
Undamped system
Underdamped system
Critically damped system
Over damped system
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The test signals can be easily generated in laboratories and are used to predetermine the
performance of the system.
18. Define step signal.
The step signal is a signal whose value changes from o to A and remains constant at A for t>0.
19. What will be the nature of response of a second order system with different types of
damping?
(1) Undamped system
2) Underdamped system
3) Critically damped
4) For overdamped
Oscillatory
damped oscillatory
exponentially rising
exponentially rising
24. What is the effect on system performance when a proportional controller is introduced in a
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system?
1.
2.
It improves the steady state tracking accuracy relative stability and disturbance signal
rejection
Increases loop gain of the system.
The PI controller increases the order of the system by one, which results in reducing the
steady state error.
The system becomes less stable
d n 1 Z 2
10 1 (0.6) 2
8rad / sec.
30. For the system given, find the type and order of the system.
G ( s) H ( s)
k
S ( S 1)( S 2 6S 8)
Type = 1
Order = 4
31. The damping ratio of a system is 0.75 and the natural frequency of oscillation is 12 rad/sec.
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d n 1 Z 2
12 1 (0.75) 2
7.94 rad/sec
tp
d 7.94
0.396 sec
32. A unity feedback system has a open 100p transfer function of
the steady state error for unit step input.
10
K p s0 L G ( S ) s0 L
( S 1)( S 2)
kp 5
lss
G(S )
10
( S 1)( S 2) Determine
1
1 kp
1
6
tr
0
d
1 z2
where = tan
1
x100
1 Z 2
Where z = damping ratio.
35. What are the types of controllers that are used in closed loop system? Apr 98).
Proportional Integral controller (pI)
Proportional +derivative controller (PD)
Proportional+ Integral+ derivative controller (PID)
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(April 98)
order
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The parabolic signal is a signal whose value varies as a square of time from an initial value
of Zero at t=0. This parabolic signal represents constant acceleration input to the signal. The
mathematical representation of parabolic signal in
At 2
;t 0
2
0;t 0
r(t)
1
1 K P
C(s)
4
2
R(s) S 1.6S 4
For the unit step response, the settling time for 2% tolerance band is
ts
4
;Given w n 2; 2w n 1.6
w n
ts
4
5 sec and =0.4
0.4 2
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d2 y
dy
4
8y 0 Determine the damping ratio.
2
dt
dt
d2 y
dy
4
8y 0
2
dt
dt
1
0.5
wn
50. What in the type and order of the given system is whose open loop transfer function?
The number of poles lie at origin of Splane gives the types of system.
The highest power of the complex variables S in the denominator of transfer function is called as
the order of a system.
Type 1
Order 2
51. A first order system is shown in fig below. What is its time response to a unit step input.
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Solution:
C(s) 1
R(s) 1 ST
52. Give the relation ship between static and dynamic error coefficients.
Co
1
1 Kp
C1
1
Kv
C2
1
Ka
53. Give the steady state error for step and velocity input .
ess for step input =
1
1+K P
1
Kv
PART B
1. Obtain the response of first order system for unit step input
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c( s )
1
R( s) 1 s
(1)
s 1 zs
1
sz (1 / z s )
1/ z
S (S 1 / z)
By Partial fraction,
1
z
C (s)
S (S 1 / z)
A
S
B
S 1/ z
A( s 1 / z ) Bs
z
Put s= 0
1
A(1 / z )
z
A 1
Put S= 1/z
1/z =B(1/Z)
B=1
C (S )
1
1
s s 1/ z
1
1
C (t ) L1 L1
S
S 1/ Z
C (t ) 1 e t / z
2. Derive the response of undamped second order system for unit step input.
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The standard form of closed loop transfer function of second order system is,
C (S )
Wn 2
2
R( S ) S 2 zwn s wn 2
For undamped system, Z = 0
C(S)
Wn 2
2
R(S) S Wn 2
C (s)
wn 2
A
Bs c
2 2
2
2
s ( s wn ) s wn s
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s
2
s wnn
c(t) = L1 (1/s) L1
c(t) = 1 cos wnt
3. Obtain the response of second order underdamped system with unit step input.
The standard form of second order system is
wn2
C (s)
2
R( s ) S 2 zwn s wn2
we know r(t) = 1 R(S) = 1/s
We know r(t) =1 R(S) = 1/s
1
wn 2
C ( s)
s
s 2 2 zwn s wn2
Applying partial fraction,
C (s)
A
Bs C
2
s s 2 zwns wn2
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S 2 zwn
2
2
2 2
2 2
S 2 zwn s wn z wn z wn
S 2 zwn
2
2
2 2
( S 2 zwn s zwn ) ( wn z wn )
S 2 zwn
2
2
2
( S 2 zwn ) wn (1 z )
1
s
1
s
zwn zwnt
e
sinw dt ]
wd
S 2 zwn
1
s ( S 2 zwn ) 2 wn2 (1 z )
S 2 zwn
1
s ( S zwn ) 2 wd2 ,
where wd = w n
1z 2
S 2 zwn
zwn
1
2
2
s ( S zwn ) wd ( s zwn ) 2 wd2
Taking L1
C (t ) [1 e
1 e
1 e
zwnt
zwnt
zwnt
1 z
t
[cos wd
zw n zwnt
t
e
sin wd
wd
zwn
wn 1 z
t
[cos wd
z
1 z
t
sin wd ]
t
sin wd ]
t
t
2
[sin wd z cos wd 1 z ]
t
(sin wd cos cos wd tz sin ](Re fere note)
t
sin( wd )
( where = tan +
Note:
2
t
t
[ 1 z cos wd z sin wd ]
1 z
zwnt
zwnt
cosw d
1 z
zwnt
1 z
zwnt
1 z
z
2
)
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z
4. Desire the response of second order critically damped system with unit step input.
The standard form of closed loop transfer function is
C (S )
wn 2
2
R( s ) s 2 zwn s wn 2
for critical damping z=1
C (S )
wn 2
2
R( s ) s 2 zwn s wn 2
wn 2
2
2
= ( s wn )
for unit step input, R(s) = 1/S
1 wn 2
C (S )
s ( S wn ) 2
C (S )
wn 2
S ( S wn ) 2
2
S ( s wn )
S S wn ( S wn ) 2
wn2 = A (S+wn)2+B (S) (S+wn) + CS
Put S = 0,
Wn2 = A[wn)2
A =1
Put S =  wn
W2n = C (wn)
C = wn
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Put S = 1
Wn2 = A(1+wn)2 +B(1+wn)+C(1)
Wn2 = 1+wn2+2wn+B(1+wn) +wn
Wn2 = 1+wn2+wn+B(1+wn)
B(1+wn) = wn2 +1+wn2+wn
B(1+wn) = = 1+wn
B= 1
wn
1
1
2
c(s) = s s wn ( s wn )
Taking L1
C(t) = 1ewnt (1+wnt)
5. Derive the expression for rise time Response of second order system for underdamped case
is,
e zwnt
Sin( wd t )
1 z2
At t = tr, c(t) = c(tr) =1
C (t ) 1
c(tr ) 1
e zwntr
1 z2
Sin( wd tr ) 1
e zwntr
sin( wd tr ) 0
1 z2
Since e zwntr 0,sin( wd tr ) 0
sin = 0, =0, , 2
wdtr + =
wdtr = 
tr
wd
where =tan 1
1 z2
and w d wn 1 z 2
1 z2
tan
z
tr
2
wn 1 z
1
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t tp
C (t ) 1
i.e
0
e zwnt p
1 z2
Sin( wd t 0)
differentiating w, r, t t,
d
e zwnt
c(t )
( zwn sin( w2t )
dt
1z 2
e zwnt
cos( wd t ) wd
2
1
Put w d = w n
1z 2
d
e zwnt
c(t )
( zwn ) sin( wd t )
dt
1 z2
e zwnt
wn e
[ z sin( wd ) 1 7 z cos( wd t )
2
1 z
wn 1 z 2
e zwnt cos( wd t )
1 z
e zwnt
wn e
[ z sin( wd ) 1 7 z cos( wd t )
2
1 z
2
wn
1 z
wn
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wn
1 z
e zwnt sin wd t
d
c(t ) 0
dt
at t = tp,
wn
e zwnt sin wd t p 0
1 z
0 sin wd t p 0
2
zwntp
sin 0, 0, , 2 .....
wd t p
tp
wd
t p
=
wn 1 z 2
7. Derive the relationship between the maximum overhead and damping ratio % peak
overshoot,
% Mp
c(tp ) c()
x100
C ( )
where c(tp) = peak response at t = tp c() = Final steady state
value
The unit step response of the second order s/m is given
c (t ) 1
zwnt
1 z
sin( wdt )
At t= , c(t) = c( ) = 1
e
1 z
sin( wdt )
1 0
c ( ) 1
1e
Sin ( wd t p )
2
1z
zw n t p
1e
c(t p )
Sin ( wd / wd )
2
1z
At t = tp c(t) = c(t p ) =
Put t p / wd
1e
wn 1 z
2
1z
zw n
1e
z / 1 z 2
1z
zw n t p
2
z
2
1z
2
1z
sin( )
sin
( sin ( + )=sin01
1+ec(t p )
1 z
c(t p ) 1+e z / 1 z
%M
c (t p ) c ( )
x100
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1 z
At t= , c(t) = c( ) = 1
e
1 z
sin( wdt )
1 0
c ( ) 1
1e
Put t p / wd
1e
wn 1 z
2
1z
zw n
1e
z / 1 z 2
1z
zw n t p
Sin ( wd t p )
2
1z
zw n t p
1e
c(t p )
Sin ( wd / wd )
2
1z
At t = tp c(t) = c(t p ) =
2
z
2
1z
2
1z
sin( )
sin
( sin ( + )=sin01
1+ec(t p )
1 z
c(t p ) 1+e z / 1 z
%M P
1 e
c (t p ) c ( )
c ( )
x100
2
1 z 1
x100
1
1 2
100
% Mp e
by88
8. Derive the equation for setting time (ts).
The response of second order system has two components, they are,
e zwnt
1. Decaying exponential component,
2. Sinusoidal component, sin(wdt+)
1 z2
In this decaying exponential term dampens (or) reduces the oscillations produced by
sinusoidal component. Hence the setting time is decided by the exponential component. The
settling time can be found out by equating exponential component to percentage tolerance errors.
For 2% tolerance, at t = ts;
e zwnts
0.02
1 z2
for least values of z,
ezwnts = 0.02
zwnts = ln 0.02
zwnts = 4
ts = 4 / Zwn
= 4T,
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Solution
(i)
c( s )
G (s)
R( s) 1 G ( s) H ( s)
16
s ( s 8)
16
1
s ( s 8)
16
2
s 8s 16
i)
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C (S )
25
2
10. A second order system is given by R( S ) S 6 S 25 Find its risetime, peak overshoot and
settling time if subjected to unit step input. Also calculate expression for its output response.
Solution:
wn2
2
2
Comparing transfer function with S 2 zwn s wn
Wn2 = 25 2zwn = 6
wn = 5
6
0.6
10
1 z2
tan 1
z
1 0.62
tan 1
0.6
=0.9272 radians.
wd = wn1z2
=510.62
= 4 rad/sec
0.9272
wd
4
0.5535sec
tp
wd 4
tr
0.785 sec
z
%M p e
x100
1 z2
= 9.48/
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ts
4
1.33 sec
zwn
C(t) =
1ezw n t
1z 2
sin( wd t )
1 e 3t
sin(4t 0.9272)
1 0.62
1 1.5625e 3t sin(4t 0.9272)
11. Obtain the response of unity feedback system whose open loop transfer function is
4
G (s)
and
S ( S 5)
when the input is unit step.
Solution:
C (S )
G(S )
R( S ) 1 G ( S )
4
S ( S 5)
4
1
S ( S 5)
4
2
S 5S 4
C (s)
4
R( s ) ( S 4)( S 1)
1
4
S ( S 4)( S 1)
By partial fraction,
A
B
C
C (s)
S S 4 S 1
4 A( S 4)( S 1) B ( S )( S 1) C ( S )( S 4)
Put S = 0,
4= A(4) (1)
A=1
Put S = 4
4= B(4) (4+1)
= B (4) (3)
4 = 12B
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B = 1/3
Put S = 1
4= C(1)(1+4)
=C(1)(3)
4=3C
C =4/3
1 1/ 3 4 / 3
C (S )
s S 4 s 1
1
Taking L
1
C (t ) 1 e 4t 4 / 3e t
3
12. For servomechanisms with open loop transfer function given below explain what type of
input signal give rise to a constant steady state error and calculate their values.
20( S 2)
10
2) G(S) =
S ( S 1)( s 3)
(S+2)(S+3)
1) G ( S )
10
3) G(S )
2
S (S 1)S 2)
20(s 2)
i)G(s)
s(s 1)(s 3)
Kv L SG(S ) H(s)
S0
20(S+2)
=L+S,
(1)
S(S+1)(S+3)
20(2)
40
3
ess
Kv
40
0.075
(ii)G(S )
10
(S 2)(S 3)
K p L G(S)+(S)
s>0
10
=L+
(S+2)(s+3)
s 0
10
6
5
3
1
1
3
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e
ss
Kv
40
0.075
(ii)G(S )
10
(S 2)(S 3)
K p L G(S)+(S)
s>0
10
=L+
(S+2)(s+3)
s 0
10
ess
1
1 kp
1
1 5/ 3
3
8
ess 0.375
10
iii )G( s) 2
; H (S ) 1
S ( S 1)( S 2)
2
K L S G( S ) H ( S )
a
S>0
=Lt S2G(S)
s>0
2
=L+S
10
2
S ( S 1)( S 2)
s 0
10
2
5
ess
1 1
ka 5
0.2
13. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function ,
the position, velocity and acceleration error constants 01
Solution:
Position error constant, kp = L+ G(S) H(S)
S 0
G(S )
10( S 2)
.
S 2 ( S 1) find
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= L+
10(S+2)
S 0 S2 (s+1)
=
10
S ( S 1)( S 2)
2
S 0
10
2
5
ess
1 1
ka 5
0.2
14. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function,
10( s 2)
2
G(S)= s ( S 1). . Find the error constants.
Solution:
Position error constant, Kp = L+G(S) H(S)
S0
10( S 2)
L 2
S ( s 1)
S 0
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10( S 2)
2
For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function G(S) = S ( s 1) . Find the
3 2
1
R( S ) 2 3
s S
3S
steady state error when the input is R(S) where R(S) =
Solution:
C
C1
....r n 0 (t ) n
n1
e(t) = r(t) Co + r(t) C1 +r(t) 21
r(t) = L1[R(s)]
3 2t
3 2t
3 21
2
t
6
r (t ) 2
2t
2 t / 3
6
r (t ) 1 / 3
F (S )
1
1 G(S )H (S )
1
1 G(S )
1
1
10( s 2)
2
S ( S 1)
2
S ( S 1)
2
S ( S 1) 10( S 2)
3
2
S S
3
2
S S 10 s 20
3
2
S S
3
2
S S 10 s 20
C0 L F ( s ) L
s>0
=0
S>0
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C1=L+
F (s)
ds
s 0
3
2
S S
3 2
ds S S 10 S 20
d
s 0
( S 3 s 2 10 s 20)(3s 2 2 s ) ( s 3 s 2 )(3s 2 2 s 10
3
2
2
( S s 10 s 20)
Lt
S 0
C1 0
C2 L
d2
F (s) L
ds 2
s 0
=L+
( F ( s ))
ds ds
d
s>0
20 s 3 70 s 2 40 s
3 2
2
ds ( s s 10 s 20)
d
2
2(s s 10s 20)(3s 2s 10)
3
2
4
s s 10s 20)
s 0
202 x40 1
204
10
C2
r(t)
21
1
t2
t
2t (0) (2 )(0) 1/3x1/10x1/2
6
3
3
e(t) r(t)c0 cr
1 (t)
1/60
1
60
t>
ess L e(t) L
t>
=1
60
15. Measurement conduct on a servomechanism show the system response to be c(t) = 1+0.2 e
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60t 1.2e 10t when subject to a unit step input. Obtain an expression for closed loop transfer
function. Determine the undamped natural frequency and damping ratio.
Solution:C(t) = 1+0.2ebot 1.2e10t
1
1
1
C(s) 0.2
1.2
s
s 60
s 10
1
1
1
C(S) 0.2
1.2
S
s 60
s 10
(s 60)(S 10) 0.23(S 10) 1.2s(S 60
s (s 60)(s 10)
600
C(s) R(s)
(s 60)(s 10)
C(s)
600
2
R(s) s 70s 600
Comparing with standard eqn,
wn 2
s 2 2 zwn s wn 2
wn 2 600
wn 600
24.49 rad /sec
2zw n 70
70
z
2 wn
70
224.49
Z 1.43
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cs
a
2
R s
S Ks a
16. Consider a Unity feed back system having TF
Determine the OLTF and
steady state error coefficients.
Solution:
cs
a
2
R s S Ks a
If G(s) is the forward transfer friction for unity feed back system,
cs
G(s)
R s 1 G(s)
G(s)
a
1 G ( s ) S 2 Ks a
G(s)
S 2 Ks a
1 G (s)
a
1
S 2 Ks
1
1
G(s)
a
1
S 2 Ks
G(s)
a
a
G(s)
S (s k )
K P S 0 G ( s) H ( s)
1
=S 0
a
1
S S K
KP
KV S 0 S .G ( s ) H ( s )
1
= S 0 S
KV
a
1
S S K
a
K
Acceleration co efficient]
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K a S 0 S 2G (s) H (s)
1
a
1
S S K
= S 0 S 2
Ka 0
G s
36
S s 0.72
36
S s 0.72
H (s) 1
T .F
G s
1 G s H (s)
36
S s 0.72 36
S2+2hWns+Wn2=0(2)
2GWn 0.72
Wn2 36
Wn 6rad / sec
0.72
2 Wn
0.72
0.06
2 6
Wd Wn 1 G2
= 6 1(0.06)2 5.989rad / sec
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Peak time t P
0.5245 sec
Wd 5.989
Settling time t s
4
4
11.11 sec.
GWn 0.06 6
Peak overshoot % MP e
%MP e
0.06
1 (0.06)2
G
1 G2
100%
100%
=82.79%
Wd
2
2
11.11
10.59
5.989
S 12
4
3
2
The closed loop T.F. of fourth order system is S 10s 35s 50s 24 Determine the
response of the system when a step input of 10 is applied to the input. Hence, calculate the steady
state output of the system.
R(t)=10
10
R(s)
s
T(s)
2s 1
2 s 1 s 2 s 3 s 4
2s 1
C(s)
R(s) 2 s 1 s 2 s 3 s 4
5
5
15
25
35
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Obtain the Unit impulse response and unit step response of a unity feed back system whose often
loop T.F. is
G(s)
2s 1
s2
C(s)
G(s)
R(s) 1 G(s)H(s)
2s 1 2
C(s)
s
R(s)
2s 1 (1)
1
s2
C(s)
2s 1
2
R(s) s 2s 1
2s 1
C(s) R(s) 2
s 2s 1
1 2s 1
=
s s2 2s 1
C(s)
(2s 1)
S(s2 2s 1) By partial fraction
2s 1
A Bs C
2
S(s 2s 1) s S 2s 1
2
2s 1
s (s2 2s 1)
2s 1
A(s2 2s 1) Bs C
s(s2 2s 1)
=A(s2 2s 1) Bs C s
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comparing S2coefficient
Put s=0
0 A B
1=A
B 1
Comparing S coefficient
Z=2A+C
C=22A
C=22(1)=0
C=0
2s 1
1 s 0
s2 2s 1 s s2 2s 1
2s 1 1 s
2
S s2 2s 1 s s 1
1
S
C(t) L1 C(s) L1
2
s s 1
1
S
=L1
2
s s 1
1 S 1
1
=L1
2
2
s s 1
S 1
1
1
1
=L1
2
s s 1 S 1
=1et te t
C(t) 1 e t t 1
(ii) Input = Unit impulse
R(s) =1
C(s)
G(s)
R(s) 1 G(s)H(s)
2s 1
C(s) R(s) 2
S 2s 1
2s 1
2s 1
=1 2
2
S 2s 1 S 2s 1
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2S 1
C(t) L1 C(s) L1 2
S 2s 1
S S 1
S 1
1
1
=L1
=L
2
2
2
s 1
s 1
S 1
1
1
=L1
e t te t
2
s
S 1
C(t)=et 1 t
A unit ramp input is applied to a unity feed back system whose transfer function is
100
Find the time response and steady state error.
2
s 5s 100
C(s)
100
2
R(s) S 5s 100
unit Ramp input
1
R(s) = 2
S
100
C(s) 2 2
S S 5s 100
C(s)
1
1
2
2os S
C(s)
1
1
2
2os S
s 3
2o
4
2
S 5s 100
5
s 5
s
1
2
2
2
2
2os 5 2 75 5 2 75
s 2 2 s 2 2
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C(t)
1
1 2.5t
75
75
t
cos
t 4.04e 2.5t sin
t
e
2o
2o
2
2
R(t) t
e(t) R(t) C(t)
=
1
1 2.5t
75
75
cos
t 4.04e 2.5t sin
t
e
20 20
2
2
1
1 2.5t
75
75
cos
t 4.04e 2.5t sin
t
e
2o
2
2
t 2o
Css H
Css
1
2o
17. A second order system has 40%r peak overshoot and settling time of 2 sc for unit step input.
Find resonant peak gain and reasonant freq.
Solution:
Peak Overshoot =40%
G
%Mp e
100%
1 G2
G
40 e
100%
1 G2
G
0.4 e
100%
1 G2
ln(0.4)
G 0.2799
1 G2
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ts
4
GWn
4
GWn
2
7.1428rad / sec.
0.2799
Reasonant Peak Mr 1
2 0.2799 1 0.2799 2
=1.86072
Wn
=6.5586rad/sec.
18. For a unity feed back second order system, the open loop transfer function is
n2
G s
s s2 2n
Calculate the generalized error coefficients and find error series.
Solution:
n2
G s
s s 2n
Hs 1
F s
s2 2ns
1
2
1 G s H s s 2 s n2
s2 2ns
0
s 0 s2 2 s 2
n
n
Co lim F s lim
s 0
C1 lim
s 0
s
lim
d
F s
ds
s 0
2ns n2 2s 2n s2 2ns 2s 2n
2n3 2
n4
n
2ns ns
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2
2
2
d 2s 2n s 2ns n s 2ns
C2 lim
lim
2
s 0
s 0 ds
2
2
ds2
s
n
n
s2 2 s 2 2 2 s
n
n
n
s2 2 s 2 2s 2
n
n
n
2n2 lim
4
s 0
2
2
s 2ns n
n4 2n n2 2n
2
2n
n8
1 4 4
2
2
n
d2F s
1 4 2
2
et
r t
r t ....
2
n
n
1
s 1 2s
(t)=2+4t+6t2+2t3. Determine the generalized error coefficients and express the steady state error
as a function of time.
Solution:
Given G s
F s
1
H s 1; r t 2 4t 6t 2 2t 3
s 1 2s
1
1
s+G s H s 1 G s
1
=
1+
1
s 1 2s
s 1 2s
2s s 1
2
2s2 s
2s2 s 1
2s2 s
0
s 0
s 0 2s2 s 1
d
d 2s2 s
C1 lim
F s lim
s 0 ds
s 0 ds 2s2 s 1
C0 lim F s lim
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2s
lim
C1
2s
s 0
=lim
s 0
4s 1
2s
s 1 4s 1 2s2 s 4s 1
s 1
s 1
d2
d2
4s 1
F s lim 2
2
2
s 0 ds
s 0 ds
2
2s
C2 lim
=lim
2s
s 1
s 1 4 2 4s 1 2s2 s 1 4s 1
2
2s
s 0
=2
C0 0; C1 1; C2 2
Error signal
e t r t C0 r t C1
r t
2!
C2 ...
t Cn
n!
=12t +16
es' s lim e(t)
t
20. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G(s)
K
s(Ts 1)
where K and T are positive constants. By what factor should the amplifier gain be reduced so
that the peak overshoot of unit step response of the system is reduced from 75% to 25%.
[April 1996, Madras University]
Solution:
Given: G(s)
K
s(Ts 1)
K
0
s(Ts 1)
C.E. = Ts2+s+K=0
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s
T
C.E.=s2
Case(i): %Peak overshoot Mp=75%
1
Mp =0.75
ln2 0.75
2 ln2 0.75
1 0.0912
ln2 0.25
2 ln2 0.25
1 0.0437
Comparing s2
s K
0 with s2 2n s n2 0.
T T
K
T
1
2n
T
K 1
2
T T
n
K 4T12 1
0.0912
2
2
K1 4T 2 2
0.4037
K2
0.0510
K1
K 2 0.0510K1
K
0
T
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21. A servo mechanism is used to control the angular position 0 of a mass through a command
signal i. The moment of inertia of load is 200 kgm2 and the motor torque at load is 6.88 104
N/m/rad of error. The damping torque coefficient is 5 104 Nm/rad/sec. Find the time
response for a step input of 1 radian.
Solution:
Figure:
Given
J 200kg m2 ;
kT=6.88 10 4N / m / rad
kT
and H s 1
Js2 fs
G s
1 G sHs
That is,
kT
s
k
T s 0
Js fs 2 T
k
i s
Js fs k T
1 2 T
Js fs
kT / J
=
k
f
s2 s T
J
J
2
Comparing the equation with the standard form of second order system as shown in equation we
have
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25
0.6739
2 18.547
0 t 1
ent
sin n 1 2 t
1
2
=tan1
1 2
22. A system shown in figure is initially at equilibrium with r =1 and d = 0. a step function
disturbance d(t) = u(t) is then initiated at t = 0. Determine the response c(t) for t > 0.
(AU April 04).
Figure:
Solution:
The given system is in equilibrium with r=1.
c(t) = 1 at t = 0.
But we want the response from t=0. So, Let us take this value (c (t) =1) as new reference. (ie)
r(t) =c(t) = 0 at t=0.
C s
D s
Figure:
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2
2
2s s 4
2
s4
s4
. 2
2s s 4 6 s 4 2s 8s 6
D s 1 3 . 2
2s s 4
2s s 4
C s
4s
2s
2
2s 8s 6 s 4s 3
For step disturbance
1
1
2s
D s C s . 2
s
s s 4s 3
2s
2
C s 2
s 4s 3 s 1 s 3
=
A
B
s 1 s 3
1
1
s 1 s 3
C t e t e 3t u t
23. A second order position control system has OLTF G(s)
K
where K is the gain. Find
s(1 0.2s)
the value of K so that steady state error shall not exceed 0.5o when input shaft rotated as 5 r.p.m.
Solution:
Given
Angular velocity = 5 r.p.m
5 2
60
rad / sec
R(s) = 2
6s
ess 0.5o
radian
360
We know
ess lim
s 0
sR s
1 G sHs
sR s
Gp
lim
360 s0 1 G s H s
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We know
lim
360 s0
2
6s
6
lim
s 0
K
K
1 s
s
1 0.2s
1 0.2s
s
6K
360 6K
K 60
=
24. A unity feedback control system has an amplifier with gain KA = 10 and gain ratio, G(s) =
1/s(s+2) in the feed forward path. A derivative feedback, H(s) = sK0 is introduced as a minor
loop around G(s). Determine the derivative feedback constant, K0 so that the system damping
factor is 0.6.
SOLUTION
The given system can be represented by the block diagram shown in figure.
Figure
1
Here, KA = 10; G(s) =
and H(s) = sK0
s( s 2)
The closed loop transfer function of the system can be obtained by block diagram reduction
techniques.
Step 1: Reducing the inner feedback loop.
Figure
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1
G( s)
1
1
s( s 2)
2
1 G( s)H ( s) 1 1 .sK
s( s 2) sK0 s 2s sK 0
0
s( s 2)
1
= 2
s (2 K0 )s
Figure.
Step 2. Combining blocks in cascade.
Figure
Figure
The closed loop transfer function,
C ( s)
10
2
R( s) s (2 K0 )s 10
The given system is a second order system. The value of K 0 can be determined by
comparing the system transfer function with standard form of second order transfer function.
n2
C ( s)
10
2
2
2
R( s) s 2 n s n s (2 K0 )s 10
On comparing we get
n2 10
n 10 3.162 rad/sec.
2 K0 2 n
K0 2 n 2
= 2 0.6 3.1622 = 1.7944
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RESULT
The value of constant, K0 = 1.7944
25. A unity feedback control system has an loop transfer function, G(s) = 10/s(s+2). Find the rise
time, percentage overshoot, peak time and settling time for a step input of 12 units.
SOLUTION
(Note: The formula for rise time, percentage overshoot and peak time remains same for unit
step and step input).
The unity feedback system is shown in figure
C ( s)
G( s)
R( s) 1 G( s)
2
R( s) 1 10
s( s 2) 10 s 2 s 10
s( s 2)
The values of damping ratio and natural frequency of oscillation n are obtained by
comparing the system transfer function with standard form of second order transfer function.
n2
C ( s)
10
2
2
2
R( s) s 2 wn s n s 2s 10
On comparing we get,
n2 10
n 10 3.162 rad/sec.
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2 n 2
2
1
0.316
2 n 3.162
tan 1
1 2
1 0.316 2
tan 1
1.249 rad
0.316
1.249
0.63 sec.
d
3
1 2
0.316
2
1 sec
n 0.316 3.162
tr
= 0.63 sec
%MP = 35.12%
= 4.2144 units, (for a input of 12 units.)
tP
= 1.047 sec
tS
= 3 sec for 5% error
= 4 sec for 2% error
26. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function G(s) = 10(s+2)/s 2 (s+1).
Find (a) the position, velocity and acceleration error constants, (b) the steady state error when
3 2
1
the input is R(s) where R(s) 2 3
s s 3s
SOLUTION
(a) To find the static error constants
For a unity feed back system, H(s) = 1
Position error Constant , KP = Lt G( s)H ( s) Lt G( s)
s0
s0
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10( s 2)
s 0 s 2 ( s 1)
= Lt
= Lt s
s0
s0
10( s 2)
s2 ( s 1)
s0
10( s 2) 10 2
= Lt s2 2
20
s0
s ( s 1)
1
(b) To find steady state error Ist method
The steady state error for non standard input is obtained using generalized error series,
given below.
C
C
The error signal, e(t) = r(t) C0 r(t )C1 r(t ) 2 ....... r(t ) n .......
2!
n!
3 2
1
Given that, R(s) = 2 3
s s 3s
3 2
1
Input signal in time domain, r(t) = L1[ R( s)] L1 2 3
s s 3s
2
1
1t
1
t2
= 2t
2t
3
3 2! 3
6
d
1
t
r ( t ) r ( t ) 2 2t 2
dt
6
3
2
d
d 1
r(t ) 2 r(t ) r(t )
dt
dt
3
3
d
d
r(t ) 3 r(t ) r(t ) 0
dt
dt
The derivatives of r(t) is zero after second derivative. Hence we have to evaluate only three
constants C0, C1 and C2 .
The generalized error constants are given by
d
d2
C0 Lt F( s); C1 Lt F( s) ; C 2 Lt 2 F( s)
s0
s 0 ds
s 0 ds
s 2 s 1
1
1
1
F(s) =
2
1 G( s)H ( s) 1 G( s) 1 10( s 2) s s 1 10 s 2
s 2 s 1
s3 s2
= 3 2
s s 10 s 20
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s3 s2
C0 Lt F( s) Lt 3 2
0
s0
s 0 s s 10 20
d
d
s3 s2
C1 Lt F( s) Lt 3 2
s 0 ds
s 0 ds s s 10 s 20
s0
( s3 s2 10s 20)2
20 s3 70s2 40s
= Lt 3 2
0
s 0 ( s s 10 s 20) 2
d2
d d
F( s) Lt F( s)
2
s 0 ds
s 0 ds ds
C 2 Lt
s 0 ds ( s 3 s 2 10 s 20) 2
= Lt
= Lt
s0
( s3 s2 10s 20)4
20 40 1
=
20 4
10
.
..
C
e(t ) r(t )C0 r(t )Cl r(t ) 2
2!
2
1
t
t
1 1 1
Error signal,
= 2t 0 2 0
6
3
3 10 2!
3
1
=
60
1
1
Steady state error, ess Lt e(t ) Lt
t
t 60
60
IInd method
The error signal in sdomain, E(s) =
3 2
1
2 3
s s 3s
10( s 2)
G( s) 2
and
s ( s 1)
R( s)
1 G( s)H ( s)
H(s) = 1
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3 2
1
3 2
1
2 3
2 3
E( s) s s 3s 2 s s 3s
10( s 2) s ( s 1) 10( s 2)
1 2
s ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1)
2
3
s2 ( s 1)
2
s s ( s 1) 10( s 2) s2
1
s2 ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1) 10( s 2) 3s3
s2 ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1) 10( s 2)
The steady state error ess can be obtained from final value theorem.
Steady state error , ess Lt e(t ) Lt s.E( s)
t
3
2
1
s ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1)
s2 ( s 1)
ess Lt s 2
2
2
3
2
s
s s ( s 1) 10( s 2) s s ( s 1) 10( s 2) 3s s ( s 1) 10( s 2)
3s2 ( s 1)
2 s2 ( s 1)
( s 1)
Lt s 2
2
2
s
s ( s 1) 10( s 2) s ( s 1) 10( s 2) 3s ( s 1) 10( s 2)
2
00
1
60
method
1
1
60 60
ess
III rd
R( s)
1 G( s)H ( s)
E( s)
1
10( s 2)
, Given that G( s) 2
andH ( s) 1
R( s) 1 G( s)H ( s)
s ( s 1)
E( s)
1
s2 ( s 1)
R( s) 1 10( s 2) s2 ( s 1) 10( s 2)
s2 ( s 1)
s3 s2
s2 s3
s2 s3
3 2
....
s s 10 s 20 20 10 s s2 s3 20 40
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s 2 s3
E(s)=R(s)
...
20 40
1 2
1
s R( s) s3 R( s) ...
20
40
On taking inverse laplace transform,
1 ..
1 ..
e(t) = r(t )
r(t ) ...
20
40
3 2
1
Given that R(s)= 2 3
s s 3s
s2 s3
20 40
s2 s3
20 10 s s2 s3
s2
s3 s4 s5
2 20 20
s3 s4 s5
2 20 20
s 3 s 4 s 5 s6
2 4 40 40
3 4 3 5 s6
s s
10
40
40
3 2
1 1
1 t2 1
t2
r(t ) L R( s) L 2 3 2t
2t
3 2! 3
6
s s 3s 3
.
d
1
t
r ( t ) r ( t ) 2 2 t 2
dt
6
3
..
d
d .
1
r (t ) 2 r (t ) r (t )
dt
dt
3
3
...
..
d
d
r (t ) 3 r (t ) r (t ) 0
dt
dt
1 d ..
1 1 1
r (t )
Error signal in time domain, e(t) =
20 dt
20 3 60
1
1
Steady state error, e ss Lt e(t ) Lt
t
t 60
60
1
RESULT
(a) Position error constant,
Velocity error constant,
Acceleration error constant
Steady state error
(b)
3 2
1 ess
when R(s)= 2 3
s s 3s
KP =
Kv =
Ka = 20
1
60
27. For servomechanisms with open loop transfer function given below explain what type of
input signal give rise to a constant steady state error and calculate their values.
(i) G(s) =
20( s 2)
10
10
; (ii) G(s) =
; (iii) G(s) = 2
s( s 1)( s 3)
s ( s 1)( s 2)
s 2 s 3
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SOLUTION
(i) G(s) =
20( s 2)
s( s 1)( s 3)
s0
20(s+2)
20 2 40
= Lt s
s0
s( s 1) s 3 1 3
3
1
3
Steady state error, e ss
0.075
K 40
10
(ii) G(s) =
s 2 s 3
Let us assume unity feed back system H(s) = 1
The open loop system has no pole at origin. Hence it is a type0 system. In systems with
type number0, the step input will give a constant steady state error.
1
The steady state error with unit step input = ess
1 KP
Position error constant, = K P Lt G( s).H ( s) Lt G( s)
s0
(iii) G(s) =
10
s ( s 1)( s 2)
s0
10
10
5
= Lt
s 0 s 2 s 2
2 3 3
ess 1/ Ka
2
s0
10
10
Ka Lt s 2
5
s0
s s 1 s 2 1 2
2
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1 1
0.2
Ka 5
RESULT
1. Steady state error in system (i) with unit velocity input = 0.075
2. Steady state error in system (ii) with unit step input = 0.375
3. Steady state error in system (iii) with unit acceleration = 0.2
28. Consider a unity feed back system with a closed loop transfer function
C ( s)
Ks b
.
2
R( s) s as b
Determine the open loop transfer function G(s). Show that the steady state error with unit
a K
ramp is given by
.
b
SOLUTION
For unity feedback system, H(s) = 1.
C ( s)
G( s)
G( s)
The closed loop transfer function,
R( s) 1 G( s)H ( s) 1 G( s)
C ( s)
G( s)
Let M(s) =
R( s) 1 G( s)
G( s)
= M(s)
1 G( s)
On multiplication we get,
G(s) = M(s) [1+G(s)]=M(s)+M(s).G(s)
G(s) M(s).G(s) = M(s)
G(s) [1M(s)] = M(s)
M ( s)
G(s) =
1 M ( s)
Ks b
Given than M(s) = 2
s as b
Open loop transfer function
Ks b
Ks b
G(s) = s as b 2
Ks b
s as b ( Ks b)
1 2
s as b
2
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Ks b
Ks b
Ks b
2
s as b Ks b s a K s s[s a K ]
2
= Lt s
s0
s0
Ks b
b
s s s K a K
1
aK
KV
b
G(s) =
Ks b
s[s a K ]
aK
b
UNIT III
PART A
1. Define frequency response.
The frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the system is a
sinusoidal signal.
2. Write any three advantages of frequency response analysis.
1.
2.
3.
The absolute and relative stability of the closed loop system can be estimated from the
knowledge of their open loop response.
The practical testing of systems can be easily carried with available sinusoidal signal
generators and precise measurement equipments.
The transfer function of complicated system can be determined experimentally by frequency
response plots.
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5.
6.
Gain margin
Phase margin
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C (S )
64
2
18. Determine the resonant frequency of a 2nd order system whose R( S ) S 10 S 64
wN2 64
wn 8rod / sec
27w N 10
10
7=
0.625
28
w r wn 1 27 2
=8 12(0.625)2
=3.741
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19. Write the expression for resonant peak and resonant frequency.
1
2
Resonant peak, Mr= 2 1
1
2 0.5 1 (0.5) 2
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A transfer function which has one or more zeros in the right half Splane is known as nonminimum phase transfer function.
1
27. Draw the polar plot of G(s)= 1 ST
1
28. Sketch the polar plot of G(S)= S (1 ST1 )(1 ST2 )(1 ST3 )
2
It is used to find closed loop frequency response from open loop frequency response.
The frequency domain specifications can be determined from Nichols chart.
The gain of the system can be adjusted to satisfy the given specification.
1
31. Sketch the bode plot of G(s) 1 ST
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1
32. Draw the polar plot for G(s) H(s)= 1 TS
If gain cross over frequency <phase cross over frequency, then the system is said to be stable.
If the gain cross over frequency > phase cross over frequency, the system is unstable.
If gain cross over frequency = phase cross over frequency, the system is marginally stable.
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An adequate gain margin of 6db and phase margin of about 300 is generally considered good
enough for a good system.
36. How to improve the GM and phase margin?
The GM and PM can be improved by adding compensating networks.
37. What are the advantages and disadvantages of frequency response Analysis.
Advantages
1. The design and parameter adjustment of the open loop Transfer function for the given
closed loop requirement is carried out easily
2. The effect of noise can be easily visualised in frequency response analysis.
Disadvantage
1. The frequency response test is not recommended for the system with large time constant.
2. It cannot be performed on noninterruptable system.
38. What are the relations for resonant peak and resonant frequency of a second order system?
Mr
1
2 1 2
Wr w n 1 22
39. Draw the polar plat of a first order system for a first order system.
1
1 sT
1
G jw
1 jwT
1
G jw
1 jw 2 T 2
G s
G( jw) tan1 wT
when w=0, G( jw) 1 and G( jw) 0
when w=, G( jw) and G( jw) 90'
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40. What is the effect or polar plot if a non zero pole is added to the transfer function.
Addition of a nonzero pole to the transfer function results in further rotation of the end
points of polar plot through an angle of 90o
41. What is the effect on polar plot if a pole at origin is added to the transfer function.
When a pole at origin is added to the transfer function it rotates the entire polar plot by a
further angle of 90o.
42. What is Neper.
The real part of Natural logarithm of magnitude is measured in a basic unit called Neper.
43. Define decade and octave.
A decade is an increase in frequency by a factor of 10 and octave is as increase in frequency
by a factor of 2.
44. What is the value of gain Margin and phase values for a good degree of relative stability?
For a good degree of relative stability the GM is about 6db or a PM is about 3035o
45. What is the application of Nichols chart?
The Nichols Chart can be used to determine the closed loop frequency response form that
of the open loop.
1 s
what type of system it is?
1 s
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1
S 1 sT1 1 sT2
What are the phase cross over frequency and gain Margin Value.
Phase crossover
Frequency Wpc
gain margin G.M=
1
T1T2
T1 T2
T1 T2
PART B
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1. Sketch the bode plot for the following transfer function and determine phase margin and
gain margin.
75(1 0.2 S )
G(S )
S ( S 2 16 S 100)
Solution:
2
2
Comparing S2+16s+100 with S 2 n s n
Wn2 =100
Wn =10 rad/sec.
G(S )
75(1 0.2 S )
S ( S 2 16 S 100)
75(1 0.2S )
S 2 16S
S 100(
)
100 100
G(S )
75(1 0.2 S )
S ( S 2 16 S 100)
G ( jw)
G ( jw)
Magnitude plot:
Term
Corner freq.
Slope
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0.75
jw
1to2jw
1
1 0.01w2 jo.16 w
rad/sec.

db/dec
20
20
20+20=0
10
40
040=40
Choose low corner frequency we such that we <wc1 and choose a higher corner frequency
wn such that wn>Wc2.
Let we=0.5 rad/sec and wn=20 rad /sec
0.75
At w=we, A=20log  jw 
0.75
=20log  jw 
=3.5db
0.75
At w=wc1, A = 20log  jw 
0.75
=20log  jw 
=16.5db
c2
At w=wc2, A=[slope from coc1 x coc2 x log c1 ]+Aw
10
(16.5)
5
16.5db
0 log
Phase plot:
wh
Awc 2
w c2
20
(16.5)
10
=28.5db.
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0.16
for wn
1 0.01 2
0.16
0.5
88
01
88
5
92
10
116
20
148
50
168
100
174
2. Plot the bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and phase cross
over frequencies.
10
G(S )
S (1 0.4 S )(1 0.1S )
G ( jw)
10
jw(1 0.4 jw)(1 0.1 jw)
Magnitude plot:
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1
2.5 rad / sec
0.4
1
wc 2
10 rad / sec
0.1
wc1
Term
10
jw
1
1 jo.4w
1
1 jo.1w
Slope
db/dec
20
wc1 =2.5
20
2020=40
10
20
040=20=60
Choose We, such that we<wc1 and choose wn, such that wn>wc2
Let we=0.1 rad/ sec.
Wn = 50 rad/sec.
At w=w e , A 20 log
10
10
20 log
jw
0.1
=40db.
At w=w c1 , A 20 log
10
10
20 log
jw
25
=12db.
wh
Awc 2
w c2
20
12
2.5
=12db.
At w=w n , A=slope from w c2towh log
=60 log
=54db.
50
12
10
wh
Awc 2
w c2
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phase plot:
900 tan 1 0.4 tan 1 0.1
0.1
92
1
118
2.5
150
4
170
10
210
20
236
3. For the following transfer function draw bode plot and obtain gain crossover frequency
G(S )
20
S (1 3S )(1 4 S )
Solution:
G ( jw)
20
jw(1 3 jw)(1 4 jw)
1
0.25 rad / sec
4
1
wc 2 0.33 rad / sec
3
wc1
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Term
20
jw
1
1 4 jw
1
1 3 jw
Corner freq.
rad/sec.

Slope
db/dec
20
0.25
20
2020=40
0.33
20
40=20=60
Choose We, such that we<wc1 and choose wn, such that wn>wc2
Let we=0.15 rad/ sec.
Wn = 1 rad/sec.
At w=w e , A 20 log
20
=42.5db.
0.15
At w=w c1 , A 20 log
20
=38db
0.25
w
At w=w c2 , A= slope from w c1towc 2 log c 2 Awc1
w c1
0.33
=40 log
38
0.25
=33db.
w
At w=w n , A= slope from w c2towh log h Awc 2
w c2
1
=60 log
33
0.33
=4db.
Phase plot:
The phase angle
90 tan 1 3 tan 1 4
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0.15 0.2
146 160
0.25
172
0.33
188
0.5
210
0.6
218
1
238
From the graph, the gain crossover frequency is 1.1 rad/ sec.
G(S )
G(S )
5(1 2 S )
(1 4 S )(1 0.25S ) , draw the bode plot.
5(1 2 S )
(1 4 S )(1 0.25S )
G ( jw)
5(1 2 jw)
(1 4 jw)(1 0.25 jw)
1
0.25 rad / sec
4
1
wc 2 0.5 rad / sec
2
1
wc 3
4 rad / sec
0.25
Term
Corner freq. rad/sec.
wc1
5
1
1 4 jw
wc1 =0.25
Slope
db/dec
0
20
020=20
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1+2jw
1
1 jo.25w
wc2 =0.25
20
20+20=0
wc3 =0.25
20
020=20
w
At w=w n , A= slope from w c2towc 3 log c 3 Awc 2
w c2
0.5
=20 log
14
0.25
=8db.
w
At w=w n , A= slope from w c3towh log h Awc 3
w c3
10
=20 log 8
4
=0db.
Phase plot:
0.25
22
0.5
26
2
33
4
49
10
70
50
86
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Ke 0.2 S
S ( S 2)( S 8) find K so that the system is stable with a) gain margin equal to
5. Given
6db and b)phase margin equal to 450.
G(S )
Solution:
G(S )
G(S )
Ke 0.2 S
S ( S 2)( S 8)
Ke 0.2 S
S 2(1 S / 2) (1 S / 8)
0.0625Ke 0.2 S
S (1 0.5S )(1 0.125S )
Let K=1
0.0625Ke 0.2 w
G ( jw)
jw(1 j 0.5w)(1 j 0.125w)
1
2 rad / sec
0.5
1
wc 2
8 rad / sec
0.125
wc1
Term
Slope db/dec
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0.0625
jw
1
1 0.5 jw
1
1 j 0.125w
20
20
2020=40
20
60
At w=w e , A 20 log
0.0625
0.0625
20 log
jw
0.5
=18db.
At w=w e , A 20 log
0.0625
0.0625
20 log
jw
2
=30db
At w=w c2 , A=slope from w c1towc 2 log
wc 2
Awc1
w c1
8
=40 log (30)
2
=54db.
At w=w n , A=slope from w c2town log
=60 log
wn
Awc 2
w c2
50
(54)
8
=102db.
phase plot:
0.2 w
180
90 tan 1 0.5 tan 1 0.125
0.01 0.1
90
94
Calculation of K:
0.5
114
1
134
2
172
3
202
4
226
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= 1800+gc
When =450, gc = 1800 = 1350
With K=1, the db gain at = 1350 is 24db this gain should be made zero to have to PM of
450. Hence to every point of magnitude plot a db gain of 24 db should be added. Hence the
magnitude of 24 bd is contributed by the term
20 log K=24
K=1024/20
K=15.84
With K=1, the gain margin =(34) = 34db. But the required gain margin is db. Hence to every point
of magnitude plot a db gain of 28db should be added. This addition of 28db shifts the plot up
wards.
20 log K=28
K=1028/20
K=25.12
6. The open loop transfer function of unit feed back system is given by
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1
(1 S )(1 2 S ) sketch the polar and determine the gain margin and phase margin.
1
G(S )
(1 S )(1 2 S )
G(S )
Put S=jw
1
jw(1 jw)(1 2 jw)
1
G ( jw)
jw(1 jw)(1 2 jw)
G ( jw)
1 w tan w 1 4 w2 tan 1 2 w
1
2
w (1 w )(1 4 w2 )
G(jw)
w 90
0
1
1
< G(jw) 90 tan w tan 2 w .
0.35
G(jw) 2.2
<G(jw) 144
Gain margin, Kg = 1.4286
Phase margin, = 120
0.4
1.8
150
0.45
1.5
156
0.5
1.2
162
0.6
0.9
171
0.7
0.7
180
1.0
0.3
198
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7. The open loop transfer function of unity feed back system in given by
sketch the polar plot and determine the gain margin and phase margin.
G(S )
Solution:
G(S )
1
S (1 S )(1 2S )
2
Put S=jw
G ( jw)
jw
(1 jw)(1 2 jw)
0.45
G(jw) 3.3
<G(jw) 246
0.5
2.5
251
0.55
1.9
256
0.6
1.5
261
0.65
1.2
265
0.7
1
269
0.75
0.8
273
1.0
0.3
288
1
S (1 S )(1 2S )
2
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8. The open loop transfer function of a unity feed back system is given by,
G(S )
Solution:
G( jw)
1 (0.2w)2 81 (0.025w)2
w3 1 (0.005w)2 1 (0.001w)2
1
1
o
1
1
<G(jw) tan 0.2 w tan 0.025 270 tan 0.005w tan 0.001w
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0.9
G(jw) 1.4
<G(jw) 259
0.95
1.2
258
1.0
1.0
257
1.1
0.8
256
1.2
0.6
255
1.4
0.4
253
1.7
0.2
249
G(S )
1
S (1 S ) 2
Put S=jw
G ( jw)
1
1
2
jw(1 jw)
jw(1 jw)(1 jw)
G ( jw)
1
1
2
jw(1 jw)
jw(1 jw)(1 jw)
G(S )
1
S (1 S ) 2
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900 2 tan 1 w
w ( 1 w2 ) 2
1
<G(jw) 90 2 tan w
0.4
G(jw) 2.2
<G(jw) 134
0.5
1.6
143
0.6
1.2
151
0.7
1
159
0.8
0.8
167
0.9
0.6
174
1.0
0.5
180
1.1
0.4
185
Gain margin = 2
Phase margin =210
10. Consider a unity feed back system having an open loop transfer function
K
G(S )
S (1 0.5S )(1 4 S ) Sketch the polar plot and determine the value of K so that (i) Gain
margin is 20db (ii) phase margin is 300.
Solution:
G(S )
Let K=1
K
S (1 0.5S )(1 4 S )
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K
S (1 0.5S )(1 4 S )
1
G ( jw)
jw(1 0.5 jw)(1 4 jw)
G(S )
1
1
G ( jw)
1
w 1 0.25w2 1 16 w2
0.3
G(jw) 2.11
<G(jw) 149
0.4
1.3
159
0.5
0.87
167
0.6
0.61
174
0.8
0.35
184
1.0
0.22
193
1.2
0.15
199
log
1
20
1.
GA 20
1
101 10
GA
1
0.1
10
G
0.1
K A
0.227
GB 0.44
GA
Case : (ii)
With K=1, the phase margin is 150. This has to be increased to 300. Hence the gain has to be
decreased.
300 = 180+gc2
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gc2=3001800
=1500
Let GA = Magnitude of G(jw) at pt A.
GB = Magnitude of G(jw) at pt B.
From polar plot, GA = 2.04 and GB=1
G
K B
GA
1
2.04
K 0.49
11.
The
function
of
unity
feedback
system
Derive an expression for gain K in terms of T1, T2 and specified gain margin, Kg.
Solution:
G(S )
Let S=jw
K
S (1 ST1 )(1 ST2 )
is
given
by
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G ( jw)
K
jw(1 jwT1 )(1 jwT2 )
K
jw(1 jwT2 jwT1 w2T1T2 )
K
jw(1 jw T1 T w2T1T2 )
K
jw w T1 T2 jw3T1T2 )
K
w T1 T2 jw(1 w2T1T2 )
G ( jw)
=
Kg
K
w (T1T2 )
2
1
1
2
G ( jw) w w
K  CO pc
(T1T2 )
pc
=
Put Wpc2
Wpc2 (T1T2 )
K
1
T1T2
T1 T2
T1T2
Kg
K
1 T1 T2
K
Kg T1T2
=
K
T
1 T1
2
Kg T1T2 T1T2
1 1 1
Kg T1 T2
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G s
12. The Open loop T.F. of an unity feed back system is given by
Draw the plot and hence find the gain margin and phase margin?
s s 2 s 2 4 s 100
Solution:
G(s)
10 s 3
S(S 2)(s2 4s 100)
30 1 s
3
G(s)
1
2S 1 s (s2 4s 100)
2
30 1 1 s
3
G(s)
1
S 1 s (s2 4s 100)
2
puts jw
15 1 jw
3
G( jw)
2
1
jw 1 jw jw 4jw 100
2
jw
4jw 100
10 s 3
C.I.

Slope
20
Change in slope
20
20
40
3
10
+20
+40
20
+20
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Sketch the polar plot for the system whose open loop Transfer function is
G(s)H(s)
10 s 2 s 4
S(s2 3s 10)
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Polar plot
13. For the Bodeplot shown in fig. find the transfer function.
Solution:
Given plot is asymptotic plot. Therefore no need to draw tangents.
In the low frequency range, there is an asymptote with slope 20dB/decade. It indicates the
system is type 1 and the presence of a factor of the from
k
.
s
decade, a decrease of 20dB/decade. Thus there exist a factor 1+ sT1 in the denominator where T1 =
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1
. At =4 the magnitude is zero. The line joining the magnitudes at =1 and =4 is having a
1
40 dB/ dec means when the frequency in increased by 10 times the change in
magnitude is 40dB. The change in magnitude is
40 log 2+(40 log 1)
=40log
2
1
2
=10 when the change in magnitude is 40 dB.
1
To find 1 consider the change in magnitude from = 1 to = 4 which is equal to 40log 4(40
log 1)=36 dB
40log
4
36dB
1
1 0.5
1
2
1
1
1 2s
To find k
At = 1 = 0.5 the magnitude is 36dB.
By using Rule 4 in section 5.13, we can have
A
36
k 110 0.5(10)
20
20
=31.55
At the corner frequency 2 = 8 the slope is changing from 40dB/dec to 20dB/dec. It indicates the
presence of a first order factor (1+sT2) in the numerator where
T2
1
1
0.125.
2
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1
.3 is not
3
magnitude at =4 the magnitude is 0dB and the slope of the line is 40dB/dec(or 12dB/oct).
Therefore at 2=8 (double the frequency 4 i.e., the distance between 2=8 and 4 is one octave) the
magnitude is 12dB. The slope of the line between 2 is 20db/dec. The change in magnitude is 9dB.
That is
20 log 3 20 log 2 9
20 log 3 9
2
20 log 3 9
8
3 22.547
T3 0.04435
Therefore the first order denaminator factor is
1
1+0.04435s
31.623 1 0.125s
s 1 2s 1 0.04435s
n2
C ( s)
2
R( s) s 2 n s n2
Where, = Damping factor
n = Undamped natural frequency